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CIMAC Central Secretariat c/o VDMA e.V. Lyoner Strasse 18 60528 Frankfurt/Germany
Tel: +49 69 6603 1567 Fax: +49 69 6603 1566 e-mail: Internet:
J. T. Kim, Project Manager, Initial Design Dep't
S. I. Park, General Manager, Initial Design Dep't
S. N. Yoo, Director, Engine & Machinery Division
T. D. Kim, Executive Vice President, Engine& Machinery Division
Hyundai Heavy Ind. Co. Ltd, Ulsan(Republic of Korea)
Tel: ++82 52 230 7264
Fax: ++82 52 230 7425
H21/32, a new medium speed diesel engine
of HYUNDAI's first own design, demonstrates a
PRACTICAL engine concept, offering more reliable
power with reduced cost and more advanced
design with familiar features.
This new engine has a 210 mm bore and
320 mm stroke with cylinder power from 150kW to
200kW at 720/750/900/1000 rpm. The output range
is from 750kW to 1800 KW with an in-line
configuration of 5 to 9 cylinders. The applications
for new engines are centered primarily on the
marine or land based generating sets with heavy
fuel capability. Marine propulsion version and gas
fuel versions will soon follow.
This paper describes the design and
development details of this new engine. Engine
performance is described including the effects of a
high stroke to bore ratio and a high compression
ratio as the primary tools to meet the future
ecological constraints.
Two design approach, Hi-Tech and Hi-Touch
design approach, were introduced to accomplish
the design target. The Hi-Tech design approach
involves using modern CAE technology as a design
tool for predicting engine performance and reliability.
The Hi-Touch design approach enables a simple
and smart design for easier production and
maintenance with a minimal number of engine
components, which is another key feature in
enhancing the competitiveness of the new engine.
Two sets of prototype engines were built to
confirm of the engine performance and durability.
Some test results are also presented.
In addition to the successful manufacturing
and supply of large two stroke Diesel engines for
the worldwide customers, Hyundai Heavy Industries
Co. Ltd(HHI) entered into the medium speed engine
business in 1990 and has accumulated production
amount of more than 2300 sets (3 million kW)
during the last ten years. Most of the products are
marine genset with a power range of 1000kW to
3000kW under license from major designers of the
Based on the experience in this new area,
the necessity of doing own designs for medium
speed engines, due to greater design flexibility, has
been very apparent. Doing this will also help HHI
meet customers' needs and production practices of
the company. Accordingly, HHI has decided to
design and develop the new engines with its own
This decision was also made in view of the
technology accumulated from huge amount of
engine production and service experience. Modern
CAE technology has been updated steadily to
support the company's various products, including
Diesel engines. Two of the company's research
centers were reorganized to support new engine
designs and experiments with state of the art CAE
technology. In addition to these fundamental
research activities, single cylinder research engine
system was designed and built in 1994, which
enabled a wide range of engine experiments with
up to future target limits and provided more reliable
tuning for theoretical analyses, hence the practical
target specifications have been extracted to cope
with current and future market trends including
environmental constraints.
HHI's new engine family currently consists of
two base models with a 210mm bore, H21/32, and
a 250mm bore, H25/33. Design and development
for both models commenced almost at the same
time with different design concepts. The smaller
model, H21/32, is HHI's own design and the other
has been jointly developed with Rolls Royce Engine
Bergen, mainly aiming at maximum synergy for both
This paper describes the design and
development details of HHI's first own design
medium-speed diesel engine, Hyundai HIMSEN
2.1) Basic Targets
HHI's production record in the last ten years
and future trend analysis clearly showed that an
engine power range of 150kW to 200kW per
cylinder would be also dominant and accordingly
selected as first priority for the power range of the
new engine, H21/32.
Initial application target is genset with heavy
fuel operation not only on board but also on land.
Conversions of a Gas Engine and a Propulsion
application were also considered in the same family.
[Table 1] shows the basic parameters of this engine
and some of the backgrounds are described in the
following sections.
Engine Type H21/32
Cylinder Bore [mm] 210
Piston Stroke [mm] 320
Engine Speed [rpm] 720 750 900 1000
Cylinder Power [kW] 160 160 200 200
Mean Piston Speed [m/s] 7.7 8.0 9.6 10.7
B.M.E.P [MPa] 2.41 2.31 2.41 2.17
Power Density [MPa.m/s] 18.5 18.5 23.1 23.1
Max. Firing Press. [Mpa] 20 20 20 20
186 186 187 189
[Table 1] Basic Parameters
2.2) PRATICAL Engine through Hi-Tech and Hi-
Touch Design Approach
Thanks to the innumerable engineers' efforts
to overcome various challenges, medium speed
diesel engines will be continuously dominant in the
marine market for at least a few more decades.
However, there are still strong demands for cost
reduction together with the additional challenge of
environmental constraints.
In view of HHI's production capacity, the
target power range of 150kW to 200kW per cylinder
is the smallest engine size to maintain
competitiveness. HHI, therefore, established its own
design philosophy based on the experiences of
various engine designs, that is, a new engine
should be a PRACTICAL engine, which HHI
defined simply :
(1) ReIiabIe System with High Performance.
(2) Advanced Design with FamiIiar Features.
In order to realize these rather vague
concept of PRACTICAL engine, a more clear
design philosophy was introduced:
First, engine performance should be
optimized within the proven reliability limit. Hence,
any risky innovative trials excluded. Instead, more
traditional approaches, for example, higher stroke
to bore ratio, higher compression ratio, etc, applied
within available production technology. Therefore,
modern CAE technologies have a key role in
extracting optimum design solutions for both higher
performance and higher reliability at the same time.
this is part of, so called, 'Hi-Tech' design
Second, engine design should be simple and
smart without any redundant or poor features for
new millennium customers, as the indirect cost for
production and maintenance will be higher than
direct cost. Hence, numerous design iterations and
creative ideas are important in achieving the best
solution for both higher reliability and reduced cost.
which eventually resulted in customer friendly
engine. This is part of the 'Hi-Touch' design
approach [3][4].
A combination of these two design
approaches was adopted as a leading principle for
the design of the H21/32 engine.
3.1. Engine Power and Speed
As mentioned above, the target engi ne
power range was from 160kW/cyl to 200kW/cyl.
The power of 200kW/cyl at 900 and 1000 rpm was
chosen as nominal power while 160kW/cyl for the
lower speeds of 720 and 750 rpm.
Engine speeds of 900rpm and 1000rpm have
been introducing for marine gen-set applications
increasingly because of the advantage of the higher
power. However, 720rpm and 750rpm were also
considered to meet some conservative customers'
3.2) Engine Bore and Stroke
As the combination of bore and stroke is the
most decisive parameter for the whole life of an
engine, extensive feasibility studies were
conducted. An engine bore range of 200mm to
220mm and a stroke range of 300mm to 320mm
were considered.
Based on a wide range of engine
performance simulations and experiments on the
single cylinder research engine, bore 210mm and
stroke 320mm were selected as the most practical
combination for future economical and ecological
demands. [Fig. 1] illustrates some of engine
performance simulation results, which show a
typical trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx
emission. [Fig.1] also implies that stroke increment
reduces NOx emission with almost no fuel penalty
in this specific size of bore 210mm engine with
combustion pressure of 200bar. Hereby, the
traditional approach of higher stroke was applied
as a primary measure of lower fuel consumption
and lower NOx emission with more potential.
Mean Piston Speeds for the stroke 320mm
are 9.6m/s at 900rpm and 10.7m/s at 1000 rpm,
which are acceptable thanks to modern technology
for the design and production of related engine
components. Experiments with higher piston speed
on a single cylinder engine also showed promising
3.3. Performance Parameters and Results.
Based on the performance simulation results
as shown in [Fig.2], actual fuel consumption lower
than 190g/kWh within the IMO NOx 2000 of
11.5g/kWh at 900rpm requires Compression Ratio
to be bigger than 16 and Maximum Combustion
Pressure to be higher than 190bar. Other
parameters have also been simulated to optimize
the Fuel Consumption, NOx Emission, Smoke,
Thermal Load, etc. These parameters, however,
were finally chosen during development testing on
the prototype engine. The test components were
prepared for development testing in advance, which
are summarized as below;
(1) Piston crowns with compression ratio of 16, 16.5
and 17 with respectively different bowl shapes.
(2) Fuel Injection Nozzles with various diameters
from 0.28mm to 0.36mm with different numbers
of holes and spray angles.
(3) Fuel Injection Valves with adjustable opening
pressures of 450bar to 600bar for maximum
injection pressure of higher than 1800bar.
(4) Intake and Exhaust Cams for conventional
timing and Miller timing.
(5) Unique Cooling Water System to control Boost
Air temperature.
(6) Exhaust Gas Systems of ABB's MPC system
and 3 Pulse system.
As there were too many combinations of
each parameter to test all cases, parametric study
by simulation and test were carried out in parallel to
save time.
Some of the optimized results and selected
parameters, however, are listed below;
[Fig. 2] Engine Performance Parameters
[Fig. 1] Effect of Stroke to Bore 210mm
(1) Compression ratio 17, maximum firing pressure
200 bar, and Miller timing resulted in optimum
combination of fuel consumption and NOx
Emission as shown in [Fig. 3].
(2) Fuel Injection Nozzle of Diameter 0.32 , 10 holes,
and 148 degree spray angle was the best match
for a piston bowl of compression ratio 17 in view
of the combustion and thermal load as shown in
[Fig.13 ].
(3) Fuel valve opening pressure 500 bar, Boost air
temperature higher than 60 degrees C, and a
Pulse exhaust gas system reduced the Smoke
value significantly at low load as shown in
4.1. Functional Study Of Engine Components
Engine design initiated extensive functional
study of engine components on conventional
engines, providing useful design guides for the
PRACTICAL Engine Concept as the results. First,
each engine component was categorized into one
of three groups together with investigation of
production cost, weight, and number of components.
The groups were as below;
(1) Group A (Main Parts, such as engine block,
crank shaft, con rod, cylinder head, etc.)
(2) Group B (Specialist's Parts, such as Turbo-
charger, governor, piston, bearings, Fuel
Injection Equipments, etc)
(3) Group C (Sub Parts, all the other remaining
parts, variable subject to the designs.)
[Table 2] shows a typical results, which
make some important implications, that is, how
engine designers have to deal with each component
and how much the achievable target is.
No. of
Weight Cost
Group 'A'
(Main Parts)
4% 56% 38%
Group 'B'
(Specialists' Parts)
4% 5% 27%
Group 'C'
(Sub Parts)
92% 39% 35%
[Table 2] Engine Component Grouping and a
Typical Distribution
Considering that the design and production
technologies for the Group 'A' and 'B', such as
Computer Aided Engineering technology and
Flexible Machining Systems, have become more
and more generalized in these days, it is clear that
[Fig.3] Engine Performance (Measured on
6H21/32, Prototype Engine)
the competitiveness of a new engine depends more
on how to handle Group 'C'. The importance of the
Group 'C', therefore, was also emphasized in the
beginning stage of the design, and some design
guides were set up accordingly as below;
(1) As the design alternatives are so limited for
higher performance and reliability target
including future upgrade potential, the weight
and cost increase of Group A and B should be
optimized conservatively within the range of the
engine power increment. The 'Hi-Tech' design
approach was introduced for this purpose.
(2) As Group B could have some alternative
solutions in the market, provisional designs
would be essential for the market situation.
(3) As Group 'C' has so many alternatives
depending on the design, design efforts should
be concentrated to minimize the number and
kind of components, which actually is the only
way to reduce production cost as well as to
improve maintenance without hurting
performance and reliability. The 'Hi-Touch'
design approach was introduced for this purpose.
4.2. Engine Design Outline
[Fig. 4] shows the outlook of a proto type test
engine and [Fig. 5] illustrates a cross section of the
Because the H21/32 engine model is HHI 's
first own design and its performance level is meant
for a highest class, every design feature has been
newly selected based on the own practical engine
concept as well as the combination of Hi -tech and
Hi-Touch design approach. The results of design
provide some important features as below;
(1) Minimized number and kind of engine
components, as well as pipe free.
(2) Direct accessibility to every component in need
of maintenance.
(3) Easier procurement through use of more
common, standard parts and materials.
(4) Less risk involved by simplifying the critical or
[Fig. 4] Prototype Test Engine-6H21/32
[Fig. 5] Cross Section H21/32
larger parts with more function integration on
smaller parts.
4.3. Engine Block, Crankshaft and Connecting Rod
Complying with the high cylinder pressure,
various design alternatives were proposed for 3
dimensional FE analyses as well as classical
calculations. Hereby, the design of the main
structure, engine block, crank shaft and connecting
rod were optimized for the company's production
practices with generous dimensions, which resulted
in moderate fatigue safety factors.
The engine block, as shown in [Fig.6], has a
simple and robust structure made of nodular cast
iron. A large volume of combustion air chamber and
lubricating oil channel were incorporated into engine
block but water space was excluded to avoid any
risk of corrosion and water flood into oil chamber.
The connecting rod is of a three piece
marine head type due to the increased crankpin
diameter as shown in [Fig. 7]. The crank has a
torsional vibration damper of a tuned or viscous
damper subject to the number of cylinders of the
engine. All fasteners are tightened by hydraulic
tension for better reliability and maintenance. The
connecting rod is shot-peened to prevent any
fretting from relative movement under inertia force
in the mating surface of the rod and the big end part.
The crank pin bearing is an aluminum
trimetal type of Rillenlager, and the main bearing is
an aluminum bimetal type. These are adequate for
the hydrodynamic oil film peak pressure with a wide
range of oil temperatures.
4.4. Cylinder Unit
4.4.1. Design Concept of the Cylinder Unit
Recently, the concept of, so called, the
cylinder unit has been adopted from locomotive
engines to the marine engines[1],[2]. This concept
was investigated since the maintenance conditions
on rail and on board are rather different. Despite
some of the easier maintenance aspects, there
[Fig.7] Connecting Rod
[Fig.6] Engine Block Cylinder Sect
were also some negative responses from ship
crews as well as ship designers. Ship crews were
skeptical because the maintenance periods of each
component in the cylinder unit are different and
treatment for storage is inconvenient. They also
pointed out that such a maintenance system is not
ready on board as well as on land. Ship designers
worried about the increased overhaul height.
In view of PRACTICAL engine concept,
however, both the maintenance concept of each
part and the cylinder unit was introduced to the
H21/32 engine. Further, more components were
mounted on the cylinder unit. That is, Fuel Injection
Pump and Pipe Block as well as Valve train were
included as shown in [Fig. 8] with direct accessibility,
which is more beneficial not only for the
maintenance but also for the production. This
design concept was realized by the unique design
of a highly integrated Water Jacket, which provides
combustion air passage from the engine block to
the cylinder head, a cooling water passage between
adjacent cylinders, Swing Arm and Fuel Pump
support, a Push Rod space and all drilled lubricating
oil passages. Accordingly, the overall features of
the cylinder unit is very simple with a minimum
number of components and easier maintenance as
4.4.2. Development of Cylinder Unit
As the cylinder Unit is one of the most
critical components for new engine development,
HHI set up full technical processes in-house for
quicker response, that is, comprising of a series of
concurrent engineering system with rig testing.
(1) The Cylinder Head is made of nodular cast iron
with 'V' type fire deck support for high firing
pressure. Intake and Exhaust ports were
developed completely in house by means of
HHI's own flow test rig in parallel with CFD
analysis work, as shown in [Fig. 9], [Fig.10],
[Fig. 8] Cylinder Unit
[Fig. 9] Cylinder Head Port Flow Model
[Fig. 10] Cylinder Head Port
Flow Rate(Measured)
[Fig.11], and [Fig.12].
(2) The structural design of the Cylinder Head and
Liner was optimized based on the CFD analysis
of Coolant Flow as well as Finite Element
Analysis, which was confirmed during the proto
type engine test as shown on [Fig. 13]. The
pressure distribution of the gasket between the
Cylinder Head and the Liner were also verified
by means of a, so called, FUJI film method.
(3) The Piston is a two piece type comprising a steel
Crown and box type steel Skirt, which has the
advantage of higher load limits and lower
deformation under high cylinder pressure. In
order to avoid sharp edge contact, a profiled
machining was adopted in the pin bore, which
was also confirmed by analyses of secondary
motion of the Piston together with 3D FE
analysis of the Piston and the Cylinder Liner.
Two compression rings and one oil scraper ring
are provided, and especially the top ring is
coated with chromium-ceramic material on the
running surface to enhance the ring wear rate.
The running surface of the Cylinder Liner has
small oil pockets, which is still under testing with
promising results.
4.5. Fuel Injection Equipment
A fuel injection pressure of higher than
1800 bar was applied as the working pressure of
the fuel injection system in order to improve the
combustion. Robust and simple design was
adopted to absorb this pressure, that is, The
injection pump has a roller tappet with generous
dimensions, the injection pipe is of a short block
type to ensure leakage, and the injection valve
comprises of a high opening pressure capability
with a oil cooled nozzle body for heavy fuel
[Fig.11] Cylinder Coolant Flow Model
[Fig. 12] Cylinder Coolant Flow Analysis
[Fig.13] Temperature measurement around
Combustion Chamber(100% Load@900rpm)
operation. The performance of the system was
optimized by hydrodynamic analysis as well as rig
testing in house. The durability was confirmed on a
supplier's test bench and on the proto type engine.
4.6. Camshaft and Valve Train
The cam shaft comprises a fuel cam, an
intake cam and an exhaust cam in one piece per
each cylinder. It has generous dimensions with
special chromium molybdenum steel to withstand
the high injection pressure. The profiles of each
cam were optimized through the Hermite Spline
Curve method developed by HHI, which provided a
highly effective cam profile design for the heavily
loaded valve train system.
4.8. Feed System Module
The feed system such as cooling water and
oil supply system has been arranged free end side
with complicated pipes traditionally. Recently,
simplification has also been tried by modularizing
partly or wholly[1].
As simplification of this feed system is most
important in view of practical engine concept,
various feasibility study was thoroughly carried out.
It was concluded that the full modularization of the
system could be more advantageous depending on
the designs. Hereby, the feed system was designed
successfully as shown in [Fig.14 ] with the following
(1) All components which need maintenance, for
example, Pumps, Valves, Filters, Coolers, and
etc. have unique designs which provide direct
accessibility for easier maintenance as shown
on [Fig.15].
(2) Flow channels inside the feed block are
arranged to secure water-tight to oil space and
simplified in combination with pumps and valve
housings for better flow characteristics to avoid
corrosion due to cavitation, etc.
(3) The casting of Feed Block is simple enough to
compete with conventional piping designs in
view of production cost, as the number of mold
boxes could be minimized due to its simple
arrangement of inside channels. Hereby,
casting quality and productivity were improved
[Fig.15] Feed System Module
Maintenance with Direct Accessibility.
[Fig.14] Feed System Module Outline
(4) The unique design of Air Cooler Cover
enables various control of cooling water flow
for controlling temperature of combustion air at
low load. [Fig.16] shows the structure of the Air
Cooler Cover with the Flow Control Valve in the
middle between High Temperature Circuit and
Low Temperature Circuit. Hereby, the Air
Cooler can function as heater at low load due
to the high temperature water flow with full heat
transfer area. [Fig.17] shows a test result of the
functions of Flow Control Valve on prototype
engine, that is, cold engine with low
temperature(LT) cooling water into air cooler
shows significant smoke levels at low load.
Change over of high temperature(HT) water
into the Air Cooler shows only slight
improvement as heat transfer to combustion
air is so much to cool down the cylinder cooling
water, hence lower the temperature of whole
engine body. However, considerable
improvement is shown when high temperature
water supplied to engine, as in a typical
marine auxiliary system, together with air
cooler included in the high temperature cooling
water circuit. However, further improvement
will be followed to realize smokeless engine at
idle load.
4.9. Turbocharging System
The turbocharging system meets the
requirements of simple and robust design as well as
high efficiency, power density and durability. At the
same time the compact ABB TPS turbocharger
provides sufficient potential for future output
increases. The turbocharger design features are
mixed flow turbine, radial compressor and bearing
lubrication by engine oil. The turbocharger needs no
cooling water since the lube oil has also a cooling
function. Both MPC and 3-Pulse exhaust systems
were optimized by comprising engine cycle
simulations and tested on the engine. The 3-Pulse
system was confirmed as the superior design
regarding general performance, part load behaviour,
accelleration and reliability.
In order to implement the practical engine
concept, modern concurrent engineering technology
in terms of Hi-Tech design approach and designers
effort in the spirit of Hi-Touch design approach were
applied faithfully. The design target was confirmed
by prototype engine development and tests.
The results are summarized as below;
(1) Traditional approaches, such as high
[Fig.17] Smoke Measurements
by Coolant Controls
HT Water
LT Water
[Fig.16] Air Cooler Cover with
Flow Control Valve
stroke to bore ratio and high compression
ratio are still valid in modern engine design
with better performance.
(2) Simple structure and minimized number of
engine components concurrently improve
reliability, maintenance, and production.
(3) Modern concurrent engineering system
and qualified sub suppliers made it
possible to effectively shorten new engine
development period.
The authors wish to express sincere thanks
to all the staffs and the partners for their
commitment to the new engine design and
W.B.Lee and B.R.SONG, Dong-A Publisher, 1993
Professor of Duk Sung Women's University, Seoul,
[4] SET UP THEORY W, M.W.LEE, JiSik SanUpSa,
1992, Professor of Seoul National University, Seoul,