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Contact lens A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin, plastic lens placed directly on the surface of the eye

to correct visual defects. The uses of contact lens Aesthetics and cosmetics are often motivating factors for people who would like to avoid wearing Other people wear contacts for more visual reasons. When compared with spectacles, contact lenses glasses or would like to change the appearance of their eyes typically provide better peripheral vision, and do not collect moisture such as rain, snow, condensation, or sweat. This makes them ideal for sports and other outdoor activities. Contact lens wearers can also wear sunglasses, goggles, or other eyewear of their choice without having to fit them with prescription lenses or worry about compatibility with glasses. Additionally, there are conditions such as keratoconus and aniseikonia that are typically corrected better by contacts than by glasses. Types of contact lenses[edit] Corrective contact lenses[edit] Corrective contact lenses are designed to improve vision, most commonly by correcting refractive error. This is done by directly focusing the light so that it enters the eye with the proper power for clear vision. Recently, there has been renewed interest in orthokeratology, the correction of myopia by deliberate overnight flattening of the corneal epithelium, leaving the eye without a refractive error during the day. Other types of vision correction[edit] For those with certain color deficiencies, a red-tinted "X-Chrom" contact lens may be used. Although the lens does not restore normal color vision, it allows some colorblind individuals to distinguish colors better. Cosmetic contact lenses[edit] A cosmetic contact lens is designed to change the appearance of the eye. These lenses may also correct refractive error. Although many brands of contact lenses are lightly tinted to make them easier to handle, cosmetic lenses worn to change the color of the eye are far less common, accounting for only 3% of contact lens fits in 2004.[27] Therapeutic contact lenses[edit] Soft lenses are often used in the treatment and management of non-refractive disorders of the eye. A bandage contact lens protects an injured or diseased cornea from the constant rubbing of blinking eyelids thereby allowing it to heal.[29] They are used in the treatment of conditions including bullous keratopathy, dry eyes, corneal abrasions and erosion, keratitis, corneal edema, descemetocele, corneal ectasis, Mooren's ulcer, anterior corneal dystrophy, and neurotrophic keratoconjunctivitis.[30] Contact lenses that deliver drugs to the eye have also been developed.[31] Manufacturing of contact lenses[edit]

Spin-cast lenses A spin-cast lens is a soft contact lens manufactured by whirling liquid silicone in a

revolving mold at high speed.[33]

Diamond turning A diamond-turned contact lens is cut and polished on a CNC lathe.[33] The lens starts

out as a cylindrical disk held in the jaws of the lathe. The lathe is equipped with an industrialgrade diamond as the cutting tool. The CNC lathe may turn at nearly 6000 RPM as the cutter removes the desired amount of material from the inside of the lens. The concave (inner) surface of the lens is then polished with some fine abrasive paste, oil, and a small polyester cotton ball turned at high speeds. In order to hold the delicate lens in reverse manner, wax is used as an adhesive. The convex (outer) surface of the lens is thus cut and polished by the same process. This process can be used to shape rigid lenses, but can also be used to make soft lenses. In the case of soft lenses, the lens is cut from a dehydrated polymer that is rigid until water is reintroduced.

Molded Molding is used to manufacture some brands of soft contact lenses. Rotating molds are used

and the molten material is added and shaped by centrifugal forces. Injection molding and computer control are also used to create nearly perfect lenses.[34] The contact lens is kept moist throughout the entire molding process and is never dried then rehydrated. Complications[edit] Complications due to contact lens wear affect roughly 5% of contact lens wearers each year.[37] Most complications arise when lenses are worn differently than prescribed (improper wear schedule or lens replacement) Sleeping in lenses not designed or approved for extended wear is a common cause of complications. Many people go too long before replacing their lenses, wearing lenses designed for 1, 14, or 30 days of wear for multiple months or years. While this does save on the cost of lenses, it risks permanent damage to the eye and loss of sight. The way contact lenses interact with the natural tear layer is a major factor in determining lens comfort and visual clarity. People that suffer from dry eyes are particularly vulnerable to mild discomfort and episodes of brief blurry vision. Improper use of contact lenses may affect the eyelid, the conjunctiva, and the various layers of the cornea. [37] Poor lens care can lead to infections by various microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and Acanthamoeba. Long-term (over 5 years) use of contact lenses may "decrease the entire corneal thickness and increase the corneal curvature and surface irregularity."[38] Long-term wear of rigid contact lens is associated with decreased corneal keratocyte density[39] and increased number of epithelial Langerhans cells.[40]