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# 2006/2 Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. 1. Diagram below shows an electric circuit.

## Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebuah litar elektrik.

Diagram Rajah (a) (i) Name instrument Q. Namakan alat Q. Voltmeter [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) What is the function of R in the circuit? Apakah fungsi R dalam litar? To control/change the current by varying the resistance in the circuit [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) Diagram below shows two types of ammeters, X and Y, that can be used in the circuit in Diagram above. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan dua jenis ammeter, X dan Y, yang boleh digunakan dalam litar pada Rajah di atas.

Diagram Rajah (i) Which ammeter is more sensitive? Ammeter manakah yang lebih peka? Ammeter Y [1 mark] [1 markah]
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(ii) State one reason for you answer in (b)(i). Nyatakan satu sebab bagi jawapan di (b)(i). The smaller division in Y enables it to detect a smaller current. Therefore, ammeter Y is more sensitive because it can measure current up to 0.05 A but ammeter X can only measure current up to 0.1 A. [1 mark] [1 markah] 2. Diagram below shows a mercury thermometer which has not been calibrated. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebatang termometer merkuri yang belum ditentukur.

Diagram Rajah (a) (i) State the physical change in the mercury when the temperature increases. Nyatakan perubahan sifat fizikal pada merkuri bila suhu bertambah. Expansion of the mercury/Increase in the volume of the mercury when the temperature increases. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Why is mercury used in the thermometer? Mengapa merkuri digunakan di dalam termometer itu? It is opaque so can be seen easily/Good heat conductor/Uniform expansion/Does not stick to the glass wall of the thermometer. [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) The length of the mercury column in the thermometer is 2.6 cm at 0C and 22.6 cm at 100C. Panjang turus merkuri pada termometer ialah 2.6 cm pada 0C dan 22.6 cm pada 100C. (i) What is the difference in the lengths of the mercury columns at 0C and at 100C? Berapakah perbezaan panjang turus merkuri pada 0C dan pada 100C? 22.6 cm 2.6 cm = 20.0 cm [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) When the thermometer is placed in hot oil, the length of the mercury column is 16.9 cm. Calculate the temperature of the hot oil. Apabila termometer itu dimasukkan ke dalam minyak panas, panjang turus merkuri ialah 16.9 cm. Hitung suhu minyak panas itu. Temperature of hot oil
= = 71.5C 100C

[2 marks] [2 markah]
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3.

Diagram below shows two loudspeakers connected to an audio frequency generator. Students are standing at positions where loud sounds can be heard. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan dua pembesar suara yang disambung pada suatu penjana frekuensi audio. Murid-murid berdiri pada kedudukan di mana bunyi kuat kedengaran.

Diagram Rajah (a) What type of wave is the sound waves? Apakah jenis gelombang bagi gelombang bunyi? Longitudinal wave/Mechanical wave [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) Why are loud sounds heard by the students at that positions? Mengapakah bunyi kuat kedengaran oleh murid-murid pada kedudukan itu? Constructive interference takes place/Antinode area _ [1 mark] [1 markah] (c) The distance between the two loudspeakers is 1.5 m. At 10.0 m from the loudspeakers, the distance between two adjacent rows of students is 4.0 m. Calculate the wave length of this sound wave. Jarak di antara dua pembesar suara itu ialah 1.5 m. Pada kedudukan 10.0 m dari pembesar suara, jarak di antara dua barisan pelajar bersebelahan adalah 4.0 m. Hitung panjang gelombang bunyi itu.

= 0.6 m

[2 marks]

(d) The frequency of the sound wave is increased. Use Frekuensi gelombang bunyi itu ditinggikan, (i) What will happen to the distance between two adjacent rows where loud sounds are heard? Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada jarak pemisahan di antara dua barisan bersebelahan di mana bunyi kuat kedengaran? The distance between two adjacent rows decreases. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Give a reason for your answer in (d)(i). Beri sebab bagi jawapan anda di (d)(i). The wavelength, , decreases when the frequency of the sound wave increases.
so x decreases.

[1 mark] [1 markah] 4. Diagram A shows a submarine equipped with an optical instrument P. Diagram B shows the structure of the optical instrument P. Rajah A menunjukkan sebuah kapal selam yang dilengkapi dengan alat optik P. Rajah B menunjukkan struktur alat optik P.

Diagram A Rajah A (a) Name the optical instrument P. Namakan alat optik P. Prism periscope

Diagram B Rajah B

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(b) In Diagram B, two glass prisms must be placed so that the object can be seen by the observer. The position of one of the glass prisms is as shown. Pada Rajah B, dua prisma kaca perlu diletakkan supaya objek dapat dilihat oleh pemerhati. Kedudukan satu daripada prisma kaca itu adalah seperti yang ditunjukkan. (i) In box A in Diagram B, draw and shade the second prism. Dalam petak A pada Rajah B, lukis dan lorek prisma yang kedua itu. Label, draw and shade the glass prism in the correct position

[1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Explain why the prism in optical instrument P are placed as in (b)(i). Terangkan mengapa prisma-prisma dalam alat optik P diletakkan seperti yang dilukis di (b)(i). So that total internal reflection occurs/i > c [1 mark] [1 markah] (c) (i) In Diagram B, complete the path of the light ray from the object to the observers eye. Pada Rajah B, lengkapkan lintasan sinar cahaya dari objek ke mata pemerhati.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) State one characteristic of the image observed. Nyatakan satu ciri imej yang diperhatikan. Virtual/Upright/Same size as the object [1 mark] [1 markah] (d) The refractive index of the glass prism is 1.52. Calculate the critical angle of the glass prism. Indeks pembiasan prisma kaca ialah 1.52. Hitung sudut genting prisma kaca.

c = 41.140

[2 marks]

5.

Diagram A shows the situation of a sheet of paper before and when air is blown. Diagram B shows the situation of the canopy before the lorry moves and when the lorry moves at high speed. Rajah A menunjukkan keadaan kertas sebelum dan semasa udara ditiup. Rajah B menunjukkan keadaan kanopi sebelum lori bergerak dan semasa lori bergerak dengan laju yang tinggi.

Diagram A

Diagram B Rajah B (a) What is meant by speed? Use Apakah maksud laju? Laju ialah kadar perubahan jarak [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) Based on Diagram A and Diagram B: Berdasarkan Rajah A dan Rajah B: (i) State two similarities for the situations in Diagram A and Diagram B. Nyatakan dua kesamaan bagi situasi dalam Rajah A dengan Rajah B. 1. When there is no air movement, the paper and canopy will not lift up.. 2. When the air moves, the paper and canopy will be lifted up. [2 marks] [2 markah] (ii) Compare the air pressure above and below the paper when air is blown. Bandingkan tekanan udara di bahagian atas dan di bahagian bawah kertas itu semasa udara ditiup. The air pressure above the paper is lower than that below the paper. [1 mark] [1 markah] (iii Relate the speed of the air to the pressure of the air. ) Hubungkaitkan laju udara dengan tekanan udara. High speed of the air produces low air pressure. [1 mark] [1 markah]

(c) Name the principle involved in (b)(iii). Namakan prinsip yang terlibat di (b)(iii). Prinsip Bernoulli [1 mark] [1 markah] (d) Diagram C shows an instrument used to measure the speed of air. Rajah C menunjukkan alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur laju udara. In Diagram c, the levels of coloured water in the U-tube are the same before air flows. Dalam Rajah C, paras air berwarna dalam tiub-U adalah sama sebelum udara dialirkan. (i) Compare the speeds of air at P and at Q. Bandingkan laju udara di P dan di Q. The speed of air at P is higher than the speed of air at Q. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Mark the water levels in the U-tube in Diagram C while air flows. Tandakan aras air dalam tiub-U pada Rajah C semasa udara dialirkan. Show the water levels correctly

[1markah] 6. Diagram A and Diagram B show a student throwing an iron ball in a shot put event using different throwing techniques.The angle of projection and the force used by the student in both techniques are the same. Rajah A dan Rajah B menunjukkan seorang murid melontar peluru dalam satu acara sukan dengan teknik lontaran yang berbeza. Sudut lontaran dan daya yang digunakan oleh murid itu dalam kedua-dua teknik adalah sama.

Diagram A Rajah A

Diagram B Rajah B

(a) Observe Diagram A and Diagram B. Perhatikan Rajah A dan Rajah B. (i) Compare the distance of the hand movement to throw the iron ball. Bandingkan jarak pergerakan tangan untuk melontar peluru. The distance moved by the students hand in Diagram B is further than that in Diagram A. [1 mark] (ii) Based on the answer in 6(a)(i), compare the work done by the student between the two throwing techniques. Berdasarkan jawapan di (a)(i), bandingkan kerja yang dilakukan oleh murid di antara dua teknik lontaran itu. The work done by the student in Diagram B is bigger. [1 mark] (iii If the force which acts on the iron ball is 20 N and the distance of hand movement is 0.5 m, calculate ) the work done by the student. Jika daya yang dikenakan ke atas peluru ialah 20 N dan jarak pergerakan tangan ialah 0.5 m, hitung kerja yang telah dilakukan oleh murid itu. W=Fs = 20 0.5 = 10 N m or 10 J [2 marks] (b) (i) Based on the answer in (a)(i), state the relationship between the energy gained by the iron ball and the distance of projection. Berdasarkan jawapan di (a)(i), nyatakan hubungan antara tenaga yang diperoleh peluru dengan jarak lontaran. As the energy gained increases, the distance of projection increases/vice versa. [1 mark] (ii) State the principle involved. Namakan prinsip yang terlibat. The principle of conservation of energy [1 mark]
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(c) (i) Using Diagram A, what happens to the falling time if an iron ball of a bigger mass is used? Menggunakan Rajah A, apakah yang berlaku kepada masa jatuhan peluru jika peluru yang berjisim lebih besar digunakan? The falling time is the same. [1 mark] (ii) Give one reason for you answer in (c)(i). Beri satu sebab bagi jawapan di (c)(i). The falling height is the same/The mass does not influence the time of fall. 7. [1 mark] [1 markah] A student wants to build a simple lift motor control system which operates using two buttons, A and B, for a two-storey building. Seorang murid hendak membina satu sistem kawalan motor lif ringkas yang beroperasi bagi bangunan dua tingkat dengan menggunakan dua butang, A dan B. A: Up button Butang naik B: Down button Butang turun

The lift motor only activates when someone presses any one of the buttons. Diagram below shows the circuit that can be used to activate the motor. Motor lif hanya dihidupkan jika seseorang menekan satu daripada butang itu. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan litar yang boleh digunakan untuk menghidupkan motor.

Diagram Rajah

(a) Table above is a truth table which shows the operations of the logic gates in a lift motor control system. Jadual di atas ialah jadual kebenaran yang menunjukkan operasi get logik bagi sistem kawalan motor lif.

Table Jadual (i) Using the keys given, complete Table above. Menggunakan kekunci yang diberi, lengkapkan Jadual di atas.

[2 markah] (ii) Name the logic gate in the circuit in Diagram above. Namakah get logik dalam litar pada Rajah di atas. X-OR gate /Exclusive-OR gate [1 mark] [1 markah] (iii In the space below, draw the logic gate symbol in (a)(ii). ) Pada ruang di bawah, lukis simbol get logik di (a)(ii).

[1 mark] [1 markah] (b) Why is a relay switch needed in the circuit? Mengapakah suis geganti diperlukan dalam litar itu? Activates a large current in the main secondary circuit supply because a small current at the output cannot activate the motor. [1 mark] [1 markah] (c) The door of the lift is fitted with a light transmitter and a detector which is a light dependent resistor. If the light dependent resistor detects light, the relay switch is activated and the lift door will close. Diagram below shows an electronic circuit for the control system of the lift door. Pintu lif dilengkapi dengan pemancar cahaya dan pengesan yang merupakan perintang peka cahaya. Jika perintang peka cahaya mengesan cahaya, suis geganti dihidupkan dan pintu lif akan ditutup. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan litar elektronik bagi sistem kawalan pintu lif tersebut.

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Diagram Rajah

(i) State the relationship between the resistance and the intensity of light received by the light dependent resistor. Nyatakan hubungan rintangan dengan keamatan cahaya yang diterima oleh perintang peka cahaya. The higher the light intensity is, the lower the resistance of the resistor will be. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Complete the circuit in Diagram above by drawing the resistor and the light dependent resistor using the symbols given below. Lengkapkan litar pada Rajah di atas dengan melukis perintang dan perintang peka cahaya menggunakan simbol-simbol di bawah.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (iii Explain how the circuit functions. ) Terangkan bagaimana litar itu berfungsi. High light intensity produces lower resistance in the light dependent resistor (LDR) and high base voltage across the resistor. A bigger base current flows and activates the transistor. The transistor is switched on. A big collector current flows through the relay switch and activates the circuit of the door motor. [3 marks] [3 markah]
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8.

Diagram A and Diagram B show two identical mirrors which are hung on the wall using strings, of the same length. Rajah A dan Rajah B menunjukkan dua cermin yang serupa digantung pada dinding menggunakan tali yang sama panjang.

Diagram A Diagram B Rajah A Rajah B The two mirrors are in equilibrium state. Each mirror has a mass of 2 kg. Each string can withstand a maximum force of 15 N. Kedua-dua cermin itu berada dalam keadaan keseimbangan. Jisim bagi setiap cermin ialah 2 kg. Setiap tali itu boleh menampung daya maksimum 15 N. (a) What is meant by equilibrium state? Apakah maksud keadaan keseimbangan? Equilibrium state is the state of an object in which the resultant force acting on the object is zero. [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) What is the weight of any one of the mirrors? Berapakah berat mana-mana satu cermin itu? Weight of the mirror/Berat cermin = mg = 2.0 10 = 20 N [1 mark] [1 markah] (c) In the space below, draw a diagram of a triangle of forces that acts on the mirrors in Use Diagram A and Diagram B. Pada ruang di bawah, lukis rajah segitiga keseimbangan daya bagi tindakan daya ke atas cermin dalam Rajah A dan Rajah B.

Diagram of a triangle of forces for Diagram A Rajah segitiga keseimbangan daya untuk Rajah A

Diagram of a triangle offorces for Diagram B Rajah segitiga keseimbangan daya untuk Rajah B [2 marks]

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(d) T1 and T2 are the tensions of the strings that act on the mirrors in Diagram A and Diagram B respectively. T1 dan T2 masing-masing ialah daya tegangan tali yang bertindak ke atas cermin dalam Rajah A dan Rajah B. (i) In the space below, draw the scale drawings of the triangles of forces to determine the values of T1 and T2. Pada ruang di bawah, lukis lukisan berskala segitiga keseimbangan daya untuk menentukan nilai T1 danT2. [Use the scale 1 cm : 2 N] [Gunakan skala 1 cm : 2 N] (i) T1 = 5.8 cm = 11.6 N T2 = 7.0 cm = 14.0 N

[4 marks] (ii) Based on your answer in (d)(i), which is the most suitable method to hang the mirror? Give one reason for your answer. Berdasarkan jawapan di (d)(i), kaedah menggantung cermin yang manakah paling sesuai? Beri satu sebab bagi jawapan anda. The most suitable method of hanging the mirror is as shown in Diagram A. The tension of the string, T1, shown in Diagram A is less than the tension of the string [2 marks] [2 markah] (e) If the string in Diagram A is cut, the mirror will fall down in 0.6 s. Calculate the final velocity of the mirror before it touches the surface of the floor. Jika tali pada Rajah A dipotong, cermin itu akan jatuh ke lantai dalam masa 0.6 s. Hitung halaju akhir cermin itu sebelum menyentuh permukaan lantai. v = u + gt u = 0 m s1, g = 10 m s2, t = 0.6 s v = 0 + 10 (0.6) = 6 m s1 [2 marks] [2 markah]

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Section B [20 mark Answer any one question from this section. 9. Diagram A and Diagram B show the light rays from two identical objects passing through the convex lenses, J and K. Both the lenses produce virtual images. F is the focal point for each lens. Rajah A dan Rajah B menunjukkan sinar cahaya dari dua objek yang serupa melalui kanta cembung, J danK. Kedua-dua kanta tersebut menghasilkan imej maya. F ialah titik fokus untuk setiap kanta.

Diagram A Rajah A

Diagram B Rajah B (a) (i) What is meant by virtual image? Apakah maksud imej maya? A virtual image is an image that cannot be formed on a screen. [1 markah] (ii) With reference to Diagram A and Diagram B, compare the thickness of the lenses, the focal length and the size of image produced by the lenses J and K. Relate the size of the image with the focal length to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the power of the lens and the focal length. Merujuk kepada Rajah A dan Rajah B, bandingkan ketebalan kanta, panjang fokus dan saiz imej yang dihasilkan oleh kanta J dan kanta K. Hubungkaitkan antara saiz imej dengan panjang fokus untuk membuat satu kesimpulan tentang hubungan antara kuasa kanta dengan panjang fokus.

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Lens J is thicker than lens K. The focal length of lens K is longer than that of lens J. The size of the image produced by lens J is bigger than that produced by lens K. When the focal length increases, the size of the image decreases. When the power of a lens increases, its focal length decreases. [5 markah] (b) Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot sun rays. Huraikan mengapa sehelai kertas terbakar apabila diletakkan di bawah sebuah kanta cembung yang dihalakan kepada cahaya matahari yang terik. Parallel light rays from the hot sun at infinity pass through a convex lens. Light rays are focused after passing through the lens. Light rays are converged onto a very small area called the focal point of the lens. At the point, the intensity of light is great and the light energy causes an increase in temperature. When the spot on the paper becomes hot enough, the paper starts to burn. [4 markah] (c) You are given two convex lenses, P and Q, with focal lengths 40 cm and 5 cm respectively. Both the lenses are used to build a simple astronomical telescope at normal adjustment. Anda dibekalkan dua kanta cembung, P dan Q. Panjang fokus masing-masing ialah 40 cm dan 5 cm. Kedua-dua kanta itu digunakan untuk membina sebuah teleskop astronomi ringkas pada pelarasan normal. (i) Using the two lenses, explain how you are going to build the simple astronomical telescope. Dengan menggunakan dua kanta tersebut, terangkan bagaimana anda akan membina sebuah teleskop astronomi ringkas tersebut. P is used as the objective lens. Q is used as the eyepiece. The distance between the two lenses (or the length of the telescope) is 40 + 5 or 45 cm. P and Q are in line. Parallel rays of starlight from distant stars converge at the focal point of the objective lens which is Also the focal point of the eyepiece.

## F0 = focal point of objective lens Fe = focal point of eyepiece

This will form an initial image, I, which is real, inverted and smaller than the actual object. This image then becomes the object for the eyepiece Under normal adjustment, the final image formed by the eyepiece will be at infinity. This image is virtual, inverted and magnified. [6 markah
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(ii) Suggest modifications that need to be done on the telescope to produce clearer and bigger images. Cadangkan pengubahsuaian yang perlu dilakukan terhadap teleskop itu untuk menghasilkan imej yang lebih jelas dan lebih besar. Increase the diameter of the objective lens to let in more light Increase the focal length of the objective lens or reduce the focal length of the eyepiece [4 markah] 10. Diagram A and Diagram B show wire coils connected to the ammeters, switches and d.c. power supply. Rajah A dan Rajah B menunjukkan gegelung dawai yang disambungkan kepada ammeter, suis dan bekalan kuasa a.t.

Diagram A Rajah A

Diagram B Rajah B

When the switch is on and iron filings of the same amount is spread on each of the cardboard surface, the pattern of the iron filings is formed as shown in the diagrams. Apabila suis dihidupkan dan serbuk besi yang sama banyak ditaburkan pada setiap permukaan setiap kadbod, corak susunan serbuk besi terhasil adalah seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam kedua-dua rajah tersebut. (a) What is meant by magnetic field? Apakah maksud medan magnet? A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material will experience a magnetic force. [1 markah] (b) Using Diagram A and Diagram B, compare the number of turn of the coils, the pattern of the iron filings and angle of deflection of the ammeter indicator. Menggunakan Rajah A dan Rajah B, bandingkan bilangan lilitan gegelung, corak susunan serbuk besi dan sudut pesongan penunjuk ammeter. The number of turns of the coils shown in Diagram B is greater than the number of turns of the coils shown in Diagram A. The pattern of the iron filings formed on the cardboard shown in Diagram B is denser than the pattern of the iron filings formed shown in Diagram A. The deflection of the ammeter indicator shown in Diagram B is bigger than that shown in Diagram A. [3 markah]
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(c) State the relationship between the strength of the magnetic field and Nyatakan hubungan antara kekuatan medan magnet dengan (i) the pattern of iron filings, corak susunan serbuk besi, (ii) the number of turn of the coils. bilangan lilitan gegelung. [2 marks] [2 markah] (d) Diagram C shows two thin copper strips, PQ and RS, connected to a circuit. Rajah C menunjukkan dua jalur kuprum nipis, PQ dan RS, yang disambungkan kepada satu litar.

Diagram C Rajah C Explain what happens to PQ and RS, when the switch is on. Terangkan apa yang berlaku kepada PQ dan RS apabila suis dihidupkan. [4 markah] (e) Diagram D shows an electric motor which is supplied with a 12 V a.c. Rajah D menunjukkan sebuah motor elektrik menggunakan bekalan kuasa 12 V a.u.

## Diagram D Rajah D (i) Explain how the motor is able to rotate.

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Terangkan bagaiman motor tersebut boleh berputar. [4 markah] (ii) Using a 12 V a.c. power supply, explain the modification that needs to be done on the motor and the external circuit to enable the motor to be a d.c. electric motor and rotate faster. [6 marks] Dengan menggunakan bekalan kuasa 12 V a.u., terangkan pengubahsuaian ke atas motor itu dan litar luar supaya motor itu dapat dijadikan motor elektrik a.t. dan berputar lebih laju. [6 markah] Section C [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. 11. (a) (i) What is meant by specific latent heat of vapourization? Apakah maksud haba pendam tentu pengewapan? [1 markah] (ii) Explain why someone who is sweating feels cool when he is under a rotating fan. Terangkan mengapa seseorang yang badannya berpeluh berasa sejuk apabila berada di bawah kipas yang berputar. [4 markah] (b) A solid substance, of mass 0.05 kg, is heated using an immersion heater of 240 V, 0.1 kW. Diagram A shows the heating curve of the solid. Suatu bahan dalam keadaan pepejal berjisim 0.05 kg dipanaskan menggunakan pemanas rendam 240 V, 0.1 kW.Rajah A menunjukkan keluk pemanasan bagi pepejal tersebut.

Diagram A Rajah A Calculate Hitung (i) the specific latent heat of fusion of the substance, haba pendam tentu pelakuran bahan itu,
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(ii) the specific heat capacity of the substance in liquid state. muatan haba tentu bahan itu dalam keadaan cecair. [5 markah]

(c) You are asked to investigate the features of cooling material and the design of a car engine radiator as in Diagram B.Explain the suitability of each feature in Diagram B and then determine the most suitable car engine radiator to be used.Give a reason for your choice. Anda ditugaskan untuk mengkaji ciri-ciri bahan penyejuk dan reka bentuk radiator enjin kereta seperti RajahB. Terangkan kesesuaian setiap ciri dalam Rajah B dan seterusnya tentukan radiator enjin kereta yang paling sesuai digunakan. Beri sebab untuk pilihan anda.

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## Diagram B Rajah B [10 marks] [10 markah]

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12.

Radioactive material has some uses in the medical field such as in the investigation of internal organs and in the sterilization of equipments. Bahan radioaktif mempunyai beberapa penggunaan dalam bidang perubatan seperti dalam pemeriksaan organ dalaman dan pensterilan peralatan. (a) A doctor conducts an investigation on a patients kidney by injecting iodine-131 radioisotope, that has a half-life of 8 days, into blood circulation. A normal kidney can expel the radioisotope in 20 minutes. The presence of radioisotope in the left and right kidneys is shown in the graphs as in Diagram below. Seorang doktor melakukan pemeriksaan ginjal terhadap seorang pesakit dengan menyuntik radioisotop iodin-131 yang mempunyai setengah-hayat 8 hari ke dalam aliran darah. Ginjal yang normal dapat menyingkirkan radioisotop tersebut dalam masa 20 minit. Kehadiran radioisotop dalam ginjal kiri dan ginjal kanan pesakit itu ditunjukkan dalam graf seperti Rajah di bawah.

Diagram Rajah (i) What is meant by half-life? Apakah maksud setengah-hayat? [1 markah] (ii) Based on the graphs is Diagram above, which kidney is not functioning properly? Give one reason. Berdasarkan graf-graf pada Rajah di atas, ginjal yang manakah tidak berfungsi dengan normal? Beri satu sebab. [2 markah] (iii The initial iodine-131 activity is 1 600 counts per second. ) Calculate the time taken for the iodine-131 activity to decrease to 100 counts per second. Keaktifan awal iodin-131 ialah 1 600 bilangan per saat. Hitung masa yang diambil untuk keaktifan iodin-131 berkurang menjadi 100 bilangan per saat. [2 markah] (b) Medical equipment is sterilized by a radiation from a radioactive source. Peralatan perubatan disterilkan dengan sinaran daripada satu sumber radioaktif. You are assigned to study the characteristics of some radioisotopes that are suitable for use in the sterilization of medical equipments. Anda ditugaskan untuk mengkaji ciri-ciri bagi beberapa radioisotop yang sesuai untuk
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digunakan dalam pensterilan peralatan perubatan. Table below shows the characteristics of five radioisotopes. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi lima radioisotop. (i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the radioisotopes to be used in the sterilization of medical equipment. Terangkan kesesuaian ciri-ciri radioisotop untuk digunakan bagi pensterilan peralatan perubatan. [6 markah]

Table Jadual (ii) Determine the most suitable radioisotope to be used and give one reason for your choice. Tentukan radioisotop yang paling sesuai digunakan dan beri satu sebab bagi pilihan anda. [2 markah] (c) Gamma rays can produce an effect on photographic film. Explain whether gamma rays is suitable to be used in taking photographs of an organ in humans. Sinar gama boleh menghasilkan kesan pada filem fotografi . Terangkan sama ada sinar gama sesuai digunakan untuk mengambil fotograf organ dalam manusia. [3 markah] (d) Beryllium-11 isotope emits two rays. The isotope is placed in front of a magnetic field and the radioactive radiation path is shown in Diagram below. Isotop Berillium-11 memancarkan dua sinar. Isotop itu diletakkan di hadapan medan magnet dan lintasan sinaran radioaktif ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di bawah.

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Diagram Rajah (i) Name both rays that are emitted by the isotope. [2 marks] Namakan kedua-dua sinar yang dipancarkan oleh isotop itu. [2 markah] (ii) Explain why the rays follow the path shown in Diagram above. [2 marks] Jelaskan mengapa sinar-sinar itu mengikut lintasan seperti dalam Rajah di atas. [2 markah]

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Jawapan

## SPM Fizik Tingkatan 4,5 - Untitled Kertas 2

1.(a) (i) Voltmeter (ii) To control/change the current by varying the resistance in the circuit Mengawal/mengubah arus dengan mengubah rintangan dalam litar (b) (i) Ammeter Y (ii) The smaller division in Y enables it to detect a smaller current. Therefore, ammeter Y is more sensitive because it can measure current up to 0.05 A but ammeter X can only measure current up to 0.1 A. Pembahagian yang lebih kecil dalam Y membolehkannya mengesan perubahan yang lebih kecil dalam arus. Maka, ammeter Y lebih peka kerana ia boleh mengukur arus sehingga 0.05 A tetapi ammeter X hanya boleh mengukur arus sehingga 0.1 A. 2.(a) (i) Expansion of the mercury/Increase in the volume of the mercury when the temperature increases. Pengembangan merkuri/Pertambahan isi padu merkuri apabila suhu bertambah. (ii) It is opaque so can be seen easily/Good heat conductor/Uniform expansion/Does not stick to the glass wall of the thermometer. Ia adalah legap maka boleh dilihat dengan mudah/konduktor haba yang baik/ pengembangan seragam /tidak melekat pada dinding kaca termometer. (b) (i) 22.6 cm 2.6 cm = 20.0 cm (ii) Temperature of hot oil/Suhu minyak panas
= 100C = 71.5C

3.(a) Longitudinal wave/Mechanical wave Gelombang membujur/Gelombang mekanikal (b) Constructive interference takes place/Antinode area Interferens membina berlaku/Kawasan antinod (c)
= 0.6 m

(d) (i) The distance between two adjacent rows decreases. Jarak di antara dua barisan bersebelahan berkurang. (ii) The wavelength, , decreases when the frequency of the sound wave increases.
so x decreases.

## Panjang gelombang, , berkurang apabila frekuensi gelombang bunyi bertambah.

maka x berkurang.

## 4. (a) Prism periscope/Periskop berprisma

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(b) (i) Label, draw and shade the glass prism in the correct position Label, lukis dan lorek kedudukan prisma kaca dengan betul

(ii) So that total internal reflection occurs/i > c Supaya pantulan dalam penuh berlaku/i > c (c) (i) Draw the correct ray diagram. Lukis rajah sinar yang betul.

(ii) Virtual/Upright/Same size as the object Maya/Tegak/Sama saiz dengan objek (d) c = 41.140 5.(a) Speed is the rate of change of distance. Laju ialah kadar perubahan jarak. (b) (i) 1. When there is no air movement, the paper and canopy will not lift up. Apabila tiada aliran udara, kertas dan kanopi tidak terangkat. 2. When the air moves, the paper and canopy will be lifted up. Apabila udara mengalir, kertas dan kanopi terangkat ke atas. (ii) The air pressure above the paper is lower than that below the paper. Tekanan udara di bahagian atas kertas lebih rendah daripada di bahagian bawah kertas. (iii) High speed of the air produces low air pressure. Laju udara yang tinggi menghasilkan tekanan udara rendah. (c) Bernoullis principle Prinsip Bernoulli (d) (i) The speed of air at P is higher than the speed of air at Q. Laju udara di P Iebih tinggi daripada laju udara di Q. (ii) Show the water levels correctly. Tunjukkan aras air yang betul.

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6.(a) (i) The distance moved by the students hand in Diagram B is further than that in Diagram A. Jarak yang digerakkan oleh tangan murid di Rajah B adalah lebih jauh daripada di Rajah A. (ii) The work done by the student in Diagram B is bigger. Kerja yang dilakukan oleh murid dalam Rajah B adalah lebih besar. (iii) W = F s = 20 0.5 = 10 N m or 10 J (b) (i) As the energy gained increases, the distance of projection increases/vice versa. Semakin bertambah tenaga yang diperoleh, semakin bertambah jarak lontaran/ sebaliknya. (ii) The principle of conservation of energy Prinsip keabadian tenaga (c) (i) The falling time is the same. Masa jatuhan adalah sama. (ii) The falling height is the same/The mass does not influence the time of fall. Ketinggian jatuhan adalah sama/Jisim tidak mempengaruhi masa jatuhan. 7.(a) (i)

## (ii) X-OR gate /Exclusive-OR gate Get X-ATAU/Get eksklusif-ATAU (iii)

(b) Activates a large current in the main secondary circuit supply because a small current at the output cannot activate the motor. Menghidupkan arus besar pada litar sekunder sebab arus kecil pada output tidak dapat menghidupkan motor. (c) (i) The higher the light intensity is, the lower the resistance of the resistor will be. Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya, semakin rendah rintangan perintang. (ii)

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(iii) High light intensity produces lower resistance in the light dependent resistor (LDR) and high base voltage across the resistor. Keamatan cahaya tinggi menghasilkan rintangan lebih rendah dalam perintang peka cahaya (PPC) dan voltan tapak tinggi merentasi perintang. A bigger base current flows and activates the transistor. Arus tapak yang lebih besar mengalir dan menghidupkan transistor. The transistor is switched on. A big collector current flows through the relay switch and activates the circuit of the door motor. Transistor dihidupkan. Arus pengumpul yang besar mengalir melalui suis geganti dan mengaktifkan litar bagi motor pintu. 8.(a) Equilibrium state is the state of an object in which the resultant force acting on the object is zero. Keadaan keseimbangan adalah keadaan objek di mana daya paduan yang bertindak ke atas objek itu adalah sifar. (b) Weight of the mirror/Berat cermin = mg = 2.0 10 = 20 N (c)

Diagram of a triangle of forces for Diagram A Rajah segitiga keseimbangan daya untuk Rajah A (d) (i) T1 = 5.8 cm = 11.6 N

Diagram of a triangle of forces for Diagram B Rajah segitiga keseimbangan daya untuk Rajah B

T2 = 7.0 cm = 14.0 N

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45 cm. Jarak di antara dua kanta (atau panjang teleskop) ialah 40 + 5 atau 45 cm. P and Q are in line. P dan Q adalah segaris. Parallel rays of starlight from distant stars converge at the focal point of the objective lens which is also the focal point of the eyepiece. Sinar selari cahaya bintang dari bintang jauh menumpu pada titik fokus kanta objek yang juga adalah titik fokus kanta mata.

f0 = focal length of objective lens Panjang fokus kanta objektif fe = focal length of eyepiece Panjang fokus kanta mata

F0 = focal point of objective lens Titik fokus bagi kanta objektif Fe = focal point of eyepiece Titik fokus bagi kanta mata

This will form an initial image, I, which is real, inverted and smaller than the actual object. Ini akan membentuk satu imej awal, I, yang nyata, songsang dan lebih kecil daripada objek sebenar. This image then becomes the object for the eyepiece. Imej ini kemudian menjadi objek bagi kanta mata. Under normal adjustment, the final image formed by the eyepiece will be at infinity. This image is virtual, inverted and magnified. Di bawah penyelarasan normal, imej akhir yang dibentuk oleh kanta mata adalah di infiniti. Imej ini adalah maya, songsang dan lebih besar. (ii) Increase the diameter of the objective lens to let in more light Menambahkan diameter kanta objektif supaya lebih banyak cahaya boleh masuk Increase the focal length of the objective lens or reduce the focal length of the eyepiece Menambahkan panjang fokus kanta objektif atau mengurangkan panjang fokus kanta mata 10.(a) A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material will experience a magnetic force. Medan magnet adalah suatu kawasan di mana bahan magnet akan mengalami suatu daya magnet.
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(b) The number of turns of the coils shown in Diagram B is greater than the number of turns of the coils shown in Diagram A. Bilangan lilitan gegelung yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah B adalah lebih besar daripada bilangan lilitan gegelung yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah A. The pattern of the iron filings formed on the cardboard shown in Diagram B is denser than the pattern of the iron filings formed shown in Diagram A. Corak susunan serbuk besi yang dibentuk di atas kadbod yang ditunjukkan pada Rajah B adalah lebih padat daripada corak susunan serbuk besi yang dibentuk dalam Rajah A. The deflection of the ammeter indicator shown in Diagram B is bigger than that shown in Diagram A. Pesongan penunjuk ammeter dalam Rajah B adalah lebih besar daripada dalam Rajah A. (c) (i) The closer the pattern of the iron filings is, the greater the strength of the magnetic field will be. Semakin padat corak susunan serbuk besi, semakin besar kekuatan medan magnet. (ii) The strength of the magnetic field increases when the number of turns of the coils increases. Kekuatan medan magnet bertambah apabila bilangan lilitan gegelung bertambah. (d) When a current flows, a magnetic field is formed and a force is exerted as shown. Apabila arus mengalir, medan magnet terhasil dan satu daya dikenakan seperti yang ditunjukkan.

The flow of current in the copper strips is in the opposite direction. Aliran arus dalam jalur kuprum adalah dalam arah yang bertentangan. The direction of the magnetic field between the two thin strips of copper are in the same direction. Arah medan magnet di antara dua jalur kuprum nipis adalah sama. This will produce a stronger magnetic field in the region between the strips. The two thin strips of copper repel each other. Ini akan menghasilkan satu medan magnet yang lebih kuat di dalam kawasan yang berada di antara jalur-jalur itu. Dua keping jalur kuprum nipis menolak antara satu sama lain. (e) (i)

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When the power supply is switched on, the flow of the current in the coil forms a magnetic field. Apabila bekalan kuasa dihidupkan, aliran arus dalam gegelung membentuk suatu medan magnet. The magnetic field due to the current carrying coil and the magnetic field due to the permanent magnet interact. Medan magnet disebabkan oleh gegelung yang membawa arus dan medan magnet yang disebabkan oleh magnet kekal saling bertindak. This causes a catapult field which is formed around each side of the coil. Ini menyebabkan suatu medan lastik dibentuk di setiap sisi gegelung itu. A pair of equal but opposite forces is formed which rotates the armature. Sepasang daya yang sama tetapi bertentangan arah dibentuk dan memutarkan angker. (ii) Use a diode and capacitor/use a rectification circuit. Guna diod dan kapasitor/guna litar rektifikasi. To change a.c to d.c Untuk menukar a.u. ke a.t Replace the slip rings with a commutator. Gantikan gelang gelincir dengan komutator. To reverse the direction of the current in the armature Supaya menyongsang arah arus dalam angker Increase the number of turns/increase the strength of the magnetic field/use an iron core/use thick wires Menambah bilangan lilitan/menambah kekuatan medan magnet/guna teras besi/ guna dawai tebal To increase the strength of the force Untuk menambahkan kekuatan daya 11.(a) (i) Specific latent heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a liquid into a gas without a change in the temperature. Haba pendam tentu pengewapan adalah kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menukarkan 1 kg cecair kepada gas tanpa perubahan suhu. (ii) When a fan is rotating, there is a movement of air. Apabila kipas berputar, terdapat pergerakan udara. The sweat absorbs heat and evaporates. Peluh menyerap haba dan menyejat. Specific latent heat of vaporization of water is absorbed from the body. Haba pendam tentu pengewapan air diserap daripada badan. When there is air movement, the rate of evaporation increases. Apabila terdapat pergerakan udara, kadar penyejatan bertambah. The body feels cool after the removal of heat. Badan berasa sejuk selepas pengeluaran haba. (b) (i) Pt = ml, (100)(2.6 60) = 0.05l l = 312 000 J kg1 (ii) Pt = mc, (100)(4.8 3.6)(60) = 0.05(c)(218 78) c = 1 029 J kg1 C 1
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(c)

R is chosen. Because of its high specific heat capacity, high boiling point, big fan and large number of fin blades. R dipilih. Sebab muatan haba tentu tinggi, takat didih tinggi, kipas yang besar dan bilah sirip yang banyak. 12.(a) (i) The half-life of a radioisotope is defined as the time taken for the activity of that radioisotope to fall to half its initial value. Setengah hayat bagi suatu radioisotop ditakrifkan sebagai masa yang diambil untuk aktiviti radioisotop itu mereput kepada setengah nilal asalnya. (ii) The right kidney/ginjal kanan There is still activity of the iodine- 131 radioisotope detected in the right kidney after 20 minutes. Masih terdapat aktiviti iodin-131 yang dikesan dalam ginjal kanan selepas 20minit (iii)

=4
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## = 4 8 days/hari = 32 days/hari (b) (i)

(ii) Cobalt-60 is chosen. Because it is in solid state, emits gamma ray and has long half-life Cobalt-60 dipilih. Sebab ia adalah pepejal, memancar sinar gama dan mempunyai separuh hayat yang panjang. (c) Not suitable Tidak sesuai It has high energy/high penetrating power. Ia mempunyai tenaga tinggi/kuasa penembusan tinggi. Can destroy the body cells/cause mutation/ cause sterility Boleh memusnahkan sel badan/menyebabkan mutasi/menyebabkan mandul (d) (i) Beta particles with high energy/high velocity zarah beta bertenaga tinggi/halaju tinggi Gamma ray/Sinar gama (ii) Beta particles will be attracted to the positive electrode, because they are negatively charged. Zarah beta akan ditarik ke elektrod positif kerana bercas negatif. Gamma ray will not be deflected by the electric field because it has no charge. Sinar gama tidak dipesongkan oleh medan elektrik kerana ia tidak bercas

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