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First publishedin GreatBritain 2010 A&C Black Publishers 36 Soho Square LondonWlD 3QY w'ww.acblack.com ISBN:
First publishedin GreatBritain 2010
A&C Black Publishers
36 Soho Square
LondonWlD 3QY
w'ww.acblack.com
ISBN: 978-1408-12991-3
Copyright @ DessainetTolra/Larousse2009
A CIP cataloguerecord for this book is availablefrom the British Library.
GillesRonin hasassertedhis rights under the Copyright, Design and PatentsAct, 1988,to be ldentlfiod $ thc
author of this work.
All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproducedin any form or by any mctru - gfsphls,
electronicor mechanical,including photocopying,recording,taping or information storsgcInd r€trlcvd ryltcmi -
without the prior permissionin writing from the publishers.
Publisher:Collette Hanicotre
Editor: Corinne de Montalembert
Pagedesign:FlorenceLe Maux
Cover design: James'W'atson
Proofreader:MadeleineBiaujeaud,
Photography:Olivier Ploton
English text layout:PennyMills
Translator:Alexa Stace
Editorial assistant:Ellen Parnavelas
This book is producedusingpaperthat is madefrom wood grown in managcd,sustainableforests,It is natural,
renewableand recyclable.Thelogging and manufacturingprocessesconfornxto the environnental regulationsof
the country of origin.
Printed and bound in China
Introduction Representing An Interior Space Developing your project The progression Variations and transformations
Introduction
Representing An Interior Space
Developing your project
The progression
Variations and transformations
Materials
The Line
Graphics,tonal valuesand colours
Figures
Proportions
Constructing a drawing
PLANSANDL OUTS
Drawing
the Plan
Scales
Conventions
and
Syrnbols
Doors
Windows
Convenrionsregardinglines
A baseline, or contour
A thin Line
A thin dotted line
The logic behind the symbois
Furniture
and equipment
Changing Around the Furniture
Elevation
and
Section
I\earranging
an area of wall
I)esign in modules
Making
aLayottt
Organisation of the layout
A team effort
A sketch of the ground plan
Thc dimensions
4 Walls and partitions 5 Format and scale 5 Floor plan 5 Layout ofa Flat
4
Walls and partitions
5
Format and scale
5
Floor plan
5
Layout ofa Flat
5
PERSPECT
6
Isornetric Ptojection
8
An effect of reduction
10
DrawingThree-ditnensional Objects
10
arrd Furniture
1I
Designing an o{lice space
1.2
A
foldaway oflice on a shelf
13
Grouping office furmture
Playing about with space
1.4
Drawing a kitchen
16
Swapping around kitchen and bathroorn
16
Visualising a kitchen corner
18
Creating an open partition
18
Transforrning a flat
18
Creating a dressing room and
18
a
bathroom
18
Seeing things in perspective
18
The vanishing point
18
The horizon
19
Moving the vanishing point on the horizort
19
The height of the horizon
20
The height of the horizon in the drawing
22
The height of the horizon, people anclscalc
23
The view frorn the front
23
The principles of a frongalview
24
The problem of depth
24
To draw the depth
24
Mastering the depth
24
To rnove a partition wall
24
Creating an extension to block off
a corner
24 Planning the space 62 25 Converting a space undet the eaves 64 25 |)csignirrgrrplrtfirrrufor
24 Planning
the space
62
25 Converting
a space undet
the eaves
64
25 |)csignirrgrrplrtfirrrufor rrlrcd
64
26
| )csigrrinl;rrsrrlll fliglrtof stcps
65
| )esignirrg;rskyliglrt
65
2ft
A Fcw Sirrrplc (lonstrrtction
Tricks
66
30
I low to cstrrtrlislrctltrrrltlcptlts
66
'lir
3 l
tlivitlcrrwrrll
66
I low to rlcrrlwitlr itttit't'c1.1ttlltr-slrlpcdsplcc
66
32
I low tlo yttttrlt';twl r'irtlc?
67
34 l\'r'sltctlivc ot'ptrril'11i1111vi,'*2
67
34 'Ihking
ril/all
l)owu
n l)trtition
68
35
3(r
( lrr':tlirrg,r trtt'zz;rttittc ot'ovt't'lr:ttt1.1
'I'lrc ()blirlut, Viow
6L)
70
37 l)r.sigrrirrg n r()(rn
by Eye
72
.]tt
St'ltingIlrc lrottnrlrtt'it's
/ z
4()
ltlrrtirrgtlrt'ltot'izott
72
42
l)l:ttitrglltc ltotizottirrtlrctlrlwirrg
73
44 l)l;rrirrgtlrt':rrrglcsrrrrtltltc lirrcol'
tlrct cilirrg
7 3
46 l)lrrting,tltr'v;rttisltitrgpoirrt
74
4fl
fl'tlrr'v;rrrislriugpoitttis ttol ott tlrcplpcr
75
4tt
()blit;rro Vic,ws
I)illcrcrrt
'f
76
50
irkirrgorrt;rprrtliliortwrrll
77
5 l
A Vitrw firxrr Abovc
.
.
.
78
52
And
o High-AnglcVicw
79
52
l)rnwirrg
orr thc Ctxrrputer
80
53
Skt'ttlrlJp
u0
54
lixlrlolltiorr
8i)
55
|ilst Stcps
80
55
Mrrkirrgu rrrotlclfirr yorrrprojccts
8i
5(r
57
5ri
Grids for Isometric Projections
Grids for FrontalViews
Grids for Oblique Views
82
84
86
60

contents

Infroductior-r Housespacenot only containsobjectsto be drawn,but offersa setting,enablingyou to
Infroductior-r
Housespacenot only containsobjectsto be
drawn,but offersa setting,enablingyou to
understandperspectiveand to explore the
differentwaysof depicting space.Once you have
graspedthe principles,drawing will becomea
game,evena pleasure.
If you want to studya litde carpentryprqect,
takedown a partition wall, or simply dreamabout
what you could do later,you will find here how
to draw a layout,enablingyou to makeseveral
plansfor your space.Itt alsoa good exercisein
drawing.
You will alsofind here the practicalprinciples
which will help you put your plansdown on
paperandbetterexpressyour ideas,for no serious
project getsmadewithout a progressiveplan.
It is alsoan opportunity to learn sometricks of
the tradeand conventionswhich
are part of an
architecttknow-how andwhich willhelp with
ideas.
The relationshipbetweena drawing and a project
is at the heartof thisbook,andis reciprocal.If the
capaclryto representa spaceis the prerequisitefor
convertingit, andis a techniqueto be acquired,
the differentvariationsalsooffer many absorbing
exercisesfor thoselearning to draw.

Sittingquietl.yathome,sketchbookinhand,istheideatwaytotackte drawing.Infact,your homeisanabsotutemineofsubjectstodraw, perhaps youalreadyhavea ptaninyourheadfora makeoverorionversion?

yrtin jntorj R CnfCcrr-l .\T an2 nC r\uIJruDUr1r,rl lv rr o-rI n6 IIItUIIUI DIJO_Urt Developingyourproject
yrtin
jntorj
R CnfCcrr-l
.\T
an2
nC
r\uIJruDUr1r,rl
lv rr
o-rI n6
IIItUIIUI
DIJO_Urt
Developingyourproject
Variationsandtransformations
It is by means of severalkinds of representation,
drawings and plans, that we learn how to develop a
From the first you will be confronted witlt tlrc
practice of conversion. Getting into thc hrrbit of'
project. In this book, some of theserepresentations
rurebased on real spaces - houses and flats - and we
will give you finished examplesof real conversions,
like the numerous books on home decoration or
varying elements from the start, on the grrplrics
side as well as from a model, is way of bcttcr'
irrterior design which you will find in the public
library.But becauseyou live in your own space,the
cxamples you find are never just right. This book
understanding the rules of design,at the sanrctirrre
as inventing modifications, of finding and projct -
ting ideas.
therefore aims to show above all a real method of
clrawing, with a progressive acquisition of the skills
which wiii enable you to carry out operations logr-
cllly, and to put your own ideas down on paper.
Let's take an example.You can draw a particrrlur'
spaceor room like a camera,strictly copying wlrlt
is in front ofyou, but you would not be makirrs usc
of the rules which permit you to show the splcc
in question a little differently: a partition less,sorrrc
panels here and a transparentspacethere, tl-rccci-
ling taken down to increasethe loft space,anciwhy
not a flight ofstairs to facilitate access,etc.
Theprogression
Some of the elementary principles of persl.rct'-
tive and some professionaltricks will teach you t<r
First of all there are the principal drawings, like the
ground plan and the section,the technique ofscale
drawing, which allows you to measure the spaces
to be converted, and then finally the different kinds
of perspective which enable you to understand
think intelligently about your drawing, as thorrqlr
it were a little mechanism where you can nrovc tlrc
parts about.
From the first pages on line, its valucs urrtl
space,whiie studying its modifications.

Youdon'tneedto makea drawtngtotakeouta partitionwaLt.Butifthesituationismorecompticated,youcannotthink itthroughwithoutsomesupport.Byputtingyourideasdownonpapertheycanthendevetopandentarge,not just as disconnectedthoughtsandideas,butcoherentl.y.A freehanddrawinginpencitgivesyoutheLibertyto becreative.

colours, we get into the habit of grafting on v:rri:r- tions and new creations. Themes
colours, we get into the habit of grafting on v:rri:r-
tions and new creations.
Themes suchasasmallconversion(ofa bcdrrlr>rrr,
sitting-room or kitchen) will be introcluccd pro-
gressively,but alsomore general,architccturll iclcls,
such asdepth,thickness,geometry and tlansp:rrcrrty.
PR-FPAP-AT]oN FOR-DP-AWIN( Learnandpractisebasicfreehanddrawingtechniques.Theseare
PR-FPAP-AT]oN FOR-DP-AWIN(
Learnandpractisebasicfreehanddrawingtechniques.Theseare
indispensabteforaLIrepresentationaIdrawing,andyouwi[[needsome
understandingoftheseskil.LsforthefotLowingchapters.
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ff4,Mf4rcM- Drawwgsart drhi U h"^n,Jrwft/^{; ,rl' rhz hzlVvf a fin, nvl"s:a d,rawwg tvard,ah/"ffn.cLt7
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tvard,ah/"ffn.cLt7 yayt, olty:, 4 fra.hqq.rctu(
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Eko!-ft[r-rr.y t-lv Pnyt rlw yaytr ^sd,dzttrj,swwhzttr'zrk u a sttgb drawL4r7,rr a srausrlnrf d,rawwgsa"J
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d,rawwgsa"J la"rt rf n:t',ly
rnrh.t, -f,rsr oart,a slaroljwLwrd"a ftu'ffovver
u tnl,tsytruntl,eofl*
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t^r tenwry d,uf-f',cnlrrc f ,nd,.Tr?I*g 14yff, eud44trca rvl,Lnrtw Lgqv$,
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Ttiehne Drawinga Iineisa reflectionofyourattitudeandyourpersonaLity.Thekind ofIine -
Ttiehne
Drawinga Iineisa reflectionofyourattitudeandyourpersonaLity.Thekind
ofIine - direct,ctean,clumsy,hesitant,heavy,tight,incisiveetc - depends
onyourpersonaLity.lt improveswithpractice,asyouwiLtseewiththesefew
warming-upexercises.
DA/'wING.
The[ine
Graphics,tonaIvaluesandcotours
A line is not just a thirrg irr itsclt, lr r.cprcscnrs
something -
it is a synrbol ()f il (.()nt()r.rf, rrrr;rxis,
You have to show surfaces,shadows, differences of
tone in your drawing. But the pencil is not made
a horizon, the motifs orr thc floor or. thc scttirrg
for showing a suface.'W'ork out a range of values,
of the door-frame.A lirrc hrrsu firrrrr,nrost oficrr
straight,a point of departurcrrrrdirrrivul,it posirion
in small 2-3cm squares, from the lightest to the
darkest,in five or six stages,then do gradations.
in spaceand on the pagc,rrrrorictrt;rtiorr.lrr prrrc-
Note how you can avoid it looking
too mechanical
tical terms a line is the routc bctwecrrtwo poirrts,
and it is the points that rrrc criricrrlrrrrtlnrtrstlrc
well placed.
by combining repetition and variations.
Dr4wJiln4:rraglrr Lw"es frotn tht, lrtht tT
ahrrl'zr, wwlw^tlnrbg t
rl,o tt/ rf thz yut)
tw nwh. )^r
sh,ynwg thz papr rl,z first
fLw, ql t;f tt rgtstz,rrl',ad*stq^(, tlan
draws7Tlnaseawn"d'fime
rllrhz rrcccl,arc,4a,w
grgyi wtrLtar"lury,d.cts,:w,allr7"l^, [.uvs,*o.
vay t-lwtht(rufy,
wurl'owtoblry
uytlv wfau tw vnnoln.
1 0
r * Figures The construction of certain shapes,notably the square,and then the circle,is a pernanent
r
*
Figures
The construction of certain shapes,notably the
square,and then the circle,is a pernanent exercise
in
drawing.The shapesenable us to see the value
of the vertical and horizontal, basisof all propor-
tion and orientation of line, in brief the nreasure
of the whole drawing.The constructions arc lirn-
bering-up exercises,to practiseregularly,likc goitrg
to the gym!
I i
."
\,
th'(h4, J?^nre,drawdnad'tryv^'al,:,wlu.olnthzngwt,
Dr4w 4. aurala audz
4 t?^4.rc
d"rawurg rlrl
.ys^ dn4nti.pw,t
rf tht, :dzs ahd'th
wd'nw
rlu
dra*wg u n^ad.e^/ rf Ltws,ad.dzd,
d,tryrr',a.1":nnl, rh.ewd,nw yy1,1^7'trf rh.crrtargh,
ytw
rf rfu t?^nre.rlni
yrylrt:wely frctwyru"t:tn"a.dzat ran-dnw,t:h'en
Ver4rwrv hasa y*ynst, -
4J Llvfh[
Hrb6.
hflr
vwurcrntlayow ft d'raw:hayz:wuyeayeoa.vz
yurwd'
frezharl'. Th+sorzatzsthzr utzneotmu
"y
nwl w Vltct, ft d'wrl'ca WWhi' aw Hvcra,l
wkol,onwfu1
t*th.cr t*ru
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30
Dr4wa Luv,tnarL q, Wwhr
ar./"dww,t1
(yr,
th4rL rff rl.t I,w tntv r
cq,nnLyara.
Drawsrw
lwrkvtqL
Lt*,2s,anl' vtttpaL wws,
teo. st d,g yrtsry"tn ynrtbuJa.rffio,',1ry, wlu,h,
ttoV ,l'o ws( ^sr,nLvnu wuavef^laxo1waldrawwg
Tl'.Lscxeroieaatute d.{^at1 d*^*t*g a Mtwvr!-
vfyaral.hlLws,fl"erunwby
yery*'trrn l,a.rLws
ngrd' vf
Ar rl'a ta& rf a squ,are /r4pra( drawug arglz: rf
Go"4.h"d, 9o"
3ao, 5fo,
I
a
1
1
I
Pronortiorrs r r \_/-yvr Proportionsarere[ativemeasurements.Wearenotdiscussingaesthetics here,it issimptya
Pronortiorrs
r
r
\_/-yvr
Proportionsarere[ativemeasurements.Wearenotdiscussingaesthetics
here,it issimptya questionoftheLengthofconnectionbetweenthevarious
etementsandthedistancebetweenthevarious points inthedrawing.
Notethat,ifyougettheseconnectionsabsoLuteLyrightata[[points,your
drawingwiLl"beperfecttyaccurate.Thisisa vitatskiLLtomaster.
When drawing, get into the habit
of observing
proportions, and watch out for the errors which
will inevitably arise.To look at the proportions of
arcctangle,the simplest way is to compare it men-
tally with one or several squares.
Dr4wltw
rf rh.e:u"yl,erfocorsarow^.d,1w - ynturzs,
rh'efrvnt rf yueu:,f f,"ru.t *t,
l,*^:zl.olnnyyli,artu,
Drlw Jrw rccrargl,u,ft4rtw7 wutltsqrnrzs*ht"rlryo flwn d+vttz^y
il"all ^rewtl,J.Pry oarcfuL4(futrwL rc rhat,
frvlffrtchr, wk"ol"gwtmoLntjzorm swtuviuaL
tdznttyyahl' urd'tpafttlzr
frnvotwru
12
Constructinga drawing liol your first try, choose a wall panel,with a door, rvirrdow, picture frames,
Constructinga drawing
liol your first try, choose a wall panel,with a door,
rvirrdow, picture frames, pieces of furniture etc.
| )r';rw it all on the flat, as though there were no
l)crspcctive (there probably is) respecting not just
tlrc proportions of each element,but showing how
tlrcy a1ign,the diagonal, horizontal and vertical
lirrcswhich connect all theseobjectsThis opera-
tiorr is what we call constructing the drawing.
Prqori'Jedrnwt*g l*rt<shi'a.L d Th.etu lr4rtut q^/, vzr(baL Lwrlt vtJlaLt;twhat t ws^[d,/lol Lrlt tI
Prqori'Jedrnwt*g l*rt<shi'a.L
d
Th.etu lr4rtut
q^/, vzr(baL Lwrlt
vtJlaLt;twhat t
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tlurrlqtq(il
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PANf ,4xo ul^yovT-f n tcd, 4 t t 4
PANf ,4xo ul^yovT-f
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Todrawa ptanofa certainspace,youshouldintheoryhavemadea noteofat[ thedimensionsbeforehand.ThepLanandthelayouttosca[earethusctosety retated.But,tomakethislayout,youhavetounderstandtheprincipaLrutesof representation,thenyouwi[[seebetterhowtoorganiseyourwork.Thisiswny wearegotngtostartbyshowingtheprincipLesbehrndtheptan.

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Drawtngrtheplan ThepLanor layoutisa viewfromabove.Anelevation, Ihorizontatview,faceon,
Drawtngrtheplan
ThepLanor layoutisa viewfromabove.Anelevation, Ihorizontatview,faceon,
ifyouIike)worksonthesameprincipte,witha scaLe,towhichyouaddsome
codesandconventionsthatsavetimeandmakethe ptan easierto read.
'/ro
cr Loh\ fZr lw
Scales
H{r( qrc tl*ecykru nfrhzs^w flar, wtt'ln
rhrzed.t"'ffrrznrsonl,et.vla havz^or sl**w
uaofu rl'z saynavtewvf llq synu, v tha
sanv ,t1ur r,tudztaLl.
r/too rt taYw lt
lr\
Tlrc scale is the connection in size between the
cl-awing and reality. Scale allows us to measure
clistanceson a plan or a map.
Note that there is no sca-leon a sketch or in a
perspective drawing, since the objects,varying rn
size according to the distance,are not measurable.
1 6
Eachobjectis drawnto sca[e
Eachobjectis drawnto sca[e

Scrrlcis expressedby afraction,suchasI/l0,called n tenth.For the interior of a houseor flat the scaie of 1/50 iscurrentlyused.Thiscanalsobe expressed its2cm to the metre,or 2cnt p.m. (There are 50 tinres2cmin ametre.)

Makinga graphicscate At this scalea room measuring 4 x 6nr bccourcs, on paper,a rectangleof 8
Makinga graphicscate
At this scalea room measuring 4 x 6nr bccourcs,
on paper,a rectangleof 8 x 12cm.You crur show
rooms, staircases,kitchen equipnrent ctc. in tlrc
space,but to give details you need a 'l:rrgcr' scrrlc,
such as1,/20or 1,/1,0.
If you don't likc doing mental calculations,draw a
littlc scllc on thc plan.In this way you can measure,
arrclcvcrr just tlkc irr at a glance,the dimensions of
tlrc sprtccsrrrrclolrjccts represented.
q 2
4
O,J
t/zo v tar^ F,r t^
7HE
t
rt
ALw/yt
-lrfi€ OA/c/vAL.
rHF
l'/GUTE ,/ND€AIVEATI
^1ANy h^4.r ,r,
u'*,I',!)o',r
FIAr I€€^V D/V/DFD FoA rA/6
DAAA//A.rC.
1 7
eorrverrtlorrsarrdsvrnbols A thin line This shows detailswhich are not structural - strips of parquet, motifi
eorrverrtlorrsarrdsvrnbols
A
thin
line
This shows detailswhich are not structural - strips
of
parquet, motifi
on a wall, elements in low relief
Conventionsareaninterestingaspectofptandrawings.Asit isnotpossibteto
givethedetaitsofsomeetementswhichareeithertoosmaIt,or otherwisetoo
repetitive,suchasdoors,windowsetc,weusesymbols.
ctc.
Thin dotted line
This showsthe outline of large elementswhich are
lbove the plan, such asa large beam, or the boun-
clariesof a nezzanine or overhang.
Doors
Doors are shown open, rheir width to sca-le,indi-
cating if they open inwards or outwards.You don't
draw a line for the threshold. Avoid showing the
) u,tr LuuJrv
door with a diagonal line - on the contrary take
the chance to practise drawing a quarter-circlel
The symbol is simple, showing just the frame and
the top of the door (thicknessmay or may not be
rwtlws d'rnwug wt sfrnww*:r nf rlrz owrtht
shown to scale).Only the passagethrough is really
shown to scale.
1
:yrtnl":Nrre tlat ws 4rt lr^Lf-lyrtrl",l'"Lf
rtalunr
f
I
"-J."
Windows
_t_
Windows
(except for French windows) are shown
rluwr rrTy
by
uy
two
Lwu pcrpgrrcrruurarlrres orl tlle wa[,
perpendicular
lines
on the
wail, showing
snowlng
the width
of the ledge. They
are usually shown
Arrowsh.wuyt d,ucofww
shut (seepl6).
Fuw d.rffzd,Lr,ntun"danat-trga
nv<<antw nr wzrharg
Dw
rf rhz:rty:
$41urcr (gnard, raul)
Conventionsregarding[ines
Unlike a sketch, in a scale drawing the thickness
of the lines must be consistentand regular,because
they signi$z something. When drawing in ink, or
with
instruments, the thickness is strictly control-
led, but when using pencil you are in control. It's
a good exercise!
A base[ine,or contour
tl4q
^ nt
It shows an edge in the space, an outline, for
example the top of a piece of furniture or the
banister of a staircase.In fact you don't make many
lines of this kind on a plan drawing.
rl,w stars
l{cfwru LLM
1 8
Showingfurnitureandequipment Lines indicating dirnensions Scc p24 In general, pieces of furniture ilrc nol shttwtt
Showingfurnitureandequipment
Lines
indicating
dirnensions
Scc p24
In general, pieces of furniture ilrc nol shttwtt ott
a
ground plan, since they are not pL\nllrlllct)t.llut
The section line and the walls
Whcn you make a floor plan,in principle you show
if
their presenceis useful on your luyout, yott r'rttt
choose to show them exactly,or to tlsc syttt|.rtlls,lts
cvcrything under a certain height. By convention,
this is fixed at 1 metre from the ground. Everything
lubovethis height is left out of the plan. But there
ilrc certain elements which come up from the
ground and go higher than this fixed height, e.g.
thc outside walls and partition walls. On a floor
plan these are shown cut off, as if a horizontal
bhde had separated them from the upper part.
The passageof this blade defines the section.To
shown below.
Fixed sanitary ware is alwaysslrowrr (tltcsc rtt't'
not furniture). Kitchen furniturc is vurillrlt', rtrrtl
you can decide for yourself.
differentiate
the section it
is drawn
with a very
hearry line.
The stairs
You also show what is under the stairs, as for
cxample a small storage space. The banister,
lb-]
or
guard rail, is
shown by two lines. To indicate
i-tJ
the direction
of the stairs draw an arrow, always
htt wurh
indicating upstairs.
z tarwffr
wew,dnvrryzn
z-Jcq?r Jtf4
TheLogicbehindthesymbols
Note that there is always a logic in these conven-
tions: a single line indicates an outline, two iines
two outlines, which here makes the top of the
banister,or handrail.'When the section line arrives
at the windows, it is replaced by two thin little
lines, closed-up, which indicate the thickness of
qth lctt
the Elass.
lorlt
wa.slntasi,t"
d,s^tbt{d,
W4,JM4JLIL
tl+owt try

1 9

Changir-rgtarounrdthe furrriture \J Getusedtoworkingona floorp[an, Layingoutthedifferentarrangements
Changir-rgtarounrdthe furrriture
\J
Getusedtoworkingona floorp[an,
Layingoutthedifferentarrangements
offrrrnitrrrevorrcou[dhaveinthe
sameroom.Drawa ptanoftheroom
youareinnow,thenchangethe
furniturearound.ThisexercisewiIl
getyouaccustomedto understanding
thedimensionsofvariouse[ements,
beingawareoftheirproportionsand
thinkingabouttheemptyspaces
whichenablepeopleto moveabouta
room.
I
trus( wrnLza lkt
f rha rmn wLrhw
furn"tturc. vw oawybtrov[y rhu astrwr;y
(LIA{J
4J MC{JJ4,U
?trft nrrntgtnzw, tlz, :rfa i vyywkt
fireykx, *lnbl"l',a:fucwtwrdad,^f ^^1
ludAzr"t1rlw rzlzvuto*.r/u Anu'grqtl,(u
ratlwrol,rstrc rh't,Itjtohzndwr
20
lzom.d,arrargen^4hi':fh.( dlnug rntk ha: t huolarrn47ewt' il4 /"t,ru,1qratl,clrattem tzznnwed,rwnl'
lzom.d,arrargen^4hi':fh.( dlnug rntk
ha:
t huolarrn47ewt'
il4 /"t,ru,1qratl,clrattem
tzznnwed,rwnl' ah"/,dw arra.
whf, rf (h4,
sittug-rwn' l.rastzr* rcvtszd'.

ynov&L Mtr rfu wtntr+wanl tfu il,ffwlr-rcvtw dnorharlcuvlkc[ul vll.

TO HeLP PIAN rfAtAA,vc€el

Y0ut

A

Fv&v/71/AF

ENT/ yov

cA117 coloua

COvr/DE.A Ho^/

DAAr.v/vC AvD

/7A/€ Aooih wtLL

^rot-R 8EPoA6

&AKrvc

Avy

vFw

puacFlArFr.

21
21
. T-ll , lilo\/Atrnn .Yr | ,r\--lvL,LulUlldtlO SeCIlOn Anetevationisa straight-on viewofa
.
T-ll
,
lilo\/Atrnn
.Yr
|
,r\--lvL,LulUlldtlO
SeCIlOn
Anetevationisa straight-on viewofa wa[[.lfyoustandback,Lookingatthe
canbecat[eda sectionaLe[evation.
The drawing is of what
is facing you, the items
t&rwt
rf q tafl'r*tn,
tt
tb
pala ,/ zo,
against the wall: doors and windows, but also
shelvesand tables,making an ensemble,like a small
l" i nw:"kathfvr
drnwtrgsr.rwLl
fagadein your room. Side passages,doors and win_
syausnr/, flr.t,arrargtmeff rf dzraLb
s*1" qJ o"ytvard,s,lwluasil. Nrre fhe
dows are always cut ofl, but avoid cutting a single
rkob"zy rf tfu sotwt" h,nt,rt hzly
isolated item, such as a column. All this is imoor_
tant: the line of section must indicate the volume
ffitrzrt-tnrr
rl,z rnyrv :yau
in general and the openings, even if they are not
exact\ opposite.
22

I

'

waLIhorizonta[[y,youhavea fuIt-faceviewofthewaIt,knownasanelevatron. TheprincipLeis thesameasforthefloorpl,an.ThesidewaLtsarethus sectionedvertica[[y,astheywerehorizontatLyon thefLoorpLan.ThiseLevation

o r p L a n . T h i s e L e v a

El,evqflMrf n sr,ttug-rwn,,fth a.str,alLtabny nr,"d,,z

trl ,*A il m DrqwJlw (fac{-rtu) rnvbr i,tveltvqt|ttv I\tqw (ht vqtut,r tole uu'lrvl'epL
trl
,*A
il
m
DrqwJlw
(fac{-rtu)
rnvbr i,tveltvqt|ttv
I\tqw
(ht
vqtut,r
tole
uu'lrvl'epL
Rearranginganareaofwatl
l\cthinking the layout of a flat doesn't alwaysmean
rrroving interior walls. Rearranging a wall panel,
changing the decoration and objects displayedis
in itself an important modification.You can plan
this on paper, especially if you are thinking of
buying new elementssuch asshelves,storageboxes,
sctsof drawers etc.
Designin modules
Thke measurementsof the various elements to be
included, and imagine the various different ways
they could be put together. They will be much
nrore interesting if you have worked them out in a
clrawing:they then become reai little compositions,
combining practicality with aesthetics.
1
t
t
4
23
lVaku-rgalayout Thelayoutconsistsofproducinga groundptanandetevationsofa buitding,or
lVaku-rgalayout
Thelayoutconsistsofproducinga groundptanandetevationsofa buitding,or
oneofitsparts,aftertakingmeasurementsonthespot,Therearethustwo
phases:takingmeasurementsandcopyingthemoutonthedocuments.
0rganisationof thelayout
Waltsandpartitions
Details
'We
'When
start with
preliminary
drawings on which we
The amount of detail required depends on your
mark the measurements taken.These drawings are
an intermediate stage berween the sketch and the
ground plan: they are done by hand, on the spot,
but with most of the codes in place. Now
that you
are (more or less)fully informed on all the ways of
markingdown tlrc lrcirsurr.rrrcntsof crc:lr
room, thereis a tcndencytrl frllgct the thickncss
of thewallsor panels.Trkcnlcil$rlrcllcnttwicc,to
guardagainstmistakcs.Mcasurcirgninsttlrc rcll flnt
suface,not the thick rrrouldinl{soll tltc cloorsor
wall oanels.
final intention. For a flat, dont include panel
n.rouldings. But if you are planning to reorganise
a library or similar, you probably should include
them.
showing what you can see,you must get ready to
take the measurements.
c,4p
A
teameffort
3 b
Ideally there should be three people involved: one
to draw and take notes, and two to hold the tape
when large areas are involved. At home, you can
get your family involved in this operation. Bur if
il
J1,,.
l
you are on your own you'll just have to manage.
'Jr-t
L'lp
$ o
I
A
sketchof thegroundptan
This is the moment to apply the principles of
drawing laid out on page 10. Start by making a
freehand plan in a hardback notebook, preferably
room by room. Leave spacearound the drawing for
l. 16
writing down the measurements. At this stage the
exact scale of the drawing doesnt matter because
you are going to mark it in.Try to keep the drawing
in proportion, so that it is easierto read.
Thedimensions
These are indicated on a parallel line in the same
rw,nLLLuurvuluae
ParaLhLl,w ir,,
dtcotwm
snnl)ttzu
direction, with small lines to indicate where
the measurement runs, and little bias marks to
w Mrl
fl4t
l^4lltuHL\lltt
w,d,watzthft' t't u a
indicate that it's a measurement.not oart of the
drawinE.Be methodical!
Myu
w4Jw'tt^tli-
ard, rrt
l4rf f rl.',(drawt*g
24

v

Tldyinguptheftoorplan/drawingthe whol,ething Yrlu can now go on to a drawing of the whoie tlring. Think
Tldyinguptheftoorplan/drawingthe
whol,ething
Yrlu can now go on to a drawing
of the whoie
tlring. Think of the floor plan as a good sketch
which you want to improve or tidy up. Of course
you can work in two stages:a first sketch asa foun-
dation, and then superimpose a final drawing.
Formatandscale
Now itt time to choose a scale. Let's think of
an example. If you are doing a layout of a flat of
100m', more or lesssquare,it will be around 10m x
I 0m. At a scaleof 1/50 (or Zcm per m.) it will
be a
square20cm x 20cm,which could go in anA4 for-
mat. But it will be too cramped, asyou must always
Ieave some space around the
drawing. Thus an A.3
format (29.7crn x 42cm) or even larger (50cm x
65cm) would be more appropriate.Of course,you
can cram in a little more in a sketchbook.
Constructingthefloorplan
You must first of all make an outline, that's to say
trace out the lines which will not be visible at the
final stage of the work,
but
which
will
help to
ensure that the visible lines are well positioned.
Studythelayout
Before drawing the floor plan, make little sketches
of it, diagrams in which you can analyse the gene-
ral dimensions.Without really making a final plan,
it's a way of understanding its logic.

-il;

. .=- {
.
.=-
{
/l}. j ,e$ 25
/l}.
j
,e$
25
Lalroutofa flat Inthisexamp[ewegoontothelayoutofa wholeflat,Thedrawings
Lalroutofa flat
Inthisexamp[ewegoontothelayoutofa wholeflat,Thedrawings
onthesetwopagesshowthedifferentstages,andtheprogressive
fine-tuningofthedrawingaswesketchandverifythedetaits.
rhu firr
lryw, wudzin lt*, lrartun lauoln tlufaor
rharrhc,flwryLanrf d,.aflar wrea[ysunphnrvlaanh
q
tdrwd,
^f
tlr 4
d,tyrcawru.
rlw drawLla i
wr ft saql,c,.
rdJ arrhz n.gl. oWftW,
th*sseovrtr,d.rawt*gdztall rha
l^C4,JMWtLfJ.
26
vLrlw fkrd' d*awt*g,alldrz un;frrw,nflrtuhaad,al,frrawwWrwryrgleoti l,qit,tw. stzfh4,dr4h rf d^zy,yleotvwygc a0,
vLrlw fkrd' d*awt*g,alldrz un;frrw,nflrtuhaad,al,frrawwWrwryrgleoti
l,qit,tw. stzfh4,dr4h
rf d^zy,yleotvwygc
a0,
fkrd' d*awt*g,alldrz un;frrw,nflrtuhaad,al,frrawwWrwryrgleoti l,qit,tw. stzfh4,dr4h rf d^zy,yleotvwygc a0, 4, 27
4, 27
4,
27
PELfPECT(VE Ina scatedrawingyouhavea goodviewofthelocationandcantake more'visua['methodsofrepresentation
PELfPECT(VE
Ina scatedrawingyouhavea goodviewofthelocationandcantake
more'visua['methodsofrepresentation
thedifferentkindsofperspecti
t 6

measurementsasaccuratetyasyoucoutdintheactuatspace.Moreover,this isthedrawingmostusedinbuiLdingwork. Inordertodothis,youneedtotrainyourse[fto [ookatspacedifferentLy fromthewayyounormaLlyperceiveit.Thuswearenowgoingtoconsider -

[ookatspacedifferentLy fromthewayyounormaLlyperceiveit.Thuswearenowgoingtoconsider -
' tr''f/d!' ' tvtrufv 29
' tr''f/d!'
'
tr''f/d!'
' tvtrufv
'
tvtrufv
lsornetricprolectlor-r Thisformofperspectiveisveryeasy toappl.y.Moreoverit enabLesyou eventua[tytotakemeasurements,
lsornetricprolectlor-r
Thisformofperspectiveisveryeasy
toappl.y.Moreoverit enabLesyou
eventua[tytotakemeasurements,
aswitha floorp|'an.Ineffect,the
paraLleLlinesdonotconverge
towardsthevanishingpoint;they
stayparallet.SeveraIvariations
exist,accordingtotheangleofsight
cnosen:nearertothelayout,or
nearertotheelevation.
Nd-a al,srrlnar *hn yw t*vlw
,lo p^ptr) rnfrnl thz waLb.
aruLrr.rn rhz lryo"r, d'z ,zot^Aile, f tha face: rf d,z wall:ra[a n*
rlnzasycorrf a ynrnlhlp|rattt^r h,t,llwLfV llzs stry ynrall,eLtr eaahnrhz,r.rlv vwwtsd,wtrrrtd,
u+rtkwn
rv rlv,ywnrl yl"a.w,t^t l,zey:thu ,U"krfy
|. vrt oqrL,wlvn rlv phwl,attun ylvtcrl, lsruerila I'e1Altrf rhznryks,a: d,zn
aLd,toaft
rlv vuw favwt rlv fam rf rl,,cwnlk, r, rlt. azrrwvw rf rhzJcnwryrnft-lvyk*.
Trgtrfrrm
z ft + d,r,vtdztl'a fugk:
a
2. v'ltaa\ttf a rumtkrrutnlrty nrJvynra7 r/4 W nr,.d,r14lrstlztrf rhzykw.
an/' t fu ,, rhzwr(d.rqwd^ali,r'cs
1 I
1
I
4t' oturve tha rvuvvrv',rst/4.rLqrw6 yussutl,e,aoa ft dN( arglzl ohv,*. r f !. Aneffectof reduction The
4t'
oturve tha rvuvvrv',rst/4.rLqrw6
yussutl,e,aoa
ft dN(
arglzl ohv,*.
r f
!.
Aneffectof reduction
The prqection view does not distort length. It
produces a paradoxical optical illusion: thinking we
lre seeing in perspective, we find that the vertical
lines, that's to saythe walls, are higher than in reality
because,if the perspective was true, they would
To mitigate this impression we can corrcct it ,r
Little by reducing the height, but then yor-rlosc tlrc
chanceof taking measurements.Note thlt rrrcustr-
rements are only taken while the vertical lincs strry
parallel,and
parallel to the sidesof the flt>or plrrrr.
l'!lrl( (lr\rrlvl( !''J r(''('lr\ 'l f lti DlMENSroNr
tiJl
cflectively be dwarGd by the effect of distance.
l r(x)R PIAN t:t-^*'
rrt'rl rlt
lt t'ap tt
I t
R(',MAlf'l lDEt'lT l(AL' BvT/
f'trrl 1|)M)
llFl(i( ARr UNCHAN6€D/ rHE
vl
FII(At
ll
1l1l
*ntfjl
/)rA(,\)FlALl API- FloLoN'reR' t*^t'
*
VlII
NOR-
D M€N('DN
OPJ('INAL
H
] H(:IR
V!
I
R
A]
3 1
Drawlrrgthroe-dlmrensiorralobtects arrdfurruture
Drawlrrgthroe-dlmrensiorralobtects
arrdfurruture
Tounderstandthistechniqueoftheprojectionview,startwithsimpLeobjects,suchascubes,beforedrawingspaces.
-
Practisebydrawingpiecesoffurnitureor domesticappLiances thisisa goodexercisewhichwiLLfamil.iariseyouwith
ofconstructionandproportions.
Ywwl) wt"u,lotb'ry atrhz d*a*u.gs,atwkol,yvtnrrhu vr,ewu ^vf^l twd,rawwga l^allntjut
rhtstsd*tattthzfqotrhat, u1*,
L,rn* o"rseLvutt a rzdnucL ya,r tf d,a vt'smL fidd' ah4'ahvawry frrn rlz varul'"g
/loirt, du vizwisyraotw"U ,l" Jarne45yznyotwz ,r,rl,
varu,tlutgyraw (su drawtrg,yefl.
ora,wrhaJq^4.r{,vr rcotargl,evf
z. P^r unrhz verttpaLluw: aht, rhtn rhzyarailzLw^,tt
rlugrcw,a,ykw vf rha nficor
32

theirshapesanddimensions.TheseprogressivesketcheswiU.atsoremindyouoftheinitiaLprinciptesofdrawing:Iines

rl,a fin*:hzrt d.rnwwg t. Dr4wawnrglzrf 3o", rhznd*vt"dztlz tty Lwwmt*n. T/uwd'wrlzzqaLhatf
rl,a fin*:hzrt d.rnwwg
t. Dr4wawnrglzrf 3o", rhznd*vt"dztlz tty
Lwwmt*n. T/uwd'wrlzzqaLhatf u"tl,'rzz.
z. Drqwthz ^yrgk:, d^zwrhz4rw\r{tfl.
q, Dt'awtfu /w rt'rfu wh, rh4wrh'tHar.
4. Drnwthzaryh vfrl,'zta.aL
r Drtwtlz tatL qh/, rhatuthz rar vf rfu arwu
6. Ad.d,th"fu4t
33
Destonanofflcesoace \J Takingadvantageofthebenefitsoftheprojectionview,i,e.keepingthe
Destonanofflcesoace
\J
Takingadvantageofthebenefitsoftheprojectionview,i,e.keepingthe
dimensions,makesomedetailedstudiesofanobjectora sma[[pieceof
furniture.MorevisuaLthangroundplans,thesestudies"attowyoutoshow
thickness,objectssuperimposedoneuponanotherandspaces.Thankstothe
flexibil.ityofdrawinginpenci[,wecanintroducesee-throughviews,avoiding
muLtip|.eviewsofthesamethinq.
A fotdawayofficeona shetf
If you
only
have a small space, and not
much
money, you can make yourself a foldaway office,
even a mobile one if you fit castors on it.
t
.r
t. f(4.rf ty bawug
:
drawtrs Drqwrlelrc^yi,
s"rfaq, firsr.
.E
.:x
'tt
,
-:tu*-'
'
z. Drtw n tl,'z fn* vtrbah, rlntnl,raw u" th.cmlv, l,cvcl,s,ls^haad,.
.,
#;5- a"'::
5i:::l'
i
i;l:
_ li"*-
3. Nw drq
w
rffi.q,:hzLf.ovwrfiryt( rvrc,Jervt,4
syacz frr rlw out^L wvr a,h-d,snwv*lqrcrn
Y^rSuwfatt
34
Groupingofficefurniture 'l'lrc lrrojcction view enablesyou to move furniture ,rtorrrrrlls you pleaseTry out
Groupingofficefurniture
'l'lrc
lrrojcction view enablesyou to move furniture
,rtorrrrrlls you pleaseTry out some arrangements
Itr lintl the one that suits you
best,before buying
,)'
tlrc vlu'iouselements of your office corner.
z Dr4w tlvdw v{rttoq.l,s,tlutu d,rqw
/
\
tlw vartor^swv!- stnrfaus an/,
At1Lfl
I'Fol( rrlo,v v/t ry (NABLFf you .tttt f Qri^/ / t ro rTuDy DtlAtL.f ^iltol
I'Fol( rrlo,v v/t ry
(NABLFf you
.tttt
f
Qri^/ / t
ro
rTuDy
DtlAtL.f
^iltol (
Alt( MELy.
t Drq,w4 flwr ykr, rf rhz varn^s
tkwhr'r (wtJUt/"
il_
t;'
'/aF4+r''1/
;;'.
q Draw untll
rtlur d.cwrt's1ort
rud,: sltclves,drawxr5,wvqtla
LrcW,J,
4 Ft,rurhrht,rr,arnyur,ti,only nd.d,unaunall dradzrntl: - kny,
yrr(ul.,a,cilrf^rcr, lwb r"
35

n ND 7-A16

\.
\.

Fiaytngaboutwtthspace

FinaLl,y,wecanconsidera spaceasanassociationofwat[sandobjects.Using a gridtracedoutbeforeandptacedunderthepage Iifthepaperisthinenough) atlowsyouto ptayaboutwithspacesasyouplease.Onceyouhavemastereo theprincip|.esofprojectionyouhaveatyourdispositiona hightyusefuI instrument,equivatenttoa sma[[-sca[emodeL,buteasiertomodify.

Drawinga kitchen Here is an exercisein usingprqection.The preli- nrinarydrawingof the corner of the room and
Drawinga kitchen
Here is an exercisein usingprqection.The preli-
nrinarydrawingof the corner of the room and a
framework of 60cm squaresautomaticallyenables
you to placeunits to the correct size.This visual-r-
iation of the units, evenif simplified, enablesyou
to group them better.
t Df4wa rumfur rf eootnJf/artJ
ftrarvkr/" ilz)
avrrsyavtrll'g1a
rlu rumhr tf ltt"lr,ewuwfl q,hi
4lllinr'.c$,
z Drqwwfhz
vzrfr,aaLLuas,at
cxykm'e/"wu /W 32, flvw *t *r
rh.evyrflwns rrq.r[s*lu.oh frcvcnt
th.tdra*ug teagrcn/"enst!.
3 Ad),shadl4yand,d,*auh,a,tl47
rhzymtrl.:frvrwygc ,t.
Swapplngrour-rdkitche bathrroomr Thisprojectmakesa significantchangetothehome.Insomeotd flatsor
Swapplngrour-rdkitche
bathrroomr
Thisprojectmakesa significantchangetothehome.Insomeotd
flatsor housesthekitchenisoftenfarfromthediningareaandthe
bathroomisverysmaLt.Whatwewanttodoisswapthemround,
creatinga kitchencornerina Living-roomwitha drningarea,anda
morespaciousbathroomwithnaturaLlight.TheLivingroomshavcbeen
en[argedbygettingridofa doorandtakingdowna partitionwatL.This
isshowninthefoLLowingexampte,wherea layouthasatreadybeen
done{see p.26lr.
Hs^toa.nwXSway rwwL
rhzv t*v rwwl
t\t ttNltw t.vv prtlec
natks
^t
t
v
to rccthzavadatLesyau.
*-\ |
t lu farti,rt,onr L,nvctecnralaw
rwq.ytorhar wcoatuvt"r*ilucd''a
{^rurc lirol,ewtmtr,
t^'r ^1t,t, *t
oq,t/vW4,vre
rhzlzwLtfwwwv[-
"y
rctehrc

.;

I

lf.

I

4

Dcffi,rcnrrut nf wraLLtMa dlninaa,rca, al.rrgn ,uaLL,wrtfus/"elvil,ah.d'rcvr(gc unks v d,i;yQywu,n ttt(, t0il
Dcffi,rcnrrut nf wraLLtMa dlninaa,rca,
al.rrgn ,uaLL,wrtfus/"elvil,ah.d'rcvr(gc
unks v d,i;yQywu,n
ttt(, t0il
to haw n'{(l,tvtl,tyINL (l,c (r46tfl.ilt
la*rr,'
tlvv twl. V+ut, I hi,rt awt4ytl,w.r
|attu,'kt,l,Y tlv Iuch,cnynu

Ilv hotv.,nralluvrrl rlv,yvnl ykwcxrcnl, t,t'(othot(vl tlv lt,t,lta'u,wk,hnoda(yt,t17tn

?s
?s
ThisexampLe,takenfromthetransformationonpage38,putsintopractice
ThisexampLe,takenfromthetransformationonpage38,putsintopractice
thestudiesmadeonkitchenfurniture,andthedifferentcombinationsonthe
60cmmoduLe.Theprojectionview,likeotherrepresentations,showshere
itsIimitations,becauseit isimpossibtetoshowa space,andthewaILswhich
delimitit,atthesametime.0ntythegroundplansandsectionsintheirway
giveprecisesolutionstothisprobLem.
However, projections have the advantage of raising
questions, like that of the partition
wall now sepa-
rating the
kitchen from the entry hall, which was
,"d
before the wall with
the bathroom door. (This par-
.","6n
tition is studied on p.42.)
rr'
t
l
i
*
,i
4
{ t
,i
I
f
i
ti.
.\, ,J
t,r,
Qrfrahtt
v-r,rohznfrvntgzvrn
rlnzLt'v,g-rwm
40

Vlsrlahsil-rga krtchrerrcorr-rer

rt t'olne,wfrontytt ru" d^z unqhte lnalJ
rt t'olne,wfrontytt ru" d^z
unqhte lnalJ
PkruW ytylcor.r'lwt y yarr rf rhaynrt,rwwwalLu ra[an w. Awrxtraorcrlwd'w :lqwr"tehw.wttl'urhu[ilr rf
PkruW ytylcor.r'lwt y yarr
rf rhaynrt,rwwwalLu ra[an
w. Awrxtraorcrlwd'w
:lqwr"tehw.wttl'urhu[ilr rf
fuawug vvcontv:tu@ whaf u
hqltW atwerhaf,u^**t,
*W*.V
rl'artl,z all*g u
fr4r6l4rchi'.
DFr/Gry MAGtct wHtcH ALLow,
WALU
70
T6 TAAN
f '/fPgA/Df C6/L/vcf
,*
,,"^*'*'
OTHFA AI€&AA,,,"; ;;;:
:,:::
AtDt wHtc+ AaF A/O7p()tftELE ^ltTH
A
AFAL fcALE ^,1oD€,L,
Crnizruel,vwwrf rlq Lt)ro
Jfac
41
Creatlnganopenparttttorr Tlnr ThereorganisingofthespaceinthisfLat[see p.40) meansthattheendoftheentryhalLactsatthesame
Creatlnganopenparttttorr
Tlnr
ThereorganisingofthespaceinthisfLat[see p.40)
meansthattheendoftheentryhalLactsatthesame
+;-^ ^-
^rrtition intothekitchen.
LllllE
dJ
drl
LJPsll
P C
This partition has two distinct parts:top and bot-
IHE VAR.]OV(TTA6Ef
tom.
The bottom must remain closed because it
conceals kitchen elements, equipment or storage.
On the other hand the top part can stay open or
half-open, in any casebecoming the object of an
obvious change.The partition becomes the fron-
tage of the kitchen, while still being the end of
the entry hall.We can treat it with elements which
have some of the properties of a faqade, such as
louvres, venetian blinds and houseplants.
ckn kzyr,nwexan"yLe,nnl'
flw rransfvrYnafw".
42

fal,:e uul.,"rg

rf rh,e,yarzL n-rhzuj, rf rha enrryhall

l)ilot studyof thelowerpartwith openshelves.The uppclrpart rcfcrcnccsthe kitchen,andis presented rs its luq:ldc. ()u
l)ilot studyof thelowerpartwith openshelves.The
uppclrpart rcfcrcnccsthe kitchen,andis presented
rs its luq:ldc. ()u tlrc lcft is a staudwith a pot of
lrcrlrs,unclorrtlrcrightisrrsystcnlof louvres.
Preparatorydrawing
Thc top pilrthidcsl light,cvokingthc shtrttersof
rrbistt'tl.
sthl,yart ruwW
frvvv"tlvfal,n
utlwg hv,twtt tlu Lmpw
(
oym yarr tt tt
rAaruvd,
the entrance,with storage drawers.In thc Lrppcr
part, the objective is not to indicate thc kitclrcn
beyond.
43
Transfornrrlrrga flat InthisotherexampLe,it isa spacewitha doubteorientationwhichwiLl,be
Transfornrrlrrga flat
InthisotherexampLe,it isa spacewitha doubteorientationwhichwiLl,be
createdinswitchinqroundthekitchenandbathroom.
rlv,hob
ftnr. r 1,,,e4,aci,htu yku/" vrvilz ynrrs
fl+at }nt'trtt, r,u,a,hl,7fuwaLl,t4rcfr4hqtrch.t',
*l"oh qllnw a/" werall /ttur(,
wluohngrcrurl,
\
/nwwwh, rct.
Hcrc.,a.vlvna.rtr,vuwrf tlu or^otaL yam, rhz
walkarL yarrtrtvru rhz r*ms rc tt o
arr slqwwa: hartlad,zvis
rrzd,
rl,z yau e55lnawwwkhn"t yarrtrwnt w.,vi,cwrf rl'z ol,aq7e:, fvr wl'unl"thz grtl, wdlyrue ,u a tare
rl,z yau e55lnawwwkhn"t yarrtrwnt
w.,vi,cwrf rl'z ol,aq7e:, fvr wl'unl"thz
grtl, wdlyrue ,u a tare
a yknrurg sl,*o|".t wt)Jtt MD(JJ4Utr hab, sevzraltcfnrc dzod,wgrn a stlraw".
a yknrurg sl,*o|".t wt)Jtt
MD(JJ4Utr hab, sevzraltcfnrc
dzod,wgrn a stlraw".
l lu yau wutLhralu*g rTvrvl'rrcrfu"t'wuwbrol''tn. U 45
l lu yau wutLhralu*g
rTvrvl'rrcrfu"t'wuwbrol''tn.
U
45
DifferentkindsofspacescanbedrawnupveryquickLyusingready-madegrids.Usetracing
DifferentkindsofspacescanbedrawnupveryquickLyusingready-madegrids.Usetracing
paper,oranyotherpaperthatistransparentenough,toLetthemarkingsshowthrough.
Below,exploringdifferentusessf 6 5n:r-o ttqinnnrid) tp.83l,showningreyinthefirst
drawingtoshowit inposition.
EEFOR-E
Howoaturh.tssynu tt
uwrryvrarzd,tt t r.la ry t,
tlz
tedrwnJ
plaoz rhzovrnzrrf t'l^ernvtt\.4r rhzyvw,rrf tl^zgnd,
*lne,rct-h.ethretylnrzsr,r,tzrv,or,rhznyku rhzefutusnas
t'v ttraun,fl+eovrzaf d,uvvruwns
"{i
;::""-'
{
t',1
*r
!
'
l
l
r
1
l
n*'*'t
4
l
c
I
'
q --
i
.,.
szewgrlur'gh un thz rq^a.rcl
uat['e,y^tt yku ryzrttg:,anl'
ewwunlfo, frvru.turz
46

Creatir-rga dresslng-roorrtar-rda bathroor-rl

,4FTER- rlu :yau hastu* rzdasgrcd,fv orz4t'(4 dresl4r-rwtw.r/u :ynaer,wfrrnr rf rl,z wwan* lw teewnse/,tt
,4FTER-
rlu :yau hastu* rzdasgrcd,fv orz4t'(4
dresl4r-rwtw.r/u :ynaer,wfrrnr rf rl,z wwan*
lw teewnse/,tt d.etgr"a Litdzrffiq
orrrzr.
F .
\,1'{
tJ'trc, tl^'zhtt'ha,t\tat leetut:lrrvtt'(al.t,rttotl^,clatlu'oott (:ec y.ss).
Th.eorrrtl,orwkeltkol to tl^',eLttt,h.cnhar leer"ulcd,ft arearctfn4.shswt
47
Theeffer-tof nersnective comesfromwhatourvisionmakesof whattheeve sees.Betweenthe eyeandthe out[inesof an objectwe
Theeffer-tof nersnective comesfromwhatourvisionmakesof whattheeve
sees.Betweenthe eyeandthe out[inesof an objectwe candrawthe sides
of an angle,the angteat whichwe seethe object.Wecanobservethatif the
objectmovesfurtheraway,thisangLebecomesnarrower,andto the eye,the
nhier-tseemqtn he smatLer.Thisis the effectknownas nersnectivp
*|#leiis.d
rlw f"rrhzr aw(y 4.h,ntlzotw,rl,z:w'qll,eru'Je€ff.t.
Thevanishingpoint
^frW
r/nuu rhavan*:ltryyn5nt
48

Seerngthingsir-rperspective

,. r/nzdrqwuVtzln",I'q: futn :u"/lifid, tt rlnelws rt'ytrsytttwr rv(
,. r/nzdrqwuVtzln",I'q: futn :u"/lifid, tt
rlnelws rt'ytrsytttwr
rv(
z. Tlz yartttwwwrh.e,rght tsrznwed,. , --' ,ug;'I' rl"e*holzorl,lzoru*rf ynrahl

z. Tlz yartttwwwrh.e,rght tsrznwed,.

, --' ,ug;'I' rl"e*holzorl,lzoru*rf ynrahl r'wtreussar(yhnzurraL - &Mr4(u
, --'
,ug;'I'
rl"e*holzorl,lzoru*rf ynrahl
r'wtreussar(yhnzurraL - &Mr4(u
I It t1 Ir Ir ( w{,aarvtu rlv Lw rf +, rf wt rytn a
I
It
t1
Ir
Ir
(
w{,aarvtu rlv Lw rf
+, rf wt rytn a !w,
4ry.
49
Thehorizon The multiplication of parallel lines*generates a whole series of vanishing points, aligned to each
Thehorizon
The multiplication of parallel lines*generates a
whole
series of vanishing points, aligned to
each
other. This alignment is called the horizon. Thrs
line does not appear of course, but it is recom-
mended to place it in a realistic drawing as well
asin an imaginary one, becauseit is the principal
referencepoint for fixing perspective.
hcl96 rlu yrunt w thz hrqvn hr"d'm vzrcbaLlcnzml't"oarc rlq #urvtr l"u erbn a tfll ft
hcl96
rlu yrunt w thz hrqvn hr"d'm vzrcbaLlcnzml't"oarc
rlq #urvtr l"u erbn a tfll ft du lfr{T,
rlu yonrwnrf rl.'zvtvrver.
Movingthevanishingpointon
rlq rturw l,ateahn4 r&wvl
ttN,rvrlu hfr,
thehorizon
'W'hen we move, the vanishing point of the lines
in one direction seemsto move too.-We can expe-
rience this in a room by looking at the vanishing
point of the tiling. This shows that the vanishing
point is notjust an effect oflines, but alsoan e{fect
of our vision and our position in a space.
tr1
Theheightofthehorizon Our position in a spaceaffectsboth the vanishing point and the horizon. In the drawings
Theheightofthehorizon
Our position in a spaceaffectsboth the vanishing
point and the horizon. In the drawings on thrs
page, look at the view from above and below.They
show clearly that the horizon, at the height of the
vanishing point, the convergence of the edges of
the shelves,is at eye level.And
if we stand higher,
or sit lower, we can see that the horizon
follows
our movement.
Theheightofthehorizoninthedrawing
Once the height of the horizon has been esta-
blished in a space,it must be shown in the drawing.
That then
depends on the framing you want. If
you want to show what is above the horizon, you
will
place it towards the bottom
of the window
(seep.73).
52
lul w wryvtu,tlzEvrt,t'thz walltzcrws " tQfrthry t&nmet^ vdzr an/.rhr rnanu r,r'yka, wcl'lnrfu,a*ry
lul w wryvtu,tlzEvrt,t'thz walltzcrws
"
tQfrthry t&nmet^ vdzr an/.rhr rnanu r,r'yka,
wcl'lnrfu,a*ry
Tl"i
wrnaw r,src( tt soal,€,, "'
t&a^szha,hzghrwnr r*u
bt/av *wlrrlw d^an
HIN wcoqtuuri*r,aft (h4 lzbk
nf t-lw,wn, seeugrhat t1z h$tzsru,al. !y{ h,vcL, "nw,ts a.t,i
Hcrcrhzhrrzor",'tr U kv([,tunq alu,(a ltt*fftt rl a wU
th wal,lr,Ne
ry
tw-rl*d,t
ay thz wall; r 4,2 lvgkfi"w"rlw
uilug
tsato^r z r w4tHr
tlwnsetrlrat cl1.(nol^hat urttu,tvutrtl ltvfst'ftfrr';r, wuh q lunlrt r/ 4n,wl t
wvrret.rh.rnan ot,rlv.r1,7lxu ralfutlstt rA+ilrcrv(r,hqrut h,tluatl,h ntwc
tlz Lw,zrf th l,,arusn,
Theheightofthehorizon,peopteand
thesca[e
The horizon being at eye level of the observer
(about 1.5 metres if he,/sheis standing) it follows
that if other people, positioned in the same way,
t^ f ht,tA'^wug,wt lul tlqt tl,cstarver
mrrrlt vanl, lc,a^.tttlv l.nru,rntr
ar gVthvel f, tlu pturn ftatNlsrvrl'.c
rglrt wl'+ktclowtlv I'uglxrf rl,.tpryh
are shown in the drawing, their eyeswill be at the
sane level, aligned with the horizon. At the same
time, this perception can tell us instinctively about
the heieht of the room.
ttanl#g,
rs,*'l
KEP7, reAcrvC
IT
OUT
/f
E.ff FWr/AL
P-€A.L6Lr't.
Thevlewfronnthefront showninetevationandthesidesinperspective.ThewaL[isnotdistortedby perspective -
Thevlewfronnthefront
showninetevationandthesidesinperspective.ThewaL[isnotdistortedby
perspective - thesidesstayparatle[,theproportionsarekeptandwecan
choosewhichscaleto use.
This view presents all the advantages of perspec-
tive, and in an architectural drawing of the interior
it allows us to show the floor, the side walls and all
the elements seen here - furniture and the arran-
gement of detaiis - in a much more realistic way
than a projection.
Moreover, if we take a photo, keeping che axis
of the object horizontal and perpendicular to the
wall,
we
get a frontal
view.
'We have the impression of being in the space
shown, while with the projection view we were
outside.In principle there is no longer the problem
of walls in front hiding things, walls which have to
be deleted or made transDarenr.
54

Thisistheviewfacingyou,themainpart,usuat[ythewatIfromthebottom,

FLoNT4l VtFWt errnral lLMs L "kr wqll at flrc,zh/,) 1 i " i
FLoNT4l
VtFWt
errnral lLMs
L
"kr
wqll at flrc,zh/,)
1
i
"
i
Theprinciplesofa frontaIview Theprobtemof depth , rl*oh rf dwyar'zlfrvnrht,tvtrcm z v,tedzfinz tll l,tgk
Theprinciplesofa frontaIview
Theprobtemof depth
, rl*oh rf dwyar'zlfrvnrht,tvtrcm
z v,tedzfinz tll
l,tgk
orrrtsfrnl,trc rl,egt
nf rhz hortzy*,whrrh
lzvdaf rl,z tturvcr,
At thisstagcthcrcrcrnainsone problem:how to
dcflrrcthc dcpth.Irr cftc.ct,trothingallowsus to
drrrwthc lirrcsin firlntof or bclrindthc backwall
if'thcy ru'cpirlltllclto it.Tlrcy ilrc;lt 0 ccrtairrdis-
tlncc, l.lovclncd lrypctspcctivc,urrdwc rrccdr way
of'fixirrgthisrlistlrrt'c.lrr tlrc tillklwingpagcsyou
will findrlncxit('tntcthodot'doirrgthis.Thcprin-
ciplcis sirrrplc,lrut,if georrretryis llot your thing,
tlrr.cxplilrratirlrrnriglrtsceilrrilther0lrstraet.lf you
wiulfto rltawcxtrctpclspcctivcsyou lrirvcto apply
it,lrtrtfirrske.tchlrooksturlies,wlriclrwc urcrnairrly
itttr.rcstcdirt ltclc,it is crrouglrkr uudcrstirrrclthe
priut'iple,iurdtlrcrrapplyir by guesswork,in order
to rvoidobviorrrerlon of pcrccpti()n.
+
+.*
wa aa.tufh.avd.rawLvrlv
-)&/
va^ukog
linz: *ht"ol,dznaroqrz d^z :tte wal"h,t{
{ra
trtr
ffi w rghr, whbl,orrreslrnlsrctl,,e,yrs:utlz, Wrurwlr rf thz ntyrvt, 4Jw{ t4w earh,cr (ftt I r).
ffi w rghr, whbl,orrreslrnlsrctl,,e,yrs:utlz, Wrurwlr rf thz ntyrvt,
4Jw{ t4w earh,cr (ftt I r).

g.wt,olnutzn yuskbrufwtl'z vanuhwg lvtnt rwrl,zhrt<vruaentre,

rHE ITAGE'OFTHE DMW/NC
rHE ITAGE'OFTHE DMW/NC
Todrawthedepth Here is how to go about drawing the depth of a frontal view. If
Todrawthedepth
Here is how to go about drawing the depth of
a frontal view. If you prefer you
can just
do this
first exercise,which explains the method. It's very
simple - let's start with a small example.
3. Pla,ae ywt
D (a,h.fflar varutkry /vw)
w
rl,e lwtzw"tv tlu rgk,
r Dr4wa taoL-wallfta,olwsansoah.
Drawu+(h.ehravt, rl,z vanuh.ug lwti- o,
nnd,yvun A ahtr,E ft fl,a frnf rf rl,z *all,.
eq"alto thar w\t tt*
tt rlrz wall r/nu dutaloa u waJwzd,rn
tlu hort<urut'vtl,z sahasaala
6
J,/
Drawrha
, exrenit4Tft ^hrLl"Lf,
rNcfJ oA, ft rr\4k4 (h.a I
A
z. Draw(h.a
oA an^d,
exrenl't;rfvward,Jrh4 -frcrw.
YOU
CA^,/ AAA/VF
AT
TA/€f F
vtEv{f
tN
A.,rrot.€
tN_autJ-tvE
r'/AY,
AND
lo
lKtp
THtr
FlPto^,o-,ur.
s. Drawrh.elqrkwal li*.t A, E, , rhanB E,,
yw l,avt,nqrlarl onrvwtlvgrorwl tt Jlvqft,
fttuoh4d,tr rhe taal"wall,
56

sa"tared,a( da,Jraha 4rc, fkc{d, u. relarwn,

wHy rf rf A feV,AR.E3 vrttfhntgwtrg a dar^nMfrafwtu,rcrefl",atwhzw oo weqrwLtv rlw durahta rf th+ vtservzr
wHy rf rf A feV,AR.E3
vrttfhntgwtrg a dar^nMfrafwtu,rcrefl",atwhzw
oo weqrwLtv rlw durahta rf th+ vtservzr -frvyn
rh'ehonzuuo teorws tlw var*:hug
vf al)
/w,t
rhz Las wh,bharc q( +r" tr rlug,o"nl, ykru.
A'E t^4}4Jnruargh vf +r" ah"d,tr ooruitt resrh+
fu<l*L
rf a sV,wre.tl", FWry
enntLes^sto
find,rhz d.efd." frvwilz
wtkL.
Masteringthedepth ,",. You seethen that points O and D show your posi- tion in the
Masteringthedepth
,",.
You seethen that points O and D show your posi-
tion in the space:point O gives your height and
your position laterally; point D gives your distance.
!;
* 3
't"i;'
q
),t
"^:'Y)J.'*"-;'"n
Mastery of the distance is a little tricky. If you
are placed too near (ifD
is placed near O) the sides
P-7
are very distorted.
If you
are too
far away (if D
;,G
is further from O) you risk being simply outside
the room. Moreover, in that case,point D is often
'1"
rf.yw wve
o, rh,c*awug wahargrc,tL,
lil)1r
outside the drawing - annoying because you
need
4Jil4 yenytorlvtl,ilJ wlituywJcf Mlru,r
rr f'wrlvr 4w7y frvrn &v wall.tf.yonnwc,o
a wider piece of paper that the areabeing drawn.
\
/.
'We seea similar problem when taking photographs
which necessitatewide angle shots to compensate
for the absenceofdistancc.
w4,rl4 o,,lw aHlrawhg4 \tHlcotut vwN
^4aMrfu w4l'l''
Here too, there are practical limits which we
get round by showing
transparent walls.We can also
choose to show only the part near the back wall,
'lr
-+
;t'
t
)r-
without trying to give too big a view of the sides.
\u""'t'
.'tt"t'
tf.yMtrwt 0fnn*,erfrvbj,.ywnrt
\
^\
fuduraNTy fut^fu walJ,
)uf4.Ate
hrLhi'
Durarta ltu4f,
I
D
57

Torilovebacka partitlonwall

Hereisa simpLeappticationofwhathasjust beenexptained.On theleft:a room inwhichweproposeto movebackthepartitionwa[[toa
Hereisa simpLeappticationofwhathasjust beenexptained.On
theleft:a room
inwhichweproposeto movebackthepartitionwa[[toa certain depthIP).And
ontheright:howitwit[look.
58
THE DMWING t. Dr4wrhz:ynu u"ehvarww,tt ag|ucwsonla pkq rl'rzyru^acyalvanhhug frtnr o phoa tlz yrirt vf
THE DMWING
t. Dr4wrhz:ynu u"ehvarww,tt ag|ucwsonla pkq rl'rzyru^acyalvanhhug
frtnr o phoa tlz yrirt vf d,utahteD, oDnrrzsyrntug WA
toJ1* /,istqhta
z. FrtuwA, tnarLrff a tl,wrth47thar, q"al r, p, t7w,eq^ued,
d'utaht{rfu nrfl,tnn lvu n wve,
frvntl'Z
wa.U,.Drawd^zyruouyaLvan*:lu"*gLws ftwardao, ah/, vM fwturdr D
frvnrfu
tntttn a.aal,(,trfrha wallqr A
6
3. DrawPa,
oru:sesAD qt P,
4 DrawvwrhlgrvawLtlv lw
A
p , whbh w rlu tau tf
r/,t
Mw l4rfl,rwt'wall, ayylyq.1rlu pru^rtyhtryhrwtl ttu ft(tt t(.
s , Draww rl'a vt
al lias frrw du ta:e w,nl thg
tnteruzorwfthrh.evqhtJ
Li,yw:.
6. Ptt^rvotl,q Lavsrc lrrger rcedz/" (Lcfr harc qJ dnttcd,ILM)
59
we canmodifytheprojectfromp 58bycreatinga cornerfora homecinema, Iibrary,officeetc.Todothiswe haveto
we canmodifytheprojectfromp 58bycreatinga cornerfora homecinema,
Iibrary,officeetc.Todothiswe haveto makeanextensionfromthenew
partition waL[.
r/u
aitcql
drawug wtthrhe
txfztuwr, shwr" u" dtfcd, LLwt
60

ereatinganextenstontoblockoffacorner

T-HEV,4R.JOV'TTAGECOF T?E PLO/ECT D ? i i$ *_-*_|+p - ,ln{ t, v'lehavetog, taol-ft d,,'t,uuttul ,Lxol
T-HEV,4R.JOV'TTAGECOF T?E PLO/ECT
D
?
i
i$
*_-*_|+p
-
,ln{
t, v'lehavetog, taol-ft d,,'t,uuttul ,Lxol o771^,,^11
(wkh vrq,yart orntwrwgnf rlw A*l fcoa^sarhu wd)
2. Pkcr e (fir uanyh Fr r,ttr\,ltawn rc dU pah al,aunfir
cnatl,aa to ffiLa 4pownft waJu{whtJ.
pn/corwa dtawagr,rnly th":gn,,,M fk"
walh'awrutva l:Wwwsoah.
trufaor,w tlrz
f rha ltrttiwrv
rl'wlnr yaruDaaarnlt4Tn du kprh rf rlv uruunn rctc
rrwdz.Pkq p rn du l,orta,till,n wW fnnfu rglr.l,atl,
otrn4rrf rl,,clnr ani,t.Ert47P'fxrwan{ ft du rrrilfu rf fl,l
pvw rf ,Lurarwt.YwhavcP',
3. onaeJowhavcl,rawntn tlw taalptal{ tf dta
rfuatr^ylxcl,lgtcor
86 cAr5:prrl 4u
cxf(ruwLL,drawtntl',e ve aLh,rws, "! ft tht
pra.tVaLvanul",y Lr,nzs.rhln drawth daryw,al
ftwqrrlJo wluphwdlgwcyo'nrhz -front nf tl'e t^:c
wOr coryPuf€. rHF L€NC
DE,PTH/ /.ND
,uHtcH qtvEt n'tj
Ll
^rHtcH *
THE ^'DTH,.]
7H€ f' A/€r4/g,(.f6ryf tO,v,
.
ewu:|tty drawug wutlne,,tzrrwqLLwwrf th,efinr
lryvur ttward,:rh.ekru vf ftglr
D
!
6 1
Wecancreateanextension[see p.60) withtheideaof ptanninga particularspace:bookcorner,chi[d'sroom, etc. ,{ EooK
Wecancreateanextension[see p.60) withtheideaof
ptanninga particularspace:bookcorner,chi[d'sroom,
etc.
,{ EooK COR.NEL
Tlw taol-vf thz n*tn w nsed,frr ylaowga wfn aL,/ shalvct.
r/w syautatthJ4.rc^q"d,tl,a cxrerulm"/Ltlray rlw yarr u"frtnr
a v{U tlttv, 4.h1,ornf4uua wrL s^rfnu ar.l, a yarrttww rlu,ch
or(4fu
a reaL l"ftth avfr4htl,
62

Plannlrrgthespace

4 HOME CINEM,A
4 HOME CINEM,A
wlrol"vrvu o ynrtn[y isalfteahl, Jc,lq.r4fc,a how cwt^4 arqr frtn rhz ,ctt' rf rlv n*n"
wlrol"vrvu o ynrtn[y
isalfteahl, Jc,lq.r4fc,a how
cwt^4 arqr
frtn rhz ,ctt' rf rlv n*n"

rh.cextcwwwu rcdtcc/"tv 4. t4.rfuftnyv t tyvtrewtd,(,

li-

,1 EEDLOOM/OFFICE rlw erer,.tnww wwrylzrc!abscd,vwrl,zd,ovrstdz a.h.d,I'a"lett"^)- fu*. rlw kolt- nf thz
,1 EEDLOOM/OFFICE
rlw erer,.tnww wwrylzrc!abscd,vwrl,zd,ovrstdz
a.h.d,I'a"lett"^)- fu*. rlw kolt- nf thz ,*rn w
turr,ed,brtr atuvffic{.
A')
t
Convertrnoa soaceundertheeaves HowdoyoudrawtheperspectiveofsLopingwattsanda Littleflightofsteps?Inthisexampleit
Convertrnoa soaceundertheeaves
HowdoyoudrawtheperspectiveofsLopingwattsanda
Littleflightofsteps?Inthisexampleit isnottheendpanel
thatwil.l.beusedfortheeLevation,butanimaginaryptan
ofreference,situatedonthefirstgroundpLanandsymboLised
bythedotted[ine.ThepointD canthusbep[acedquitenear
J/tJ
I
h'(
rcrv(
BEtrOR.-E
ctrr/(flLcn. I h'( lnrc
ry4ct
vfrcfurrr,ct,u ynirlucl' ty tlw
d,vtzLlw.
tho
O
lqoa
n
5Rl ec. thic. nrnio/-t
ic
_,
cifrlrtaA
aIeoInstoeIne
incirla
iha
cn-
Space
markedoutwiththedottedLine,andsothereisnotmuch
dangerofdistortion.
i ".:.
Designinga ptatformfora bed
gK_
11- I
9l*:t rhzlugk rf rh'eykrfvrm (roonD ,ktlryo^
ylnu vrurtr'zlofr,vr,tfu,d.rttzd,hr^t T/utxrtutntL
Pu rhzrzsnt'hardu ykrftrn algu wkl'"rhz
{,rsrs l,ghrnwtlzrgl"t.
64
l-Hrr qE7au6, Apltie,c pAv€Lr ,; Designinga smatlftightof steps ^ Designinga skytight ,:;;:, €NADtFr _*) ,r
l-Hrr qE7au6,
Apltie,c
pAv€Lr ,;
Designinga smatlftightof steps
^
Designinga skytight
,:;;:,
€NADtFr _*) ,r
ro
The secondconversionis the creationofa second
dormer window on the right-hand wall, at the
bottom of the room, which we imagineasbeing
one-third the sizeof the remainingpanel, ar:din
the centre.Flereis the methodfor dividinga panel
into threeequalparts;it appliesequallywell to a
panelseenin perspective.
.,"b
r,
6xACr w/DtH Of .?'Hg
oPFNrNc.no lF nrAD€,
OrawtlnzWr d.t4,v.nL:rf
rhz y^anzl*hbl'" seyararetrhz
first' d.rrmtr ww,ltt -frvrw
ltttJ
fM
{ttd
N4.U
t h$(
d,!4r,hau
gweywrhz
n^d/.li
rf d,,4
yarcL oraw tl'e wel,i"an LLrre.
Thz
fia (soowv) alhw5fsy 3 ref: ul vtt,d.r.vtAz
rhzI'211ka"d.rec,rlrcwdrawtrcd^zvan*:lr"r.g
[ , ah.d,ty wva^,:vf ilc llgrnnL wd,z bfr,
Draw thz d't"yrna[:
d,wtnzrl,z l,ortz-nffqktwrhra tn or(4rt t-lz rLsers
rf tl,a z daa-yxpr^tPt
tl"
tl"ns orc'atzl'
t@ rf d',evnn*:lwg yruntsar-d,fl'a yaral,hL
Lws aLlnws'LJ tr d.r4wtlu:tqs
als
,r/l
a h
At rfu.yrwtt f a,tercectwn
d.rawfia z vertaal,s
wl"uL*il
dlvtd,erh4
yanzLin tl,rce
65
A fewstrnpleconstructior-ttricks HowdoyouestablishequaIdepths? Todividea wa[[ How do you divide the vanishing line AB
A fewstrnpleconstructior-ttricks
HowdoyouestablishequaIdepths?
Todividea wa[[
How do you divide the vanishing line AB into a
given number of equal parts (here 5)?
Itt
enough
to draw the vertical lines linking
T
Howto dealwithan irregu[ar-shaped
space
to H.
In this space,the right-hand wall has been rota-
ted so that it is no longer perpendicular to the
wall below,
but turns at an angle. In this case the
edges of the panel do not meet at the vanishing
:*
point O, but at a new vanishing point P.It's there
no matter which horizontal generates a vanishing
point on the horizon. This prepares us for the
the oblique view in which our gaze,turned to
4L3+5,
,
the
side, brings about the displacement of the
\-/#
!*/
vanishing points.
Dr4,w4,Lu.,zyarail,eLto tl''z lro1zuruJf4rfuV 4(
A, ar"d,rnqrL*r
r zqrwL Vttwhf,J.
f
2. )rwv fhz lasryrwrt r ft ltLhi' E , arj, ext'enj, tt
ft tl^z /.ffqstu lav, orenllg
varu,slu"rgyrut
c
Draw l,|,ttzs frrtn p tt tlv yri,tt:
t, z, s 4,h/, +
r/u *qll aatulz d.wtdad,da,retfowvlug flrm n
verrbaLlu.z.
5 .
rlresevnntslttt'g Ltr'z:d,i,vtdzAE zqunlfo
66

i

Howdoyoudrawa circte? Perspectiveor projectionview? The drawing of a circle is always bounded by a square
Howdoyoudrawa circte?
Perspectiveor projectionview?
The drawing of a circle is always bounded by a
square and appears asan ellipse. Note that the large
axe and the small axe of the ellipse do not merge
with the axesof the souare.
Note thatadetailfarawayfronrthc vurrishirrgpoint
lookslike a projection - thc vlrrislrirrglirrcsurc
almostparallel.In fact,snrallolrjcctsoficrr irppr,rrr'
asif pro.1ections.Itt why asscrrrblyinstrtrt'tiorrslrrc
oftenillustratedon thisprinciplc.
,f
,/"'.,'
"tff*-"-**'"'**
-f*AlFq.M"*"*::1r,n*
+!
r
*',;.1 1.---*.,,*,-"'',,
*,.lTp
6 l
Takintgdowr-ra partitionwail Differentkindsofspacescan berapidLysketchedoutbymeansofa ready- madegrid.Workwithtracing
Takintgdowr-ra partitionwail
Differentkindsofspacescan berapidLysketchedoutbymeansofa ready-
madegrid.Workwithtracing paper,oranyotherpaperfineenoughtoshow
thegridunderneath.
AFTER*
v'ttrl'" rlz l,'elyrf rhzgnn,w rcJe s +rhztkol'-vwrhzrgl.r
hasteewt-qlzr,d.lwnahd,tl.,a WW
cnkryzd,frwr.!rw{
tlnavte*vfrhz*LyW,at rl,atao[-
68
Creatinga mezzanineor overhang Grid 1 (seep.82) allows the study of a more com- plicated conversion,
Creatinga mezzanineor overhang
Grid 1 (seep.82) allows the study of a more com-
plicated conversion, to take advantage of extra
space that hasjust been created at the end of a
room.
,l
I
It,
.
l
8EtrOP.,E
cvrurnv(wwLua:l^alVnsvis,nnliserlnzr,tw tl4ot.
Tl"i wasrcr vi,:i.th,w"thz frrr lsroL.
rfu puvqht d rhtrerwttwn:aphrftrmrnrlte
Wzuttu*u€fhtr ani a Jfakvnil/khkr, f lq lnr
0nrl^rlettLtft ttly, turwdl k ,l,l4y tailr wt
fy rlvpkt'vrn,N€ pn\ffr{
rfurf'ftorff rlu
f^F,rt
tMztau)'1,€,
r^/!wa7
Jftuttl,4t't rf rfu |kffirw,
ft avhJd,er
thzb vumL twv4of wv44.(rwnL.
69
Theobhouevie ThisviewisatsocaL[edperspectivewithtwovanishing points,butdon'tworry:thedrawingisquitesimi[arto
Theobhouevie
ThisviewisatsocaL[edperspectivewithtwovanishing
points,butdon'tworry:thedrawingisquitesimi[arto
thefrontalview.
l::1'r-1
,fr."a_
'f.,--.
I
l
r fu runfh,l,colvutswtclr*
&ortlatw ft tccth.t
nry
t
wol,uf',aatuw:t/'wcrtll havea
i
yrtrctyal varukta ynnr ( hzre
prz) an*lur vaul,+nqyrtrr
qllcari owrlv hfl - ee,.
The view here has already been shown on page
66, in'how to deal with an irregular shapedspace'.
Flere, our gaze is slightly turned towards the left. In
this view, the left-hand parts of the room seem fur-
ther
away from the centre. They thus seem smaller
and this perception is most marked on the vertr-
cal, the left-hand angle.The two lines of the panel
at the end, at ground level and at the junction
with the ceiling, now seem to converge towards a
vanishing point PF1. In a frontal view these lines
were parallel; now they are convergent. And they
are still parallel in realiryl This is an application of
the fundamental principle of perspective: objects
further away seem smaller to us.
70
'fhe rigorous construction of this kind of pers- pective necessitatesa ground plan, an elevation or
'fhe rigorous construction of this kind of pers-
pective necessitatesa ground plan, an elevation
or a section and a geometric device which is a
little complicated and whrch is not shown here.
Nowadays,in professionalpractice this classicpers-
pective is done by computer (seep,80).
Using the oblique view here starts with a
sketch of the ground plan of your interior space
or an imaginary space,in which the first elements
are placed by guesswork. It's what we call in the
following pages'building by eye'.We alsousesome.
tricks of the trade which are enough to obtain a
good result.
Here too, the grids enable you to make some
sketches(seep 86)
\
"1.,
t;
71
Desiglr-rlr-rga roonfrby eye To desinn hv eve fotlow positioningthehorizonand
Desiglr-rlr-rga roonfrby eye
To desinn hv eve fotlow
positioningthehorizonand approachsuggestedhere:settingtheboundaries,
the
Ptacingthehorizon
drawingintheprincipa[[rnes.
The horizon, asyou know, is at eye level.To posr-
tion it weil, aim for a point that you are certain
is at eye level, then measure it, remembering that
the eyelevel of someone standing h 1.5-1.6 metres
high, and 1 metre for someone sitting down. Aim
for this point and mentally trace the horizontal line
that passesthrough it. Imagine drawing a red line
on the wall at this height.That's the horizon exactry
(so long asyou don'r change height!).When you
are drawing, think of putting the horizon, accor-
ding to the composition you want.
r/<t krexwa
rf t'l"ct*n varuhug yrwm are
TtryenT',b"1,ar (9o" ) Yw o4lvJ€{l,ut'vrtwnt frrt^uu
vwtl.',estdzs qh/,
ql'aad,:yn olnteffcr tt ol.qusa4.wrz,
wdzrqft argLe,nsug a Ltttlzg^+s*vr!-
r/u bn<vr"wrhz ,wyn
Lsnt-gu l,evtL,t^r vn rl'z
lU( L(i ar thal"Al,o.yry-^ -ri
Settingtheboundaries
oluusc,aoorrd,tlg tt wl^ai-
Mark out the boundaries of the spaceyou want to
show and study:left, right, above and in front of
w4.hi. tr J
. eutral/y,
Jt
tf u anuy,/,fl4 wrLdAz,
you.ty to avoid too wide an angle - 90" is about
the widest angle
that our eyes can take in. For the
record, an angle of 75" corresponds in photogra-
phy to an objective with a focus of 24mrn, i.e. a
very wide angle.
72
Howdoyouplacethehorizoninthedrawing? fyw arcLovkuguyward,t, rhahorer,*ll tz qr rta txt"n fl* arcd.rawu11
Howdoyouplacethehorizoninthedrawing?
fyw arcLovkuguyward,t, rhahorer,*ll tz qr rta txt"n
fl*
arcd.rawu11 fwrnt"ftN4r flwrhvel,du krawwdl k
l,rryl, ry fu
lflt.
vfdu ygz
fNvra tl'ar uf.y* arc lwl,i4qcrwrThe,lynywartl,t6yLsNwarrh,yraNol,a:y7trg
r1,,4Lu'l rlt'vuw - wl willt+tanstrht hnr, w p, ?e ,)
I l,t lwt at,Trvwlhvclart rf.runhdi,cwty
'lt^rtuf^ry, tt u nitr
fvI,tluat fh,emrnoe,ts*
Placingtheanglesandthelineofthe
ceiling
l,avcy^t tn rl,r wrrbaltnf rlv oor*, ^rlla
aw|,rl,,elqrwrcnhrf rh4 qLlt*tq.
When you are standing in a room, the most
obvious lines are the vertical lines of the corners
f
I
I
and the horizontals which mark our the ceiling,
like the cornices. Draw these three (or five) lines,
being careful with the horizontals of the ceiling,
for you still don't know their vanishing point.
73
tlavug wvrL2d,wt'*hlbh h,nz:yo* q.rc ^JrlV ft fihl, Ptacingthevanishingpoint rhzvaru;h"ryyrr,nt,firn (hz
tlavug wvrL2d,wt'*hlbh
h,nz:yo* q.rc ^JrlV ft fihl,
Ptacingthevanishingpoint
rhzvaru;h"ryyrr,nt,firn (hz vrtznt-q(wr,
Now is the moment to put in vanishing points, to
vft'lw l.,"wsrlrg havea d,rectwwLt'vrh,arwwr,
left and
right. One often feels it would be easy to
ft ^l'iplLd.'pyaraallyarailzL, fu azfi**".
place them by eye,directly. Experience teachesthat
this impression is wrong, and leads to mistakes.
What I am giving here is an absolutely reliable way
of placing the vanishing point:
\\\\%
Take a pencil and hold it horizontal, parallel to
the lines where you are looking for the vanishing
point.Think of the lines behind you - on the floor
or carpet under your feet, or under the furniture -
which are often parallel to the first vanishing lines.
Now think of the line from your eye which is
going in the same direction. It's one of the family
of lines for which you are searching the vanishing
point. Ifyou are looking in this direction you are
aiming at the vanishing point.
Bring up the pencil to your eye,without chan-
ging direction, asif it were a blowpipe with which
you aresending a dart towardsthe point.The point
you are aiming at is the vanishing point.
You will probably be surprised to see that the
point is not at all where
you would have placed
it by guesswork, but still further. You will also
see that using guesswork you don't put it at the
right height on the horizon, but a little
above.
Generally speaking, one 'sees' the horizon a little
too high.
flavurg wrrLzd'wrt t-lw van+:hug
rww tn4yww fhqr, ns wt,t'h
/rtnt,JlvL
rlv, hraw,yw
4rc,Jra7 ft f^t
4
red, yr,arlp vwrh,ewall wurl, alv a:rl,N
wharx t( Jutruttt tz. Tl"enyrw
1nr
t^t4J( lW
nv rlz h+rWn
,r rh' 14fff,
alrtnfudrnwru
74
lf thevanishingpointis notonthepaper Very often the vanishing point is outside the com* position, and so
lf thevanishingpointis notonthepaper
Very often the vanishing point is outside the com*
position, and so outside the drawing, or even the
sheet of paper. But that doesn't mean outside your
vision, even ifyou have to turn your head slighdy
to the side. Nevertheless, in so doing you are chan-
ging the line of sight and the drawing. In this case
you have to be able to draw the lines without
the vanishing point. In general we get by using
guesswork, but I am going to show you a trick
for making another vanishing line, or at least for
checking that your drawing is not too inaccurate.
'rHe crA17toF coNtTzvcT-ioN
, lfarf wLtlLa vahuhu4 l,ttu,F 4h.d,thz \tttzslL F, lt d,rawanth.ervatulwg ti*v, frcn:rw yratt A, d.raw
, lfarf wLtlLa vahuhu4 l,ttu,F 4h.d,thz \tttzslL F, lt
d,rawanth.ervatulwg ti*v, frcn:rw yratt A, d.raw
rl,a vertpaLL1*tawlu"ohyasu rhro41l"a.
z Dr4wa.scoml,vt
I Lu"z,rhewerccnl, tt
I t\.Lt
I onw du l4l*h
srvl *ttw ^ vltxo^l htv h"w
fftr" dq ^t'llh
f d'4F!firgh 4r Fl,4 Ftt* f t*t".
a rzxargh uL ft,rcleatwt,
iler1rfttfdv @l*h,
4 Draw AB whiol" orffi{l thu wd,nn
[u^t
r oraw thz,vawl, da"g,rnaLla^t f
fln
ruoralgh,
6 Fwth rl,,cttwt 'orwn fujvuurg A an/, A'

75

T\'ff I I I DITIEIENIOOllqU-OV1EWS Workwithtracingpaper,or
T\'ff
I
I
I
DITIEIENIOOllqU-OV1EWS
Workwithtracingpaper,or paperthinenoughtoseethemarkingsunderneath.Thethreeexamplesshow
howdifferentviewsofa roomcanbemadeusingready-madegrids,givinga cornerview,the
vanishinqIinesandthedimensions.
rhz argLevf rhzgrd, otresyvnl,stt rlnz
ovrnzrrf rhr rwyw.Awarolrugyl.,atfuz*
nada ft lzad,thrn'gl, ft qqd+ar rwm.
z Egmd,d^zarylerf dvgnn 4,r(qrr
haltuw crcqrzd,rctlu lCt anl, qrzrtrzd
ft rhz ta,ak-
'. EU
rhzarylz rf t-lwgrtd,4 rca$rloasturc
ortnrtd,to rl,e hfr
76
Taklngouta partitionwatl .--1r
Taklngouta partitionwatl
.--1r

'l'lris slrowst;tkitrgrrrrtI prltititrrrwrrllin l bcdroour. Wt'tlturlrc thcsplr'cgrrirredwlrerrtlrctwo roorlls itle .joitrctl, A t'ot'rtitc lus [rcr'nkcpt.rullkirrgthe rrlrl ,joirr btrweertfltctwo r'cilirrgs.

i 1 t i I A vlowfrorrrabovo I UntiInowwehaveatwaysassumeda horizontaIview,alLowingustosee
i
1
t
i
I
A vlowfrorrrabovo
I
UntiInowwehaveatwaysassumeda horizontaIview,alLowingustosee
reaIvertica[[inesanddrawparat|.e|'sandverticals.Thisistheviewthat
correspondstothemostusuatsituationandsimplifiesdrawinginperspect
lfthesight[ineischangeddramaticaLLy,upordown,theviewis
transformed.Howdoec,thonorcnar-tjye changewhentheviewisnot
horizonta[?
{',",'--,**-
tf weaocxht^at'etha
dzylr, n va^t':h.trg yrtnt
vf rl,'zvarrtoalluwsovma
Lt4tTvww.

rhz vtewu :fl)Ll^.tt<vnta.L,*tth d^zlwrt<vwar rh,ercy rf rl.,z d'rawwg,wlu"ol"ahws^Jfr vwht4fr, rl,.t vte, ftua.rd,Jdv tmnyn

78

i rri.

li

u,66r FkaM A&ovE,

tT rc THE vcArrCAL 47ry5:9

78AT

COA/VF!.C€ IOevAADt

THE EoTTaM/ vAv/r8lN/6

i v7-O 7-nF D/r7-AA/c€

EXA.:TLY L/KF TAIE

H)N<DNTAL

/A/ A. Hot-t<I)NTAL vt€^t.

L/vEf

andahrgh-angleview Withthehigh-angLeview,theeffectisexactLythesameupwards. Thedrawingshowsthesameprogresston.
andahrgh-angleview
Withthehigh-angLeview,theeffectisexactLythesameupwards.
Thedrawingshowsthesameprogresston.
flntut'^1 vteru*kl"thz lonzvtykul,
hru (lvre tr i a,'tafizrhzbnwwg.)
rhz sa,^a,vtew,tl'zgn<t t'urya/,nTwar/"r,1lu
verttoqLk"a: tpyautnarwcrtt,
'
t
I
t
t
I
I lu vuwoalhrl.tctwhal,v'wthraol.t fu varuh.,r,yyrunt
tLtvr4ll/,*
rlq nft u'nlt,ril.t ynnt d tk ilryLruwwat
tl,"ttu*tlt,
'7 If 7H€ 7H€ HIGH-ANGLE VI€W/ IN CONV€LCE WH'CH V€ATICAL LIN€f €XT€ND UP^/AEDf. AND
'7
If
7H€
7H€
HIGH-ANGLE VI€W/
IN
CONV€LCE
WH'CH
V€ATICAL LIN€f
€XT€ND UP^/AEDf.
AND
Drawtngontheconnputer Next, go up the tool palette and click on square2. Click on the screen,slide
Drawtngontheconnputer
Next, go up the tool palette and click on square2.
Click on
the screen,slide across,then click again to
let go.You have drawn a rectangle.
TherearenumerousdrawingaidsavaiLable,especial.l.yforstudyinginterior
design.0newayistotakesomephotosandthentraceanoutLineofthe
plannedmodifications.HereisanotherwaythatatlowsyoutovisuaIiseyour
interiorin3D,bymakinga modeLonthecomputer.
Now click on square3 - the cursor become a little
SketchUp
Firststeps
block with an arrow. Go back to the rectangle
which becomes greyish,click on it and then, hol-
This is a modelling software program for Macs or
PCs, perhaps the most impressive and user-frien-
dly,usedby thousandsofstudents and professionais
alike.And what's more, itt free.Tap Sketchup into
your search engine and fo11ow the instructions.
Download the free version and start.
Start by exploring thc diflt'rcrrt
menus. Later, you clrrr corrsrrlt
ding down the button, slide towards the top - a
miraclel
the help and dowrrloltl tlrc
instruction videos.Yru will scc
the ground,bounded by rrxcs,tlrc
menu bar and the palcttcof it'orrs
Exp[oration
opposite (if not, unclcr l)isplly,
choosetools).Here is how to rrst'
them for the first tinrc:
You arepresentedwith talking icons,and many aids
are available.We show here a smail, simple example
to show you what it can do, but remember that rn
spite of its apparent simplicity it is in facr extre-
mely sophisticated.Youcan make a model, modify
For more fun click on the little box opposite (in
the menus at the top) or go toWindows, Shadows,
click on'apply shadows'- another miracle.
it, view it from every angle, add colours and mate-
rials, study shadows according to time and place,
etc.The online aidsare very good - they will help
you savea lot of time and discoverpossibilitiesyou
misht not other-wise know about.
Click on 1 (at the bottonr) rrrrtl
then on the screen,:rrrd tlrcrr,
holding down the nrousclrtrttorr
you can move about youl sl)il('c.
The little hand enablcs yorr to
move things sideways.Ytxr lcuvt'
a tool by clicking on thc sprrc'c
bar or on the black arrow ut thc
top of the palette.
These exercises will show you how SketchUp
works.You won't have understood everything, and
you need severalhours to get used ot it. (Start by
printing the'memento'in the Help menu.)
80
Makinga modelforyourprojects When you have grasped the main principles, especiallythe possibilityof grouping elementsor
Makinga modelforyourprojects
When
you have grasped the main principles,
especiallythe possibilityof grouping elementsor
objectsand stipulatingtheir dimensions(seethe
little box below to the right ofthe screen)you can
Lrsethe sofrwarefor varioustasks,seeingthe result
nlore or lesscomoleteand realistic.
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(.R-/D r You can use the grids by means of a scanner and printer, or
(.R-/D r
You can use the grids by means of a scanner and
printer, or photocopier.The lines are thick so that
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lk*
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you will recognise.If you slide them under your
paper, they will give you the main outlines.
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dotted horizontal
lines are the markers.
Starting from the bottom, they indicate rhe height
of a bench or chair, then that of a table The top
marker (on grid 2) indicates 2.5 metres, the stan-
dard height of a ceiling.
The
squaresare assumedto be 1 metre (grid 2),
but you can usethem as50cm (grid 1) or any other
mer\ure which suitsyou.
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Drawing for lnteriorDesignersis a practicalguideaimedat helpingbuddlngInterlor designerslearnhowto
Drawing for lnteriorDesignersis a practicalguideaimedat helpingbuddlngInterlor designerslearnhowto
Drawing for lnteriorDesignersis a practicalguideaimedat helpingbuddlngInterlor
designerslearnhowto drawprofessionallookinginteriordesigns.lt ls accesslble,
beautifullyillustratedandpractical.Guidanceis givenon drawingperspectlve,floor
plans,drawingfurnitureandrenditionsof rooms.Fittedwithsketchesanddrawlngs,
thisistheidealguideto producingsuccessfuIhanddrawingsofinteriordeslgns.
GillesRoninisanarchitectandlecturerattheSchoolofArchitectureatParlsMalaquis.
rsBN978-1-4081-zggr-gfl4.99

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