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Nanotechnology

Notes/Brainstorm Part I : Origin Definition The manipulation of matter on the atomic or molecular scale. First discussed by Richard Feynman in his talk There's More Room At The Bottom. 1959. -Described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term nanotechnology was first used in 1974 by Norio Taniguchi. Nanotechnology emerged in the 1980's K. Eric Drexler was inspired by Feynman's work deterministic (a state where given a situation, nothing else could result from it) handling of atoms and molecules Proposed the idea of a nanoscale assembler which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity. **The invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) {1981} provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds and was successfully used to manipulate atoms in a molecule in 1989. Fullerenes: a (molecular) hollow carbon sphere/ellipsoidal/tube that can be used to house nanoelectronics and so forth. {Linked in hexagonal/pentagonal rings {Also called buckyballs 2000's : gained high political, scientific, and commercial attention that lead to controversy and progress. Commercial Products: Silver Nano (Samsung, which uses silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent); nanoparticle-based sunscreen (See citations); carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.

Part II: Concepts


Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. Nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up. **A Nanometer {NM} is one billionth of a meter, or 10-9. DNA is 2 NM wide. the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. a nanometer is the amount an average man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face. Materials show different properties in the microscale than the macroscale.

Nanotechnology
Opaque objects can become transparent (copper) Stable materials turn combustible (aluminum) Insoluble materials become soluble (gold)

Part III : Current Research Nanomedicine Nanoelectronics


Quantum Dot : nanocrystal with highly conductive properties LED's, solar cells, diode lasers Nanorobotics centers on self-sufficient machines of some functionality operating at the nanoscale. Programmable matter seeks to design materials whose properties can be easily, reversibly and externally controlled though a fusion of information science and materials science. GECKO TAPE created by using nanotechnology; carbon allotropes {synthetic setae Bandages being infused with silver to heal wounds faster MAKING EVERYTHING CHEAPER SINCE 1989

Part IV : Implications
When rats breathed nanoparticles, there were significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response. lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging. (UCLA) As dangerous as asbestos {Nanotoxicology}

Part V : NanoNews
September 10th : Scientists in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and FEI Company have created a procedure to view chemical nanoparticles in 3 dimensions September 6th : Parag Banerjee and Srikanth Singamaneni changed electronic properties of new materials by exposing to light; conductors September 6th : Zhenan Bao and assistants try to use DNA as a template for constructing Graphene { layer of carbon atoms a single atom thick September 3rd : Researchers at University of Minnesota have discovered a way to make thinner, smaller gaps in atomic structures using Scotch Magic tape September 3rd : A research collaboration between University of Pennsylvania and Duke University designed transparent conductors that can make touchscreens flexible

Nanotechnology
Brittny (Benton) Baldwin P.3 - 9/12/2013 Physics

Nanotechnology
The day has come. You've just been injected with a serum, unknown to you that within it are tiny nanobots. These bots are supposed to boost your immune system by directly examining and following viral traits in certain cells. You awake from the procedure, and feel faint. The doctors say this is normal and should disappear within a few days. Weeks pass; nothing changes. In fact, things only get worse; blood sporadically drips from your extremities, you can no longer focus or see straight, and your senses are thrown askew. You try to make another appointment to get this fixed, but your call never goes through. Little do you know you're slowly being eaten alive by these nanocreatures; they've turned on your own body and are eating you away, cell by cell. This could be the world that you live in. Down to the Bottom Nanotechnology is the branch of physics that applies to the microscale. It is a fairly recent branch, having it's first popularity boom in the 1980's. The term nanotechnology was first used by Norio Tanugughi in 1974; he was a professor at the Tokyo University of Science. The first concept or idea, however, was implemented by Richard Feynman in his talk There's More Room at the Bottom, (1959) where he introduced the concept of synthesizing materials and such by constructing in the atomic scale. An American engineer by the name of K. Eric Drexler was inspired by Feynman's concepts, and set forth putting these ideas to action. He claims that nanotechnology is a deterministic handling of atoms and molecules. He also proposed the idea of a nanoscale 'assembler' which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity. Later, the invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) in 1981 provided an unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds and was successfully used to manipulate

Nanotechnology
atoms in a molecule by 1989 by Don Eigler; they were manipulated in such a matter to spell IBM. This lead to the discovery of fullerenes. This title applies to any (molecular) hollow carbon sphere/ellipsoidal/tube that can be used to house nanoelectronics and so forth; these are also called 'buckyballs' by many nanotechnicians, and are linked in hexagonal or pentagonal rings. By the 2000's, the branch of nanotechnology had reached high popularity within political, scientific, and commercial controversies across the world. Many of today's products are infused with some form of nanoparticles. Some examples include Silver Nano, a product by Samsung that contains silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent; cosmetic applications like nanoparticle-based sunscreen (that, coincidentally, retains 31% more hydration in the skin according to research studies); and carbon nanotubes that are being used to create stain-resistant textiles. The Thinking Behind Nanos Nanotechnology is, in theory, the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. The term also applies to the projected goal of building materials from the bottom-up. To put this scale into perspective, a nanometer (NM) is one billionth of a meter ( 1x10-9 ). For example, the double helix of DNA is approximately 2 NM wide. For comparison to the naked eye, a NM to a meter is similar to a marble to the size of planet earth. Another comparative is the amount the average man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face. Materials down on the microscale have different properties than the same material on the larger scale. They can be chemically manipulated to the desires of the engineer. For example, fully opaque materials can be turned transparent (copper); stable elements can turn combustible (aluminum); and normally insoluble materials can turn soluble (gold). In this way, engineers could possibly construct nearly indestructible materials, by rearranging and adding/subtracting atoms from a particular molecule.

Nanotechnology
Making Everything Cheaper Since 1989 Nanotechnology and nanophysics are included in nearly all of today's science-based news. There is seemingly no restrictions to the creativity of constructing from the atomic level up. Medicine is one of the large commercial branches that nanotechnology is hitting first. Now titled Nanomedicine, researchers are working on ways to infuse medicinal drugs with nanoparticles said to boost the effects of the drugs; also, they are working to find ways to use nanoelectronics within the body to boost the overall well being. These experiments and concepts are highly controversial due to the potential effects the particles themselves have on the body. This is a separate study in Nanotoxicology. Another concept in today's research revolves around the Quantum Dot, or a nanocrystal with conductive properties. These dots are already being used and tested within LED displays, solar panel cells, and diode lasers. Diode lasers are used in pretty much any laser you can think of; rangefinders, barcode readers, CD and DVD player technology, HD and Blu-ray, industrial supplies/equipment, and so forth. Nanorobotics centers on self-sufficient machines of some functionality operating at the nanoscale. Programmable matter, nanorobotics, seek to design materials whose properties can be easily, reversibly and externally controlled though a fusion of information science and materials science. Another creation using nanosynthetics is Gecko Tape (used by Spiderman in his movies). Made of synthetic satae (carbon allotropes, for the nerds out there), Gecko Tape is constructed of small microtubes that react like a gecko's foot with a much stronger grasp. See attached image page. Bandages will and are already being infused with silver to help wounds heal faster. Because of all these new nano-infusions, products are expected to become cheaper. I, the writer, don't personally see how this is possible. Researchers project the prices will lower with the coming infusions of nanoparticles into common commercial items. Implications A sub-branch of nanotechnology, nanotoxicology is in great conflict with applying new concept

Nanotechnology
nanoparticles to the human biology. According to a study, when rats breathed certain nanoparticles, there were significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response. Also, lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging (a UCLA University study). Due to these, toxicologists deem nanoparticles as hazardous as asbestos when consumed in sufficient amounts. NanoNews Phys.org hosts many updates on recent physics, nanotech, and other scientific discoveries. It is a collaborative site from across the US and potentially the world. Recent discoveries are being made every day and being updated hourly. Just in September, there have already been many new updates within nanotechnology. On September 3rd, a research collaboration between University of Pennsylvania and Duke University are in the process of designing a semiconductive nanomaterial that could potentially make transparent touchscreens flexible. Also on September 3rd, researchers at University of Minnesota have discovered a way to make thinner, smaller gaps in atomic structures using an adhesive as generic as Scotch Magic tape. Three days later, on September 6th, two PhD researchers by the names of Banerjee and Singamaneni changed the conductive properties of a synthetic material just by exposing it to light! Also, Zhenan Bao and her assistants are trying to find a way to use the DNA double helix as a template to build graphene, which is a carbon nanomaterial only a single atom thick; it is potentially going to be the next nanoparticle semiconductor because of its properties. Just three days ago, On September 10 th, Scientists in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and FEI Company have created a procedure to view chemical nanoparticles in 3 dimensions, therefore making it easier ot compose and construct with the chemical

Nanotechnology
properties of these atoms. Nanotechnology had its boom thirty years ago, and is still growing in popularity and varietal uses. The Final Piece The possibilities that come with the quick advancements of nanotechnology are nearly unlimited. Once some become stable, we could be 'seeing' them in everyday items; we're already starting to. Despite being a fairly recent branch of physics, popularity is spread across the world. The many uses that could come of these nanobots may be our potential downfall, but then again they could dramatically boost our biological construction. But the day AI (artificial intelligence) turns on us, who knows what could happen... the Matrix?

Nanotechnology
Work Cited "Nanotechnology." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 09 Oct. 2013. Web. 11 Sept. 2013. Wissing, Sylvia A., and Rainer H. Mller. "Cosmetic Applications for Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN)." Cosmetic Applications for Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). ScienceDirect, 18 Mar. 2003. Web. 11 Sept. 2013. Tiny Inhaled Particles Take Easy Route from Nose to Brain." University of Rochester, 8 Aug. 2006. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. "New Technique Efficiently Resolves Chemistry of Nanoparticles." New Technique Efficiently Resolves Chemistry of Nanoparticles. N.p., 10 Sept. 2013. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. "Shining a Little Light Changes Metal into Semiconductor." Shining a Little Light Changes Metal into Semiconductor. N.p., 6 Sept. 2013. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. "Breakthrough Technique to Make Electronics Smaller and Better." Researchers Discover Breakthrough Technique That Could Make Electronics Smaller and Better. Phys.Org, 3 Sept. 2013. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. "New Computer Model Will Help Design Flexible Touchscreens." New Computer Model Will Help Design Flexible Touchscreens. N.p., 3 Sept. 2013. Web. 12 Sept. 2013.

Nanotechnology

Synthetic Satae VS Gecko Foot Microtubes