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The table below shows the relative frequencies of the ages of the students at Ingham High School. Age (in years) 13 14 15 16 17 Total Relative frequency 0.11 0.30 0.23 0.21 0.15 1

(a)

If a student is randomly selected from this school, find the probability that (i) (ii) the student is 15 years old; the student is 16 years of age or older.

There are 1200 students at Ingham High School. (b) Working: Calculate the number of 15 year old students.

(Total 4 marks)

2.

Note: For this question, it is important that you show your working and explain your method clearly. A box contains 10 coloured light bulbs, 5 green, 3 red and 2 yellow. One light bulb is selected at random and put into the light fitting of room A. (a) What is the probability that the light bulb selected is (i) (ii) green?

(1)

not green?

(1)

A second light bulb is selected at random and put into the light fitting in room B. (b) What is the probability that (i) (ii) (iii) the second light bulb is green given the first light bulb was green?

(l)

(2)

one room has a green light bulb and the other room does not have a green light bulb?

(3)

A third light bulb is selected at random and put in the light fitting of room C. (c) What is the probability that (i) (ii) (iii) all three rooms have green light bulbs?

(2)

(3)

(2) (Total 15 marks)

3.

A bag contains 2 red, 3 yellow and 5 green sweets. Without looking, Mary takes one sweet out of the bag and eats it. She then takes out a second sweet. (a) (b) If the first sweet is green, what is the probability that the second sweet is also green? If the first sweet is not red, what is the probability that the second sweet is red?

Working:

(Total 4 marks)

4.

In a school, 180 pupils are asked which is their favourite outdoor sport in winter. The pie chart shows the result of the survey. The diagram is not accurately drawn.

F o o tb a ll (5 6 )

H ockey (4 3 )

O th e r N e tb a ll (3 4 ) (a) (b) Working: Calculate the angle of the sector representing rugby.

R ugby (3 8 )

Estimate the probability that a pupils favourite outdoor sport in winter will be hockey.

(Total 4 marks)

5.

On a certain game show, contestants spin a wheel to win a prize, as shown in the diagram. The larger angles are 40 (the shaded sectors), and the smaller angles are 20.

N o P riz e G H N o P riz e

W D N o P riz e G H

Find the probability that a contestant (a) will not win a prize;

(b)

(c)

will win a washer/dryer (WD), given that he knows that he has won a prize;

(d) Working:

(Total 4 marks)

6.

Of a group of five students, two will be selected to visit the United Nations. The five students are John, Maria, Raul, Henri and Susan. (a) With the aid of a tree diagram or a table of outcomes, find the number of different possible combinations of students that could go to the United Nations.

(b) Working:

Find the probability that both Maria and Susan will go on the trip.

(Total 4 marks)

7.

A group of 25 females were asked how many children they each had. The results are shown in the histogram below. N u m b e r o f C h ild re n p e r F e m a le 10 9 8 7 6 F req u e n c y 5 4 3 2 1 0

2 N u m b e r o f C h ild re n

(a)

(2)

(b)

Show clearly that the standard deviation for this data is approximately 1.06.

(3)

(c)

Another group of 25 females was surveyed and it was found that the mean number of children per female was 2.4 and the standard deviation was 2. Use the results from parts (a) and (b) to describe the differences between the number of children the two groups of females have.

(2)

(d)

A female is selected at random from the first group. What is the probability that she has more than two children?

(2)

(e)

Two females are selected at random from the first group. What is the probability that (i) (ii) (iii) both females have more than two children?

(2)

(3)

the second female selected has two children given that the first female selected had no children?

(1) (Total 15 marks)

8.

Nene and Deka both play netball. The probability that Nene will score a goal on her first attempt is 0.75. The probability that Deka will score a goal on her first attempt is 0.82. Calculate the probability that (a) Nene and Deka will both score a goal on their first attempts;

(b) Working:

neither Nene nor Deka will score a goal on their first attempts.

(Total 4 marks)

9.

In a club with 60 members, everyone attends either on Tuesday for Drama ( D) or on Thursday for Sports (S) or on both days for Drama and Sports. One week it is found that 48 members attend for Drama and 44 members attend for Sports and x members attend for both Drama and Sports. (a) (i) (ii) Draw and label fully a Venn diagram to illustrate this information.

(3)

Find the number of members who attend for both Drama and Sports.

(2)

(iii) (iv)

(2)

What is the probability that a member selected at random attends for Drama only or Sports only?

(3)

The club has 28 female members, 8 of whom attend for both Drama and Sports. (b) What is the probability that a member of the club selected at random (i) (ii) is female and attends for Drama only or Sports only?

(2)

(2) (Total 14 marks)

10.

Two jars contain a number of coloured balls as indicated in the diagrams below.

2 B la c k 3 W h ite

2 B la c k 1 W h ite

Jar Two

First Experiment: A jar is first chosen at random and then a ball is drawn from that jar. (a) Draw, and label fully, a tree diagram to show all possible outcomes of this experiment.

(2)

(b)

(3)

Second Experiment: The ball drawn in the first experiment is not replaced. A second ball is then drawn from the same jar. (c) What is the probability that both balls are white?

(2) (Total 7 marks)

10

11.

Members of a certain club are required to register for one of three games, billiards, snooker or darts. The number of club members of each gender choosing each game in a particular year is shown in the table below. Billiards Snooker 16 14 Darts 8 17

2

39 21

Use a (Chi-squared) test at the 5% significance level to test whether choice of games is independent of gender. State clearly the null and alternative hypotheses tested, the expected values, and the number of degrees of freedom used.

(13)

The following year the choice of games was widened and the figures for that year are as follows: Billiards Male Female (b) 4 10 Snooker 15 21 Darts 8 17 Fencing 10 37

(i) (ii)

why would it be necessary to combine billiards with another game? which other game would you combine with billiards and why?

(2)

A club member is to be selected at random. (c) What is the probability that the club member selected is a (i) (ii) female who chose billiards or snooker? male or female who chose darts or fencing?

(2) (Total 17 marks)

11

12.

A bag contains two red sweets and three green sweets. Jacques takes one sweet from the bag, notes its colour, then eats it. He then takes another sweet from the bag. Complete the tree diagram below to show all probabilities. R ed

2 5

R ed

G re e n 2 4 G re e n R ed

G re e n Working:

(Total 4 marks)

12

13.

In a survey of 52 students it was found that 30 study Spanish and 15 have computers. Seven of the students who study Spanish also have computers. (a) Copy and complete this table. Study Spanish Do not study Spanish

Total

(3)

(b)

Draw and label fully a Venn diagram to illustrate this information. Use U to represent the set of all students surveyed, S the set of students who study Spanish and C the set of students who have computers.

(2)

(c)

(2)

(d)

Find n(C S ).

(1)

13

A student is selected at random to attend a computer workshop given in Spanish. (e) What is the probability that the student (i) (ii) (iii) has a computer and studies Spanish?

(2)

(2)

(2) (Total 14 marks)

14.

The sets A, B and C are subsets of U. They are defined as follows: U = {positive integers less than 16} A = {prime numbers} B = {factors of 36} C = {multiples of 4}

(a)

List the elements (if any) of the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) A; B; C; A B C.

(4)

(b)

(i) (ii)

Draw a Venn diagram showing the relationship between the sets U, A, B and C. Write the elements of sets U, A, B and C in the appropriate places on the Venn diagram.

(4)

14

(c)

From the Venn diagram, list the elements of each of the following (i) (ii) (iii) A (B C); (A B); (A B) C.

(3)

(d)

Find the probability that a number chosen at random from the universal set U will be (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) a prime number; a prime number, but not a factor of 36; a factor of 36 or a multiple of 4, but not a prime number; a prime number, given that it is a factor of 36.

(6) (Total 17 marks)

15.

A teacher has a box containing six type A calculators and four type B calculators. The probability that a type A calculator is faulty is 0.1 and the probability that a type B calculator is faulty is 0.12. (a) Complete the tree diagram given below, showing all the probabilities. 0 .1 ty p e A 0 .6 N O T FA U LT Y FA U LT Y 0 .4 ty p e B N O T FA U LT Y FA U LT Y

15

(b)

A calculator is selected at random from the box. Find the probability that the calculator is (i) (ii) a faulty type A; not faulty.

Working:

(Total 4 marks)

16.

Let F be the set of all families that have exactly 2 children. (a) Assuming P(boy) = P(girl), copy and complete the following tree diagram, for families with 2 children. B oy

1 2

B oy G irl B oy G irl

G irl

(2)

16

(b)

What is the probability that a family chosen at random from F has exactly (i) (ii) (iii) 2 boys? 2 boys, if it is known that the first child is a boy? 2 boys, if it is known that there is a boy in the family?

(3) (Total 5 marks)

17.

The Venn diagram below shows the number of students studying Science ( S), Mathematics (M) and History (H) out of a group of 20 college students. Some of the students do not study any of these subjects, 8 study Science, 10 study Mathematics and 9 study History. U S 4 2 1 3 3 H 1 A M

(a)

How many students belong to the region labelled A? Describe in words the region labelled A. How many students do not study any of the three subjects?

(5)

(b)

Draw a sketch of the Venn diagram above and shade the region which represents S H.

(1)

(c)

(2)

17

This group of students is to compete in an annual quiz evening which tests knowledge of Mathematics, Science and History. The names of the twenty students are written on pieces of paper and then put into a bag. (d) One name is randomly selected from the bag. Calculate the probability that the student selected studies (i) (ii) all three subjects; History or Science.

(2)

(e)

A team of two students is to be randomly selected to compete in the quiz evening. The first student selected will be the captain of the team. Calculate the probability that (i) (ii) (iii) the captain studies all three subjects and the other team member does not study any of the three subjects; one student studies Science only and the other student studies History only; the second student selected studies History, given that the captain studies History and Mathematics.

(5) (Total 15 marks)

18.

Heinrik rolls two 6-sided dice at the same time. One die has three red sides and three black sides. The other die has the sides numbered from 1 to 6. By means of a tree diagram, table of outcomes or otherwise, answer each of the following questions. (a) How many different possible combinations can he roll?

(b)

What is the probability that he will roll a red and an even number?

(c)

18

(d) Working:

(Total 8 marks)

19.

Fifty students at Layton High School recorded how much money each student in their class spent on video rentals this month (to the nearest dollar). The results are shown in the frequency table below: Class interval in $ 110 1120 2130 3140 4150 5160 6170 Boundaries in $ 0.5010.50 10.5020.50 20.5030.50 30.5040.50 40.5050.50 50.5060.50 60.5070.50 Frequency 10 20 10 0 4 2 4

(a)

On graph paper using a scale of 2 cm to represent each interval ($10.00) on the horizontal axis and 1 cm to represent 5 people on the vertical axis, draw and clearly label a frequency histogram which displays the above information.

(5)

(b)

Answer the following questions: (i) (ii) Which class is the modal class? In which class is the median?

(2)

19

(c)

Assuming these students spend the same amount on videos each month, find the probability that next month a student will spend an amount in the class interval: (i) (ii) From $21 to $30 inclusive on video rentals. $30 or less on video rentals.

(iii) (iv)

From $41 to $60 on video rentals, given that they spent more than $20 on video rentals. Not more than $60 on video rentals, given that they spent over $10 on video rentals.

(6) (Total 13 marks)

20

20.

3 Today Philip intends to go walking. The probability of good weather (G) is 4 . If the weather is 17 good, the probability he will go walking (W) is 20 . If the weather forecast is not good (NG) 1 the probability he will go walking is 5 .

(a) Complete the probability tree diagram to illustrate this information. W 17 20 G 3 4 N W W

N G

N W

21

(b) Working:

(Total 8 marks)

21.

On a particular day 100 children are asked to make a note of what they drank that day. They are given three choices: water (W), coffee (C) or fruit juice (F) 1 child drank only water. 6 children drank only coffee. 8 children drank only fruit juice. 5 children drank all three. 7 children drank water and coffee only. 53 children drank coffee and fruit juice only. 18 children drank water and fruit juice only. (a) Represent the above information on a Venn Diagram.

(4)

(b)

(2)

22

(c)

A child is chosen at random. Find the probability that the child drank (i) (ii) (iii) coffee; water or fruit juice but not coffee; no fruit juice, given that the child did drink water.

(4)

(d)

Two children are chosen at random. Find the probability that both children drank all three choices.

(3) (Total 13 marks)

22.

Two identical dice have sides numbered one to six. The dice are weighted. All the numbers except the four have equal probability of appearing on top. The four is three times as likely as each of the other numbers to appear on top. The tree diagram below shows some of the probabilities. a 8 one tw o 1 8 1 8 b 8 fo u r 1 8 s ix 1 8 fiv e th re e

(a)

(b)

Both dice are thrown. Calculate the probability that two fours appear on top.

23

(c)

One of the dice is thrown once. The result is not a two or a three. What is the probability that it is a six?

Working:

(Total 8 marks)

23.

There are two biscuit tins on a shelf. The red tin contains three chocolate biscuits and seven plain biscuits. The blue tin contains one chocolate biscuit and nine plain biscuits. (a) A child reaches into the red tin and randomly selects a biscuit. The child returns that biscuit to the tin, shakes the tin, and then selects another biscuit. Find the probability that (i) (ii) both biscuits chosen are chocolate.

(2)

(3)

24

(b)

A second child chooses a biscuit from the blue tin. The child eats the biscuit and chooses another one from the blue tin. The tree diagram below represents the possible outcomes for this event. C

(2)

(1)

(3)

(c)

Suppose that before the two children arrived, their brother randomly selected one of the biscuit tins and took out one biscuit. Calculate the probability that this biscuit was chocolate.

(4) (Total 15 marks)

25

24.

The probability, p, that James gets up before 07.00 is 0.95. If James gets up before 07.00, the probability, t, that he arrives at school on time is 0.98. If James gets up later than 07.00, the probability that he arrives at school on time is 0.55. The above information is represented by the following tree diagram.

0 .9 8 0 .9 5

p not t t

not p

0 .5 5

(b)

Calculate the probability that James gets up before 07.00 and is on time for school.

(c) Working:

Calculate the probability that James does not arrive at school on time.

(Total 8 marks)

26

25.

A school jazz band contains three different musical instruments saxophone (S), clarinet (C) and drums (D). Students in the band are able to play one, two or three different instruments. In a class of 40 IB students, 25 belong to the jazz band. Out of these 25 3 can play all three instruments 5 can play the saxophone and clarinet only 5 can play at least the clarinet and drums 7 can play at least the saxophone and drums 16 can play the saxophone 12 can play the clarinet. (a) Draw a Venn Diagram and clearly indicate the numbers in each region.

(5)

(b)

Show that the number of students who play the drums only is 5.

(2)

(c)

Find the probability that a student chosen at random from the IB class plays only the saxophone.

(2)

(d)

Find the probability that a student chosen at random from the IB class plays either the clarinet or drums or both.

(2)

(e)

Given that a student plays the saxophone, find the probability that he also plays the clarinet.

(3) (Total 14 marks)

27

26.

The following histogram shows the house prices in thousands of Australian dollars (AUD) of a random sample of houses in a certain town in Australia. F req u en cy 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 T h ou san d s of d o lla r s

How many houses are there in the sample? Write down the modal group for house prices. Find the probability of choosing a house at random which costs less than 60 000 AUD or more than 240 000 AUD. Given that a house costs more than 120 000 AUD, find the probability that it costs between 180 000 and 240 000 AUD.

W o r k in g :

(Total 6 marks)

28

27.

Sandra is attempting an exam question. She has to choose two correct statements from a list of five. Below is a tree diagram showing Sandras possible choices. One of the probability values is missing. c o rre c t c o rre c t 2 5 3 5 in c o rre c t 3 4

in c o rre c t

c o rre c t

2 4 2 4

29

(b)

(i) (ii)

If Sandra makes two guesses, what is the probability that she will get only one of them correct? Sandra definitely knows the first correct statement but has to guess the second. What is the probability that she will answer both correctly?

W o r k in g :

(Total 8 marks)

28.

The data in the table below refers to a sample of 60 randomly chosen plants. Growth rate high low total dark 3 8 11 Classification by environment light 8 9 17 shady 14 18 32 total 25 35 60

(a)

(i)

(ii)

Find the probability of a plant having a low growth rate and being in a dark environment.

(iii)

(5)

30

(b)

A plant is chosen at random from the above group. Find the probability that the chosen plant has (i) (ii) a high growth rate or is in a dark environment, but not both a light environment, given that it has a high growth rate.

(4)

(c)

The 60 plants in the above group were then classified according to leaf type. It was found that 15 of the plants had type A leaves, 37 had type B leaves and 8 had type C leaves. Two plants were randomly selected from this group. Find the probability that (i) (ii) both plants had type C leaves neither of the plants had type B leaves.

(5) (Total 14 marks)

29.

Children in a class of 30 students are asked whether they can swim (S) or ride a bicycle (B). There are 12 girls in the class. 8 girls can swim, 6 girls can ride a bicycle and 4 girls can do both. 16 boys can swim, 13 boys can ride a bicycle and 12 boys can do both. This information is represented in a Venn diagram. U B oys G irls S a 12 b 4 2 B

(a)

(2)

(b)

(2)

31

(c)

Write down the probability that a student chosen at random can swim.

(2)

(d)

Given that the student can ride a bicycle, write down the probability that the student is a girl.

(2) (Total 8 marks)

30.

In a group of fifteen students, three names begin with the letter B and four begin with a G. The remaining eight names begin with A, C, D, E, F, H, I and J respectively. The 15 names are placed in a box. The box is shaken and two names are drawn out. Find the probability that (a) (b) (c) both names begin with any letter except G or B; both names begin with the same letter; both names begin with the letter H.

W o r k in g :

(Total 6 marks)

32

31.

Let U be the set of all positive integers from 1 to 21 inclusive. A, B and C are subsets of U such that: A contains all the positive integers that are factors of 21, B is the set of multiples of 7 contained in U, C is the set of odd numbers contained in U. (a) (b) List all the members of set A.

(2)

(4)

(c)

Find the probability that a member chosen at random from A is also a member of A B C.

(2) (Total 8 marks)

33

32.

The table below shows the number of words in the extended essays of an IB class. 3200w<3400 2 3400w<3600 5 3600w<3800 8 3800w<4000 17 4000w<4200 3

Draw a histogram on the grid below for the data in this table. 20

15 F req u e n c y

10 5

0 3000

3200

3400

3600 3800 N u m b e r o f w o rd s

4000

4200

4400

(3)

(b)

(1)

The maximum word count is 4000 words. (c) Write down the probability that a student chosen at random is on or over the word count.

(2)

W o r k in g :

(Total 6 marks)

34

35

33.

The following histogram shows the weights of a number of frozen chickens in a supermarket. The weights are grouped such that 1 weight < 2, 2 weight, < 3 and so on. 55 50 45 40 35 num ber of c h ic k e n s 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 w e ig h t (k g ) (a) (b) (c) On the graph above, draw in the frequency polygon.

(2)

(1)

(1)

Gabriel chooses a chicken at random. (d) Find the probability that this chicken weighs less than 4 kg.

(2)

36

W o r k in g :

(Total 6 marks)

34.

A group of 50 students completed a questionnaire for a Mathematical Studies project. The following data was collected. 18 students own a digital camera (D) 15 students own an ipod (I) 26 students own a cell phone (C) 1 student owns all three items 5 students own a digital camera and an ipod but not a cell phone 2 students own a cell phone and an ipod but not a digital camera 3 students own a cell phone and a digital camera but not an ipod (a) (b) (c) Represent this information on a Venn diagram.

(4)

Calculate the number of students who own none of the items mentioned above.

(2)

If a student is chosen at random, write down the probability that the student owns a digital camera only.

(1)

(d)

If two students are chosen at random, calculate the probability that they both own a cell phone only.

(3)

(e)

If a student owns an ipod, write down the probability that the student also owns a digital camera.

(2) (Total 12 marks)

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