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Chapter 2 Study Guide

Section 1 Key Terms and People Vikings, Leif Eriksson, Prince Henry the Navigator, astrolabe, caravel, Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco Da Gama Main Ideas Who were the first Europeans to step foot in North America? Which area did they settle? Why did they not colonize this area in North America? How did Prince Henry the Navigator help to make Portugal the leading European country in exploration? What technological advances allowed Europeans to more easily navigate the seas? What were the causes and effects of the discovery of a sea route to Asia? (Chart on pg 40)Who was the first explorer to discover a sea route from Europe to Asia? How did the slave trade affect west Africa. Section 2 Key Terms and People Christopher Columbus, Line of Demarcation, Treaty of Tordesillas, Amerigo Vespucci, Vasco Nuez de Balboa, Ferdinand Magellan, circumnavigate, Columbian Exchange Main Ideas Where was Christopher Columbus from? What was his destination when he set out sailing west from Europe? Who paid for Columbus voyage? What were the names of his three ships? Where did Columbus believe he had landed when had reached the islands of the Bahamas? How many voyages did Columbus make between 1492 and 1504? What were the effects of Columbus voyages? How was conflict between Spain and Portugal attempted to be resolved when each country claimed land in the Americas? Who did this benefit, the Spanish or the Portugese? Which Spanish explorer is America named after? Which Spanish explorer was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean? Why did Ferdinand Magellan fail to reach his goal of circumnavigating Earth? How many members of his crew actually made it back to Europe? How many miles was the journey? What is the Columbian Exchange? What items were brought from Europe to the Americas? What items were brought from the Americas to Europe? Section 3 Key Terms and People conquistadors, Hernan Cortes, Moctezuma II, Francisco Pizzaro, Atahualpa, Juan Ponce de Leon, Hernando de Soto, encomienda system, plantations, Bartolome de Las Casas Main Ideas What was the capital of the Aztec empire? Where was it located? What present-day city is located near the Aztec capital? How were the Spaniards able to conquer the Aztec empire even though they were greatly outnumbered? Which Spanish conquistador conquered the Aztecs?

What was the capital of the Incan Empire? What was the name of the Incan Emperor? Which Spanish conquistador conquered the Incas? What were the reasons for Spanish victory over the Aztecs and Incas? (Chart on pg 48) Which Spanish explorer searched Florida for the Fountain of Youth? Which Spanish explorer explored the North American southeast (Mississippi River) and died on his journey in 1542? What was the role of the Catholic Church in Spanish explorations in the Americas? Which Catholic priest spoke out against the treatment of Native Americas?

Section 4 Key Terms and People Martin Luther, Protestant Reformation, Protestants, King Henry VIII, Spanish Armada, inflation, Northwest Passage, John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, Henry Hudson, charter, Roanoke Colony, John White, French Huguenots, Samuel de Champlain Main Ideas Who began the Protestant Reformation? Why was he angry at the Catholic Church? What was the impact of the printing press during the Protestant Reformation? Who founded the Church of England and made himself the leader of it? Why did King Philip II of Spain attack England with the Spanish Armada? (two reasons) Why were the British able to defeat the massive Spanish Armada? What was the Northwest Passage and why were so many explorers attempting to find it? Name the explorers who tried to discover the Northwest Passage. Which French explorer made two trips to Canada, sailed into the St. Lawrence River, and claimed territories, including Montreal, for the French? Which English explorer sailed to present day New York in search of the Northwest Passage? He has a river and a bay named in his honor. Who received a charter to establish a permanent colony in North America? What happened to the Roanoke Colony? What word was carved on post at the abandoned colony of Roanoke?