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- TALAT Lecture 3704: Deep Drawing
- Blank Calculation
- Press Tool Calculation
- Press Tool Technology
- GD&T FOR DIE PUNCH DESIGNING
- Deep Drawing
- Sheet Metal Operation
- Fundamentals of Mechanical Press Design
- die making
- Drills, taps and dies
- Sheet Metal Guide (Mate)
- Die Design
- Press tool Design by Sivapapachari
- Square Cup Deep Drawing using Forming Limit Diagram
- 13 - Tool and Die Design for Deeping Drawing AHSS
- Die Design Deep Drawing Report
- Effect of Ani Sot Ropy on the Deep Drawing of Mild Steel
- Compound Die Design
- Deep Drawing
- Die Design Standards-Sapco

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Thaweepat Buranathiti1,*

1

Division of Materials Technology, School of Energy and Materials,

King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Bangkok, Thailand

*

Corresponding Author: thaweepat.bur@kmutt.ac.th

Abstract

Deep drawing process is a means to manufacture a complicated part from sheet

metals. To design a deep drawing process, one has to consider many major factors,

namely tooling configurations, blank configurations, material properties, and forming

conditions. Blank configuration is the focus of this paper. One may simply use simple

geometries (rectangular or circles) or approximate the blank configuration from a simple

observation of the desired part based on experience. Besides experience-based blank

design, this paper presents a systematical means, called Inverse analysis (IA), in

determining an optimal blank configuration for a deep drawing process. Due to the

complexity of mechanics of deep drawing processes, inverse finite element analysis is

needed by having IA incorporate into a finite element scheme. In this paper, IA is

explored by using a commercial finite element software package. A number of numerical

studies on the effect of blank configurations to the part quality in a deep drawing process

were conducted and compared. The quality of the drawing processes from IA and others

is numerically tested by using an explicit incremental nonlinear finite element code. The

initial blank configuration has shown that it plays an important role in the quality of the

product. However, it is observed that if the blank configuration is not greatly deviated

from the one from IA, the blank still can result a good product. IA has clearly presented

its important role in the systematical design process for deep drawing processes.

KEY WORDS: Inverse Analysis, deep drawing process, inverse finite element analysis, blank size

estimation

Introduction

In engineering design processes, trial-and-error method is a traditional means to explore and

optimize process conditions in virtually every manufacturing process. However, the current

competition forces the design processes to be highly efficient. Therefore, systematical design and

process simulations have presented themselves as a vital part in today competitive systems. This paper

focuses on a deep drawing process, which is a means in manufacturing of complicated parts from

sheet metal used in many industries such as automobile, aerospace, appliance and so on. Deep drawing

processes typically involve many complicated physics and boundary conditions. A powerful and

widely accepted means for the sheet metal forming process analysis is finite element method or FEM

(Chenot and Bay, 1998; Belytschko et al., 2000). For example, U-channel forming (Taylor et al.,

1995), wrinkling and tearing prediction (Cao and Boyce, 1997), corner failure (Yao and Cao, 2000),

and many more. It is noted that analytical models such as (Wang et al., 1993; Kinsey and Cao, 2000),

element free method (Li and Belytschko, 2001) and other techniques are also available for sheet metal

forming simulations. For deep drawing processes, the simulation is often computationally expensive

and in the design context is also known as ‘forward analysis’ (Cao et al., 2000). It is typically known

that one has to determine the best manufacturing condition that usually requires optimization by

repetitive process design for both/either deterministic (Koc et al., 2000; Moshfegh et al., 2000) and/or

probabilistic (Chen et al., 2004; Sahai et al., 2004). In optimization of deep drawing processes, the

forward analysis leads to an even more expensive design process, which typically requires a large

number of forward analyzes to search an optimal value. An alternative design approach for deep

drawing processes is inverse analysis (IA).

In deep drawing processes, it is well known that design of tooling geometry and conditions

plays an important role to the quality and success of the production. It is interesting that the

37

Buranathiti: ASIMMOD2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

configuration of the undeformed blank is often overlooked by many engineers. This paper conducts a

comparative study on how the configuration of the blank affects the quality of a deep drawing process.

A part configuration is illustrated as a numerical example. The product quality from different setups is

consistently evaluated by using an explicit incremental nonlinear finite element method (LS-DYNA).

A systematical design approach known as inverse analysis (MSTEP in Dynaform5.2) is presented and

conducted to estimate an optimal blank configuration corresponding to the desired part configuration.

The analysis results are then analyzed and discussed.

Inverse analysis

In a deep drawing process, Inverse approach (IA) is a systematical means to offer to estimate

important parameters of the forming process. IA is a method that starts from a given desired

configuration x of a part and works back to obtain the initial configuration X. In most sheet metal

forming processes, a flat blank is X. The problem formulation of IA is set that x, material properties

and forming conditions are given but the X of the part and resulting stress-strain states of the deformed

part are to be determined.

The inverse finite element approach for sheet metal forming has been developed by many

researchers presenting in literature: ideal forming theory (Chung and Richmond, 1992a,b), conceptual

theory on inverse problems (Chenot et al., 1996), sequential design with ideal forming theory [Chung

et al., 1997], initial guess of linear deformation [Lee and Huh, 1998], deformation path iteration

method (Park et al. 1999), multi-step with sliding constraint surface (Lee and Cao, 2001), pseudo-

inverse approach (Guo et al., 2004), an objective function based on forming limit diagram (FLD)

(Naceur et al., 2004), a node relocation technique (Lan et al., 2005). For most cases in deep drawing

processes, IA is basically a result of the principle of minimization of potential energy. The principle of

minimization of potential energy is stated as follows: For conservative systems, of all the

kinematically admissible displacement fields, those corresponding to equilibrium extremize the total

potential energy. If the extremum condition is a minimum, the equilibrium state is stable.

The plastic potential energy Ψ is expressed as the difference between the internal plastic work

(Wp) and the external work (We) as follows

Ψ = W p − We __________________________ [1]

.

The external force (We) is induced by the friction force and the binder force, and the external

force calculated at the final configuration. The minimum of Ψ corresponds to the solution of the

stationary value of the first derivation to the design variables U as follows;

∂Ψ

R (U) = =0 __________________________ [2]

∂U .

(n )

⎡ ∂R (U) ⎤

⎢⎣ ∂U ⎥⎦ {ΔU} = −{R (U)}(n ) __________________________ [3]

,

38

Buranathiti: ASIMMOD2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Numerical examples

This paper focuses on an example of deep drawing processes to illustrate the influence of blank

configurations to the part quality. A triangular cup desired from the deep drawing process in this paper

is presented in Figure 1. The rough dimension of the part is 40 mm depth and 100 mm for each side of

the triangular bottom. The fillet is set as 20 mm in radius. The blank is CQ mild steel with the material

properties as follows: density ρ of 7850 kg/m3, Young’s modulus E of 207.0 GPa, Poisson’s ratio ν of

0.28, strength coefficient K of 479.3 MPa, exponent hardening n of 0.226, and the Lankford parameter

R00 of 1.45, R45 of 1.10 and R90 of 1.73. The initial blank thickness t is 1.0 mm.

From the given dimension, the tooling dimension is extracted as shown in Figure 2 and used for

every case throughout this paper. The tooling consists of a die, a binder and a punch. No drawbead is

used. The conditions of the deep drawing process are given as follows: friction coefficient μ of 0.125,

and blank holder (binder) force of 20 kN.

Binder Punch

Die

Figure 2: An illustration of the tooling (die, binder and punch) in this study.

The forming process is analyzed by using an IA to determine an optimal blank configuration

and an explicit incremental nonlinear FEM to analyze the product. Belytschko-Tsay shell element with

5 integration points through the sheet thickness is adopted in this study. The material model of Barlat

and Lian (1989) with anisotropic materials under plane stress conditions is adopted. The exponent m in

Barlat’s yield surface is set as 6.0. An adaptive meshing technique with the maximum of 4 refinement

levels is implemented in the FEA model.

39

Buranathiti: ASIMMOD2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Analysis results

A number of blanks in regular geometries (rectangle and circle) shown in Figure 3 are used in

the FEA model. The responses of interest from the deep drawing process for the comparison purpose

are wrinkle and crack tendency indicated by using strain-based FLD. The ideal shape of the formed

part previously presented in Figure 1 is used in IA to estimate an optimal blank configuration. By

using the same set of process data, the blank configuration obtained from IA is shown in Figure 3 in

comparison with other cases.

Figure 3: Initial blank configurations used in this study: (i) blank from IA, (ii) a circle, (iii) a

rectangle, (iv) a smaller circle, and (v) a smaller rectangle.

For the purpose of this comparative study, the quality of the products from all cases is shown in

strain-based FLD in Figures 4-8. Figure 4 presents a case of the blank configuration obtained by using

IA. It is observed that there is no significant deformation causing cracks. However, a number of

locations (bottom and side walls) indicate insufficient stretch leading to strength problem of the part.

The part also has tendency of wrinkling around the die corner, which is not desirable, but it is not

critical.

Figure 4: The elemental strain plot on a strain-based FLD for the blank obtained by using IA.

Figure 5 presents a case of the circular blank. It is observed that there are excessive stress and

strain causing cracks, which is critical to the part quality. However, it has no area with insufficient

stretching since excessive stretching is presented.

40

Buranathiti: ASIMMOD2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Figure 6 presents a case of the rectangular blank. It is observed that there are excessive stress

and strain causing cracks. Also, there is no area with insufficient stretching.

Figure 7 presents a case of the smaller circular blank compared to Figure 5. It is observed that

no significant deformation causing cracks. The bottom of the part also does not indicate insufficient

stretch. Only small area of side wall indicates insufficient stretch. The part also has tendency of

wrinkling around the die corner like before.

Figure 5: The elemental strain plot on a strain-based FLD for the circular blank.

Figure 6: The elemental strain plot on a strain-based FLD for the rectangular blank.

Figure 7: The elemental strain plot on a strain-based FLD for the smaller circular blank.

41

Buranathiti: ASIMMOD2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Figure 8 presents a case of the smaller rectangular blank compared to Figure 6. It is observed

that there is no significant deformation causing cracks and there are insufficient stretch problems. The

part also has tendency of wrinkling around the die corner.

Figure 8: The elemental strain plot on a strain-based FLD for the smaller rectangular blank.

The illustrative examples in this paper have shown that the difference of blank configurations

significantly affects the quality of the part produced by a deep drawing process. A systematical means

for designing an optimal blank configuration in a deep drawing process is inverse analysis (IA). IA

only needs the desired final configuration x* and limited data of forming conditions in the model to

obtain an approximation of the initial configuration X and an approximated stress-strain state at the

final configuration. However, a blank configuration other than the one obtained from IA can still

provide a good quality of the part if the blank configuration does not greatly deviate from it. Based on

FLD, it appears that the smaller circular blank in Figure 7 results a better part than the one from IA

due to insufficient stretching at the bottom. It is also an industrial practice that initial blank

configurations should be smooth and have little trimming cost. It seems arguable that a further

advancement of inverse methods seems to have small effect to the quality in the forming process

design but, on the other hand, it definitely helps design processes that directly need the accurate

prediction of stress and strain during the optimization search. It is noted that the algorithm of IA in

general does not take insufficient stretching problems into account as the objective of the IA model is

to minimize the potential energy. Based on FLD plot of the blank configuration from IA shows some

area at the bottom is not stretched enough.

It should be noted that the nature of the inverse problem is ill-posed. A simple analogy is that

the combination of 1 and 4 is 5. Inversely, the inverse problem is to determine what is the combination

of x and y to be 5 [x +y = 5 ⇒ x=?, y=?]. It can be observed that this problem has multiple solutions

like virtually all optimization problems have. Therefore, the way to formulate the model including

constraints and initial guess values are very important to achieve the optimal solution. As seen in

literature, some advances in IA came from the search constraints.

It is worth noting that the final manufacturing conditions from IA should be eventually verified

by an incremental nonlinear finite element method before a physical tryout can be taken. In addition,

the computational cost of IA is typically a small fraction of that of an incremental nonlinear FEA.

However, the prediction accuracy of stress and strain from IA is still less than that of incremental

FEA. The inverse analysis (IA) clearly offers itself as an important part of the design methodology for

deep drawing processes.

42

Buranathiti: ASIMMOD2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

References

Barlat, F., and Lian, J. 1989. Plastic behavior and stretchability of sheet metals. Part I: A yield

function for orthotropic sheets under plane stress conditions. International Journal of Plasticity

5:51-61.

Belytschko, T., Liu, W.K., and Moran, B. 2000. Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and

Structures. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Buranathiti, T., Cao, J., Chen, W., Baghdasaryan, L., and Xia, Z.C. 2006. Approaches for model

validation: methodology and illustration on a sheet metal flanging process. ASME Journal of

Manufacturing Science and Engineering 128:588-597.

Cao, J., and Boyce, M.C. 1997. A predictive tool for delaying wrinkling and tearing failures in sheet

metal forming. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 119:354-365.

Cao, J., Li, S., Xia, Z.C., and Tang, S.C. 2000. Analysis of an axisymmetric deep drawn part forming

using less forming steps. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 117:193-200.

Chen, W., Baghdasaryan, L., Buranathiti, T., and Cao, J. 2004. Model validation via uncertainty

propagation and data transformations. AIAA Journal 42:1406-1415.

Chenot, J.-L., and Bay, F. 1998. An overview of numerical modeling techniques. Journal of Materials

Processing Technology 80-81:8-15.

Chenot, J.-L., Massoni, E., and Fourment, L. 1996. Inverse problems in finite element simulation of

metal forming processes. Engineering Computations 13:190-225.

Chung, K., and Richmond, O. 1992a. Ideal forming--I. Homogeneous deformation with minimum

plastic work. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 34:575-591.

Chung, K., and Richmond, O. 1992b. Ideal forming--II. Sheet forming with optimum deformation.

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 34:617-633.

Chung, K., Barlat, F., Brem, J.C., Lege, D.J., and Richmond, O. 1997. Blank shape design for a planar

anisotropic sheet based on ideal forming design theory and FEM analysis. International Journal

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Koc, M., Allen, T., Jiratheranat, S., and Altan, T. 2000. The use of FEA and design of experiments to

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Lan, J., Dong, X., and Li, Z. 2005. Inverse finite element approach and its application in sheet metal

forming. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170:624-631.

Lee, C., and Cao, J. 2001. Shell element formulation of multi-step inverse analysis for axisymmetric

deep drawing process. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 50:681-706.

Lee, C.H., and Huh, H. 1998. Blank design and strain estimates for sheet metal forming processes by a

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Moshfegh, R., Li, X., and Nilsson, L. 2000. Gradient-based refinement indicators in adaptive finite

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43

Buranathiti: ASIMMOD2007, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Naceur, H., Delameziere, A., Batoz, J.L., Guo, Y.Q., and Knopf-Lenoir, C. 2004. Some improvements

on the optimum process design in deep drawing using the inverse approach. Journal of Materials

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forming by the deformation path iteration method. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their gratitude to KMUTT for providing partial financial

support and Engineering Technology Associates (ETA) for providing the commercial software

package.

44

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