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EARTHWORK

Masterplan, Design and Authoritys Requirement Ir. Abdul Aziz Abas P.Eng, C.Eng, Int.PE

PREFACE

EARTHWORK

Preparation for life

As a module of the Integrated Design Project course for the Bachelor of Civil Engineering programme, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah Alam This program will provide basic overview of all aspects of Earthwork planning and design, guidelines, legislative and regulatory requirements

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PREFACE

EARTHWORK

Benefit UNDERSTANDING the subject of Civil Engineering in wider perspective, inter-relation with other subjects influencing the performance of Engineering works and challenges. ACQUIRRING cutting edge practical design knowledge & skills that last forever in the world of ever-changing infrastructural engineering. DEVELOPING your engineering knowledge significantly and permanently. PROVIDING your dashing factor (distinguish factor) for better chance of employment upon graduation. EXPAND your employment versatility in an ever-changing marketplace. WINNING at the office and in daily job with the power of practical skill. ADVANCING your career as an Engineer. GAINING LEVERAGE by demonstrating knowledge of engineering in a multi-disciplinary context.

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EARTHWORK

1. Introduction

Definition & General Understanding

2. Masterplan & Design Guiding Principle

Planning of Earthwork & Early Scoping of Design Consideration

3. Preliminary Design

Guidelines & Preliminary Design

4. Detail Design

Design Criteria & Detail Design

5. Authorities

Compliance & Authority Approval

6. Construction

Control of Earthworks

7. Post - Construction

Certificate of Completion And Compliance

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

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Definition of Earthwork

Earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed rock.

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INTRODUCTION

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Typical Earthwork Development

Typical earthworks include Platforms, roads, dams, dikes, cannal, bunding, and berms ("noise mounds").

Roadwork

Football field

Agriculture

Recreation

Tourism / Housing

Landscape

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INTRODUCTION

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Problems Associated With Earthwork

Sinkhole

High tide

Slope Failure

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Masterplan & Design Guiding Principle

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To establish the overall earthworks for the viability of the project and to assist on planning of landuse, compliance with prevailing guidelines and laws.

MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Objectives

Enhance Early Scoping Minimize Scope Changes Provide base platforms & Layout Plan Reduce Conflicts/ Disputes Costs Plan

Masterplan & Design

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Coastal Development Influence by high & low tides

MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Typical Development Condition

Soft Ground Development Influence by poor soil condition

Low Land Development Influence by Highest Flood Level

High Land Development Influence by slopes risk Low risk, slopes < 25 deg 11 High risk, slopes > 25 deg

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MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Typical Earthwork Development Compliance

Controlled Earthwork

Centralised facility

Slopes turfed

Silt trap / rubbish trap

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MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Typical Earthwork Development Non-Compliance

Uncontrolled Earthwork

No sediment / silt trap

Earth not graded

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A. Clients Requirement Development Master Plan Terms Of Reference

MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Planning & Design Benchmarks

B. Authoritys Requirement Compliance to local council conditions & requirements (Development Order) Design Guidelines Statutory Requirement

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MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Development Masterplan

Development Landuse determined by Masterplanner Engineer to advise on platform & drainage pattern and other aspects of engineering Engineer to balance cut & fill design (wherever possible) Engineer to minimise import earth Engineer to establish Term Of Reference Engineer to establish Specification Engineer to obtain approvals Engineer to supervise construction Commercial Existing Development

Ggreen / Forest
Institution

Typical Development Masterplan Layout

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Industrial Residential

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MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Infrastructure Influencing Earthwork Design

Source: MSMA

Drainage System Detention Pond Drainage System Main Stream

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MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE

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Infrastructure Influencing Earthwork Design


- Generally flat area with only prominent highest ground -Gravity Flow Water Supply is most possible

Water Supply System

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Preliminary Design

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PRELIMINARY DESIGN

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Confirm Site Location

Identification of correct site & Project Boundary CRUCIAL

Obtain CP from Survey Dept. Check lot numbers Check boundaries

Typical Cadestral Plan Obtained from Land Survey Department

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Approved Development Layout Masterplan Development Order Topographical Survey Highest Flood Level Soil Investigation Local Guidelines

PRELIMINARY DESIGN

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Obtaining Confirmed Requirements & Data

Architect or Town Planner / JPBD Local Council Land Surveyor DID Geotechnical Engineer Local Council / Authority / Agency

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PRELIMINARY DESIGN

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Site Reconnaissance

Mandatory site visit To confirm site location and development boundaries To familiarize with the site geographical condition To identify adjacent development, Access, etc. To observe & assess site constraints To have general idea of existing & future design system To gather information about flooding history

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PRELIMINARY DESIGN

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Swampy area Soft soil

Assess Site Constraints / Issues

Main river system No pollution permitted Control flows from development

Low laying areas & issue Sg. Balok atFlooding Coastal Road Raise platform or bunding?

Tidal influence

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SOIL INVESTIGATION
To identify general sub-soil profile i.e. suitability

PRELIMINARY DESIGN

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Objectives

To provide detail picture of soil stratigraphy & geological settings i.e. extend of soft & hard underlayings, ground water

Sg. Balok at Coastal Road

To obtaining representative geotechnical parameters of various sub-soil strata for engineering design i.e. N-Values

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EARTHWORK

Detail Design

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Guiding Principles

Integrate the design platform levels with existing developments. Design platform levels shall tie in with the roads. All Slope formations shall be kept within the plot boundaries. Achieve an almost balanced cut and fill volume within the development Establishing preliminary platform levels based on development scheme requirements, infrastructure and utilities.

Sg. Balok at Coastal Road

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4
Design Criteria Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan Propose Platform Levels Compute Volume of Cut & Fill Propose Retaining Structure

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Design Criteria
Study Project Layout (Development Plan) Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan Propose Platform Levels Compute Volume of Cut & Fill Propose Retaining Structure

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Clearing, grubbing, stripping top soil, cut & fill, compact, trimming, turfing, soil test for FGL Embankment in swamp or soft ground, Height 1.5m, cross-slopes 1V : 3H

DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Criteria

1 3

Gradient for cut slope, 1 : 1.2 1 1.2


Sg. Balok at Coastal Road

Gradient for fill slope, 1 : 2 1 2 Height of slopes, 3m intervals with toe, berm & intercepting drains Layers of 300mm intervals, compacted to 95% (Cohesive soil) or 100% (Cohesionless soil) of max Dry Density. Ref BS1377 4.5kg rammer method Toe

Inteceptor Berm 3m

3m

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All slopes closed turf

DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Criteria

Tg Gelang

Min Formation Platform Level, 1m above Highest Flood Level or EHW (Coastal)

Sg. Balok at Coastal Road

Temporary drains to main drain shall pass Silt Trap (Sediment trap)

Wash Through before public road Temporary drains, design for 1 in 5 years, checked for 1 in 10 years Min 1 no Temporary Bench Mark established

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Criteria

Sg. Balok at Coastal Road

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Options For Cut Slopes

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Options For Fill Slopes

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Design Criteria

Study Project Layout (Development Plan)


Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan Propose Platform Levels Compute Volume of Cut & Fill Balancing Cut & Fill Volume

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

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Slopes direction

DETAIL DESIGN

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Assessment of Available Survey Information

Slopes direction

Swampy +2m to 3m
Potential high Ground for Water Supply Tank

Hilly 80m

Existing +5m to 9m Existing +3m

Existing +5.5m

Slopes direction

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Design Criteria Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan


Propose Platform Levels Compute Volume of Cut & Fill Propose Retaining Structure

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Slopes direction

DETAIL DESIGN

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Assessment of Available Survey Information

Fill
Swampy +2m to 3m

Slopes direction

Cut
Hilly 80m

Potential high Ground for Water Supply Tank

Existing +5m to 9m Existing +3m

Existing +5.5m

Slopes direction

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Design Criteria Study Project Layout (Development Plan) Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan

Propose Platform Levels


Propose Retaining Structure Balancing Cut & Fill Volume

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HFL Freeboard Drainage Gradient

DETAIL DESIGN

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Assessment of Minimum Platform Level

= 2.2 m ODL = 1.0m = 1.5m

Recommended Min. Platform Level = 4.7m ODL

Existing Platform Level at Project Site Varies from PL+5m to PL+9m Swampy and Low Lying Level at Upstream = PL+2m to PL3m

Highest Flood Level (JPS record or ever known)

Max.

Proposed Platform Level Formation Min.

Freeboard = +1m

Highest Flood Level = +2.2m ODL Water body

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Conceptual Platform

Platform Level to be above Highest Flood Level

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Proposed Platform Levels

Cut area Fill area Follow drainage pattern

Min Platform Level = 4.7m

Highest Platform Level Determined by Cut & Balance Analysis

Notes: 1. All levels are in meter O.D.L

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Proposed Platform Levels Typical Cross-Sections

Notes: 1. All levels are in meter O.D.L

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Proposed Platform Levels Typical Building Platforms

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Design Criteria Study Project Layout (Development Plan) Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan Propose Platform Levels

Compute Volume of Cut & Fill


Propose Retaining Structure

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Principle To obtain balance cut & Fill (If possible) Too much access cut material Difficult to dispose

DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Too much fill material - Difficult to obtain borrow source & Cost

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Methods Grid System Method Large area or excavation Using area method calculation Land development Computer software triangulation interpolation (more accurate & ease of modeling) Require spot levels survey

DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Cross-section Method Longitudinal strip profile Used for road, pipeline, drainage constructions Require strip survey

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1 A B C D E F 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

DETAIL DESIGN

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Proposed Platform Levels Volume of Cut & Fill

GRID SYSTEM METHOD

To obtain large area of excavation Square rectangular and levels at each cross-sections established Establish datum Calculate volume of existing ground Calculate volume of proposed platform Difference s constitute cut or fill volume

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Proposed Platform Levels Methodology Volume of Cut & Fill Average areas of column grids 1 & 2

1 A B C D E
X

10

11

Average areas of row grids A & B

X <> 10m to for accuracy (undulating areas) X = 5m gives accurate figures (undulating areas) X > 10m for flat areas X = 50m for large area / Masterplan purposes

Existing levels & proposed levels Based on spots & interpolation

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1 A
10 E 10 P C F P E E P C F P E E P C F P E E P C F P E E P C F P 7.5 250 0 7.5 10 10 7.5 325 0 6 10 10 6 325 0 6 9 9 6 250 0 6 9 9 6 225 0 6 66 88 6 8 8 6 6 8 8 6 162.5 0 66 77 6 8 8 6 6 8 8 6 162.5 0 6 7.5 7.5 6 6 7.5 7.5 6 137.5 0 66 77 6 10 10 6 6 10 19 6 500 0 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 137.5 0 6 8 8 6 6 8 8 6 137.5 0 5.5 5.5 77 7.5 10 10 7.5 7.5 10 10 7.5 300 0 6 10 10 6 6 10 10 6 225 0 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 75 0 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 162.5 0 55 77 10

DETAIL DESIGN
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EARTHWORK

2
10 10 7.5 7.5

10

3
88 7.5 7.5

10

4
55 7.5 7.5

10

5
33 66

10

6
33 55

7
22 55

10

8
22 55

10

9
33 55

10

10
3 5

Grid System

175 0 7.5 9 9 7.5 7.5 9 9 7.5

0 0 5 5 5 5 212.5 0 6 9 9 6 6 9 9 6 5 5 5 5

0 -212.5 6 3 3 6 0 -25 6 5 5 6 50 0 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 3 3 6

0 -275 6 3 3 6 0 -250 6 3 3 6 0 -150 6 5 5 6 25 0 5 7 7 5 5 7 7 5 6 5 5 6 6 3 3 6 6 3 3 6

0 -275 5 2 2 5 0 -250 6 5 5 7 0 -150 5 5 5 6 0 0 5 5 5 5 100 0 55 55 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 7 5 2 2 5

0 -300 5 2 2 5 0 -247.5 5.9 3 3 5.9 0 -115 4.7 5 5 4.7 0 -10 4.7 5 5 4.7 15 0 4.7 4.7 55 4.7 5 5 4.7 4.7 5 5 4.7 5.9 3 3 5.9 5 2 2 5

0 -250 5 3 3 5 0 -245 5.9 4 4 5.9 0 -105 4.7 5 5 4.7 30 0 4.7 5 5 4.7 30 0 4.7 4.7 55 = = = = = = = 4.7 5 5 4.7 4.7 5 5 4.7 5.9 4 4 5.9 5 3 3 5

0 -200 5 3 3 5 0 -195 5.9 4 4 5.9 0 -80 4.7 5 5 4.7 30 0 4.7 5 5 4.7 30 0 4.7 5 50.02 4,072.50 814.50 3,258.00 3,335.00 77.00 Nil Acres CuM CuM CuM CuM CuM CuM

B
10

Legend E P C F Existing Proposed Cut Fill

C
10

D
10

E
10

E8

All dimensions are in meters

Proposed Platform Levels Volume of Cut & Fill

Total Area Total Cut Spoil @ 20% Available Fill Total Fill To import Fill Access Cut

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure

Design Criteria Study Project Layout (Development Plan) Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan Propose Platform Levels Compute Volume of Cut & Fill

Propose Retaining Structure

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Design Procedure Earth Retaining Structure

Standards Used in Design

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Split Levels

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Earth Retaining Structure

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Earth Retaining Structure

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Earth Retaining Structure

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Earth Retaining Structure

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DETAIL DESIGN

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Earth Retaining Structure Typical Detail

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Authority
Compliance & Approvals

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AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals

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Governing Law

Earthworks regulation and approval is under the jurisdiction of Local Council.

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AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals

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Submission Checklist

Copy of Letter of Appointment As Consulting Engineer Copy of D.O. Letter from Planning Dept. Copy of Land Title / S & P Agreement Earthwork Plan (duly endorsed by PE) Copy of Approved D.O. Plan / Development Layout by Architect Copy of Quit Rent of Current Year Site Photos of present condition Copy of Approval Letter From JKR For Road System Or Prove Of Submission Copy of Approval Letter From JPS For Drainage System Or Prove Of Submission Copy of Approval Letter of Main Infra / Main Earthwork (if app.) Copy of Geological Mapping (for hill dev) & Erosion Control Plan Report

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SUBMITTING PERSON

AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals

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Submission Process Flow

No

JPS Yes

JKR Approval

PTG OSC LC One Stop Centre

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Construction

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Identification of project site Planning of temporary drainage system Access and wash through location Detention ponds / silt traps Project office & facility Construction of Hoarding Observe all laws pertaining to construction Plan, design, manage all temporary works Earthwork construction & supervision

CONSTRUCTION

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Earthwork Construction

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CONSTRUCTION

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Earthwork Construction

Review costruction programme Control & Monitor

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6 GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY


CONSTRUCTION 1

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Site Supervision to comply ; General Instruction Construction Drawings Specifications Bills of Quantities Compliance to Authoritys requirement

CONSTRUCTION

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Quality Control

Contract Document

Compaction 95% max of dry density @ BS 1377 Building footprints, roads & services corridor, runways, etc Compaction 75% Building footprints but to allow Suspended Floor slab design Area not subject to buildings construction i.e fields, landscape, etc Each layer 200mm thick For road sub-base, soaked CBR value 30 for 95% consolidation

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Selection of types of compaction machinery Vs types of soil

CONSTRUCTION

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Soil Compaction

Grid roller

Smooth wheeled roller

Sheepsfoot roller

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CONSTRUCTION

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Site Clearing Work

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CONSTRUCTION

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In-land Development

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CONSTRUCTION

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Low Land Earthwork Platforming

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CONSTRUCTION

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Mandatory Hoarding

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CONSTRUCTION

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Installation of Mandatory Paver Blocks at Entrance of Construction Site

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CONSTRUCTION

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Mandatory Wash Through

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CONSTRUCTION

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Installation of Geosynthetic Materials For Earthwork in Soft Ground

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CONSTRUCTION

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Cut Slopes Formation With Closed Turf

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CONSTRUCTION

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Installation of Geomembrane to prevent ground contamination @ solid waste disposal

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CONSTRUCTION

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Urban Construction - Completed Earthwork Being CloseTurfed Final Stage

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Post - Construction

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POST - CONSTRUCTION

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Inspection & As-Built Documents

Engineer to carry out confirmatory Soil Investigation to verify full compliance i.e. Compaction, Soil Stabilization, etc. Land Surveyor to survey As-Built earthworks platforms to verify full compliance pertaining to FGL or PL. Land Surveyor & Engineer to certify As-Built survey drawings Engineer Review Construction Drawings & Correct to As-Built Drawings Engineer updating As-Built information not covered i.e. Authoritys requirement not spelt out in Construction Drawings, V.O. Engineer to ensure all mandatory dues to Authority are complied Engineer arranged mandatory inspections with JPS, JKR, LC, etc to facilitate handing over works & recommendation for CCC

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SUBMITTING PERSON (SP)

POST - CONSTRUCTION

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CCC Process Flow

No

JPS Yes

JKR Recommendation

PTG

LC

PSP Issue CCC

PSP Principal Submitting Person

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Issue Certificate Of Completion & Compliance Defects Liability Period. Generally 1 to 1.5 years Issue Certificate of Completion After Defects Final Account Total Completion of Project

POST - CONSTRUCTION

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Post - CCC

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Thank You Terima Kasih

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Questions & Answers

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