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DRAFT SYLLABUS OF CLASSES VI TO X SUBJECT: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE I. Theme : Cell The Unit of Life CLASS VI CLASS VII 1.

0 The Living World


Molecular level Cellular level (Cell Concept) Tissue level Organ level Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere

CLASS VIII 1.0 Unit of Life 1.1 Cell Structural and Functional Discovery of cell Cell theory Structure of cell and cell organelles and their functions. (animal cell) 1.2 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell Structure of prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell Evolutionary Significance of prokaryotes 1.3 Differences between Plant and Animal Cells Structure of plant cell. Comparision of plant cell with animal cell 1.4 Tissues Types of plant tissues Structure and function of plant tissues Types of animal tissues Structure and function of Epithelial, Muscular Connective Bones cartilage blood. Blood its composition, blood groups, transfusion. Nervous 1

CLASS IX 1.0 Cell Biology 1.1 - Types of cell division - Amitosis - Mitosis - Meiosis - Free cell formation - Significance of cell Division - Cancer and its prevention 1.2 Chromosomes Structure Types Importance 1.3 Gene and inheritance 1.4 - Watson and Crick model of DNA - Structure and functions of DNA - Structure of RNA - Types of RNA

CLASS X

CLASS VI

CLASS VII

CLASS VIII 3.0 Microbial World 3.1 Microbes Electron Microscope Microbiology Microbiologists 1. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek 2. Louis Pasteur Virion Virion Its Characteristics Viruses Characteristics Shapes Bacteriophage Diseases caused by viruses AIDS 3.2 Characteristics & Structure of Bacteria Types Reproduction Useful Bacteria Harmful Bacteria Diseases Protozoa Characteristics Protozoan diseases in human Algae Characteristics of algae Uses of algae Fungi Characteristics of Fungi Useful and harmful fungi 2

CLASS IX

CLASS X

II. Theme : Life and its Diversity CLASS VI CLASS VII CLASS VIII 2.0 External Features of Plants 2.1 Definition of Morphology Plant Modifications Definition and need Root modifications Stem modifications Leaf modifications. Phyllotaxy Definition Importance Types Venation Definition Types Importance Inflorescence Definition Types of Inflorescence Importance 4.7 Sense organs Eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin. Structure, functions and care of sense organs. Diseases of sense organs CLASS IX 3.0 Life and its Diversity 3.1 - Bionomial -Nomenclature. -Classification of plants. -Hierarchy of classification. -Major Groups of plants cryptograms and phaneograms. -Salient features of thallophytes, bryophytes and pleridophytes. - Salient features of Angiosperms and gymnosperms. -Endangered species of flora. 3.2 Life cycle of non flowering plants (moss/ fern). 3.3 - Hierarchy - Evolution of lower animals - Salient features of non chordates - Endangered species of fauna. 3.4 Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny. - Life history of frog. CLASS X

III. Theme : Life Processes CLASS VI 1.0 The Living World 1.1 Growth, movements, sensitivity, intake of food, respiration, excretion and reproduction CLASS VII 2.0 Life Process 2.1 Modes of Nutrition in plants. Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, Parasitic, Saprophytic, Symbiotic CLASS VIII 4.0 Life Processes 4.1 Nutrition in Human Nutrients in food Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Minerals Water Vitamins Their deficiency diseases and symptoms CLASS IX 1.2 Human digestive system. Process of digestion : - Ingestion - Digestion - Assimilation - Egestion Role of digestive glands and enzymes. CLASS X 1.0 Nutrition And Respiration 1.1 Photosynthesis -Significance of photosynthesis. - Definition - Site of photosynthesis chloroplast. Mechanism of photosynthesis : - Light reaction - Dark reaction Factors affecting photosynthesis : a) Light b) Carbondioxide c) Chlorophyll d) Water

CLASS VI

CLASS VII 2.2 Respiration in Plants : Leaf stomata Gaseous exchange through stomata Respiration in Animals:Diffusion (amoeba) Cutaneous (earthworm) Trachea (cockroach) Gills (fish) Cutaneous, buccal cavity, lungs (frog)

CLASS VIII

CLASS IX

CLASS X 1.3 Respiration Definition Breathing is different from respiration. relation between nutrition and respiration. Types of respiration : a) Aerobic b) Anaerobic Fermentation Respiratory Organelle Mitochondria Mechanism of Respiration a) Glycolysis b) Krebs cycle Electron transport system 1.4 Respiration system in Humans. Mechanism of respiration. Importance of breathing exercise

CLASS VI

CLASS VII 2.3 Water loss through stomata 2.4 Excretion in Plants Need for Excretion in plants and animals Excretory products in plants Gums Resins Latex Tannins Excretory organs in amoeba, earthworm, planaria, cockroach, frog. Excretory products in animals Ammonia, urea, uric acid salts.

CLASS VIII 4.4 Excretion in Animals Need for Excretion animals. 4.5 Excretory organs in amoeba, earthworm, planaria, cockroach, frog. Excretory products in animals Ammonia, urea, uric acid, salts, etc.

CLASS IX

CLASS X 2.0 Transportation And Excretion 2.1 Need for transportation in plants and animals. Transportation in Plants - Transportation of water and minerals. - Transportation of food. - T.S. of root and stem. Transportation in Animals - Open and closed Systems - Single circuit and double circuit. 2.2 Structure and functions of heart, heart beat and pulse 2.3 Blood Pressure Disorders relating to the circulatory system - Hypertension - Arteriosclerosis Heart attack stress relief techniques to control B.P. 2.4 Excretion in plants is different from animals 2.5 Urinary system in humans. Structure of kidney Structure of Nephron Constituents of urine. Renal failure Dialysis

CLASS VI

CLASS VII 2.5 Reproduction in Plants Vegetative propagation - by means of Leaves, stem, root, runners - cutting layering, grafting. Asexual reproduction Sporangia Sexual reproduction a. Sex organs b. Pollination c. Types of pollination d. Agents of pollination e. Fertilization

CLASS VIII 2.6 Reproduction in Animals :Asexual reproduction Fission, budding spore formation Sexual reproduction Sex organs External, internal fertilization Oviparous, Viviparous animals Life cycle of - Butterfly, Housefly.

CLASS IX 2.0 Human Reproduction 2.1 Onset of Adolescence Secondary sexual characters Behavioral changes in Adolescents 2.2 Reproductive system

CLASS X

4.0 Heredity And Evolution 4.1 Introduction to Heredity . Mendalism Experiments of Mendal Mendels laws Law of Male reproductive organs, segregation Spermato-genesis, structure Law of independent of sperm cell. assortment. Female reproductive organs, 4.2 Oogenesis, structure of ovum, Sex determination. menstrual cycle. Sex linked inheritance. Fertilization. Transmission of genetic Implantation. disorders. Growth of Embryo. 4.3 Contraception. Introduction 2.3 Theories of evolution, STIs and RTIs Lamarkism, Darwinism, HIV Natural selection. AIDS Hugo Devies Mutation Life Skills theory.

CLASS VI

CLASS VII

CLASS VIII

CLASS IX

CLASS X 3.0 Control And CoOrdination 3.1 Tropic movements in plants - Introduction - Different types of tropic movements in plants. - Geotropism, Phototropism, Hydrotropism 3.2 Introduction Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokenins, Abocisis acid 3.3 Nervous system in cockroach, earthworm, frog. Chemical co-ordination in humans. Different endocrine glands and their secretions and deficiency symptoms and preventive measures. Nervous system - Central peripheral and Autonomous Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action Reflex arc. Nervous disorders

IV Theme : Food & Health CLASS VI 4.0 Health, Hygiene, Safety and First Aid 4.1 Maintaining Good Health 4.2 Hygiene 4.3 Safety and First Aid CLASS VII 5.0 Our Food, Health 5.1 Malnutrition Deficiency diseases Food values Food habits 5.2 Health Diseases Factors affecting health Transmission of diseases through air, water, food, vectors and direct contact. Prevention Immunity Vaccination Addiction (tobacco, liquor, gutka). Exercise and yoga CLASS VIII 5.0 Food Production & Management 5.1 Soil preparation. Agricultural tools. Selection of seeds. Seed treatment. Fertilizers (Bio Ferti-lizers. Transplantation. Irrigation Types. Harvesting & Storage. Use of agricultural end products for soil conservation. Crop protection. Agricultural engineering 5.2 Dairy farms Poultry, Bee keeping Artificial insemination for production of wide variety of animals, Aquaculture 5.3 Preservation on Food Techniques for preservation of food. Canning of food products. Food Adulteration and its effects. Agmark, FPO, Food poisoning. 5.4 Need of techniques of preservation of grains. Godowns Cold storage 9 CLASS IX 4.0 Higher Yield And Food Sustainability 4.1 Growing population Limited Agriculture Need of high yields Plant selection for quality improvement. Use of fertilizers and manures Preparation of natural manure. Compost manure. Vermi compost. Bio-gas, (NEDCAP centre) Protection of crops from pests and diseases, pesticides and their effects on environments.. Organic farming. Hybridization. Genetically mutated seeds. Process, use effects CLASS X 5.1 Plant yields food, oil, timber, medicines, spices, etc. 5.2 Animal yield food, pearls, shells, corals, venom, tusks. Uses of animals for physical work, transportation, etc.

V. Theme : Our Environment CLASS VI CLASS VII CLASS VIII CLASS IX CLASS X

3.0 Natural Resources 3.1 Importance of water, Properties of water, Evaporation and condensation. Different states of water. Water cycle. Droughts and floods. 3.2 Natural and manmade water pollution 3.3 Air around us.

4.0 Soil and Crops 4.1 Soil Pollution and prevention. Soil Erosion and its prevention Conservation of Soil Garbage Management Waste land management (Afforestration) 4.2 Crops grown in the state Crop rotation Mixed cropping

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CLASS VI 2.0 Our Environment 2.1 Types of environment Physical and Biological, sociocultural environments. Biotic environment, (Plants & animals and Decomposers) Abiotic environment (light, temperature, air, water and soil) Interaction between and Abiotic and Biotic

CLASS VII 3.0 Environment Natural Resources 3.1 - Water Scarcity - Rain water harvesting -Water pollution -Waste water Management 3.2 Interdependence of plants and animals in the forest. Advantages of forests Deforestation Wild life

CLASS VIII 6.0 Environment 6.1 Definition Types of Ecosystems Tropic levels 6.2 Food Chains in various Ecosystem Food Web 6.3 Importance Measures taken by Government.

CLASS IX 6.0 Environment 6.1 Global Warming. Ozone depletion Green House effect Oil slick.

CLASS X 5.0 Environment 5.3 Need for Conservation of forest. Endangered Species Various movements related to plants. Conservation Chipko movement, etc. 5.4 Agencies and movements associated with animal welfares.

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VI. Theme : Bio Technology CLASS VI CLASS VII CLASS VIII CLASS IX 5.0 Bio - Technology 5.1 Importance of Biotechnology. Tissue culture Application of Bio-technology Process, use, effects CLASS X 6.0 Bio - Technology 6.1 Scope and importance of Bio-technology. Its application for human welfare. 6.2 Tools and techniques of genetic engineering. Recombinant DNA Technology. Applications of genetic engineering. Gene therapy, its need and significance. Gene library and gene bank definition. DNA finger printing its need and significance. Principle and techniques applications used. 6.3 Human Genome Project and Gene mapping its importance.

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