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Power Distribution Planning for Commercial and Industrial Buildings

chapter 2

2 Power Distribution Planning for Commercial and Industrial Buildings


2.1 Basics for Drafting Electrical Power Distribution Systems
Totally Integrated Power comprises products, systems and services from Siemens for a homogenous implementation concept for power distribution from a medium-voltage switchgear station to the transformer and from there to the floor distribution board or final circuit. With Totally Integrated Power, Siemens responds to customer requirements, such as C Simplification of operational management by transparent, simple power system structures C Low power loss costs, e.g. by medium-voltage-side power transmission to the load centers C High supply and operational safety of the installations even in the event of individual equipment failures (redundant supply, selectivity of the power system protection, and high availability) C Easy adaptation to changing load and operational conditions C Low operating cost thanks to equipment that is easy to maintain C Sufficient transmission capacity of the equipment under normal operating conditions as well as in fault conditions to be handled
Framework parameter analysis: Power system concept: Analysis Selection of the network configuration Type of connection to ground Technical features Building Rooms, type of use Operation

Network calculation: Load flow Short-circuit calculation Energy balance

Lists of consumers Temperatures ...

Rating: Transformers Cables Protective/switching devices Provisions for redundant supply

Priorities and prognoses for the electrical power system etc.

Fig. 2/1 Power system planning tasks

C Good quality of the power supply, i.e. few voltage changes due to load fluctuations with sufficient voltage symmetry and few harmonic distortions in the voltage C Compliance with IEC/EN/VDE specifications and project-related stipulations for special installations The efficiency of a power supply system rises and falls with good planning. For this reason, power supply concepts must always be evaluated in the context of their framework parameters and project goals. When focusing on power supply in the field of building infrastructure, the spectrum of reasonable options can be narrowed down.

Siemens supports your power system planning with service offers and tools such as SIMARIS design. The following design aids can be obtained from Siemens: C Application manual C SINCAL C SIGRADE C Specific product catalogs

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2.1.1 Requirements on Electrical Power Systems in Buildings


When planning electrical power systems, the largely ambivalent requirements of the three project stages, Investment Installation Operation, must be taken into consideration. Further influencing factors The main characteristics of a power system are determined by the following requirements: C Use/consumers or purpose of power distribution, i.e. energy balance, power density and load centers C Architecture, e.g. low building or high-rise building C Operating and environmental conditions C Legal provisions, stipulations by public authorities, e.g. building authorities, safety at work regulations C By the supplying public utilities company Technical specifications regarding voltage, short-circuit power, agreed maximum connected load, permissible equipment Use of power management to operate the power system economically within the agreed electric rates options.

Investment
Implementation cost Implementation time Technology/equipment minimum minimum low-cost

Installation
maximum minimum

Operation
irrelevant irrelevant

easy installation flexible operation maximum irrelevant irrelevant irrelevant irrelevant maximum minimum minimum

Space requirements for equipment minimum Period of use Fire load Operating cost (e.g. insurance rates)
Table 2/1 Project stages

maximum irrelevant irrelevant

Type of use
Residential

Features

Requirements

Action

Many small Low nominal currents at Back-up protection consumer devices comparatively high line short-circuit power Users are no electrical engineering experts Protection against direct Residual currentand indirect contact operated circuitbreakers are mandatory! Voltage stability and reliable power supply Inductor-type compensation Generator supply TN-S system to minimize stray fault currents Redundancy, selective grading, powerful safety power supply (SPS) TN-S system to minimize stray fault currents IT system Busbar trunking systems Redundant supply, meshed electrical networks Selective grading

Offices

Many PC workstations

High proportion of Counter action in the capacitive loads event of harmonics General escape routes DP server rooms Medical Communications equipment (network) Life-saving machines Intensive care, EKG Safety power supply Good electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) High reliability of supply

Good electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Local limitation of fault currents

Industrial

Mainly motor loads Minimize downtimes Different processes

High power quantities required per area High reliability of supply

Table 2/2

Examples for different types of building use and their impact on electric power systems/equipment

2/3

IEC
Regional America PAS USA: ANSI CA: SCC BR: COBEI ... Europe CENELEC DE: DIN VDE I: CEI F: UTE GB: BS Australia Asia Africa

2.1.2 Network Configuration


As detailed above, the supply task determines the configuration of a power system. Buildings featuring different power densities can therefore be distinguished according to the type of their configuration. An optimum configuration should particularly meet the following requirements: C Simple structure C High reliability of supply C Low losses C Favorable and flexible expansion options The following characteristics shall be selected accordingly: C Type of meshing C Number of feeder points C Type of feed Meshing Low-voltage-side power distribution shall preferably be designed in a radial topology. The clearly hierarchical structuring offers the following advantages: C Easy monitoring of the power system C Fast fault location C Simple power system protection C Easy operation

National

AUS: SA NZ: SNZ

CN: SAC J: JISC

SA: SABS

ANSI BS

American National Standards Institute British Standards

DIN VDE

German Industrial Standard, Association of German Electrical Engineers International Electrical Engineering Commission Japanese Industrial Standards Committee Pacific Area Standards South African Bureau of Standards Standards Australia Standards Council of Canada Standards New Zealand UNION TECHNIQUE DE LELECTRICITE ET DE LA COMMUNICATION Technical Association of Electrical Engineering & Communications

CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechnique) CEI COMITATO ELETTROTECNICO ITALIANO Italian Electrical Engineering Committee Comit Brasileiro de Eletricidade, Eletrnica, Iluminao e Telecomunicaes Standardisation Administration of China

IEC JISC PAS SABS SA SCC SNZ UTE

COBEI

SAC

Table 2/3

Interdependencies of national, regional and international standards for electrical engineering

Standards To minimize technical risks and/or to protect persons involved in handling electric equipment or components, major planning rules have been compiled in standards. Technical standards are desired conditions stipulated by professional associations which are however made binding by legal standards such as safety at work regulations. Furthermore, the compliance to technical standards is crucial for any approval of operation granted by authorities or insurance coverage. While in the past, standards were mainly drafted at a national level and debated in regional (i.e. European, American etc.) committees, it has

now been agreed upon that drafts shall be submitted at the central (IEC) level and then be adopted as regional or national standards. Only provided that IEC is not interested in dealing with the matter or, if there are any time constraints, a standard shall be drafted regionally. The interrelation of the different standardization levels is illustrated in Fig. 2/2. A complete list of IEC members and links to more detailed information can be obtained at www.iec.ch q structure & management q iec members.

Fig. 2/2 Unmeshed power system (radial)

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Simple radial network

Radial network with changeover reserve

a) Partial load reserve

b) Full load reserve - transformers not fully utilized - Use transformers with forced-air cooling

T1

T1

T2

T1

T2

T3

LVMD

LVGPS MD1

n.c.

LVSPS MD2 n.c. K1 2

n.o.

LVMD1

n.c.

LVMD2 n.o. K1 2

n.c.

LVMD3

n.c.

n.o. K2 3

Complete power failure SN,T1 Ptotal / cos

Continued operation of selected consumers (n-1) 8 SN,i PSV / cos

Continued operation of all consumers (n-1) 8 ai 8 SN,i Ptotal / cos; a: Utilization factor

Fig. 2/3 Radial topology variants

As the operation of a meshed system places high demands on the equipment, the radial system is generally preferred at the infrastructure level for economical reasons. Ring-type systems are mainly used in highly consumptive industrial processes in

combination with high-current busbar trunking systems, as these systems have the advantage of safe and flexible supply for the consumers. They are also used for public supply systems at the > 1 kV level.

Number of feeder points The availability of the radial power system can be optimized by means of its infeed configuration. Fig. 2/3 shows an optimization of the radial network assuming one fault in the infeed.

2/5

Type of infeed Electrical energy can be fed into the power system in different ways, determined by its primary function. For general power supply (GPS) by C Direct connection to the public grid: normally up to 300 kW at 400 V C Supply from the medium-voltage system (up to 52 kV) via distribution transformers up to 2 MVA For redundant power supply (RPS), power sources are selected in dependency of the permissible interruption time. C Generators for safety power supply C Second independent system infeed with automatic changeover for safety-supply consumers C Static uninterruptible power supply (USP) from a rectifier/inverter unit or storage battery C Rotating USP consisting of motor and generator set A constellation as described in Fig. 2/4 has proven itself for the building infrastructure level.

Type
General power supply (GPS) Safety power supply (SPS)

Example
Supply of all installations and consumer devices available in the building Supply of life-protecting facilities in cases of danger C Safety lighting C Elevators for firefighters C Fire-extinguishing equipment Supply of sensitive consumer devices which must be operated without interruption in the event of a GPS failure: C Emergency lighting C Servers/computers C Communications equipment

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Fig. 2/4 Supply types

T-1

T-2

T-3 G UPS

GPS system

RPS system

2.1.3 Power Supply Systems


Electric systems are distinguished as follows: C Type of current used: DC; AC ~ 50 Hz C Type and number of live conductors within the system: L1, L2, L3, N, PE C Type of connection to ground: low-voltage systems: IT, TT, TN medium-voltage systems: isolated, low-resistance, compensated
GPS consumer SPS consumer UPS consumer

Fig. 2/4 Type of infeed

The type of connection to ground must be selected carefully for the MV or LV system, as it has a major impact on the expense required for protective measures. It also determines electromagnetic compatibility regarding the low-voltage system.

From experience, the best cost-benefit ratio for electric systems within the general power supply is achieved with C Low-resistance neutral for medium-voltage applications C TN-S systems for low voltage

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Section A

Section B

3* Transformer Generator 1* 2*

3*

1* 2*

L1 L2 L3 PEN (isolated) PE 4* Central grounding point dividing bridge L1 L2 L3 N PE Branches Circuit A

1*

L1 L2 L3 PEN (isolated) PE 4*

L1 L2 L3 N PE Main equipotential bonding Branches Circuit B

1* The PEN conductor must be wired isolated along the entire route, this also applies for its wiring in the low-voltage main distribution (LVMD) 2* The PE conductor connection between LVMD and transformer chamber must be configured for the max. short-circuit current that might occur (K2S2 Ik2tk).

3* There must be no connection between the transformer neutral to ground or to the PE conductor in the transformer chamber. 4* All branch circuits must be designed as TN-S systems, i.e. in case of a distributed N conductor function with a separately wired N conductor and PE conductor. Both 3-pole

and 4-pole switching devices may be used. If N conductors with reduced cross sections are used (we do not recommend this), a protective device with an integrated overload protection should be used at the N conductor (example: LSIN).

Fig. 2/5 EMC-friendly power system, centrally installed (short distances)

The advantage of a TN-S system lies in the fact that the short-circuit current generated in the event of a fault is not fed back to the voltage source via a connection to ground but via a conductor. The comparatively high 1-pole ground fault current enables rather simple protective devices to be used, such as fuses or circuit-breakers tripping in the event of a fault.

When TN-S systems are used, residual currents in the building can be avoided because current flows back via a separate N conductor. Magnetic fields depend on the geometrical arrangement of the connections.

As according to IEC 60364-5-54, a TN-S system is only permissible in a central arrangement of the feed system, we recommend to always use the TN-C-S system as shown in Fig. 2/5. In case of distributed infeed, 4-pole switching/protective devices must be provided at the infeeds and changeover equipment (parallel operation inhibited).

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t a (s) Ir 1000 IrN tr 100 Ik max Ik min

2.1.4 Routing/Wiring
Nowadays the customer can choose between cables and busbars for power distribution. Some features of these different options are listed below: C Cable laying + Lower material costs + When a fault occurs along the line, only one distribution board including its downstream subsystem will be affected High installation expense Increased fire load C Busbar distribution + Rapid installation + Flexible in case of changes or expansions + Low space requirements + Reduced fire load Rigid coupling to the building geometry These aspects must be weighted in relation to the building use and specific area loads when configuring a specific distribution. Connection layout comprises the following specifications for wiring between output and target distribution board C Overload protection Ib Ir Iz and Iz > I2/1.45 C Short-circuit protection S2K2 >= I2t C Protection against electrical shock in the event of indirect contact C Permissible voltage drop
10 Ig Isd 0

0,1

tg tsd

Ii

0,01

0,5

10

50

100 x In

L L Overload release 2

Standard I t Optionally I 4t Short-time delayed short-circuit release S Standard tsd Optionally I 2t

N G

Instantaneous short-circuit release I Standard On Optionally Off Neutral conductor protection Standard 0.5-1 x I r Optionally Off Ground fault release Standard t g Optionally I 2t

Fig. 2/6 Characteristic curve variants

2.1.5 Switching and Protective Devices


As soon as the initial plans are drafted, it is useful to determine which technology shall be used to protect the electric equipment. The technology that has been selected affects the behavior and properties of the power system and hence also influences certain aspects of use, such as C Safety of supply C Mounting expense C Maintenance and downtimes

Types of protective equipment Protective equipment can be divided into two categories, which can however be combined. C Fuse technology + Good current-limiting properties + High switching capacity up to 120 kA + Low investment cost + Easy installation + Safe tripping, no auxiliary power required + Easy grading between fuses

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Protective tripping
P = I 2* R

This energy (area below the curve) is also transported in the contacts and hence in the switch I

Above all when fuseless technology is employed, the selection of the tripping unit is crucial for meeting the defined objectives for protection. In power systems for buildings, selective tripping is gaining more and more importance, as this results in a higher supply safety and quality. While standards such as DIN VDE 0100 Part 710 or DIN VDE 0108 demand a selective behavior of the protective equipment for safety power supply or certain areas of indoor installations, the proportion of buildings where selective tripping is also desired for the general power supply is rising. Generally speaking, a combined solution using selective and partially selective network sections will be applied in power systems for buildings when economic aspects are considered. In this context, the following device properties must be taken into account: Current limiting: A protective device has a current-limiting effect if it shows a lower letthrough current in the event of a fault than the prospective short-circuit current at the fault location. Selectivity: When series-connected protective devices cooperate for graded tripping, the protective device which is closest upstream of the fault location must trip first. The other upstream devices remain in operation. The temporal and spatial effects of a fault will be limited to a minimum.

Q1

Q2

Trip

Q3

Current flow when zero-current interrupters are used Current flow when current-limiting circuitbreakers are used 4 ms
Fig. 2/7 Current limiting

Fig. 2/8 Selective tripping

10 ms t

Trip

Q1

Downtime after fault Reduces selective tripping in connection with circuit-breakers Fuse ageing Separate protection of personnel required for switching high currents C Fuseless technology + Clear tripping times for overload and short circuit + Safe switching of operating and fault currents + Fast resumption of normal operation after fault trip + Various tripping methods adapted to the protective task + Communications-capable: signaling of system states Coordination of the protection concept requires a calculation of short circuits Higher investment costs

Q2

Trip

Q3

Fig. 2/9 Back-up conditioned fault tripping

Back-up protection: The provision is that Q1 is a currentlimiting device. If the fault current is higher than the rated breaking capacity of the downstream device in the event of a line shorting, it will be protected by the upstream protective device. Q2 can be selected with Icu Ikmax, Q2. This results in partial selectivity.

2/9

Supply section 800 kVA

ACB 1,250 A LSI

Supports the priority of selective fault tripping Fuse 400 A

Supply section 400 kVA

MCCB 630 A LSI

Supply section 30 kVA

Fuse 63 A

Fuse 80 A

MCB 16 A

MCB 25 A

Supports the priority of cost minimization

Fig. 2/10

Grading for a supply section of 800 kVA

Grading in the supply section Starting from the smallest supply unit in a building, e.g. a household or a shop, different protective devices are preferably suited to meet the requirements of power supply and protection. TIP: If an 800 kVA supply section is fed by a transformer and if selective tripping is a major requirement, a circuit-breaker with definite-time overcurrent-time protection must also be selected for the medium-voltage system. For more detailed information in particular regarding the tripping characteristics, please refer to C Chapter 3 Power System Protection and Safety Coordination C Chapter 4 Medium Voltage C Chapter 6 Low Voltage in the Application Manual. Power requirements The power requirements of the entire distribution largely determine the layout of the main distribution as well as the transformer and/or generator rating. This equipment then determines the amount of investment involved.

Smax in kVA <


1260 1600 1890 2400 2520 3000 3200
Table 2/5

SN in kVA
630 800 630 800 630 1000 800

n
2 2 3 3 4 3 4

ukr
6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6%

Ikmax in kA
30 40 45 60 65 75 80

Proven transformer constellations for buildings

Power requirements are established by Smax = Pmax /cosB, With Pmax = (Pi 8 ai) 8 g cosB Power factor, purchased quantity a Utilization factor g Simultaneity factor (demand) When the dimensioning rule Icu Ik is applied, a minimization of the purchased power results in a minimization of the short-circuit strength for the operating equipment. This means cost savings in investment and operation. Transformer: 100 % Ik, max u IrTransformer, i kr, i Please note that the lower limit for the short-circuit current is at ~15 kA , in order to ensure both a sufficient

voltage stability and safe shutdown in the event of a fault. Consequently, transformers shall only be selected for outputs up to 400 kVA, in order to increase the short-circuit current. For building power supplies, economical transformer outputs are between 630 and 1,000 kVA. Table 2/5 shows useful constellations for transformers connected in parallel per supply section. Higher outputs must therefore be divided into several (>2) separate supply sections to gain manageable power system data and hence economical solutions.

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


2.1.6 Planning Aid

Different individual decisions made regarding the power supply of buildings can be combined as follows:

Commercial building? yes Radial system with partial load reserve

Functional areas: Offices Meeting rooms Computing center Catering kitchen and canteen HeatingVentilation Air Conditioning Fire protection Logistics

TN-C-S system, LVMD with central grounding point

Tip: Given ground area = a2 Length l 100 m = 2 8 a; max. no. of floors i 100 - 2a/h

i < 5?

no

Low building

High-rise building

A 2000 m2 ?

no

i 10?

no

Tip: Smax = P/cos Smax < 630 kVA; ukr 4% Smax 630 kVA; ukr 6%

yes

Separation into several supply sections per area, i.e. number of floor distribution boards 2 Smax 2 MVA?

i 20?

no

no

yes

Central utilities room, supplytransformerLVMD

Centralized MV supply, distributed transformers to LVMD

Distributed MV supply to transformers to LVMD

Interlocked changeover with 4-pole devices

Low building, type 1

Low building, type 2

High-rise building, type 1: centralized, cables

High-rise building, type 2: centralized, busbar

High-rise building, type 3: transformers at remote location

High-rise building, type 4: distributed, cables

High-rise building, type 5: distributed, busbar

yes

yes yes

Tip: Use busbar trunking systems if requirements are mainly set for ease of use, such as good expandability, fire load minimization

Cables?

no

Busbars?

Fig. 2/11

Overview of power supply concept modules

2/11

2.2 Power System Planning Modules


The following modules may be used for an easy and systematic power distribution design for typical building structures. These are schematic solution concepts which can then be extended to meet specific customer project requirements. When the preplanning stage has been completed, the power system can easily be configured and calculated with the aid of the SIMARIS design software. Up-to-date, detailed descriptions on a variety of applications can be obtained on the Internet at www.siemens.com/tip Low building, type 1: One supply section

Elevators HVAC FF elevators HVAC-SPS GPS4.2 GPS4.2 UPS4.2 G 3~ UPS1.2 UPS UPS2.2 UPS3.2

4th floor

GPS3.2

3rd floor

GPS2.2

2nd floor

1st floor

LVMD

GPS1.2

GPS 1 MVD Basement From PCO


GPS FD PCO FF MVD SPS UPS General power supply Floor distribution boards Power company or system operator Firefighters Medium-voltage distribution Safety power supply Uninterruptible power supply

SPS z

HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning LVMD Low-voltage main distribution

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS1.2

SPS2.2

SPS3.2

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type Number of floors Ground area / total area Segmentation of power required Power required Supply types Low building 4 2,500 m2 / 10,000 m2 85% utilized area, 15% side area

1,000 to 2,000 kW 100% total power from the public grid 10 30% of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 20% of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Selectivity is aimed at Good electromagnetic compatibility, high safety of supply and operation

Power system protection Special requirements

Proposal for concept finding Feature


Network configuration Smax = 1,200 kVA, cos = 0.85

Our solution
Central transformer supply close to load center

Advantage
Supply at the load center, short LV cables low losses Transparent structure

Your benefit
Low costs, time savings during installation Easy operation and fault localization Optimized voltage quality, economical

Radial network

Transformer module with 2 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 30 kA lighter design Redundant supply unit: Generator 400 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108 Uninterruptible supply of consumers, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Minimized space requirements for electric utilities room; no maintenance Economical

UPS: 200 kVA (15 %) Medium-voltage supply station SF6 gas-insulated

Supply of sensitive and important consumers

Small switchgear station independent of climate

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PWE and N to the TN-S system

Protection from electromagnetic interference (e.g. to prevent lower transmission rates at communication lines) Cost transparency

Wiring/ main route

Cables

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost center allocation

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Low building, type 2: Two supply sections

Elevators HVAC FF-elevators HVAC-SPS UPS4.1 GPS4.1 GPS4.2 SPS4.2 SPS3.2 SPS2.2 SPS1.2 UPS UPS4.2 UPS1.2 UPS2.2 UPS3.2 SPS4.1

4th floor

GPS3.1

UPS3.1

3rd floor

GPS2.1

UPS2.1

2nd floor

GPS1.1

UPS1.1

SPS1.1

1st floor

LVMD

GPS 1 MVD Basement From PCO


GPS FD PCO FF MVD SPS UPS General power supply Floor distribution boards Power company or system operator Firefighters Medium-voltage distribution Safety power supply Uninterruptible power supply

SPS z

G 3~

HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning LVMD Low-voltage main distribution

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GPS1.2

GPS2.2

SPS2.1

GPS3.2

SPS3.1

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type Number of floors Ground area / total area Segmentation of power required Power required Supply types Low building 4 2,500 m2 / 2 x 10,000 m2 85 % utilized area 15 % side area > 2,000 kW 100 % total power from the public grid 10 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Selectivity is aimed at Good electromagnetic compatibility

Power system protection Special requirements

Proposal for concept finding Feature


Network configuration Smax = 2,400 kVA cosB = 0.85

Our solution
Two supply sections per floor

Advantage
Supply at the load center, short LV cables low losses Transparent structure

Your benefit
Low costs, no extra utilities room necessary, time savings during installation Easy operation and fault localization

Radial network

Transformer module with 3 x 800 kVA, Minimization of voltage fluctuations; Optimized voltage quality, ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 60 kA low static requirements on building cost minimization in the structures building construction work Redundant supply unit: Generator 730 kVA (30%) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current) Supply of important consumers on all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply Increased safety of supply

Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108 Uninterruptible power supply, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Minimized space requirements for distribution board room; no maintenance Economical

UPS: 400 kVA (15 %) Medium-voltage supply station SF6 gas-insulated

Supply of sensitive and important consumers

Small switchgear station independent of climate

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses SIVACON 8PT with central grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system

Low fire load, indoor installation EMC-friendly power system

Low-voltage main distribution

Protection from electromagnetic interference (e.g. to prevent lower transmission rates at communication lines) Cost transparency

Wiring/ main route

Cables

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost center allocation Shorter cable routes, lower voltage drop

Two outgoing distribution board feeders per floor

Economical

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High-rise building, type 1: Central power supply

Elevators HVAC

FF elevators HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor
GPS FD General power supply Floor distribution boards

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

PCO Power company or system operator FF Firefighters HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning MVD Medium-voltage distribution LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS UPS Safety power supply Uninterruptible power supply

1st floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

LVMD

GPS 1 MVD Basement From PCO 2

SPS z

G 3~

UPS

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type Number of floors Ground area / total area Segmentation of power required Power required Supply types High-rise building 10 1,000 m2 / 10,000 m2 80 % utilized area 20 % side area 1,800 kW 100 % total power from the public grid 10 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Selectivity is aimed at Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Power system protection Special requirements

Proposal for concept finding Feature


Network configuration Smax = 1,000 kVA cos = 0.85 Floors: 8

Our solution
Central transformer supply close to load center

Advantage
Simple network configuration, low power losses

Your benefit
Only one electric utilities room required, easy and low-cost operation of electric system Optimized voltage quality, economical

Transformer module with 2x 630 kVA, Voltage stability, lighter design Ukr = 6%, i.e. Ik 30 kA Redundant supply unit: Generator 400 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current) UPS: 200 kVA (15 %) Radial network

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108 Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid Easy operation and fault localization Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance Economical

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Transparent structure

Medium-voltage supply station Transformer

SF6 gas-insulated GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses SIVACON 8PT with central grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system Cables

Compact design, independent of climate Compact design, independent of climate EMC-friendly power system

Low-voltage main distribution

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. to prevent lower transmission rates at communication lines) Cost center allocation at minimum expense

Wiring/ main route

Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, central recording

Cost savings

2/17

High-rise building, type 3: Transformers at remote location

Elevators 3 4 HVAC

FF elevators HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor
GPS FD General power supply Floor distribution boards

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

PCO Power company or system operator FF Firefighters HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning MVD Medium-voltage distribution LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS UPS Safety power supply Uninterruptible power supply

1st floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

LVMD

GPS 1 2 z Basement From PCO

SPS

MVD

G 3~

UPS

2/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type Number of floors Ground area / total area Segmentation of power required Power required High-rise building 10 to 20 1,000 m2 / 20,000 m2 80 % utilized area 20 % side area 1,500 kW; for 2 MW or higher, a relocation of the transformers should be considered even if the number of floors is less than 10 100 % total power from the public grid 10 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 5 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Selectivity is aimed at Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Supply types

Power system protection Special requirements

Proposal for concept finding Feature


Network configuration Smax = 1,800 kVA cos = 0.85 Floors: 20

Our solution
Splitting into two supply sections 2 transformer modules with (2 + 1) x 630 kVA, Ukr = 6% i.e. Ik 45 kA Redundant supply unit: Generator 800 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current) UPS: 400 kVA (15 %)

Advantage
Short LV cables, low power losses, reduction of fire load Voltage stability, lighter design

Your benefit
Economical, eased fire protection Optimized voltage quality, economical

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108 Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid Easy operation and fault localization Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance Economical

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Radial network

Transparent structure

Medium-voltage supply station Transformer

SF6 gas-insulated GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Small switchgear station, independent of climate Low fire load, indoor installation

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system (4-pole switches in the feeding lines and at the changeover point) Cables Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, centrally per floor in LVMD

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Central data processing

2/19

High-rise building, type 4: Distributed supply

Elevators FF elevators 4 5 6 HVAC HVAC-SPS

G 3~

UPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor
GPS FD General power supply Floor distribution boards

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

PCO Power company or system operator FF Firefighters HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning MVD Medium-voltage distribution LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS UPS Safety power supply Uninterruptible power supply

1st floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

LVMD

GPS 1 2 3 z Basement From PCO

SPS

MVD

G 3~

UPS

2/20

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type Number of floors Ground area / total area Segmentation of power required Power required Supply types High-rise building > 20 1,000 m2 / > 20,000 m2 80 % utilized area 20 % side area 2,000 kW 100 % total power from the public grid 1030 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 520 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Selectivity is aimed at Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Power system protection Special requirements

Proposal for concept finding Feature


Network configuration Smax = 3,600 kVA cos = 0.85 Floors: 25

Our solution
Splitting into two supply sections

Advantage
Short LV cables, low power losses, reduction of fire load

Your benefit
Economical solution, simplified fire protection

2 transformer modules with 3 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability, lighter design Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 45 kA Redundant supply unit: Generator 2 x 500 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current) UPS: 2 x 250 kVA (15 %)

Optimized voltage quality, economical

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108 Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid Easy operation and fault localization Minimized space requirements; no maintenance Economical

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Radial network

Transparent structure

Medium-voltage supply station Transformer

SF6 gas-insulated GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Small switchgear station, independent of climate Low fire load, indoor installation without any special precautions

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system (4-pole switches to connect to the low-voltage main distribution) Cables Central measurements of current, voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost center allocation

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Cost transparency

Cost savings

2/21

High-rise building, type 2: Central busbars

Elevators HVAC

FF elevators HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor
GPS FD General power supply Floor distribution boards

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

PCO Power company or system operator FF Firefighters HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning MVD Medium-voltage distribution LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS UPS Safety power supply Uninterruptible power supply

1st floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

LVMD

GPS 1 2 z Basement From PCO

SPS

MVD

G 3~

UPS

2/22

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type Number of floors Ground area / total area Segmentation of power required Power required Supply types High-rise building 10 1,000 m2 / 10,000 m2 80 % utilized area 20 % side area 1,800 kW 100 % total power from the public grid 1030 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 520 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Selectivity is aimed at Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Power system protection Special requirements

Proposal for concept finding Feature


Network configuration Smax = 1,500 kVA cos = 0.85 Floors: 8

Our solution
Central transformer supply close to load center

Advantage
Simple network configuration, low power losses

Your benefit
Only one electric utilities room required, easy and low-cost operation of electric system Operation that is gentle on the user's equipment, economical equipment

Transformer modules with 2 x 800 kVA, Optimized voltage quality Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 40 kA Redundant supply unit: Generator 400 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current) UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108 Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid Easy operation and fault localization Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance Economical

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Radial network

Transparent structure

Medium-voltage supply station Transformer

SF6 gas-insulated GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Small switchgear station, independent of climate Low fire load, indoor installation without any special precautions

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines) Safety, time savings at restructuring Minimized space requirements for for electric utilities room

Wiring/ main route

Busbars to the subdistribution boards

Low fire load, flexible power distribution Few branches in the distribution, small distribution

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for supply lines

2/23

High-rise building, type 5: Distributed busbars

Elevators FF elevators 4 5 6 HVAC HVAC-SPS

G 3~

UPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS System disconnecting point

FD-SPS System disconnecting point FD-SPS

FD-UPS System disconnecting point FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor
GPS FD General power supply Floor distribution boards

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

PCO Power company or system operator FF Firefighters HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning MVD Medium-voltage distribution LVMD Low-voltage main distribution SPS UPS Safety power supply Uninterruptible power supply

1st floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

GPS 1 LVMD Basement From PCO 2 3 z

SPS

MVD

G 3~

UPS

2/24

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type Number of floors Ground area / total area Segmentation of power required Power required Supply types High-rise building > 20 1,000 m2 / 20,000 m2 80 % utilized area 20 % side area > 2,000 kW 100 % total power from the public grid 1030 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS) 520 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Selectivity is aimed at Good electromagnetic compatibility High safety of supply and operation

Power system protection Special requirements

Proposal for concept finding Feature


Network configuration Smax = 4,000 kVA cos = 0.85 Floors: 21

Our solution
Splitting into two supply sections

Advantage
Short LV cables, low power losses, reduction of fire load

Your benefit
Lower cost

2 transformer modules with 3 x 800 kVA, Voltage stability lighter design Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 60 kA Redundant supply unit: Generator 2 x 630 kVA (30 %) (the smaller the generator, the greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the nominal current)

Optimized voltage quality, economical

Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply all floors in the event of a fault, e.g. during power failure of the public grid Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to DIN VDE 0108 Uninterruptible power supply during power failure of the public grid Easy operation and fault localization Minimized space requirements for utilities room; no maintenance Economical

UPS: 2 x 300 kVA (15 %) Radial network

Supply of sensitive or important consumers

Transparent structure

Medium-voltage supply station Transformer

SF6 gas-insulated GEAFOL cast-resin with reduced losses

Small switchgear station, independent of climate Low fire load, indoor installation

Low-voltage main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system grounding point q splitting of PEN in PE and N to the TN-S system (4-pole switches in the feeding lines and at the changeover point) Busbars to the subdistribution boards Low fire load, flexible power distribution Few branches in the distribution, small distribution

Protection of telecommunications equipment from interference (e.g. lower transmission rates for communication lines)

Wiring/ main route

Safety, time savings when restructuring work is carried out Minimized space requirements for for electric utilities room

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for supply lines

2/25

Appendix
Short-circuit currents Calculated acc. to DIN VDE 0102 EN 60909, dated 07-01-2002
Rated power [kVA] 400 630 800 1,000 400 630 800 1,000 1,250 1,600 400 630 800 1,000 400 630 800 1,000 1,250 1,600 HV voltage [kV] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 LV voltage [V] 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 Rated current Ir Impedance oltage Ukr [A] [%] 577 909 1,155 1,443 577 909 1,155 1,443 1,804 2,309 577 909 1,155 1,443 577 909 1,155 1,443 1,804 2,309 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 Reduced power losses Pk [kVA] 4.3 6.4 7.8 8.9 4.3 6.4 7.6 8.5 10.5 11.4 3.9 6.0 7.5 8.7 4.1 6.4 7.9 9.6 10.5 12.3 Max. secondary-side short-circuit current [kA] 16 25 31 39 10 17 21 26 33 42 16 25 31 39 10 17 21 26 33 42

2/26

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2/27

System Protection and Safety Coordination

3.1 Definitions 3.2 Protective Equipment for Low-Voltage Systems 3.3 Selectivity in Low-Voltage Systems 3.4 Protection of Capacitors 3.5 Protection of Distribution Transformers