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Conf. dr. Procopie P. Clonea Asist. drd. Alina A.

Miu
(Universitatea din Piteti) (Universitatea din Piteti)
















Workbook
in
English Lexicology








Editura Universitii din Piteti
2003



Editura Universitii din Piteti

Str. Trgu din Vale, nr.1
0300, Piteti, jud. Arge

Tel./Fax: 40 48 216448




Copyright 2002 Editura Universitii din Piteti
Toate drepturile asupra acestei ediii sunt rezervate
Editurii Universitii din Piteti. Nici o parte din aceast carte
nu poate fi reprodus prin foto-copiere sau prin orice alte
mijloace, fr permisiunea scris a autorilor.

Ediia a II-a
Editor: Lector univ. dr. Dumitru Chirlean
Bun de tipar: 10.10. 2003; tiraj 100









Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei
CLONEA, PROCOPIE
Workbook in English Lexicology/ conf. dr. Procopie P. Clonea,
asist. Alina A. Miu Piteti: Editura Universitii din Piteti, 2002.
p.; cm.
Bibliogr.
Index.
ISBN 973-690-070-3
I. Miu, Alina A.

811.111373

Conf. dr. Procopie P. Clonea Asist. drd. Alina A. Miu
(Universitatea din Piteti) (Universitatea din Piteti)





















Workbook
in
English Lexicology

























Editura Universitii din Piteti

Tehnoredactare computerizat: Alina A. Miu
Revizie final: conf. dr. Procopie P. Clonea
Refereni de specialitate: conf. dr. Ioan A. Popa
lect. dr. Didi I. Cenuer
Bun de tipar: octombrie 2003
I.S.B.N. 973-690-070-3
CONTENTS

Word Formation


7
Synonymy & Antonymy


23
Useful Vocabulary


40
Phrasal Verbs


73
American and English Idioms


125
Theoretical Topics for Discussion
146
Further Practice
A. Proper Names
B. Names of Countries and their Adjectival
Derivatives
C. Foreign Origin Nouns
D. Word-Forming Affixes
E. Short Forms and Labels

148
148
170

180
181
183
General Bibliography


187


7
WORD FORMATION

1. Add the right Germanic prefix from the box below
to one of the following roots: -araw, -live-, -
unaerstana, -ao, -let, -sprinkle, - hola, -estimate, -buy, -
leaa, -becoming, -turn, -arawal, -swear, -sight, -crowa,
-line, -aate, - shine, -bia, - come, -live, -pay, -graae.



2. Add the right Romance prefix from the box below to
one of the following roots: -here, -grouna, -annual, -
press, -part, -please, -close, -closure, -effectual, -
smoker, -ovate, -cancel, -American, -reaa, -agent, -
normal, -firm, -form, -large, -author, -engage, -face, -
rational, -logical, -position, -long, -eait, -announce, -
elect, -consultation, -chapter, -centenary, -coae, -
alignea, -long, -aafust, -arippaint, -committee.




3. Add the right Greek prefix from the box below to
one of the following roots: -aphroaisiac, -optre, -aysis, -
phtong, -gram, -oxiae, -centric, -acritic.



4. Add the right negative prefix from the box below to
one of the following roots: -favour, -sane, -assuming, -
expectea, -smoker, -loyal, -moral, -favour, -like, -
symmetry, -approve, -comfortable, -courage, -
conclusive.



be-, Ior-, in-, mis-, out-, over-, under-, un-, up-, with
a-, ab-, ad-, aI-, bi-, com-, con-, co-, de-, dis-, en-, ex-,
eI-, in-, il-, ir-, non-, ob-, op-, pre-, pro-, re-, sub-
an-, ana-, di-, ec-
un-, non-, in-, dis-, a-

8
5. Use the prefixes non- and un- to form new words
with an opposite meaning, paying attention to their
final spelling: abashea, abatea, accountable,
accustomea, acquaintea, aaornea, aaulteratea,
aggression, aiaea, alcoholic, alignea, alloyea,
alterable, ambiguous, ambitious, announcea, appealing,
approachable, armea, assailable, assistea, attenaance,
available, aware, bearable, beatable, biasea,
charitable, combatant, committal, compliance,
conformist, congenial, constitutional, aeniable, aue,
easy, eatable, economic, equivocal, fashionable,
fetterea, feignea, fiction, flammable, forgiving,
hinaerea, holy, hygienic, impeaea, impressive, linea,
obtrusive, palatable, payment, popular, real,
refunaable, rufflea, ruly, savoury, smoker,
sophisticatea, stable, sulliea, taintea, tamea, usuable,
utterable, violence, wary, watering, wholesome, wielay,
worlaly, worthy.

6. Add the right reversative or pejorative prefix from
the box below to one of the following roots: -tie, -
conauct, -treat, -frost, -connect, - intellectual, -oaorous,
-forestation, -leaaing, -function, -cover, -practice, -ao, -
colourea, -formea, -content.



7. Add the right prefix of degree and size from the box
below to one of the following roots: -aressea, -
stanaara, -privilegea, -live, -human, -tax, -cook, -violet,
-skirt, -confiaent, -natural, -auke, -critical, -moaern, -
run-, -eat.




un-, de-, dis-, mis-, mal-, pseudo-
arch-, super-, out-, sur-, sub-, over-, under-, hyper-,
ultra-, mini-

9
8. Add the right prefix from the box below to one of the
following roots, underline it and then state to what
class of prefixes it belongs (of attitude, locative, of
time and place, number, other prefixes): -British, -
way, -revolution, -structure, -social, -tell, -marital, -
war-, -presiaent, -pole, -plane, -Gothic, -wiggea, -buila,
-racial, -type, -circle, -aamiral, -slave, -action, -
atlantic, - float, -missile, -conscious, -lingual, -partite, -
lateral, -witch, classical, -African, evaluate, -theism, -
syllabic.






9. Write the antonyms of the following words with the
help of suitable prefixes: import, epilogue, aeficient,
efect, incluae, assent, aestructive, converge,
antemeriaian, aeflate, prenatal, regenerate, introvert,
prefix, subfective, synonym, presence.

10. Identify the prefixes of the words in both
columns, state their origin and then write down the
corresponding synonymous pairs:

A. B.
circumIerence adamant
circumlocution anomalous
experiential eclectic
indomitable empirical
irregular metamorphosis
multilingual metaphysical
selective periphery
transcendental periphrasis
transIormation polyglot

co-, counter-, anti-, pro-, super-, sub-, inter-, trans-,
Iore-, pre-, post-, ex-, re-, uni-, mono-, bi-, di-, tri-,
multi-, poly-, auto-, neo-, pan-, proto-, semi-, vice-, be-,
en-, a-

10
11. Add the prefix over- or unaer- to each of the
underlined words in the following sentences so as to
give them increased stylistic value:

x He has been digging in the garden all morning and is
now . tired.
x His head hit the rock and burst like an . ripe tomato.
x As usual Mary went to the garden party hopelessly .
dressed.
x Having been .paid, the workers went on strike.
x I am going to take you through the . crowded street oI
the city.
x You can`t be . careIul.
x The painter`s position as an artist is Irequently . rated.
x Why are you so .anxious about Mary? She is old
enough to look aIter herselI.
x Being . Iond oI sweets, Ann has put on weight lately.
x The photo was . exposed, one cannot discern the
people`s Iaces well.

12. Form the antonyms of the following words with
the help of suitable prefixes: aefensible, bearable,
comparable, printable, aamissible, usable, aigestible,
accessible, believable, comfortable, courage, cover,
connectea, graceful, loyal, conclusive, approve, please,
agree, trust, workable, palatable.

13. Add the right prefix from the box below to
express the opposite of the following words: honest,
responsible, favourable, agreeable, interesting,
acceptable, possible, aifferent, similar, sociable, repair,
ability, moral, governable, honest, obeaient.



dis- dis- im- in- ir- un- un- un- non- de-



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14. Add the corresponding noun-forming suffix from
the box below to each of the following roots and then
state to what type of noun-forming suffix it belongs
(occupational, diminutive, feminine, status, domain,
abstractions, other noun suffixes): game-, profit-,
teach-, pig-, kitchen-, aaa-, aunt-, lion-, brew-, Lonaon,
poet-, aog-, king-, machine-, Israel-, violon-, weak-,
absent-, iaeal-, friena-, aismiss-, happy-, technical-,
patron-, employ-, brace-, gang-, heir-, Pekin-.





15. Add the corresponding adjective-forming suffix
from the box below to each of the following roots:
grace-, chil-, chila-, fool-, Darwin-, music-, hero-,
attract-, virtue-, balcon-, long-leg-, animal-, use-, vice-,
reaa.




16. Add the corresponding verb-forming suffixes
from the box below to the following words: hara,
pure, strength, simple, saint, certain, mystery, loose,
less, sharp, high, light, clear, false, tight, terror,
borrow, intense, stupia, wiae, thick, peace, example,
aeep, solia.



17. Add the corresponding noun-forming suffixes to
the following words: islana, boraer, western, cottage,
New York, pamphlet, vacation, auction, assign, aeposit,
train, employ, participate, aispute, claim, stimulate,
occupy, consult, aefena, inhabit, resiae, here,
-Iul, -less, -ly-, -like, -ish, -ian, -al/-ial/-ical, -ive, -ous, -
able-, -ible, -ed
en-, -(i)Iy, -ize
-ster, -eer, -er, -let, -ette, -ess, -y, -ie, -hood, -ship, -
dom, -(e)ry, --ite, -(i)an, -ese, -ist, -ism, -ling, -ee, -
ment, -al, -age, -ness, -ity

12
behaviour, ego, pagan, psalm, harp, lanascape, iaeal,
parliament, sect, ratify, magnify, central, neutral,
accuse, affect, affirm, aeport.

18. Add the corresponding adjective-forming suffixes
to the following words: sana, scholar, aaughter, mua,
earth, respect, weary, response, respect, perfect,
corrupt, aiscern, poor, woman, silver, blame.

19. Change the following adjectives and verbs into
nouns by adding the necessary suffixes, then
underline the respective suffixes: aiscuss, announce,
accurate, borea, tiay, anxious, stupia, aamire, popular,
happy, refuse, perform, certain, polite.

20. Underline the prefix in the following words and
then comment upon its stylistic value: laaaie,
princeling, boomster, sluggara, auckling, rivulet,
rhymester, gangster, fonaling, braggart.

21. Use suffixation (and prefixation) to form suitable
words out of the words in brackets. Employ any
other grammatical transformations which are
necessary:

a. We earn our (LIVE) in America today in (PEACE)
(COMPETE) with people all across the Earth. ProIound
and (POWER) Iorces are shaking and (MAKE) our
world, and the urgent question oI our time is whether
we can change our Iriend and not our enemy. This new
world has already (RICH) the lives oI millions oI
Americans who are able to (COMPETITION) and win
in it. But when most people are working harder Ior less,
when others cannot work at all, when the cost oI health
care devastates Iamilies and (THREAT) to (BANK) our
enterprises, great and small; when the Iear oI crime robs
law abiding citizens oI their (FREE); and when millions

13
oI poor children cannot even imagine the lives we are
calling them to lead, we have not changed our Iriend.
(Irom William JeIIerson Clinton`s Inaugural
Presidential Address, January 20, 1993)
b. It is simply this. That Space, as our (MATH) have it, is
spoken oI as having three dimensions, which one may
call (LONG), Breadth, and (THICK), and is always
(DEFINE) by (REFER) to three planes, each at right
angles to the others. But some (PHILOSOPHY) people
have been asking why THREE dimensions
(PARTICULAR) --why not another (DIRECT) at right
angles to the other three?--and have even tried to
construct a Four-Dimension geometry. ProIessor Simon
Newcomb was expounding this to the New York
(MATHEMATICS) Society only a month or so ago.
You know how on a Ilat surIace, which has only two
dimensions, we can represent a Iigure oI a three-
(DIMENSION) solid, and (SIMILAR) they think that
by models oI three dimensions they could represent one
oI IouriI they could master the (PERCEIVE) oI the
thing. See?` (Irom 'The Time Machine, by H(erbert)
G(eorge) Wells)
c. In the centre oI the room, clamped to an upright easel,
stood the Iull-length portrait oI a young man oI
(ORDINARY) (PERSON) beauty, and in Iront oI it,
some little (DISTANT) away, was sitting the artist
himselI, Basil Hallward, whose sudden (APPEAR)
some years ago caused, at the time, such public
(EXCITE), and gave rise to so many strange
conjectures. As the painter looked at the (GRACE) and
comely Iorm he had so (SKILL) mirrored in his art, a
smile oI (PLEASE) passed across his Iace, and seemed
about to linger there. But he (SUDDEN) started up, and,
closing his eyes, placed his Iingers upon the lids, as
though he sought to (PRISON) within his brain some
curious dream Irom which he Ieared he might (WAKE).
(Irom 'The Picture oI Dorian Grayby Oscar Wilde)

14
22. Use suffixation, prefixation and conversion in
order to form nouns, verbs, and adjectives from the
following words: to analyse, to obey, to aavise, to aaa,
to err, a suggestion, economy, comprehension, foy,
usage, practical, si:eable, applicable, acceptable,
excessive.

23. Write by adding or taking away suffixes and
prefixes, or by using conversion and other word-
formation means, all the possible related nouns,
adjectives, adverbs and verbs associated with the
following words:

a. ability, accept, account, achieve, act, aamit, aault,
affora, agree, alcohol, amuse, anger, animal, appear,
approval, arm, arrive, artificial, atom, attent, attract,
avoia, back, baa, bag, battle, beauty, believe, big, black,
blame, blue, broaa, brother, buila, busy.

b. care, carry, central, chance, change, cheer, chila, class,
clean, clever, cola, combine, comfort, competition,
connect, conscious, contain, continue, cost, cure,
cultivate, cycle, aanger, aear, aeath, aeceit, aeclare,
aefeat, aeliberate, aelicate, aepena, aescribe, aevelop,
aifference, airect, aisappoint, aistance, aocument,
arink, arive, ary, auty.

c. east, eat, economic, eaucate, effect, electric, electronics,
employ, encourage, energy, engine, enfoy, entertain,
equal, equip, escape, establish, event, exact, examine,
excite, exist, expect, experiment, explain, exploae,
expression, fail, fair, faith, fall, false, fame, family,
fashion, fat, father, fortunate, free, friena, fruit, fun, fur.

d. game, gentle, girl, glaa, gola, grace, graaual, grass,
grateful, green, grief, guiae, guilty, habit, happy, hara,

15
harm, hate, heaa, health, heart, heaven, heel, height,
help.

e. long, lose, loua, love, loyal, luck, machine, maa, magic,
man, manage, marry, mass, material, measure, meaical,
meet, memory, : mental, message, metal, might (noun),
mina, mist, mix, monument, month, moon, mother,
motor, mouth, move, mua, muraer, mystery.

I. nation, nature, neea, neighbour, nerve, night, north,
nose, nut, obeaience, obey, obfect, offence, oil, operate,
oppose, oraer, organi:e, origin, pack, pain, pass,
patience, pay, peace, perform, person, pig, pink, pity,
please, poison, possess, possible, pouna, powaer,
practice, prepare, present, press, priae, prince, private,
probable, problem, proauce, proper, protect, prove,
pour, punish.

g. quality, quantity, queen, question, rain, real, reason,
receive, recogni:e, rea, reauce, refuse, regular,
relation, religion, remove, repair, respect, response,
room, rub, rule.

h. saa, safe, salt, sana, satisfaction, save, scene, science,
season, secrecy, seat, sensation, sensible, sensitive,
serve, sexual, shaae, shame, shape, sheep, shine, shoot,
shop, short, sign, silent, silk, similar, simple, sincere,
sing, sister, situation, skin, sky, sleep, slip, slope, smoke,
snow, soap, social, solaier, sorrow, south, speak, spirit,
spite, spring, stamp, star, state, steel, stick, stone,
strange, stream, structure, suffer, suitable, summer, sun,
supply, support, swim, swing, sympathetic, system.

i. talk, tall, taste, technical, tena, terror, test, thick, thief,
thirst, threaa, threat, throat, thunaer, tiger, tire, tooth,
total, tourist, traffic, train, transparent, travel, treat,
trick, tropical, trouble, true, truth, trust, tube, turn,

16
twist, type, ugly, unit, universe, use, value, vary, violent,
visit, waist, weight, wake, wall, wanaer, want, warm,
waste, watch, water, wave, wealth, weather, week,
weigh, west, wiae, will, wina, winter, wire, wise,
woman, wooa, wool, worla, write, year, yellow, young.

24. Complete each of the following sentences with a
word derived from the one in brackets:

1. German cars are known Ior their .. (to rely)
2. We look Iorward to receiving your price .. (to quote)
3. Payment will be eIIected on . oI the goods. (to
receive)
4. A Iive per cent discount Ior regular customers is not
really . . (to accept)
5. We are looking Ior a candidate with real .. capacities.
(to manage)
6. Let me introduce you to Helen, the management ...
(to assist)
7. It`s tough being an . these days. The questions
interviewers ask! (to apply)
8. I could hit myselI. I made the same mistake twice in
.. (to succeed)

25. Complete each of the following sentences with a
word derived from the one in brackets:

1. Meeting other people, Ior me, is a basic .. (to
need)
2. I usually have a sore head aIter a night oI .
drinking and smoking. (to exceed)
3. They must have Iorgotten to add the . to this letter.
(to enclose)
4. Check iI there is a . Iee. (to cancel)
5. . must be Iiled within 5 working days. (to
complain - plural noun)

17
6. II your terms are . , we may consider placing
regular orders. (to satisIy)
7. Could you send us 10 ..brochures Ior distribution
among our staII? (to add)
8. In the past three months I have been working as a
... (to train)

26. Fill in the gaps in the second sentence with a word
derived from one of the words in the first sentence so
as to render the same meaning:

1. Can you abbreviate this name?
BBC is an ....... .
2. He is an able man.
He sure has great .......
3. Too many students are absent Irom school.
...... can make you Iall behind.
4. The candidates met by accident.
They actually met ....... .
5 . When there`s a depression my head aches.
Depressions give me a head-...... .
6. Are you acquainted with Mr. Jones?
Yes, he`s an ..... oI mine.
7. Did Shakespeare act in his own plays?
A Iamous ..... played Hamlet.
8. She admired his perIormance.
She was Iull oI ......
9. Everybody is admitted Iree oI charge.
...... is Iree.
10. It is an advantage to buy Irom us.
Our terms are extremely ..... .
11. We oIten advertise.
We have regular ..... in the press.
12. I advised him to see a doctor.
He didn`t Iollow my ......
13. We agreed to meet at 6.
We made an ..... .

18
14. She`s allowed 50 a month Ior clothes.
She has a dress-..... oI 50 .
15. He amazed us with his unusual skill.
His skill was truly ...... .

27. Use the word given at the beginning of each
sentence to fill in the respective gap. Make any
necessary grammatical or/and lexical changes:

x analyze What`s your . oI the situation?
x benefit Do you get any .with this new job?
x concept You must understand the . basis Ior
accounting.
x data Do you have any . to support your
ideas?
x economy Students need to be . oI their money and
time.
x factor Five . inIluenced her decision to major
in accounting.
x identify The test will Iocus on . oI the Iactors
behind the war.
x labour In the U.S., there are several large .
unions.
x occur The weather station warns about the . oI
severe weather.
x percent What . oI the students are majoring in
accounting?
x require What are the . Ior this course?
x require The course . two tests and a written
report.
x require 'Introduction to Accounting is a .
course.
x theory What is your . about the cause oI the
crash oI the economy?
x theory Your ideas about the economy are highly
..

19
x theory She .. about the economy and writes a
newspaper column.
x vary Her ideas . Irom year to year.
x vary The economy ..Irom month to month
last year.
x vary What . oI rice do you like long grain
or short grain?

28. Fill in the gaps in the following texts with suitable
words chosen from the respective boxes. Make any
lexical and/or grammatical changes you find
necessary:
Extract From A Letter



With this letter you will Iind your to attend the
Annual General Meeting oI the Society. Please note that it
will take place on 10 September (the last newsletter
stated that the meeting would be on 9 September). The
meeting will begin at 8pm but will be available Irom
7pm. You will thereIore have time to chat with
committee members and oI the Society beIore the
meeting commences.
At 8pm, the Chairman will make a brieI speech and
then put Iorward some Ior your . There will also
be elections to Iill the two on the committee. The
enclosed agenda gives a Iull oI the business to be
conducted at the meeting.
Dreaming





oIIice reIresh approve Iormal correct invite vacant
introduce propose describe
three ignore signiIy astonish mystery suppose night
believe science

20
The Iirst study oI what goes on in our heads during
dreaming has been completed, casting light on an activity
that humans have always Iound . The research,
reported in the journal Nature, opens up a new
chapter in eIIorts to understand what we do with a oI
our lives. It supports the that dreams are Iormed by
calling up images Irom a store oI emotional memories.
Scientists Iind dreaming an enormous puzzle. The reason
Ior their lies in the complicated design oI the
brain which contains as many nerve cells as there are stars
in the universe. Each oI the nerve cells communicates with
thousands oI its neighbours, producing an amount oI
chatter. Now, however, it seems are beginning to
make sense oI the brain`s activity.

29. Combine the words in column A with the words
in column B so as to form compound nouns, then use
them in sentences of your own:

A. air, apple, arms, back, back, bira, black, blue, butter,
clay, aeaa, aoor, araw, earth, finger, garaen, gooa,
high, law, man, mother, nation, night, policy, rain, rest,
house, sana, sea, silver, spring, spring, steam, stock,
suit, Sunaay, swora, tooth, trap, turn, wage, witch,
wheel, winter.
B. back, bell, belt, boara, boat, builaing, cage, case,
chair, cleaning, club, coat, cut, aoor, aoor, fingers,
fish, goose, hanale, holaer, hunt, leg, lift, lock, making,
nail, over, party, pick, pipe, power, quake, race, scape,
school, seas, set, stage, suit, tree, ware, will.

30. Combine the words in column A with the words
in column B so as to form compound adjectives, then
use them in sentences of your own:


21
A. blooa, blooa, boay, coal, cool, aouble, aown, hara,
heart, long, long, money, narrow, open, self, soft,
strait, tongue, weight.
B. builaing, boilea, breaking, curaling, free:ing, heaaea,
heaaea, heartea, heartea, heartea, increasing, lacea,
minaea, minaea, proaucting, saving, supporting, tiea,
winaea.

31. Comment on the formation and morphological
value (compound nouns, compound adjectives,
compound verbs, compound adverbs etc.) of the
following compounds: big-framea, Cuban-looking,
ary-ana-cut, gooa-looking, hangover, heaalight, leave-
taking show, 19
th
mia-century, postpone, rouge-
smuagea, secona-hana bookseller, stick-in-the-mua,
well-meaning, tawny-colourea, water-hauntea, easy-
going, up-ana-aown, live-ana-let-live, pin-prick,
waylay, phrase-make, buttonhole, upstairs, tip-tap, half-
seas-over, aownstairs, canale-lit, whereabouts, aown-
ana-outs, hereabouts.

32. Comment on the formation and meaning of the
following words and phrases:

a. to stone, to machine-gun, to can, to corner, to garage,
to bank, to floor, to screen, to wora,
b. to empty, to clean, to encore, to aown, to lower, to slow,
to rouna, to forewora, to secona,
c. a cheat, a scola, a tease, a break, a cut, a gain, a
crease, a leave, a must,
d. to have something for keeps, to get into a scrape, to give
someboay the creeps, to up the prices, to aust a cake, to
chair a meeting, to have a go, to have a say, to table a
resolution.

33. Identify the word formation processes in the
following words and then give their definition:

22
UNESCO, unbecoming, kingaom, answer, law-abiaing,
gooay-gooay, phone, smog, hippo.

34. Give the full form of the shortened words below
and explain the type of shortening by means of
which they have been formed (aphaeresis, syncope,
apocope):

aa, Al, ammo, bacco, Bill, bra, bus, byke, cab, captain,
chancery, comfy, co-ea, aaa, aeb, aebt, aemob, Dick, aime,
aorm, ea., Eaaie, exam, fab, fan, fence, flu, frig, friage,
gent, gym, hanky, hubby, hippo, Ite, Jap, Jim, Kate,
knickers, lab, Li:, Maam, mart, maths, memo, Mike, mo,
mum, nap, napalm, Nat, neer, pep, perm, phone, plot,
pop, pram, prep, prof, proxy, pub, realtor, rec, ref, Ron,
sample, sec, sim, spy, squire, Steve, sub, Sue, tab, tech, tea,
telly, unaies, Jal, van, vamp, vet, weskit, wheneer, wig,
:ip, :oo.

35. Compare the words in the two columns below and
comment on back-formation as a minor process of
word formation:

A. B.
to automate automation
to baby-sit baby-sitter
to beg beggar
to bird-watch bird-watching
to cobble cobbler
to enthuse enthusiasm
gloom gloomy
greed greedy
to hedge-hop hedge-hopping
to housekeep housekeeper
to liaise liaison
to reminisce reminiscence

23
to sidle sidling
to thought-read thought-reader
to typewrite typewriter

36. Identify the word formation process in the
following compounds and then use them in sentences of
your own: bow-wow, chiff-chaff, criss-cross, helter-
skelter, knick-knacks, mish-mash, popsy-wopsy, shipshape,
sing-song, tick-tock, titter-tatter, walky-talky.


SYNOYMY & ANTONYMY

1. Give as many synonyms as you can for each of the
following words: elaerly, target, wonaer, to grow, to
forsake, to prosecute, to repress, exploit, to search,
stern, trail, summit, secure, to hit, to esteem, infury, to
loan, wise, facility, aiscora, aisaain, aisgrace, aismal,
frivolous, fren:y, garrulous, glamour, ghastly, ignoble,
husbanary, insight, insane, function, luscious, mythical,
obsolete, obloquy, rancia, rapture, riaale, venture,
security.

2. Give several antonyms to the following words:
exuberant, cherish, listless, livelihooa, politic, rewara,
flat, comfort, abfect, relevant, lure, route, :ealous,
sycophant, sense, ignominy, aecent, aaring, acquaint,
spena, spurious, perpetual, murky, glorify, gorgeous,
righteous, tough, :est, exult, facsimile, barbarous, racy,
shock, thin, vulgar, imagine, illuminate, aiscern,
apology, novice, portion, rabia.

3. Regroup the following words and phrases into
corresponding synonymous or antonymic pairs:
prognosis, contemporary, neglect, proviae, saa,
inability, panacea, premonition, anteailuvian, paraon,
pursue, secluaea, nervous ailment, hyperthyroiaian,

24
ambiguity, prominent, glory, purblina, spiteful,
aphorism, transmigration, foretelling, miraculous,
shame, purvey, seaulous, temporary stoppage,
propulsion, ignominy, peruse, inaustrious, aaage,
metempsychosis.

4. For each word in column A find the word(s) closest
in meaning in column B:

A. B.
disseminate deceive
discourse
spread widely
deIer
disappear
divulge deviate
destroy
lower
grow
make
known
invective denunciation
invention
deIeat
inexperience
byword
philippic speech oI praise
Iarewell
excoriation
welcome
nomination
volatile unstable
willing
lengthy
even-tempered
unIeeling

25
5. Fill in each blank with the synonymous pair of the
respective head word so as to build phrases, then use
them in sentences of your own:

x saIe and .
x spick and .
x neck and .
x touch and .
x Iree and .
x Iew and .
x Iair and .
x cut and .
x pins and .
x heart and .
x various and .
x hale and .
x up and .
x short and .
x null and .
x ins and .
x give and .
x rank and .
x light and ..
x stuII and .

6. Give the antonymic pairs of the following words,
then use the respective phrases in sentences of your
own:

x up and .
x in and .
x thick and .
x chills and .
x top to .
x oII and .

26
x do`s and .
x sooner or .
x high and .
x cops and ..
x heaven and ..
x double or ..
x more or ..
x better or ..

7. Build the antonyms of the underlined words using
prefixes and suffixes:

x It was a type oI ----illusionment alien to him until then.
x Tom has never beIore displayed so much calculated ----
discretion in poking his nose into his Iriend`s aIIairs.
x ----patience and ----taste could be read on their Iaces
when they saw drunken workers in their Iavourite pub.
x She assumed an ----concerned, expression--- Iace.
x I think you ----judged your husband.
x He made his whole Iamily suIIer Irom the endless ---
deeds he had been guilty oI Ior years.
x It is ----wise to ----rate your opponent too lightly.
x I suppose contractors Irequently ----estimate the
building costs.
x I really ----like the place; it looks like ----weeded
garden that grows to seed.
x The pity oI it was all she exclaimed when she learnt oI
his ----Iortune.

8. Make up antonymic adjectives, nouns and verbs
from the following words using the following
prefixes: a-, ab-, dis-, im-, in-, ir-, mal-, mis-, non-,
un-: partial, impressive, aocile, polite, rational, timely,
effective, accustomea, fitting, eaucatea, active, suitable,
sensible, aisposea, movable, humane, aaaptable,
aecorous, responsive, fortune, certainty, to appear, to

27
treat, to approve, to mount, chance, creaulity, to
emboay, truth, to fasten, progress, to integrate,
aavantage, to allow, aptituae, to trust.

9. In the following exercises fill in the blanks with the
right words and then translate the sentences into
Romanian:

A.
a. abstracted, absent-minded, distracted
x ProIessor BoIIin is generally very . .
x Sorry, I didn`t hear what you said. I was . Ior a
moment.
x Sorry, I didn`t hear what you said. I was . by the
telephone.

b. abuse, insult, swear at, curse
x Mrs. Tomkins . the bride`s Iamily by reIusing to
attend her son`s wedding.
x The sergeant major . the soldiers unmerciIully.
x BeIore he died, the religious leader . all enemies oI
the Iaith.
x TraIIic wardens rightly ignore motorists who . them.

c. accomplishment, achievement, completion
x Did the . oI the Eurotunnel go according to plan?
x The re-uniIication oI Germany was a great ..
x She has many ., including a command oI three Ioreign
languages.

d. affair, case, liaison
x Even Inspector Wiley couldn`t solve the ..
x What I do in my spare time is entirely my own ..
x There`s always been a close . between our two
organizations.
x Their love . became known aIter his death.

28
e. age, epoch, era, period, century
x There`s no way oI knowing exactly when the Iron .
really began.
x The Industrial Revolution began in the 18
th
..
x The whole . was marked by important changes in the
earth`s surIace.
x Satellite TV brought in an . oI worldwide
communication.
x We live in a . where Iast Iood is the norm.

I. alive, living, live
x Everything that is . needs air and water.
x All . living creatures need air and water.
x AIter midnight, there`s a cabaret show and dancing to
. music.
x CareIul! That wire is .!
x CareIul! It`s a . lobster./That lobster is ..

g. angry with, angry at/about
x People in our town are very . the new parking charges.
x It`s no good getting . the waiter because the Iood is
badly cooked.

h. announcement, advertisement, commercial
x Here`s a . Ior a two-room Ilat that might interest you.
x I turn the sound oII during TV ..
x I saw the . oI his death in the paper.

i. aroma, flavour, taste, scent, perfume
x What . do you want, strawberry or vanilla?
x The room was . with the . oI roses.
x Few things can beat the . oI Ireshly-ground coIIee.
x Dorothy wears too much ..
x I love the sharp sour . oI lemon.


29
j. austere, strict, severe
x There were . penalties Ior misbehaviour.
x My old headmaster was very ..
x My old headmaster was very . in applying the school
rules.

B.
a. baggage/luggage, a case/suitcase, valise, coffer
x I`m travelling light. I`ve got a small . with me and
that`s all.
x You`d have to be mad these days to keep your money at
home in an old ..
x I`ve brought a lot oI . and I can`t manage on my own.
I need a porter.
x You don`t need more than a small . iI you`re going
away Ior the weekend.

b.barracks, shack, hut, shed
x Severino`s Iamily lived in a . outside Rio.
x The soldiers have been conIined to . the whole
weekend.
x We need a . to store our garden tools.
x II you want the Ioreman, you`ll Iind him in his ..

c. best, favourite, beloved, dearest
x I see you`re wearing your . tie.
x She was the . wiIe oI Paul.
x He always wears his . clothes in Christmas time.

d.body, silhouette, figure, shape, physique, physic
x With a . like yours, you can wear any clothes you like.
x I think I have a healthy mind and ..
x You have to liIt weights iI you want to build up a .
like that!
x The man had his back to me and I could see his .
against the Iirelight.

30
x Camomile tea is said to be an excellent . Ior stomach
pains.

e. bright, shining, shiny
x He looked very smart in a new suit and . black shoes.
x It`s a long time since we had a . day.
x Claudia stands out Irom the rest like a . star.

f. brutal, bestial, beastly
x Medieval peasants lived in what we would consider .
conditions.
x We had . weather while we were on holiday.
x On their release, the hostages said that they had been
subjected to . treatment by their captors.

g. cabin, cubicle, telephone box/call box
x That .`s Iree iI you want to try on those dresses.
x I can`t phone home yet. Every . is occupied.
x II we are sailing overnight, it`s worth paying the cost oI
a ..

h.call, shout at, cry, cry out, scream
x You won`t get the co-operation oI the children iI you
keep .ing at them.
x You`d better go now. I think that`s your mother .ing.
x Don`t do that! he ..(past tense)
x I could hear someone .ing Ior help in the distance.
x When I told her the news, she . in pain and anger.

i. cartel, card, label, etiquette
x You get in touch with me iI you want to. Here`s my ..
x Put a . on your suitcase beIore you check it in.
x The major oil companies constantly deny operate as a
.

31
x It`s . to write to thank your host Ior dinner, but not Ior
lunch.

j. cheap, cheaply, reasonably-priced/inexpensive
x Countries with low labour costs can make textiles ..
x I`m looking Ior a .. room.
x Most business is based on the idea that you buy . and
sell dear.

C.
a. chemist, chemist`s, pharmacist, pharmacy
x We both studied at the London School oI ..
x The . is open, but the . himselI isn`t back till 2
o`clock.
x My wiIe is a hospital ..
x My brother did a chemistry degree and is now an
industrial ..

b.child, baby/infant, toddler
x Doctors say that a . should be breast-Ied iI possible.
x I learnt to ride a bicycle when I was a ..
x Some oI the children at the day-school are just
.(plural).

c. client, customer, patient, guest
x During the sales, the department stores are Iull oI .
(plural).
x Small . (plural) demand the same services Irom their
bank as large .( plural).
x Shall I send in the next ., doctor?
x Parking Iacilities are available only Ior hotel ..

d.clothes, clothing, garment
x My . are getting shabby.
x This . must be washed at 40C.
x She owns a lot oI ..

32
x The Red Cross appealed Ior tents and ..

e. control, check, keep a check on, set
x They`re going to . our passports.
x It`s hard to . the number oI people coming into the
country.
x OPEC no longer . the price oI oil.
x My watch can`t be wrong. I . it by the pips on the
radio.

f. convert, persuade, convince
x You have . me that we need a new computer.
x Angela is very religious and tries to . everyone she
meets.
x The salesman .(past tense) me to buy a new computer.

g. copy, imitate, mime, mimic
x It was only when I . a chicken that the waiter
understood what I wanted to order.
x I wish you`d stop .ing the way I speak.
x You should hear her . our teacher.

h.crash into, collide, bang against
x Both cars were on the same side oI the road and .
(past tense) violently.
x The racing car skidded and . (past tense) the barrier.
x The racing car skidded, . (past tense) the barrier and
then continued round the track.

i. damp, humid, moist, wet
x One good thing about the Scottish climate is that it
keeps your skin ..
x I was caught in the rain and my clothes are completely
..
x You shouldn`t wear that shirt iI it`s still ..
x I don`t mind how hot it is, as along as it isn`t ..

33
j. desert, dessert, deserts
x The Sahara . covers over nine million square
kilometres.
x He got his just . when he was sentenced to 15 years in
prison.
x I don`t think I can eat a .. I`ve had too much already.

D.
a. desk, office, bureau, study
x Alan doesn`t like anyone to ring him at the ..
x We need another room we can use as a ..
x The computer takes up halI the space on my ..
x The papers you want are in the top drawer oI the ..
x Reuters has a news . in every country in the world.

b.diploma, degree, certificate, licence, qualifications
x Pat has a . in maths.
x I did a course in hairdressing and gained a ..
x When did you get your driving .?
x What . do I need to teach English?

c. earnings, winnings, profit(s), gain(s)
x I put some money on a horse and won. I put my . on
another horse and lost.
x You have to set your capital . against your capital
losses.
x The . oI the company director should be in line with
company ..

d.earth, soil, ground, land
x Clay . is hard to dig.
x He threw the ball and it bounced on the . just in Iront
oI me.
x The cellar door was hidden by a layer oI . and dead
leaves brought by the wind.

34
x People working on the . are badly paid.

e. edge, tip, end, extreme
x I pointed to the letter with the . oI my pencil.
x Don`t go near the . oI the cliII.
x She prodded him with the . oI her Iinger.
x You used to have principles, but now you`ve gone to
the other . and you tolerate anything.

f. effort, trial, attempt/try
x A judge provides a summary oI the evidence at the end
oI a ..
x However hard I try, all my . come to nothing.
x I only passed my driving test aIter a number oI ..

g. enjoy, amuse, entertain, please
x Uncle Bill .. the children Ior hours at a time.
x We are really .ing our party.
x We oIten . Iriends at weekends.
x We are really .ing ourselves.
x When he`s in this kind oI mood, I can`t do anything to
. him.
x There`s nothing organized Ior this aIternoon. We`re Iree
to . ourselves.

h.exhibition/show, display, exposition
x We admired the . oI spring Iashions in the department
store windows.
x Have you seen the . oI impressionist paintings at the
Royal Academy?
x Stephen Hawking`s 'A BrieI History oI Time is a good
. oI the subject.

i. false, artificial, processed, fake(d), forged
x Some . limbs are computer controlled.

35
x Perhaps . teeth will be rare in the next generations.
x Avoid all . Ioods.
x Some . jewellery looks better than the real thing.
x Weapons are oIten smuggled into a country on .
documents.

j. fault, blame for, accuse of
x The workmanship is superb. You can`t . it.
x I don`t . you . what happened.
x AIter the Iire, they .. the night watchman .
negligence.

E.
a. force, strength, power
x You need a great deal oI . to become a weight liIter.
x The door was opened by ..
x No politician should Iorget that in this country, political
. belongs to the electorate.
x The . oI the wind was so great that rooIs were blown
oII houses.
x The support oI my Iamily during this diIIicult time has
been a great ..

b.gain, win, earn, profit, benefit
x Try to save as you ..
x It`s no good hoping you`ll . a lottery.
x Who would imagine that a house could . so much in a
year?
x Everybody . in a healthy economy.
x Alan has certainly . his year in the USA.

c. guard, keeper, warden, guardian
x Let`s ask a . when the zoo closes.
x The . at the old people`s home is very strict about
visiting hours.

36
x This Iorm must be signed by a parent or ..
x In most European countries, border . are a thing oI the
past.

d.grilled, toasted, roast, roasted
x The bread`s a bit stale and will taste better ..
x I`d like some . beeI please.
x The meat has been . in a hot oven.
x How would you like your steak? .?

e. happen, occur, take place
x Exams always . at the end oI the summer term.
x A strange thing ..
x All these things . long beIore you were born.
x He . to be at home.
x The sun rises every day. It . every day. It`s .ing at
this moment.

f. hymn, anthem, psalm
x Few people know more than the Iirst verse oI the
national .
x A carol is a special . Ior Christmas or Easter.
x The church choir sand a . at the end oI the service.

g. interior, inland, inner
x How much does it cost to send this parcel .?
x Colonel Fawcett disappeared on an ill-Iated expedition
into the ..
x The novel is more than a good story: it has a deep .
meaning.
x Can you recommend an . decorator?
x We travelled . Ior several days.

h.journey, trip, voyage, travel, travels
x We`re taking a weekend . to Paris.

37
x It`s really long . travelling by car Irom coast to coast
across the USA.
x We`re specialists in student ..
x I`m not prepared to go on/make such a long . at my
age.
x I suppose you`ll be writing about your . when you
return home.

i. ladder, steps/stepladder, stairs/staircase, rung
x The . lead(s) to the attic.
x I need a . to get onto the rooI.
x Mind the .!
x Hold the . and put your right Ioot on the Iirst ..
x You need a small . to reach the top oI those
cupboards.

j. lavatory, washbasin, sink
x I`ve put some Iresh soap by the ..
x There are a lot oI dirty dishes in the ..
x The . is occupied at the moment.

F.
a. look at, see, watch
x I . very well without glasses.
x How long have you been .ing the match?
x . this card that John has just sent.
x I`ll be .ing you tomorrow.
x Do you have to . me eat my supper?

b.magazine, shop, store, boutique, department store,
storeroom
x You can buy anything in our village ..
x The company aims to have a . in very important town
in Europe.

38
x You`d pay the earth Ior a skirt like that iI you bought it
at a ..
x London has wonderIul ..
x My Iavourite . is Woman`s Weekly.
x We don`t have your size on display. I`ll look in the ..

c. male, masculine, manly, mannish
x I`ll get my brother to use his . charm.
x How can you tell whether an insect is .?
x Tom has a Iirm handshake and a Iine . way oI greeting
people.
x Being able to act like Superman is just a . Iantasy.
x Women`s clothes in the 80`s were rather ., both in
colour and outline.

d.marque, make, brand, mark
x What . is your coat?
x What . oI soap do you use?
x Jaguar is now owned by Ford, so this Iamous . has
been saved.
x My teacher gave me a good . Ior my essay.

e. merchant, dealer, trader, tradesman
x II you have any problems with your car, you should get
in touch with your ..
x Ask your timber . about Iencing.
x Mr. Hill works as a . in commodities in London.
x Value Added Tax has made liIe diIIicult Ior small ..

f. meeting, conference, lecture
x I can`t disturb him now. He`s in (a) ..
x II you`re serious about your subject, you mustn`t ignore
international ..
x The Prime Minister will address a . in Cambridge
tonight.

39
x ProIessor Hawkins gave us an interesting . on
termites.

g. nostalgic, homesick, miss, long for, long to
x I had to come home because I was Ieeling ..
x I . my home town when I lived abroad.
x I . visit the place I was born in.
x There are so many sights and sounds that evoke in us .
memories.

h.patron, owner, manager, boss
x The . oI a company is responsible Ior the welIare oI
all the employees.
x I want to see the ..
x We will always be remembered as a philanthropist and
. oI the arts.

i. programme, syllabus, curriculum, program
x There`s a new . Ior next year`s CertiIicate in
Advanced English.
x Art isn`t on our school ..
x What`s your . Ior today?
x This concert . is very expensive.
x Have you seen MicrosoIt`s new wordprocessing .?

j. sportive, sporting, sporty, fond of sport, sport
x Both my boys are extremely . .
x It`s very . oI you to give him another chance to play in
our team.
x . dolphins are wonderIully entertaining.
x John is a really good ..


40
USEFUL VOCABULARY

1. Fill in each gap with the correct variant:

1. He didn`t say anything directly but I think he was
.......... an invitation to lunch.
a) acid test
b) angling Ior
c) above par
d) all Iingers and thumbs
2. They didn`t just make small changes, they changed
everything ..........
a) acid test
b) also-rans
c) above par
d) across the board
3. It looks like this product will be a success but we will
be starting test marketing in the London region soon.
That will be the ..........
a) acid test
b) against the clock
c) above par
d) all Iingers and thumbs
4. I don`t think it is worth getting angry about this. Let`s
not .......... over such a small decision.
a) argue the toss
b) against the clock
c) above par
d) across the board
5. Molly was not the best candidate I`ve seen but she
was well ..........
a) all-rounder
b) against the clock
c) above par
d) all Iingers and thumbs
6. He had done well in jobs in Accounting, Sales and
Production. He`s a real ..........

41
a) all-rounder
b) also-rans
c) angling Ior
d) across the board
7. I keep dropping things. It`s because I`m so worried
that I`m ...........
a) acid test
b) all Iingers and thumbs
c) above par
d) across the board
8. We have always done badly in the French market. In
most countries we are among the leaders but in France
we are among the ..........
a) all-rounder
b) also-rans
c) angling Ior
d) across the board
9. We had to get everything ready Ior the printers by
12.00. It was really a race ..........
a) acid test
b) against the clock
c) above par
d) across the board
10. There are lots oI people who want this job but people
with all the necessary qualiIications and experience
are rare - they`re really ..........
a) acid test
b) against the clock
c) angling Ior
d) at a premium

2. Take out from the following groups of words the
word which is semantically different:
A.
a) Ilat
b) house

42
c) appartment
d) beach
B.
a) desk
b) brieIcase
c) chair
d) table
C.
a) computer
b) screen
c) mouse
d) diary
D.
a) banana
b) apricot
c) cherry
d) sherry
E.
a) walk
b) run
c) sneeze
d) sprint
F.
a) think
b) reIlect
c) type
d) consider
G.
a) shaving cream
b) saucepan
c) towel
d) plug

43
H.
a) eyes
b) hose
c) ears
d) mouth
I.
a) rabbit
b) cow
c) pit
d) goat
J.
a) sales
b) marketing
c) production
d) humans

3. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs
to do and to make:

1. I think you`re a big mistake.
2. We need to a plan.
3. Harry is bringing something to drink and I`m going to
a cake.
4. You`re more likely to harm than good.
5. I`m going to you an oIIer you can`t reIuse.
6. Can I a suggestion?
7. You need to some more work.
8. I hate the housework.
9. I hate the beds.
10. I like the cooking.
11. I think we should an exception in this case.
12. Can you me a Iavour?
13. He`s not the sort oI person you can business
with.
14. You must be quiet. You mustn`t a noise.

44
15. It`s not what we want. We`ll just have to the
best oI it.
16. You`re always excuses Ior him.
17. Thanks Ior me a good turn.
18. Do you mind iI I a phone call?
19. The company is huge proIits.
20.You can`t much money as an English
teacher.

4. Choose the correct variant for the capitalized words:

1. What do you do with a TEACOSY ?
a) Drink Irom it
b) Make tea in it
c) Keep the teapot warm in it
d) Wear it
2. What do you do with an ITCH ?
a) Eat it
b) Scratch it
c) Send it
d) take it to the police
3. What do you do with a JACK?
a) Use it to change a wheel
b) Use it to decorate your house
c) Make him President
d) Eat it
4. What do you do with a MUDDLE?
a) Cook with it
b) Take it Ior walks
c) Feed it to the cat
d) Sort it out
5. What do you do with a LADLE?
a) serve soup with it
b) serve coIIee in it
c) write with it
d) rock it
6. What do you do with a KETTLE?

45
a) boil water in it
b) cook potatoes in it
c) grate cheese in it
d) shake drinks up in it
7. What do you do with a TRACKSUIT?
a) wear it when you do sport
b) wear it in the rain
c) wear it to an interview
d) use it in a court oI law
8. What do you do with a PILLOW?
a) use it to put pills in
b) drink Irom it
c) rest your head on it when you sleep
d) cover your head with it
9. What do you do with a FILING CABINET?
a) Store crockery in it
b) Put all your books in it
c) Store documents in it
d) Put your clothes in it
10. What do you do with a COMIC?
a)take him to the hospital
b)see him/her in the playhouse
c) watch it on television
d) read it

5. Choose the correct variant:

1. I work hard every day. .......... , I never work at
weekends.
a) Ior example
b) as a result
c) thereIore
d) however
2. I don`t think I`ll get that job. .......... , I`m still going to
apply.
a) as a result
b) thereIore

46
c) however
d) although
3. He`s the best boss I`ve ever had. .......... , he always
buys everyone a present on their birthdays.
a) as a result
b) although
c) thereIore
d) Ior example
4. It`s diIIicult to think oI anything nice to say about
John, .......... he is at least honest.
a) although
b) as a result
c) thereIore
d) however
5. He`s really diIIicult to work with. .......... , he will
never keep anyone inIormed oI what he`s doing.
a) as a result
b) Ior example
c) thereIore
d) although
6. There is no direct train to Calais. .......... , you can get
there iI you change at Lille.
a) however
b) as a result
c) thereIore
d) although
7. The company lost a lot oI money last year. .......... , we
are not getting a wage increase this year.
a) as a result
b) although
c) thereIore
d) however
8. All the senior managers here are members oI the same
Iamily. .......... , I`m likely to have to move iI I want to
get promoted.
a) as a result
b) although

47
c) thereIore
d) however
9. He isn`t the type oI person to want to stay in the job
Ior a long time .......... I`m sure he`s happy at present.
a) however
b) as a result
c) thereIore
d) although
10. .......... I`m not sure what the Iuture holds Ior us, I`m
sure it will be good.
a) although
b) as a result
c) thereIore
d)however

6. Match the words and phrases in the column below
with their corresponding definitions:

a. a regular customer
b. terms
c. on approval
d. Iirm oIIer
e. oIIer without engagement
I. oIIer subject to goods being unsold
g. a counter-oIIer
h. to shop around
i. to shop with a shop
j. to buy on hire-purchase

1. To buy on credit and pay Ior it by weekly or
monthly installments
2. To buy goods on condition that you can return
them iI you are not satisIied
3. Under these conditions the seller does not have
to supply the goods iI they have already been
sold
4. To be a regular customer with a particular shop

48
5. Means that the seller can change the conditions
oI the oIIer at any time, without prior notice
6. Here the seller promises to supply goods or
services at a certain price, provided the oIIer is
accepted within a stipulated period oI time
7. Reply to an oIIer in which a potential customer
requests better conditions
8. Other word Ior conditions
9. Someone who makes regular purchases at a
shop
10. To compare prices at diIIerent shops
beIore buying

7. Choose the correct variant:

1. This new project looks like it might do really well.
First results are really .......... .
a) hard-working
b) promising
c) impossible
d) understanding
2. He never seems to stop. He`s really .......... .
a) hard-working
b) shocking
c) serious
d) impossible
3. This problem is very diIIicult to deal with. It`s really
.......... .
a) convincing
b) tricky
c) serious
d) impossible
4. He never tells anybody what he is doing and he is rude
to everybody. He`s a very .......... person.
a) shocking
b) serious
c) impossible

49
d) diIIicult
5. When I had a problem she listened to me and
suggested solutions. She was really ..........
a) promising
b) shocking
c) serious
d) understanding
6. Nobody can work with Allison. She`s just a/an ..........
person to deal with.
a) shocking
b) impossible
c) promising
d) convincing
7. I believed everything she said. She was really .......... .
a) hard-working
b) convincing
c) serious
d) impossible
8. I didn`t want to make either oI them redundant. The
choice was really .......... .
a) painIul
b) serious
c) impossible
d) shocking
9. He never smiles, jokes around nor gossips. He`s a
very .......... person.
a) shocking
b) serious
c) impossible
d) understanding
10. I thought the company was doing really well. I Iind
the idea that there will be redundancies really .......... .
a) impossible
b) serious
c) understanding
d) shocking


50
8. Match the words and phrases in the column below
with their corresponding definitions:

a. retailer
b. turnover
c. to display
d. to dispatch
e. gross proIit
I. to earn a living
g. to pay cash
h. assets
i. a warehouse
j. to wrap up

1. Accounting term denoting all valuables belonging to
a company
2. ProIit beIore costs have been subtracted
3. Businessman selling goods in small quantities
4. Place where goods are stored, a storehouse
5. To send oII goods to their destination
6. Total value oI all goods sold
7. To pack the goods to make them look like a present
8. To show to the public
9. To pay with ready money, with notes and coins
10. To gain enough money to live

9. Fill in the gaps with the correct variant:

1. I cannot give you a really accurate estimate at this
point but 20,000 would be a .......... Iigure.
a) on to a good thing
b) big Iish in a small pond
c) begs the question
d) ballpark
2. They gave a much better presentation than us and got
the contract. It wasn`t even close, they ..........
a) were below par

51
b) beat us hands down
c) begged the question
d) big cheese
3. I understand you want to discuss how to improve sales
in Sweden but that .......... oI whether we even want to
be trying to sell in such an unpromising market.
a) on to a good thing
b) begs the question
c) is beavering away
d) is big cheese
4. This is deIinitely a product where we can sell as many
as we produce and at a high price and low cost. We`re
certainly .......... with this.
a) on to a good thing
b) like a big Iish in a small pond
c) begging the question
d) big cheese
5. This project has been a total Iailure. I guess it is time
to go ..........
a) begging the question
b) big Iish in a small pond
c) back to the drawing board
d) backwards
6. He didn`t do so well in that big company but now he`s
gone to a small company he acts as iI he were really
important, a real ..........
a) on to a good thing
b) big Iish in a small pond
c) begs the question
d) big cheese
7. He`s not really that important in the company
structure but he acts like he`s a real ..........
a) on to a good thing
b) big Iish in a small pond
c) begs the question
d) big cheese

52
8. There remains a lot oI work today but Harry keeps
.......... at it and he`s done a lot oI it.
a) below par
b) big Iish in a small pond
c) beat about the bush
d) beavering away
9. The work they did Ior us on that last project was not at
all satisIactory, well ..........
a) below par
b) beat about the bush
c) begs the question
d) beavering away
10. He likes people who come directly to the point so do
not .......... with him.
a) on to a good thing
b) beat about the bush
c) begs the question
d) big cheese

10. Match the words and phrases in the column below
with their corresponding definitions:

a. wholesaler
b. supply and demand
c. a competitor
d. premises
e. to purchase
I. proIitable
g. an invoice
h. liabilities
i. a sample
j. the sales

1. Used to show customers what the goods are like
2. Accounting idiom Ior debts
3. Business colleague who may well try to steal your
customers

53
4. Economic principle markets are governed by
5. Giving a good return on investment
6. Land and buildings a company owns
7. OIIicial document listing goods and prices when a
business transaction is made
8. Period in which retailers sell oII goods at reduced
prices
9. To buy in large quantities
10. Businessman selling goods in large quantities

11. Match the following words with their correct
meaning:

1.a road hog a. is a trade union oIIicial who is elected
by the other members in the Iactory or
oIIice where he or she works to
represent them.
2.a busybody b. is usually a strong man who is
employed to stand at the door oI a club
or restaurant. His job is to stop
unwelcome people Irom coming in and
to throw out anyone inside who is
causing trouble.
3.a charlatan c. oIten have unIair or unreasonable
opinions about people and things
usually because oI Iear or distrust oI
ideas or people diIIerent Irom
themselves.
4.a miser d. have a lot oI diIIerent skills and
abilities and can easily change Irom one
kind oI activity to another.
5.a conscript e. is a very selIish and careless driver.
6.a shop
steward
I. always wants to know about other
people`s private lives.
7.a bigot g. keeps count oI every penny and really
hates spending money.

54
8.a bouncer h. has strong and oIten unreasonable
opinions and won`t change them even
when proved wrong.
9.versatile i. Ialsely claims to have special skills or
knowledge, especially in medicine.
10.prejudiced j. is made to serve in the armed Iorces oI
a country whether he or she wishes or
not.

12. Match the words and phrases in the column
below with their corresponding definitions:

a. to run an errand
b. Iree oI charge
c. to charge
d. an account
e. a slump
I. a cash-desk
g. a trademark
h. a delivery-van
i. to do a roaring trade
j. a shop-liIter

1.Name oI a product distinguishing it Irom its
competitors
2. To run a very proIitable business
3. At no cost
4. Period oI low business activity
5. A thieI, one who steals Irom a shop
6. Credit Iacilities a customer has with a supplier
7. Place where you pay in a shop
8. To ask money as payment Ior
9. Light vehicle used to deliver goods
10. To carry a message or simply to do some
shopping


55
13.Match the words in column A with their
corresponding definitions in column B and then give
their Romanian equivalents:

A. B.
1.ankle a.the joint between the upper and
lower parts oI the leg, where it bends
2.cheek b.the part oI the body between the top
oI each arm and the neck
3.chest c.either side oI the Iace below the eye
4.chin d. an organ oI the body like a bag, into
which Iood passes when swallowed
and in which the Iirst part oI digestion
occurs
5.elbow e.either oI the bone structures
containing the teeth
6.eyebrow I.the part oI the body between the
hand and the arm
7.eyelash g.the part oI the body that connects the
head to the shoulders
8.Iorehead h.the joint connecting the Ioot with the
leg
9.heel i.the Iront part oI the Iace below the
mouth
10.jaw j.the line oI hair above the human eye
11.knee k.the joint where the arm bends, or the
outer part oI this
12.neck l.the upper Iront part oI the body Irom
the neck to the stomach
13.shoulder m.the part oI the human leg between
the knee and the hip
14.stomach n.the back part oI the human Ioot
15.thigh o.the part oI the Iace above the
eyebrows and below the hair
16.throat p.the soIt organ in the mouth, used in
tasting, swallowing, etc. and, by

56
people in speaking
17.thumb r.each oI the hairs growing on the edge
oI the eyelid
18.tongue s.the passage in the neck through
which Iood and air are taken into the
body
19.waist t.a short thick Iinger set apart Irom the
Iour
20.wrist u. the part oI the body between the ribs
and the hips, usually narrower than the
chest and the stomach

14. Match the words and phrases in the column
below with their corresponding definitions:

a. to settle an account
b. an installment
c. to sell cut price
d. a receipt
e. an order Iorm
I. a bank transIer
g. a Iee
h. a salary
i. wages
j. a statement oI account

1. Document showing that the goods have been
paid
2. Financial compensation Ior work, paid weekly
3. Document by means oI which an order can be
placed
4. Document giving an overview oI all
transactions carried out over a period oI time
5. To sell below the normal price
6. A document by means oI which money can be
moved Irom one account to another

57
7. Financial compensation Ior work, paid monthly
8. To pay a bill
9. Weekly or monthly payment as part oI a credit
scheme
10. A lump sum oI money paid Ior services
rendered by e.g. a speaker at a congress

15.Match the words and phrases in column A with
their corresponding definitions in column B and then
give their Romanian equivalents:

A. B.
1. Adam`s apple a. a line oI hair allowed to grow on a
man`s upper lip
2. bags under
the eyes
b. either oI the two openings at the
bottom oI the nose through which a
person or an animal breathes
3. crow`s Ieet c. a line on a person`s head where the
hair is divided and combed in
diIIerent directions
4. dimple d. loose Iolds oI skin under the eyes
5. double chin e. a small Iold or line in the skin, esp.
one oI those on the Iace that are
caused by age
6. eyelid I. the part oI the Iront oI the neck,
especially prominent in men, that
moves up and down when one
swallows
7. Ireckles g. the upper or lower oI two Iolds oI
skin that close to cover the eyeball
8. lobe h. a small, permanent, sometimes
raised, dark spot on the human skin
9. mole i. a mark leIt on the skin by a wound,
burn, etc. aIter it has healed
10.moustache j. a small hollow place in the Ilesh,
esp. oI the chin or cheek

58
11.nostril k. lines in the skin around the outer
corner oI the eye
12.parting l. the soIt lower part oI the outer ear
13.scar m.a Iold oI Iat below the chin
14.temple n. a small, pale brown spot on the
human skin
15.wrinkles o. the Ilat part at each side oI the
Iorehead

16. Match the words and phrases in the column
below with their corresponding definitions:

a. sense oI humour
b. conIidentiality
c. computer skills
d. organisational skills
e. availability
I. selI-conIidence
g. Ilexibility
h. teamwork
i. loyalty
j. eagerness to learn

1. knowing how to keep a secret
2. just being there when it`s necessary
3. adapting oneselI to the situation at hand
4. having a strong belieI in one`s own capacities
5. ability to work together eIIectively with many
diIIerent sorts oI people
6. eIIicient in setting up events, arranging
meetings and solving practical problems
7. on the look-out Ior new developments, keen to
master new skills
8. appreciates a good joke, shares a laugh with
colleagues

59
9. masters at least one word processing program;
spreadsheets and databases have little secrets
Ior him/her
10. will deIend his/her boss and/or company,
no matter what happens

17. Fill in the gaps with one of the verbs in the box
below and then translate the sentences into Romanian:




1. The teacher told the child that he would really have
to down iI he wanted to pass the exam.
2. I could never be a soldier and Iight in a war. I just
couldn`t the killing.
3. Since both his Iiance`s parents were dead, his own
parents oIIered to the bill Ior the wedding
ceremony.
4. Although some members oI the party didn`t agree
with the new policy, they decided to the lien,
rather than vote against their own party.
5. She tried to stop the shopliIter but he her out
oI the way.
6. II John tries to oII his old computer on you,
just tell him you`re looking Ior something more up-
to-date.
7. The way he drives he`s Ior an accident.
8. As they had missed the last bus they decided to try
to a liIt home.
9. AIter hiding Irom the police Ior a Iew weeks, he
Iinally decided to give himselI up and the
music.
10. He had to sack his cleaner because he Iound her
about among his private letters and
documents.
elbow, Iace, Ioot, hand, head, knuckle, nose, palm,
shoulder, stomach, thumb, toe

60
11. She me a cup oI tea and told me to help
myselI to some cookies.
12. The Government is being asked to the
cost oI tidying up aIter the recent earthquake.

18. Match the words and phrases in the column
below with their corresponding definitions:

a. taking the minutes
b. booking accommodation
c. distributing the incoming mail
d. organising meetings
e. keeping the boss`s diary
I. draIting letters
g. welcoming visitors
h. typing out presentations
i. Iiling documents
j. running the company library
k. managing the internal communication

1.storing letters and documents so that they can
easily be Iound back
2. posting notes, handing round memos, making
sure that everybody knows what they need to
know
3. knowing exactly what the boss`s plans Ior the
day and the days to come are
4. writing to customers and supplies
5. ordering books, magazines and papers and
making them available
6. writing down what`s important in a meeting
7. acting as a hostess and making guests Ieel at
ease
8. making sure that everybody get the letters that
are addressed to him or her
9. preparing proIessional slides and providing the
necessary back-up Ior in-house meetings

61
10. making reservations at hotels
11. Irom agenda planning to sending
participants a report

19.Associate the words in column A with their
corresponding definitions in column B:

A. B.
1. bite
x Iootprints leIt by animals
2. breed
x a cat could do this to you with its
claws
3. calI
x Iire comes out oI its nose
4. chick
x a male duck
5. dragon
x birds do this when they are eating
6. drake
x an animal uses its teeth to do this
7. Ilock
x Iruit becomes this in the sun
8. game
x wild animals, hunted Ior Iood, are
reIerred to as
9. hen
x the inside part oI a nut
10.herd
x men, women and children are
11.hide
x a large area oI leather
12.human
x meat Irom deer
13.kernel
x a wasp could do this to you
14.peck
x small grapes become this when they
have dried
15.peel
x a . oI locusts
16.pips
x we reIer to the whole oI humanity as
the human .`
17.plague
x a chihuahua is an unusual . oI dog
18.prune
x a lot oI cows together
19.race
x a lot oI sheep together
20.raisins
x you do this to an orange beIore you eat
it
21.rind
x it`s called this when it`s just come out
oI an egg

62
22.ripe
x a baby cow or bull
23.scratch
x meat Irom a baby bull
24.shell
x it lays eggs
25.species
x a dry plum
26.sting
x the inside part oI an apple contains
these
27.stone
x you might grate this to Ilavour Iood
28.tracks
x the outside body oI a crab
29.veal
x you`d Iind one inside a peach
30.venison
x animals or plants which are all alike
are reIerred to as this

20. Match the words and phrases in the column
below with their corresponding definitions:

a. an insurance broker
b. a policy
c. a premium
d. a loss adjuster
e. a claim
I. an assessor
g. an actuary
h. the cover
i. liability
j. comprehensive

1.Giving total protection, all-inclusive
2. Request Ior payment under an insurance policy
3. Risk, anything that can cause the insurance
policy to take eIIect
4. Middleman who sells insurance policies to
clients, operates between policy holder and
insurance company
5. Payment Ior an insurance policy
6. One who calculates the value oI something

63
7. One who estimates the risk Ior an insurance
company
8. Total protection under an insurance policy
9. One who calculates the amount oI
compensation aIter a claim is made
8.Insurance contract

21. Fill in the blacks with dead or death so as to fit the
context:

x Samuel Goldwyn: 'I don`t think anyone should write
their autobiography until aIter they`re ....
x Woody Allen: 'On the plus side, ... is one oI the Iew
things that can be done just as easily lying down.
x Mark Twain: 'The report oI my ... was an
exaggeration.
x Nancy Reagan: 'I believe that people would be alive
today iI there were a ... penalty.
x Erma Bombeck: 'Anybody who watches three games oI
Iootball in a row should be declared brain ....
x Groucho Marx (1890-1977): 'Either this man is ... or
my watch has stopped.
x George Santayana: 'There is no cure Ior birth and ...
save to enjoy the interval.
x Woody Allen: 'There are worse things in liIe than ....
Have you ever spent an evening with an insurance
salesman?
x Samuel Goldwyn: 'II I could drop ... right now, I`d be
the happiest man alive.

22.In each sentence of the following exercises (A-K)
one word has been left out. Complete the
respective sentences with the words provided in
the boxes:



64
A.


1. In the past, human diseases were considered a
problem Ior the proIession to solve alone.
2. But the human body carries many chemical
reactions.
3. In Iact, the body has been described as a small,
very complicated chemical process.
4. Sometimes, when parts oI the body break down,
it is possible to use chemical engineering to make
substitute parts.
5. This is known as biomedical.
6. Until recently, when a person`s kidneys stopped
working, there was no way to continue the
process oI removing products Irom the blood, so
the person died.
7. Now these wastes can be removed by passing the
blood through a machine that works on the same
principles as the kidney an kidney.

B.



1. We seek an articulate individual with at least
Iive years` experience.
2. You must have a proven record in insurance
sales.
3. You will be expected to have the ability to and
monitor On-the-Job Training programmes.
4. Other important include a high degree oI selI
discipline and the ability to work to tight
deadlines.
5. Key candidate requirements include and
relevant production experience in the Iood
industry.
attributes extensive implement managerial
maximising suppliers track
out engineering medical principles plant
waste artiIicial

65
6. The successIul candidate will be Iully
responsible Ior proIitable sales through the
recruitment, direction, motivation and control
oI the direct sales Iorce.
7. You will negotiate the best prices Irom ,
Iorecast sales and monitor competitor activity.

C.



1. Chemically pure water is made by distillation, a
process that removes all minerals Irom water.
2. Distilled water is not usually used Ior because the
removal oI the minerals and the air makes the
water taste Ilat.
3. Distilled water Iinds in the preparation oI
medicines and in storage batteries.
4. The distillation oI water involves two steps:
boiling and.
5. The water is boiled, Iorming steam.
6. Upon, the steam condenses.
7. Since the mineral impurities do not easily, they
remain behind in the distilling vessel.
8. The condensed steam is pure water.
9. Rain water closely resembles distilled water
because rain water results the condensation oI
water vapour in the air.

D.



1. We oIIer an excellent salary and package,
including 5 weeks holiday entitlement.
above-average application beneIits
committed contributory minorities writing

dissolved condensing drinking impure use cooling
Irom vaporize chemically

66
2. The organisation oIIers an salary, comparable
to those paid in other international
organisations.
3. BeneIits include a car, private medical
insurance, pension scheme and a preIerential
mortgage interest rate.
4. We are to developing each employee to his Iull
potential.
5. As an equal opportunity employer we welcome
applications Irom men and women, including
ethnic and the disabled.
6. For Iurther details and inIormation write to
XYZ.
7. Apply in with Iull career details to XYZ.

E.



1. There are Iour basic elements in the computer
processing system.
2. These are the hardware, the soItware, the, and
the personnel.
3. Computer hardware is all the that is necessary
Ior the operation oI a computer system.
4. Computer soItware, on the other hand, comprises
the programs, instructions, and whose purpose is
to aid in the use oI the equipment.
5. The computer is a machine which is very
eIIicient at Iollowing these soItware, but it
cannot think.
6. It only carries out the instructions to it.
7. II a mistake in logic made in the instructions, the
computer will make the mistakes.
8. II a condition is not anticipated, the computer
will not know how to it when it occurs.
equipment instructions routines data given
procedures exactly same handle

67
9. The computer must be told what to do and how
to do it.

F.



1. Medical background is but not essential.
2. You must have knowledge oI MicrosoIt OIIice
and good typing skills.
3. Further can be obtained Irom Human
Resources.
4. A comprehensive remuneration package is
available which includes assistance to this
attractive part oI the country.
5. A personality and a strong desire Ior a
challenge are essential.
6. Reporting directly to the MD this position will
be based at the oIIice in Sudbury.
7. High earnings are available Ior enthusiastic
sales proIessionals who can proven success.
8.This is an opportunity which can lead to a long
term career with promotion into line management.

G.



1. A computer is instructed by means oI a program,
which consists oI a sequence oI that when
executed will produce a desired result.
2. Programs must be written either in a language
which the computer can understand or in one
which can be into a language it can understand.
3. The language which computers understand is
machine language.
comprehensive demonstrate desirable
exciting head lively particulars relocation
translated machine instructions basic symbolic
alphabetical attached eIIiciently device

68
4. A person who can write a program in language
can communicate directly with the computer.
5. Machine language, however, is complicated and
has no instructions.
6. The computer can work with it, but human beings
have a hard time using and writing it.
7. As a result, a number oI other languages, called
languages, have been developed which are easier
Ior human beings to work with and understand.
8. Programs written in these languages are put into
the computer to which is a device called a
compiler.
9. The translates the symbolic language program into
a machine language so the computer can
understand and carry out the program.

H.



1. Markets bring together buyers and sellers oI
goods and.
2. In some cases, such as a local Iruit, buyers and
sellers meet physically.
3. In other cases such as the market, business can
be transacted over the telephone, almost by
remote control.
4. A market is a shorthand expression Ior the
process by which households decisions about
consumption oI alternative goods, Iirms`
decisions about how much and Ior whom to
work are all reconciled by oI prices.
5. Prices oI goods and oI resources, such as
labour, machinery and land, adjust to ensure
that resources are used to produce those goods
and services that society demands.
Suppose stall stock scarce markets convenient
services adjustment

69
6. Much oI the economics is devoted to the study
oI how and prices enable society to solve the
problems oI what, how and Ior whom to
produce.
7. you buy a hamburger Ior your lunch.
8. You choose the caI because it was Iast, and
cheap.

I.


1. One night a man came a boy looking Ior
something under a streetlight.
2. The man asked the boy he had lost.
3. The boy said that he lost his watch.
4. Since it was not there, the man asked the boy iI
he was sure that he had lost his watch in that
spot.
5. The boy said that he had lost the watch at
another place, down the street.
6. The man then asked the boy why he was
looking Ior the watch under the.
7. The boy replied, 'Well, sir, the is much better
here.

J.



1. Stress may result Irom both job-related Iactors
and Iactors.
2. Job-related Iactors prompting stress might
include impossible deadlines, diIIicult tasks,
high noise levels, overtime, shiIt work,
excessive travel, distracting, meetings and
phone calls, etc.
3. The oI job-related are easy to predict.
decisions unwanted consequences pressures
personal areas
obviously what upon had Iarther light streetlight

70
4. They include absenteeism, inactivity, job
dissatisIaction, accidents, tardiness,
antagonism, turnover and poor.
5. Personal Iactors that may produce stress
include selI-imposed, selI-doubt, ageing, Iear
oI success, or Iear oI Iailure, low selI-esteem,
Irustration and Iamily problems.
6. Notable examples oI high-stress career are
advertising, commodity trading, insurance
selling, public relations, sales and retailing and
investment banking.

K.



1. A decision is made under conditions oI risk
when a manager knows the available
alternatives, the oI their occurrence, and the
potential beneIits associated with each.
2. Decisions under oI risk are perhaps the most
common.
3. In such situations, alternatives are recognized,
but their are in doubt.
4. In business, gambling is not a word, but risk
taking is.
5. Continued successIul enterprise requires that
managers take risks in introducing new
products, in borrowing capital, in diversiIying,
and so Iorth.
6. Making decisions is a way oI liIe at many
enterprises.
7. PepsiCo is proud that its on risk taking is what
sets its managers apart Irom those oI many
other companies.
8. Nevertheless, aggressive enterprises realize
that requires risk taking.
outcomes likelihood popular conditions
perIormance growth emphasis bold

71
23.Fill in the gaps using one of the following
expressions of quantity: a roll of, a bar of, a gallon
of, a bag of, a bowl of, a heaa of, a tube of, a bottle
of, a loaf of, a glass of, a cup of, a spoonful of, a box
of, a far of, a ao:en, a stick of, a scoop of, a piece of,
a slice of, a weage of, a chunk/cube of, a flake(s) of,
a block of, a cube of, a slab of, a sheet of, a scrap of,
a splinter of, a hunk of, a rasher of, a cloa of, a wea
of, a aollop of, a lump of, a pane of, a blob of, a
trickle of, a pinch of, a squirt of, a aash of, a arop
of, a puff of, a wisp of, a crumb of, a speck of, a
shrea of, a chip of, a sliver of.

1)a oI milk
2)a oI ointment
3)a oI paint
4)a oI butter
5)a oI glass
6)a oI dirt
7)a oI sauce
8)a oI celery
9)a oI liquid
10) a oI rain
11) a oI china
12) a oI ice
13) a oI perIume
14) a oI cake
15) a oI newspaper
16) a oI smoke
17) a oI banknotes
18) a oI bacon
19) a oI crackers
20) a oI tomato
21) a oI mashed potato
22) a oI coIIee
23) a oI rock
24) a oI paint

72
25) a oI jam
26) a oI lemon
27) a oI earth
28) a oI steam
29) a oI bread
30) a oI cheese
31) a oI melon
32) a oI salt
33) a oI plastic
34) a oI Iruit
35) a oI concrete
36) oI Iish
37) a oI charcoal
38) a oI chalk
39) a oI glass
40) a oI meat
41) a oI material
42) a oI Iilm
43) a oI paper
44) a oI chocolate
45) a oI wood
46) a oI juice
47) a oI glue
48) a oI dynamite
49) a oI cloth
50) a eggs
51) a oI gum
52) a oI coal
53) a oI wood
54) a oI carpet
55) a oI cereal
56) a oI toothpaste
57) a oI lettuce
58) a oI soup
59) a oI ice cream
60) a oI beer
61) a oI marmalade

73
62) a oI cloth
63) a oI wine
64) a oI sugar
65) a oI rhubarb

24.Fill in the gaps with the words given in the box
below:



1. Could I just have one . oI bread, please ?
2. Look at him, eating away at a . oI chocolate.
3. I have bought Iour . oI biscuits to help us through
the evening.
4. What . oI car is this, you say ? An MG ?
5. What this soup needs is a decent . oI salt.
6. Write it down on a . oI paper.
7. I`m aIraid we`ll have to open another . oI beer.
8. Did you see that . oI lightning just now?
9. I`m dying Ior a . oI Iresh air.
10. Fancy a . oI tennis?
11. Not one . oI rice we have leIt in our
cupboard!
12. Go Ietch a . oI water, quick!
13. We`re in Ior a . oI trouble, I`m telling you!
14. II she gets a . oI anger, don`t panic, that`s her
usual selI.
15. Let me give you a . oI advice, son.


PHRASAL VERBS


To Beat
1. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:

down, oII, out, up, up on
bar barrel breath Iit Ilash game pail grain
loaI make packets piece pinch scrap spot

74
1. The drummers walked among them, beating a
rhythm to match their movements.
2. He made a great speech, thus beating the
opposition.
3. We are talking about the torrential rains that beat
the entire country.
4. He told us that he had been beaten by the police.
5. You could not beat a guy who looked so sick.
6. II you beat a Iire, you stop it burning by hitting it
with a blanket, brush or any other object.
7. I beat the salesman Irom 500$ to 400$.

To Break
2. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. In 1929 he broke the Liberal Party over Lloyd
George`s policies.
2. I struggled up the side and broke the elder
bushes.
3. The Revolution broke a culture which had
petriIied.
4. I broke a branch and stabbed at the ground with
it.
5. He broke one spring night in 1946 and hitched
south.
6. Could we just break that question?
7. With a computer you can break the data to suit
particular requirements.
8. Another sect had broken Irom the long
established Plymouth Brethren.
9. He became so pensive that she did not like to break
his thought.
10. The water Iloods their homes or breaks the
walls.
away, down, in, in on, into, in upon, oII, out, through,
up, with

75
11. Don`t look at me`, the woman broke
brusquely.
12. UnIortunately, we`ll have to break our
savings iI we decide to buy that expensive house.
13. She has managed to break oI the mould and
achieve something.
14. Meals and drinks break the hospital day.
15. He broke precedent by making his maiden
speech on a controversial subject.

To Bring
3. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. We intend to bring _____legislation to control their
activities.
2. Seeing the place again would bring all the horrors
to me.
3. Ask him to bring the meeting to 8 o`clock.
4. The promised measures included steps to bring
prices.
5. Naturally, one wonders what may have taken place to
bring the separation .
6. Jordan has got to be brought this business iI we
want to make it proIitable.
7. The death oI their close Iriend was just suIIicient to
bring them again.
8. I am sorry to bring the subject oI politics again.
9. Nobody was making any attempt to bring her
aIter all that had happened.
10. They are bringing a new model oI the car
next year.
11. The crisis in our industry has been brought
by wrong economic policies.
12. I brought a nut cake to her anniversary.
about, back, down, Iorth, Iorward, in, into, oII, on, out,
out in, over, round, to, together, up, through

76
13. She was eventually brought aIter several
minutes oI unconsciousness.
14. The new young advertising executive succeeded to
bring a big business deal.
15. This speech brought a shudder oI revulsion.
16. Eating spiced Ioods always brings me in a
rash.
17. It was those people`s special courage that brought
them the horrors oI a devastating war.

To Come
4. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:
A.




1. A button came his coat when he tried to unbutton
it.
2. British industry does come a great deal oI
criticism.
3. I`ll let you know what comes the meeting.
4. This technique is rapidly coming use today.
5. Gary tried to smile but it didn`t come . His heart
wasn`t in it.
6. II you or your body comes spots or rashes, they
develop all over your body.
7. The bartender came and put her drink down in
Iront oI her.
8. There were Ilames coming oI the engine.
9. Occasionally he comes Iascinating snippets oI
gossip.
10. The young actress had something special. Whenever
she came the stage everybody held their breath.
11. I could come this evening iI you like.
down with, Iorth, in Ior, into, oI, oII, oII, on to, out, out
in, out with, over, round, through, to, under, up, up
against, upon, up to, up with

77
12. While I came the hall I heard them talking
about Jane.
13. That`s all I remember until I came in a
liIeboat.
14. The setting up oI a new university comes the
jurisdiction oI the Ministry oI Education and Research.
15. A couple oI months ago we sold the Iarm and came
north here.
16. At the beginning we came unimaginable
diIIiculties.
17. It must be said that it never really came
expectations.
18. She had been thrown into conIusion by suddenly
coming a photo oI Jane.
19. The counsel Ior the deIense came a
compromise.
20. A witness came to testiIy that the young man
had been present.
21. He came appendicitis.

B.




22. They came ambitious plans to have a
suspended bridge built across the canyon.
23. Julie comes a very old Iamily.
24. What it all comes in this period oI economic
recession is cutting wages and reducing the number oI
white-collar employees.
25. Tom said he would come at Iive.
26. We should come what Brian was saying.
27. Fortunately Tom`s parents came him and his
disreputable Iriends in time.
28. His case came a tribunal.
29. I showered, dressed and came Ior breakIast.
about, across, aIter, along, oII, apart, around, at, back
to, beIore, between, by, down, down on, down to, Ior,
Iorward, Iorward with, Irom, in, out oI

78
30. The bank came us Ior immediate payment.
31. Ralph was coming , holding his spear.
32. The discovery oI adrenalin came through a
mistake.
33. The candidate`s speech came very well.
34. The Iaster I retreated the Iaster they came me.
35. He pulled both ends oI the stick, and it came
in two pieces.
36. When I saw that the dog was coming me, I ran
away.
37. The police came the criminal in a matter oI
minutes.
38. Many people came to accuse her oI various
misdemeanours.
39. When did the short skirt Iirst come ?
40. She saw him come the plane with two
plainclothes men holding his arms.
41. Expert systems have come artiIicial
intelligence research.
42. He abruptly stopped coming to visit.

To Cut
5. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:


1. The teachers` trade union oppose any plans to cut
the education budget.
2. I decided to cut country Ior the next hundred
miles.
3. I`m sorry to cut your conversation, but
something urgent has come up.
4. I couldn`t tell John everything about what had happened
because we were cut in the middle oI our
conversation by the telephone operator.
5. Alice was really cut when her Iriend died.
oII, back (on) , across, through, in on, out, up, up

79
6. The engine oI my car keeps cutting when I go
up hills.
7. The Iiremen had to cut a steel door with a
blowtorch beIore they could enter the building on Iire.
8. Every housewiIe`s dream is to come by a machine Ior
cutting vegetable.

To Do
6. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. He started to do his boots, pulling Iiercely at the
laces.
2. I must do these cupboards tomorrow.
3. I`m thinking oI having it done yellow and blue.
4. II you don`t have cigarettes, you must simply do .
5. Mind your own business; it`s got nothing to do
you.
6. The government did Iree social help Ior people
who are able to do menial work Ior the community.
7. She tried with her right hand, but she couldn`t work it.
She was done .
8. She was determined to do John one way or
another.
9. The essay was no good, I`ll have to do it .
10. The burglars had decided to do the owners oI
the house Ior Iear they might describe them to the
police.
11. This skirt does at the back.

To Fall
7. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:


without, up, out in, down, Ior, in, with, out, away with,
over, up

80






1. As he began to march around the lawn, people Iell
behind him.
2. He Iell her the moment he set eyes on her.
3. I got to the ridge expecting to see a gentle slope Ialling
in Iront oI me.
4. I`ve Iallen with certain members oI the
committee.
5. Instead oI challenging the lie, she Iell it.
6. Joyce`s The Portrait oI an Artist as a Young Man` Ialls
autobiography, not Iiction.
7. OI course, they were all Ialling to serve us.
8. People were Ialling each other in delight and
tears.
9. Terrorist groups were Ialling indiscriminately
men and women in the street.
10. The world conIerence was to have taken place in
1999, but it Iell when a number oI countries
reIused to participate.
11. The Ilow oI western capital is Ialling just
when it is most needed by our crippled economy.
12. The house was cheap because it was Ialling .
13. The pile oI books Iell and scattered all over
the Iloor.
14. The practice oI natural cures has unwittingly Iallen
disuse in the past thirty years or so.
15. On seeing the mounted police charging
towards them, the rowdy crowd Iell in disorder.
16. Teachers` salaries have Iallen those oI many
oI the other budgetary categories.
17. We arranged to book a villa but the arrangement Iell
in the last moment.
18. We have a written script to Iall iI we run out
oI things to discuss.
about, apart, back, back on, behind, down, Ior, in, into,
in with, oII, on, out, over, through, under, upon, away,
down

81
19. When I Iell on my back, the other climbers Iell
laughing.

To Get
8. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. She has her mother to help her with the children,
otherwise she just couldn`t get .
2. She was restrained Irom getting herselI by a
natural modesty.
3. I want to know whether my words are getting ,
young man!
4. Bright young men and women can get quickly in
a Iast moving society.
5. Some parents never ask how their children are getting
.
6. The news got and there were always plenty oI
visitors to the exhibition.
7. The angry rhino was trying to smash the Ience so that
he could get me.
8. She wanted to get , but at the same time she
didn`t want to appear rude.
9. They wanted to get the rigid timetables oI the
past.
10. I`m not going to allow Anne to get an
oIIensive remark like that.
11. She had all her jewellery stolen, and I don`t think
she`ll ever get it .
12. He hated meanness and seemed to consider it his
duty to get those guilty oI it.
13. They slide through liIe, getting as best as they
can.
14. These are problems that we have never got
tackling.
in, by, away Irom, back, at, away with, back at, down
to, ahead, around, above, aIter, along, away, about

82
15. We must remember to get some more coIIee
beIore the guests arrive.

To Get 2
9. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. An impasse has developed and I don`t know how to get
it.
2. Bobby and his Iriend got talking about old
movies.
3. Can we just get this questioning ?
4. The young recruit did not get his homesickness
Ior some time.
5. I didn`t want him getting you as I knew you just
couldn`t stand it.
6. I had no reason Ior getting the bus beIore it
arrived at the railway station.
7. I just can`t get those science Iiction books.
8. I saw you watching the Iight and getting it.
9. It is diIIicult to get this amount oI work in such a
short time.
10. Mike thinks I`m trying to get his girlIriend.
11. She could always get him aIter a Iight.
12. She takes good care to get the people who
matter.
13. The U.N. inspectors got their Iirst report about
the country`s nuclear potential as soon as they had
Iinished inspecting the premises oI a Iormerly secret
nuclear reactor.
14. The women got a march and picket to move
them out oI the school.
15. When I Iound out what they used to get I was
absolutely horriIied.
into, in with, oII, oII on, oII with, on at, on to, out, over,
over with, round, up, up to, through, round

83

To Give
10. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:


1. Our supply oI Iood has given .
2. I give you, young man: you`ll never get anywhere
with that attitude.
3. For months aIter the accident happened, he gave
himselI dreams oI revenge.
4. Give hitting your little sister!
5. I was too aIraid that I might give myselI by
saying or doing something incomprehensible.
6. The door gave a path which skirted the house.
7. Mother Theresa gave her liIe helping people.
8. The two policemen interrogated the car thieI Ior hours
on end, but still he wouldn`t give his
accomplices.
9. They will argue and Iight against it, but they will give
iI they see that you are right.
10. Be careIul! This gas gives an intensely hot
Ilame in the presence oI oxygen.

To Go
11. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or
adverb form the box below:



1. Although this will go my day, he and Neil Foster
were the real heroes.
2. He wanted to be leIt alone to go _____ his business.
3. He went the accounts oI the inquest.
4. His eyes were too Iixed and pale, I never really went
them.
5. His interests went Iar political economy.
away, in, oII, onto, out, over, over to, up, up on, up to
about, against, along, along with, at, away, back on,
back over, beyond, by, down, down as, Ior, in Ior, into

84
6. I go the idea that languages are essentially
communication systems.
7. I try to go reason as Iar as possible.
8. I went the corridor until I Iound a door open.
9. I`ve never gone jewellery.
10. It wouldn`t be Iair to go on those promises.
11. She`ll just say something that goes everything
I`ve been trying to say.
12. Sometimes the Iever lasts Ior a day or two and then
goes .
13. The breakIast arrived and he went it like a
starving reIugee.
14. The problems involved are highly technical and I
won`t go them.
15. The president`s New Year`s address went well
with the majority oI the population.

To Go 2
12. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or
adverb form the box below:




1. Even though he was earning a good salary he Iound the
money going as Iast as it came in.
2. How long do you think you could you go Iood
and water?
3. The buyer did not want the thirty acres oI pasture that
went the place.
4. Short skirts went some years ago.
5. Peter, would you quickly go and collect the
exercise books up?
6. My Iriend was taking it Ior granted that I was going to
go this business, and I resented her attitude.
7. Teachers have to go a long period oI proIessional
training.
oII, oII with, on, on with, out, out, over, overboard,
over to, round, through, through with, under, with,
without

85
8. The gun went _____ as he was putting it away.
9. The high civilizations oI the East went one by
one.
10. The tape recorder went and he started to talk.
11. The traitor went the side oI the very people
who had killed his Iamily.
12. They went rather and said that it was the best
Iilm they had ever seen.
13. They were all surprised to hear that he had gone
somebody else aIter 8 years oI marriage.
14. We could go the whole project and see iI there
are any problems.
15. He paused Ior a sip oI coIIee, then went the
story.

To Look
13. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or
adverb from the box below:



1. He looked up at her with bright black eyes, then looked
again and carried on eating.
2. Houses are looked as investments.
3. I think I`ll look on my parents on the way home
Irom work.
4. I`ve looked your essay and I think it`s very good.
5. It all seems very pathetic when I look , but it was
painIul enough at the time.
6. Let me have a note saying what you want, and we`ll
look it .
7. She wasn`t being well looked _____ at all.
8. Sometimes he would look the article I had
written, shrug, and tear it up.
9. Tell me when you decide to give up. Then I can look
Ior somebody who would like the job!
aIter, ahead, at, away, back, down on, Ior, in, into,
upon, out, out Ior, over, round, to

86
10. They are arrogant and aggressive people. They are
always looking us.
11. Please go and look your aunt at the station.
12. Romanian Iirms have to resort to an independent
Iinancial controller to look their accounts.
13. We should look the economists Ior advice on
how to overcome inIlation.
14. We started to look a house with a garden.
15. You`ll need to look Iive or six years in order
to be a good manager.

To Make
14. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or
adverb from the box below:


1. Do you really think I was trying to make the
American guest?`
Well, it looked very much like it.`
2. Dishonest businessmen oIten make part oI their
business to their relatives Ior the IRS people to
lose track oI them.
3. He could not make the number plate oI the car.
4. He was a good story-teller and used to make
tales about animals.
5. He was a strange man and nobody knew what to make
him.
6. He`s aIraid someone might make the takings.
7. The dog ran down there and tried to make one oI
his sausages.
8. The police made _____ him as soon as he had entered
the bar.
9. They tore down nearly halI that Iorest to make it
Iarmlands.
10. When it started raining they made the nearest
shelter.

aIter, away with, Ior, into, oI, oII with, out, over, up, up

87
To Put
15. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or
adverb from the box below:



1. AIter Mrs. Robbins was pensioned oII, Helen put
Ior her secretarial job.
2. Wild animals may be the innocent victims oI poison put
to kill Ioxes.
3. You needn`t drive the car up to the house; just put me
at the gate.
4. I was certainly pleased by the level oI eIIort everyone
put today.
5. I was grateIul that I had been given the chance to put
my point oI view.
6. Personally, I`d put George somebody reasonably
successIul in most things.
7. The meeting has been put to next week.
8. It is not always so easy to put old texts modern
English.
9. It seemed unsaIe to put anything
coincidence.
10. Don`t Iorget to put your watch by an hour on
October 21.
11. Nothing will put her once she has made up her
mind.
12. She`s always putting too much perIume.
13. Some people seem to be able to put this tragic event
them, but I can`t help remembering.
14. Young as she seems, I`d put her age 40.
15. The counsel oI the deIense had a hard struggle to
counteract the lies put by the witnesses Ior the
prosecution.



about, across, at, away, back, behind, down. down as,
down to, Iorward, in, in Ior, into, oII, on

88
To Put 2
16. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. Directory Enquiries put him _____ the International
Exchange.
2. It took the Iiremen two hours to put the Iire .
3. He recognized the Iace but he couldn`t put a name
it.
4. I always wondered how the old teacher could put
such a behaviour on the part oI his students.
5. I can`t understand why you put a phoney English
accent.
6. I wouldn`t put it him. He did such things in the
past too.
7. The car dealer tried to put one me by selling me
a car that didn`t work properly.
8. Judy put her hands and held Lynn tight.
9. It`s not like George to complain about his neighbours:
his wiIe must have put him it.
10. Say it again. Has John really won in the lottery or
you are just putting me ?
11. The report had been put by the opposition to
cause trouble.
12. There is no need to put it my department at
all. I`ll handle it personally.
13. Eastern people have a lot oI restrictions put
them by their culture and religion.
14. They are going to put a whole block oI Ilats in
this very area.
15. Rule Britannia put to sea at high tide.
16. I can`t play tennis today, I`ve put my shoulder
.

on, on to, out, on, past, round, out, through, to, out,
over on, up, upon, up to, up with, out

89
To Run
17. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. A dog was running in the yard.
2. Could you run Iive copies oI this article Ior me,
please?
3. Economic growth would sooner or later run
major problems.
4. He`ll surely run trouble with this kind oI
behaviour.
5. I was impressed with the concept oI Iairness that ran
the report.
6. UnIortunately, Helen`s husband Iound out she`d been
running another man.
7. It was very unusual to run _____ Americans in that part
oI the world.
8. She`s just jealous oI Peter`s success; that`s why she`s
always running him .
9. The Ilag was run and the National Anthem was
sung.
10. The policeman told him he could be run Ior
that kind oI attitude.
11. This car runs Diesel oil.
12. The bank robbers intended to grab as much money as
possible beIore the alarm started and run it to
Mexico.
13. They let their emotions run them.
14. We almost ran a Iox that was crossing the
road.
15. You know me well enough to realize I wouldn`t run
you.
across, around, around with, away with, down, in, into,
oII, oII with, on, out on, over, through, up, up against

90
To Take
18. Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:




1. AIter their death, relatives took their debts .
2. He caught sight oI my appearance Ior the Iirst time and
was taken _____ at how diIIerent I looked.
3. He took his grandIather where character was
concerned.
4. Helen, would you be kind enough to take Elaine
the schedule?
5. I am simply taking the lectures so as to be able to
learn Ior the exam.
6. I had given him the money beIore I was aware oI
having been taken .
7. She just took without saying goodbye to anyone.
8. I was in a depressed and hostile mood, and I needed to
take my bad Ieelings someone.
9. It was impossible to say whether he had taken
Rose or not.
10. We`ve decided to take a new secretary.
11. People will adore this Iilm: it takes you right
yourselI.
12. The book had been on the shelves Ior several
months, but so Iar no one had taken it .
13. I don`t think John will be able to help you: he`s too
much taken his own problems.
14. When he was a little boy Tommy would take
every single watch he could lay his hands on.
15. Whatever he may have been like as a person, nothing
can take his achievements as a scientist.

aback, aIter, apart, on, away Irom, down, in, oII, out,
out oI, out on, over, through, to, up with

91
To Turn
19.Fill in each gap with the right preposition or adverb
from the box below:



1. Better-quality goods were being turned at lower
prices.
2. Street children can get along very well without having
to turn an adult Ior support.
3. I turned an invitation Ior Saturday aIternoon
because I`m not Ieeling quite well.
4. The policeman ordered the car thieI to turn his
pockets.
5. The dogs turned their master and tore him to
pieces.
6. The lecture was so boring that I just turned .
7. The novel had been turned a television series.
8. The old method oI harvesting barley is to turn it
until it is quite dry.
9. They had been turned by one oI their own
Iriends.
10. They were caught by security patrols and turned
to the police.
11. Ex-wives oIten turn the children their Iathers.
12. Voters turned in big numbers Ior the
elections.
13. We don`t turn anybody because the old
business was built up on Iriendship.
14. Nowadays young girls are turning hand-made
clothes to machine printed dresses.

20.Choose the correct answer:

1. In my new job I`m stuck in my oIIice. I wish I
could about a bit more.
lay
about, against, away, away Irom, down, in, into, oII,
(up)on, out, over, round, to, up, out

92
get
cast
hear
2. We don`t have any Iirm plans when we get to
CaliIornia. Our intention is to about Ior a
Iew days.
driIt
cast
hear
set
3. Those auditors are obsessed with all the details.
They about everywhere looking Ior
irregularities.
cast
lay
root
Iool
4. I had a lot oI problems getting my spreadsheet to
look nice. I had to about with it Ior ages.
lounge
lay
Iiddle
cast
5. I`m Ied up with you being so unhelpIul. II you
me about any more, I`m going to
complain to your Head OIIice.
mope
muck
lounge
get
6. Don`t about. We`ve got to get this
Iinished quickly.
mess
hear
cast
get

93
7. The appointment was at 10.00 but I had to
about Ior almost an hour beIore he could see me.
wait
lay
cast
hear
8. Changes need to be made but I have absolutely no
idea how to about making those changes.
lay
lounge
mope
set
9. II you`ve got a problem with your computer, ask
Mark. He all about computers.
mopes
lounges
knows
Iools
10. I already knew you were leaving. There`s not
much you don`t about in this place.
mope
hear
lounge
Iool
11. The project is completely blocked and they are
trying to about Ior a solution.
mope
lay
lounge
cast
12. He was so angry that he started to
about the people nearest to him. We had to call
security to throw him out.
mope
lay
lounge
Iool

94
13. Everybody knows. News about Iast
here.
mopes
lounges
Iools
gets
14. Please take this seriously. Don`t about.
cast
hear
Iool
get
15. They never get any work done. They just
about all day.
lounge
hear
cast
get
16. Since he didn`t get the promotion he spends all
day walking around looking sad. I didn`t think he
was the sort to about like that.
mope
hear
cast
get
17. I`m not sure where it is exactly but I know it`s
around somewhere.
kicking
tinkering
hurling
going
18. He got really angry and started things
about. One book almost hit me.
tinkering
going
kicking
hurling

95
19. You`ve got no business about saying
things about me.
tinkering
hurling
going
kicking
20. There`s no point in about with this
document. It`s useless. We`ll have to start again.
tinkering
hurling
going
kicking

21. Choose the correct answer:

1. StaII who reIused to by the new rules
were Iired.
abide
adhere
angle
arrive
attend
2. I hope they don`t serve seaIood. It just doesn`t
with me.
abide
agree
angle
suit
associate
3. We`re at doubling production by the end
oI the century.
trying
aiming
answering
asking
associating

96
4. I need to call the technician. My machine is
up.
acting
aiming
angling
running
attending
5. I`ll deal with it as soon as I can but I`ve got
another couple oI matters to to Iirst.
care
deal
arrive
attend
6. Even Ior exaggeration, it sounds like Tom
was really incompetent.
considering
allowing
amounting
going
associating
7. I saw Simon the other day and he was
aIter you.
looking
adhering
answering
asking
going
8. The changes introduced have not to
anything very signiIicant.
added
implemented
amounted
asked
associated
9. I don`t understand why she`s going to a new job
with less pay and longer hours. It just doesn`t
up.

97
add
make
grow
arrive
attend
10. Diplomacy is not a quality I`d normally
with John.
abide
suit
answer
match
associate
11. The working atmosphere has gone downhill
since you joined. You have a lot to Ior.
go
look
answer
ask
inquire
12. Although I may appear to be autonomous, I
have to to a manager in the Bucuresti
head oIIice.
look
get
answer
ask
average
13. We negotiated with the unions Ior several hours
but weren`t able to at an agreement.
strike
agree
angle
arrive
attribute
14. Absenteeism per employee out at 4
days a year.
looks

98
aims
answers
arrives
averages
15. This company has always to a strict no-
smoking policy.
got
adhered
amounted
asked
attended
16. I don`t know the answer myselI but I`ll
around and see iI anybody else knows.
go
aim
answer
ask
attend
17. Bob`s always getting round the boss. I guess
he`s Ior promotion.
acting
adhering
angling
trying
insinuating
18. She`s the best assistant I`ve ever had. I couldn`t
Ior a better one.
dream
hire
employ
ask
average
19. Jim`s version oI the Iacts doesn`t with
the version I heard Irom Jules.
accord
argue
amount

99
arrive
attend
20. He his success to hard work.
abides
aims
angles
arrives
attributes

22. Choose the correct answer:

1. I`ll get there iI I can but don`t on me
coming.
back
bank
bang
bat
beaver
2. We were all ready to begin work when they
out oI the joint venture.
backed
balked
bargained
based
beeIed
3. Telecoms users are together to Iight Ior
price reductions.
backing
banding
banging
batting
becoming
4. Our analysis is on a study oI 5000
consumers.
relied
banked
banged

100
based
backed
5. I wasn`t looking properly and I into this
old lady and knocked her down.
struck
banked
banged
batted
beavered
6. We need to up our sales eIIort iI we are
going to survive.
set
increase
bang
bat
beeI
7. It caused quite a scandal at the time, but the
whole thing over in a Iew weeks.
backed
knocked
banged
batted
blew
8. For once, they really liked what I had done and I
was able to in their praise.
back
be
bang
bask
beat
9. I think most people would at the idea oI
spending so much on a leisure item.
think
balk
bang
bat
become

101
10. She just into my room without
knocking. It was very impolite.
backed
balanced
banged
barged
beat
11. Their claims are up by some very
impressive statistics.
sustained
backed
bargained
based
became
12. I`m really determined on this. Nothing you can
say will make me down.
back
balk
bargain
base
beeI
13. The time needed Ior research and development
was rather more than we`d Ior.
backed
answered
bargained
batted
beat
14. I`ve no idea what has oI him.
arrived
banked
banged
barged
become
15. We around several ideas but we didn`t
come to any real conclusion.
backed

102
balanced
blew
batted
beavered
16. I don`t have time to do it properly but I could
up with a quick summary iI you wanted.
back
come
bang
send
beat
17. We need to invite a Iew more women delegates
to up the numbers.
back
balance
bang
increase
become
18. I didn`t understand it at Iirst but I away
at it until I understood.
backed
banded
went
barged
beavered
19. We`ve had to oII a lot oI competition to
get this contract.
back
balance
bang
barge
beat
20. The government has away Irom plans
to increase taxes.
gone
balked
bargained

103
based
beeIed

23. Fill in the blanks with the correct variant:

1. He seems really competent but he`s not. But he
appears so assured that he`ll in a lot oI
people.
set
take
put
get
2. It`s a really big assignment. I`m going to have to
in a lot oI hard work.
set
call
put
look
3. You`ll need to be able to demonstrate this without
any errors so iI I were you I`d in some
practice beIorehand.
set
call
come
get
4. That`s the usual company policy but it`s not
something that is in stone.
set
arranged
put
get
5. There are 120 applicants Ior every vacancy so it`s
not very easy to in.
call
get
put
give

104
6. I don`t think I`ll get the job but I decided to
in an application anyway.
set
put
come
call
7. Things were going very badly so we decided to
in an outside consultant.
give
take
come
call
8. The joint venture you are proposing is very
interesting and we would really like to in
on it.
set
come
put
give
9. I tried to resist his arguments but in the end I had
to in on that point.
give
take
be
get
set
10. It`s an excellent scheme and we would love to
in on it.
bring
be
cave
dig
search
11. He will not respond well to pressure. Give him
an ultimatum and he`s likely to in and
reIuse to negotiate.
set

105
be
put
dig
12. They held out Ior some time but eventually had
to in and admit deIeat.
set
take
cave
get
give
13. When he took over, he decided to in
some outside consultants to look over the
business.
bring
be
dig
give
14. It`s too much Ior our present team so I`m going
to in some outside help.
give
be
come
get
15. The rest oI the industry was prepared to agree
to a minimum salary and we had to in
with what they wanted.
Iall
agree
put
get
16. It`s time to get rid oI the old team and
in some Iresh ideas.
set
be
come
bring
call

106
17. I`m very unhappy with the service and I intend
to in a complaint.
lodge
take
dig
put
get
18. I don`t Ieel we can cope with this and I suggest
we in Judith to help us with this.
come
give
bring
take
19. The company was in serious Iinancial trouble
so they decided to in the receivers.
dig
take
call
ask
20. It seems a shame to call oII the project aIter all
the hard work you have in.
set
laid
put
lay
deposited

24.Fill in the blanks with the correct variant:

1. We have to invest in research and development iI
we wish to keep oI our competitors.
away
ahead
out
Irom
in
2. My wiIe keeps me to change my job.

107
on at
aIter
down
Irom
in
3. There was a big argument in the meeting but I just
kept it.
without
into
out
through
out oI
4. This machine gives oII a lot oI heat so keep well
.
at
back
down
Irom
through
5. I don`t know iI he told me the whole story. I
suspect he was keeping something .
away
up
back
in
out
6. An apple a day keeps the doctor .
back
out
away
down
in
7. The government are increasing interest rates to try
to keep inIlation to under 2 .
away
on
up

108
down
in
8. I`m trying to work here. Could you please keep
the noise ?
up
back
out
down
away
9. I don`t plan to allocate all oI the budget at the
moment. I intend to keep some Ior
emergencies.
ahead
back
down
Irom
through
10. You`ve signed an agreement with us and we
intend to keep you the terms oI the
agreement.
away
into
out
to
through
11. My boss never stops complaining. I wish he
wouldn`t keep me all the time like that.
through
on at
down
Irom
in
12. Well, I must go. I don`t want to keep you
your work.
through
back
out

109
Irom
with
13. I`ll tell you but you must keep this strictly
yourselI.
ahead
on at
out
to
in
14. Learning English is hard work. You have to
keep it.
about
with
down
Irom
at
15. He`s a bit oI a creep. He`s always doing
obsequious things to keep the boss.
at
near
out
in with
in
16. I`m sorry I got so angry with Janet but I just
couldn`t keep it any more. It`s so
Irustrating working with her.
up
on at
out
to
in
17. He`s got a tummy bug and is unable to keep
any Iood .
ahead
on at
down
Irom

110
through
18. My doctor advised me to keep Iatty
Ioods.
to
away
against
through
oII
19. I wanted to change the subject but she just kept
about it without a break.
at
with
out
to
on
20. We put up a new electric Ience to keep
intruders.
up
to
out
about
at

25.Fill in the blanks with the correct variant:

1. They`re sacking most oI the work Iorce but are
keeping a Iew people.
back
about
in
down
Irom
2. Have you told me everything? Is there something
you`re keeping me?
Ior
at
back

111
Ior
Irom
3. Now that I`m a diabetic I try to keep Iood
with a lot oI sugar in it.
in
about
back
oII
Irom
4. I hate my boss. He keeps at me about the
clothes I wear.
in
out
on
down
about
5. II they start arguing, don`t get involved. Just keep
it.
in
oII
out oI
down
Irom
6. When we are in a meeting, everyone must keep
the point. Otherwise the meeting takes too
long.
in
oII
out oI
to
Ior
7. The government are trying to keep
inIlation to single Iigures.
up
at
back
down

112
aIter
8. We don`t have a big budget Ior this so we must
try to keep costs a minimum.
down
oII
at
to
Irom
9. John certainly is a demanding boss. He keeps us
it all day.
ahead
at
back
with
aIter
10. It`s diIIicult to know what she thinks. She
keeps her opinions herselI.
Ior
oII
out oI
to
in
11. It`s too noisy in here. I can`t work. Please try to
keep the noise .
up
at
back
down
round
12. He walks so Iast that it`s diIIicult to keep
with him.
to
down
up
ahead
Irom

113
13. The weather has been great. Let`s hope it keeps
.
in
up
out oI
to
Irom
14. My daughter keeps me to buy her a
phone but I`ve decided it is too expensive.
ahead
at
back
down
aIter
15. I`m not sure she told me everything. I think she
was keeping something .
ahead
at
back
down
aIter
16. Demand is strong and that is keeping house
prices .
down
up
out oI
to
Irom
17. The person who writes these articles is very
good but I don`t think he can keep the standard
Ior very long.
in
up
out oI
to
Irom

114
18. She was kept with a mixture oI
morphine and chloroIorm.
out
down
away
up
under
19. They kept with each other and had
their secrets.
in
out
up
in with
about
20. She`s spent almost all her liIe trying to keep
with the Joneses.
out
at
on
Ior
up

26.Fill in the blanks with the correct variant:

1. The Iax wasn`t very easy to read. I couldn`t
what you had written.
put out
set out
make out
Iind out
2. Your report is very clear and easy to understand.
You all the options really clearly.
put out
set out
make out
Iind out

115
3. She didn`t seem pleased at all that you were
absent. In Iact she looked really .
put out
put oII
stay out
sort out
4. It was a really diIIicult problem which took a long
time to .
put out
step out
make out
sort out
5. Check this spreadsheet really careIully and
Ior any mistakes I may have made.
match out
look out
stay out
sort out
6. You cannot see it very well on the screen, can
you? Why don`t I copies Ior everybody?
buy out
step out
print out
Iind out
7. The managers intend to the previous
owner and run the company themselves.
buy in
buy out
make out
step out
8. This is a brand new product that we plan to
next month.
send out
set out
make out
bring out

116
9. I tried to keep a straight Iace but I couldn`t. I
laughing.
blew out
cried out
stayed out
burst out
10. Irak is currently such a high risk market that we
plan to oI it completely.
put out
set out
stay out
sort out
11. They were whispering and I couldn`t quite
what they were saying.
sort out
make out
get out
look out
12. We intend to a new version early next
year.
send out
bring out
make out
buy out
13. The best thing we ever did was to our
partner.
put out
buy out
stay out
step out
14. I tried to comIort her but she crying
and there was no way I could stop her.
put out
burst out
stay out
sort out

117
15. He doesn`t agree and he has his
objections in this letter.
put out
set out
made out
got out
16. I was somewhat to Iind that people
were talking during my presentation.
put out
set out
sent out
made out
17. They have been on strike Ior a week so Iar and
plan to until their demands are met.
put out
set out
make out
stay out
18. It took me six months to the good
workers Irom the bad workers.
put out
set out
sort out
get out
19. I haven`t achieved what I to do.
looked out
got out
set out
sorted out
20. ! The boss is coming round and he`s on
the warpath.
look out
look away
look up
make up

27.Fill in the blanks with the correct variant:

118
1. It was a major problem when Helen leIt. It took
us a long time to over that.
grow
get
put
come
2. It`s a diIIicult concept to explain and I`m not sure
oI how I`m going to over the idea to
the audience.
set
put
look
transmit
3. The job has become too much Ior one person and
so she is going to over part oI it to
Simon.
run
look
walk
hand
4. The company appears to be in Iinancial
diIIiculties and I wouldn`t be surprised iI
someone tried to it over.
hand
put
stop
take
5. There was a big truck coming Irom the reverse
direction and so the policeman made me
over to the side oI the road and let it
pass.
step
drive
pull
put
6. He really Iooled me. It`s not oIten someone
manages to one over on me.

119
strike
hit
put
set
7. As soon as I`ve Iinished the proposal, I`ll call a
courier service and it over.
hand
sleep
send
pull
8. It`s too Iar to get there and back in one day so I`m
going to over.
Iight
send
sleep
put
9. He hasn`t been very successIul in the role. He
should over and let someone else have
a go.
move
run
stop
walk
10. They just don`t get on at all. They
over who is to do what.
stop
run
Iight
walk
11. II I get the time, I plan to over and
see you.
send
Iight
Ilight
Ily

120
12. On my way back Irom Sibiu, I plan to
over in Rm. Vlcea Ior a couple oI
days.
stop
move
walk
run
13. II you don`t mind, I`d like to over
the proposal one more time.
pull
move
walk
run
14. He lets her decide everything. I wouldn`t let
anybody all over me like that.
send
move
walk
run
15. The company`s expanding Iast. It doubled its
last year.
hangover
pullover
turnover
pushover
16. The company needs to totally change its image.
It needs a complete
hangover
pullover
makeover
pushover
17. Their shares have gone up in value on rumours
oI a bid.
takeover
pullover
hangover
pushover

121
18. This job will be really easy. It will be a
.
takeover
pullover
hangover
pushover
19. That`s a really nice you`re wearing.
takeover
pullover
hangover
makeover
20. I drank Iar too much last night. I`ve got a really
bad
takeover
makeover
hangover
pushover

28.Fill in the blanks with the correct variant:

1. We were just getting set leave when Julie
said she had something else important to discuss.
against
out
to
into
in
2. When we set on this project, we didn`t
expect to get such good results.
through
out
to
in
on
3. I don`t think that things will improve dramatically
overnight but these changes should set us
to proIitability.

122
to
on the road
through
an alarm
behind
4. She`s not a bad employee but she`s hardly
somebody who is going to set .
apart
the world on Iire
by
through
about
5. You have to set the immediate advantages oI this
project potential long term risks.
against
away
up
Ior
back
6. I usually set my watch the BBC time
signal.
over
on
by
a precedent
with
7. It is a long journey so we will have to set
really early.
oII
down
by
absolutely
in
8. You must get to the meeting early so you have
time to set the video machine.
aside
to

123
up
out
through
9. This is a really tricky problem. I`ve no idea how
to set Iixing it.
away
in
up
into
about
10. I`ve set myselI oI doubling sales this
year.
an intention
a purpose
a target
a plan
about
11. What set him Irom the other candidates
was his enthusiasm.
apart
away
singular
diIIerent
advantageous
12. Well it`s good to get the Iacts at last. Thank
you Ior setting me about that.
properly
straight
correct
right
inIormed
13. We need to get the rooI Iixed beIore the winter
weather sets .
over
out
up
down

124
in
14. That`s our normal policy but it is not set
stone.
on
with
up
oII
in
15. I`m strongly opposed to this idea. I`m
set against it.
total
myselI
only
dead
deadly
16. You`re our most senior secretary. I expect you
to set to the others.
examples
exemplary
a programme
an example
principles
17. I don`t mind agreeing on this occasion but I
don`t want you to think I am setting Ior
Iuture negotiations.
a concession
an example
a precaution
a precedent
about
18. He`s old and conservative and very set
his ways.
apart
on
by
around
in

125
19. My boss has set me oI Friday to Iinish
this report.
a programme
an agenda
a date
a day
a deadline
20. The explosion has caused us a lot oI problems.
It has probably set us by a year or more.
ahead
behind
backwards
oII
back


AMERICAN AND ENGLISH IDIOMS

1. Choose the correct variant:

1. Either you accept this oIIer or you don't. It's all or
.
sweetness
everything
nothing
anything
nobody
2. We had some problems at Iirst but now all is
and light between us.
sweetness
eyes
guns
hands
all
3. He really wants that promotion. He's going all
to get it.
sweetness

126
own
nothing
things
out
4. The job sounds wonderIul but you have to remember
that all that glitters is not .
silver
real
litters
gold
precious
5. John is completely lost in that job. He's all at
with that type oI work.
trouble
home
desperation
ocean
sea
6. The workers were very unhappy about the news. The
union representative came to see me all blazing.
Iire
eyes
guns
stars
nerves
7. The neighbours have complained that we make too
much noise at all oI the day and night.
time
periods
minutes
hours
intervals
8. Let's get started. All go!
in all
singing
starting
over

127
out
9. There were 123 people at the seminar, all .
talking
singing
numbered
all
told
10. Have you seen her new all- , all-dancing
computer yet? Apparently, it is really Iast.
solving
singing
computing
new
in all
11. I have some reservations about the project but, all in
, I think it will succeed.
consideration
hope
right
hands
all
12. I'm aIraid I cannot provide you with any help on this.
You'll have to do it all on your .
account
power
time
mind
own
13. This is a very prominent position. All will be
upon you.
people
problems
eyes
diIIiculties
advantages
14. I don't know very much about the Internet and all that
.

128
song
hip-hop
jazz
noisy stuII
rock music
15. This report is absolutely dreadIul. It's impossible to
Iollow, it's all over the .
place
desk
table
bureau
Iloor
16. I really Iancy Alexandra. I think she's a bit oI all
.
right
nice
beauty
beautiIul
darling
17. You've been working too hard recently. All
and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
leisure
pleasure
right
work
in all
18. He can do any job you ask oI him. He's a real all-
.
worker
jobber
brains
rounder
skillIul
19. This is a real emergency. It's a case oI all on
deck until we've sorted this out.
bodies
liIe-belts

129
eyes
hands
Ieet
20. It goes without that the Congressman is
very sincere in his wish to help the needy.
talking
saying
praying
discussing
doing

2. Choose the correct variant:

1. I'm aIraid the redundancies will hit the oIIice staII hard.
We need to reduce the number oI collar workers.
blue
green
white
black
2. We don't have any money leIt and it looks like we are
going to be in the Ior the next Iew months.
black
green
white
red
3. The chemical company is being Iorced to go . It
cannot continue to use so many products that are harmIul
to the environment.
black
green
blank
purple
4. I was late again this morning. My boss gave me a really
look when I arrived.
black
blue
blank

130
purple
5. It's impossible Ior me to get a bank loan or a credit card.
I must be on a credit list.
black
blue
blank
purple
6. I wasn't expecting anything to happen but then, out oI
the , I got a call Irom Helen.
grey
blue
white
red
7. I'd like to get the project going as soon as possible but
we have to wait Ior the light Irom Head OIIice.
black
green
blank
purple
8. When I asked him about it, he gave me a look.
He obviously knows nothing about it.
grey
blue
blank
red
9. It looks like we will be taken over by our rivals, unless a
knight steps in with a higher bid.
black
green
white
purple
10. I still don't believe it. I'll only really accept it is true
when I see it down in black and .
black
green
white
purple

131
11. There are Iar too many paper pushers in Head OIIice.
We need to cut down on the amount oI tape.
black
green
white
red
12. This is a really reliable company with very little risk oI
losing your money - what we call a chip
investment.
grey
blue
white
red
13. I'm aIraid John is too inexperienced Ior that job. He's
still a bit .
black
green
blank
purple
14. Sales have been really strong Ior washing machines
and other goods.
black
green
white
purple
15. This report can act as a print Ior Iuture action.
grey
blue
white
red
16. It's not at all clear which department is responsible Ior
this sector. It's a bit oI a area.
grey
green
white
red

132
17. You have complete Ireedom to do what you want. We
are giving you a cheque on this project.
grey
blue
blank
red
18. This would be a perIect spot to build a new Iactory but
we cannot do it because it is in a belt area.
black
green
blank
purple
19. Unemployment is increasing because the jobs oI many
collar workers can now be done by machines.
grey
blue
white
red
20. Everybody said that the product would Iail so there
were a lot oI Iaces in Head OIIice when it was a
great success.
black
green
white
red

3. Find the correct explanation of the following idioms:

1. a wet blanket
x a person who does not join the Iun oI others and thus
reduces their pleasure
x a person who has a habit oI lying Irequently
x a woman who has the habit oI bursting out in tears
regularly
2. a stand-up fight
x a Iight to the Iinish

133
x a hard Iight, either physically or with words
x a battle to regain a position aIter a deIeat
3. a going concern
x a prosperous business
x a constant worry
x a vanishing Iear
4. French leave
x a passionate love aIIair
x a French magazine
x running away Irom battle
5. a Dutch treat
x entertainment where each person pays his own share
x entertainment that is all paid Ior by the host
x dull entertainment
6. a close shave
x a pub that's always crowded
x a neatly shaven Iace
x a narrow escape Irom danger
7. a fair hand
x a person who's always very helpIul
x handwriting that is easy to read
x a person who does his work by the book, who always
acts according to the rules
8. a fancy price
x an imaginary price
x a very low price
x an unusually high price
9. an old hand
x person with a lot oI experience
x an old Iriend
x a very old person
10. the wee hours
x the hours aIter midnight
x the Iirst hours oI liIe (or oI an idea)

134
x the last Iew moments beIore embarking on a diIIicult
mission
11. sharp practices
x reality as it really is, not embellished to look better
x unproIitable business transactions
x clever business transactions
x dishonest methods in business
x aggressive marketing techniques
12. a City man
x a man who works in the City, the Iinancial heart oI
London
x a man who is born in the City, the Iinancial heart oI
London
x any man with a higher education
x someone who is constantly showing oII
x a man who dreams oI things he cannot achieve
13. to come through with flying colours
x to arrive somewhere in a state oI nervousness
x to be understood loud and clear
x to accomplish something with great success
x to succeed in one's Iirst year oI study
x to arrive somewhere in a good mood
14. a French window
x a window that gives out on a brick wall
x a window with no glass
x a typically French window
x a window that turns out to be too small
x a double glass door that opens on to a garden or balcony
15. a ladies' man
x a man most women Iall Ior
x a man who enjoys the company oI women
x a man who dresses up like a woman
x a male prostitute
x a man everybody Ieels sorry Ior
16. an Indian summer

135
x a hot summer
x a cold, rainy summer
x a period oI Iine weather in early autumn
x a sunny summer in India
x a period oI unsteady weather
17. a sabbatical year
x a year in which one is released Irom one's normal duties
or job in order to pursue something else
x a year in which the Sabbath is celebrated
x a year in which previously made plans are bound to
become reality
x a year that has brought happiness and good Iortune
x a year as measured by the Chinese
18. a sore point
x a blister on a Ioot
x a matter that irritates or hurts when it is brought up
x an unpleasant situation that one has to deal with
x a very dangerous crossroads, where many accidents
happen
x a bad person
19. a wild goose chase
x wild goose hunting
x a wild night on the town
x a dangerous race in the streets between cars trying to
overtake each other
x a search Ior something that cannot be Iound
x a search Ior the truth
20. the spitting image of someone
x spitting in somebody`s Iace
x the best Iriend oI someone
x the one who's always near
x the person one hates most
x the exact likeness oI someone



136
4.Find the correct explanation of the following idioms:

1. a big shot
x carries on working when his or her Iellow-workers are
on strike
x is a very important or inIluential person.
x an exact, mortal shot.
2. a blackleg
x has a lot more capabilities than he or she shows or that
people are aware oI
x is a leg aIIlicted with cangrene
x carries on working when his or her Iellow-workers are
on strike
3. a busybody
x works hard
x always wants to know about other people`s private lives
x turns up at parties without being invited to them
4. a chatterbox
x a person who can`t stop talking
x a special box Ior keeping singing birds in
x a very important or inIluential person
5. a daredevil
x has a lot more capabilities than he or she shows or that
people are aware oI
x loves taking dangerous risks
x is a synonym Ior werewolI
6. a dark horse
x is used as a subject in medical or other experiments
x is usually expected to lose in a competition with
someone else
x has a lot more capabilities than he or she shows or that
people are aware oI
7. a gatecrasher
x carries on working when his or her Iellow-workers are
on strike

137
x is a real nuisance and most people can`t stand him or
her
x turns up at parties without being invited to them
8. a grass widow
x is a wiIe who is temporarily alone because her husband
is away
x is a species oI spider which is a close relative oI the ill-
Iamed black widow
x is usually expected to lose in a competition with
someone else
9. a lame duck
x is someone who spoils the atmosphere or prevents
others Irom enjoying themselves by being very boring
and negative about everything
x always wants to know about other people`s private lives
x is a person or business that is helpless or ineIIective
10. a road hog
x loves taking dangerous risks
x is a Iast, selIish and careless car driver
x is someone who spoils the atmosphere or prevents
others Irom enjoying themselves by being very boring
and negative about everything

5. Find the correct explanation of the following idioms:

1. II a musician louses up a concert, he
x postpones it
x ruins it
x cancels it
2. When a person goes off the deep end, he
x acts rashly
x dives into deeper water
x loses his selI-control
3. When someone has something going for himself, he
x is successIul in some enterprise or undertaking

138
x has his watch ticking
x is being arrested
4. When a person has two strikes against him, he is
x badly injured
x a complete Iailure
x at a considerable disadvantage
5. II a man loses his touch, he
x loses his attractiveness or inIluence with others
x loses all his memory
x loses his sense oI touch
6. II a man pulls his punches, he
x reaches Ior his drinks
x drags his tools to his workbench
x appears to be more violent than he really is
7. When an employee steps down, he
x leaves an important position with his Iirm or company
x goes downstairs Irom his oIIice
x becomes less reliable
8. II a night game oI Iootball is rained out, it
x is called oII on account oI a power Iailure
x is postponed on account oI rain
x is stopped because oI the bottles thrown by the
spectators
9. When you kick sb. about/around you
x Treat him without respect
x complain about him
x kick him in all parts oI the body
10. To get into the swing of things is to
x swing oneselI through the air
x get adjusted
x get into the middle oI
11. A souped up engine oI a car is
x made Iaster
x given less gasoline
x spoiled

139
12. To get all dolled up is
x to become conIused
x to dress in one`s best clothes
x to cry
13. II someone fronts for his boss, he
x sits in Iront oI him
x acts as the real director oI a business
x always walks ahead oI him
14. When somebody is trying to kick a habit, he is
trying to
x get rid oI it
x indulge it
x reduce it
15. When one picks up the tab, he
x makes another person`s acquaintance
x pays the others` bills
x stoops down to get something that has been dropped
16. II you pin something on someone, you
x make him responsible
x decorate him
x label him
17. You are likely to get a rise out of your boss iI you
x compliment him
x insult him
x work hard Ior him
18. II a hostess throws two people together, she
x causes them to quarrel
x makes it possible Ior them to get well acquainted
x gets them out oI her way
19. To let something slide is to
x neglect some duty
x push something over a slippery surIace
x permit something to be put in motion
20. To be at the end of one`s rope signiIies
x to reach the limit oI one`s endurance

140
x to be the Iarthest oII oI a group oI people
x to be dying on the gallows

6. Find the correct explanation of the following idioms:

1. II the judge threw the book at a prisoner, he
x hit the prisoner with a book
x read to the prisoner Irom a book
x gave the prisoner a harsh sentence
2. II something is up for grabs, it is
x available to any bidder
x higher in price
x available to thieves only
3. When one pulls his weight, he
x pulls an object as heavy as he is
x does his Iair share oI the work
x acts in an aggressive manner
4. When someone makes waves, he
x draws pictures oI waves
x makes and transmits radio signals
x upsets an orderly discussion
5. II one asks another to clue him in, he is requesting
x inIormation
x an invitation to come inside the other`s house
x the solution oI a crime
6. As large as life means
x very big in size
x characterized by largesse
x unexpectedly present
7. In covering a lot of ground, a lecturer
x walks up and down the platIorm
x discusses many issues or wide topics
x talks randomly
8. When a musician is able to make his instrument talk,
he

141
x plays it very well
x gives it powers oI speech
x makes it sound like talking
9. To tell someone he has another guess coming, means
that he
x has one more chance
x is wrong
x is going to guess again
10. The expression Big deal conveys the idea oI
x pleasure or delight
x an important business transaction
x scorn or disdain
11. To get out of line is to
x leave a line one has been standing in
x violate a regulation
x be short oI string or cord
12. When one says that he has been had, he means that
he has been
x cheated
x entertained by a host
x hired to do a job
13. To have a dry run is to
x have a rehearsal
x go Ior a run without getting wet
x have a poor time Iinancially
14. When one goofs off, he
x moves to another city
x avoids or neglects his work
x Ialls oII a high place
15. II something is a person`s baby, it is
x his child
x his sweetheart
x his speciality
16. To fix something up is to
x ruin something

142
x cancel a doctor`s appointment
x arrange a social or business date
17. To play it by ear is to
x arrange one`s hair about one`s ears
x watch what develops and postpone action
x wiggle one`s ears
18. When a worker receives a fringe benefit, it is
x a very small beneIit
x an extra beneIit besides his wages
x a Iixed percentage oI his wages
19. To top something means to
x improve on it
x cover it
x rooI it
20. To say maxi-coats are the in-thing is to assert that
they are
x worn only by a select circle
x worn only indoors
x worn by persons who wish to keep in Iashion.

7.Fill in each gap with one of the idioms in the box
below:
A.







1. II you see someone in reality rather than in a
photograph or on television, then you can say that you
have seen the person .
2. The Prime Minister is making a broadcast to the nation
on television tonight. He will be at nine o`clock.
above board, at a loose end, at random, behind bars, by
chance, Ior good, in a Ilash, in a nutshell, in deep water,
in the Ilesh, in the nick oI time, oII the top oI one`s head,
on Iire, on the air, on the house, on the tip oI one`s
tongue, out oI one`s depth, out oI order, out oI tune, up
in arms

143
3. The liIt was broken, so it had a sign on the door saying
`.
4. II you meet someone , you meet them
accidentally or unexpectedly.
5. II a business activity is honest and legal, then you can
describe it as being .
6. II you don`t have time to think or prepare something,
Ior example, the answer to a question you are asked,
you may have to give an answer .
7. II you are about something, you are very angry
about it or protesting strongly about it.
8. II you explain something , you give a very brieI
and concise explanation oI it.
9. II you Iind you have nothing to do this weekend, you
can say that you`re this weekend.
10. II you are about to say a person`s name but just Ior
the moment can`t quite remember it, you can say that
it`s .
11. II there`s a Iire and the Iire brigade arrive ,
they arrive just in time to put it out.
12. II you choose something , you choose it by
chance, without making a deliberate choice.
13. We couldn`t play the piano because it sounded
dreadIul. None oI the notes were right. It was really
.
14. They called the Iire brigade because their house was
.
15. II someone is , they are in a serious situation
or in serious trouble.
16. II a hotel manager tells his guests that the drinks are
, it means they are Iree.
17. I called Ior an ambulance and it arrived here almost
immediately. It was here .
18. He spent twenty years , that is, in prison.
19. II you leave your country permanently and don`t ever
intend returning, you can say that you are leaving your
country .

144
20. II you go on a course and Iind it much too diIIicult,
you can say that you were .

B.






1. II you broke a window , it means you did it
deliberately.
2. She was extremely happy when she heard she had got
the job. She was .
3. II you learn something , Ior example a language,
it means you`re a complete beginner when you start the
course.
4. II you are asked to work overtime , it means you
are given very little warning in advance.
5. Pop stars are always . They are always the
centre oI attention.
6. Gambling is something I like and am good at. It`s right
.
7. The old man was very weak and was close to death. He
was .
8. II you have to live Ior a short while in a hotel while
you`re looking Ior a house to buy, you can say that
you`re living in a hotel .
9. II two people are having a disagreement or quarrel
about something, you can say that they`re .
10. Some teachers work only 12 hours a week, others
work 22 hours and some 26 hours. But they
work about 20 hours a week.
11. She wanted to borrow my car Ior the weekend. I told
her it was not possible it was quite .
12. He wasted 80$ betting on horses and he didn`t win
anything. It was 80$ !
at loggerheads, at short notice, at will, by ear, down the
drain, Ior the time being, Irom scratch, in a rut, in stitches,
in the limelight, in vain, on average, on one`s last legs, on
purpose, on the dot, out oI print, out oI the question, out
oI this world, over the moon, up someone`s street

145
13. II you have to be somewhere at exactly 7.30, then
you can say that you have to be there at 7.30 .
14. When the marriage ceremony ended the young
couple were practically .
15. When she told us the joke we were . We just
couldn`t stop laughing.
16. A chameleon is able to change the colour oI its skin
whenever it wants to. In other words, it can change the
colour oI its skin .
17. II a book is , you can no longer buy a new
copy oI it, but you might be able to Iind an old copy in a
second-hand book shop.
18. He tried to pass his driving test. In other
words, he tried but wasn`t successIul.
19. He couldn`t read music. He played the piano .
20. II you Iind you are leading the sort oI liIe where your
job and everything else has become very routine and
boring, then you might Ieel that you were .

146
THEORETICAL TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What does lexicology study?
2. Give the etymology oI the word lexicology.
3. Comment upon the word book Irom a lexical,
phonetical, grammatical and stylistical point oI view.
4. Give the deIinition oI the wora.
5. Comment upon the concepts oI phoneme, morpheme
and semanteme.
6. Give the deIinition oI the root.
7. Give the deIinition oI the stem.
8. What are aIIixes?
9. What are word-groups and how can they be classiIied?
10. Distinguish between complex verbs and compound
verbs proper. Give suitable examples.
11. Give at least three examples oI complex adverbs,
complex prepositions and complex conjunctions.
12. Make a semantic classiIication oI words.
13. Comment on Pierre Roget`s classiIication oI words.
14. Make other possible classiIications oI words.
15. Make a semantic classiIication oI phrases.
16. Distinguish between phraseological Iusions,
phraseological units and traditional combinations. Give
suitable examples.
17. Make a classiIication oI phrases in accordance with
diIIerent domains oI human activity. Give two suitable
examples Ior each category.
18. Give the deIinition oI the context and comment upon
it.
19. Give the deIinition oI denotation and comment upon
it with examples.
20. Give the deIinition oI connotation and comment
upon it with examples.
21. Comment upon the various semantic connotations oI
a lexical unit. Give a suitable example.
22. Give the deIinition oI a base.

147
23. Which are the chieI processes oI English word-
Iormation? Give their deIinitions as well as two suitable
examples.
24. Give the classiIication oI preIixes Irom a strictly
lexicological point oI view. ExempliIy each category
with at least Iive preIixes.
25. Give the classiIication oI preIixes Irom the point oI
view oI their meaning. ExempliIy each category with at
least three preIixes.
26. How can suIIixes be classiIied?
27. Comment upon noun-Iorming suIIixes. Give at least
three suitable examples Ior each category.
28. Comment upon adjective-Iorming suIIixes. Give
three suitable examples Ior each category.
29. Comment upon the stylistic value oI suIIixes.
30. Give the deIinition oI conversion.
31. Comment upon the Iive main transIormations to
which conversion reIers. ExempliIy accordingly.
32. Comment upon minor categories oI conversion.
33. Give the deIinition oI a compound.
34. Dwell extensively on noun compounds with suitable
examples.
35. Dwell extensively on adjective compounds with
suitable examples.
36. Dwell extensively on compound verbs with suitable
examples.
37. Give examples oI compound pronouns, compound
adverbs, compound prepositions.
38. Give the deIinition oI verbal phrases. ExempliIy
accordingly.
39. DeIine the terms reauplication, clipping, blenaing,
acronymy. Give suitable examples Ior each case.
40. Dwell extensively on contraction. Give suitable
examples Ior aphaeresis, syncope and apocope.
41. Comment on the change oI the morphological accent.
42. Which are the minor processes oI word Iormation?
Comment on and exempliIy each oI them.

148
FURTHER PRACTICE

A. PROPER NAMES

A.
Abel
['cibIj
Aberdeen
[ bc'di:nj
Abraham
['cibrchmj
Ada
['cidcj
Adams
['dcmzj
Adelaide
['dcmzj
Adrian
['cidricnj
Aethelred
['OcIrcdj
AelIric
['IIrikj
Aethelstan
['OcIstcnj
Agard
['cigo:dj
Agatha
['gcOcj
Agnes
['gnisj
Aileen
['ciIi:nj
Aisgill
['cisgiIj
Alabama
[ Icbmcj
Alan
['Icnj
Albert
['Ibctj
Albee
['5:Ibi:j
Aldgate
['5:Idgitj
Aldous
['5:Idcsj
Alec
['Iikj
Alexander
[ Iig'zo:ndcj
AlIred
['IIridj
Algernon
['Idcncnj
Alice
['Iisj
Alicia
[c'Iijicj
Alison
['Iiscnj
Allan
['Icnj
Allen
['Icnj
Amelia
[c'mi:Ijcj
Amis
['cimisj
Amy
['cimij
Andersen/-son
['ndcscnj
Andrew
['ndru:j
Angel
['cindcIj
Angela
['ndcIcj
Angelina
[ ndi'Ii:ncj
Ann
['nj
Anna
['ncj
Annabel
['ncbcIj
Annie
['nij
Anthony
['ntcnij
Arabella
[ rc'bcIcj
Archibald
['o:tjib5:Idj
Arden
['o:dnj
Arizona
[ rizcuncj
Arkansas
['o:kcns5:j
Arlington
['o:Iiptcnj
Armstrong
['o:mstr5pj
Arnold
['o:ncIdj
Arthur
['o:Ocj
Ascot
['skctj
Ashley
['jIij
Asquith
['skwiOj
Atlanta
[ct'Intcj
Attenborough
['tnbrcj
Audrey
['5:drij

149
Austen
['5stinj
Austin
['5stinj
Ava
['o:vcj
Auden
['5:dnj
Avon
['civnj
B.

Babbitt
['bbitj
Bacon
['bcikcnj
Baldwin
['b5:Idwinj
Balmoral
['bI'm5rcIj
Baltimore
['b5:Itim5:j
Barbara
['bo:brcj
Barclay
['bo:kIij
Barnard
['bo:ncdj
Barnes
[bo:nzj
Barney
[' '' 'bo:nij
Barrymore
['brim5:j
Baskerville
['bskcviIj
Basil
['bzIj
Baugh
[b5:j
Bayswater
['bciz w5:tcj
Beatrice
['bictrisj
Beauchamp
['bi:tjcmj
BeauIort
['bcuIctj
Beaumont
['bcumcntj
Becket(t)
['bckitj
Becky
['bckij
Bede
[bi:dj
BedIord
['bcdIcdj
BelIast
[ bcI'Io:stj
Belinda
[bc'Iindcj
Bellow
['bcIcuj
Benjamin
['bcndcminj
Bennet(t)
['bcnitj
Bentley
['bcntIij
BeowulI
['bcicuwuIIj
Berkeley
['bo:kIij
Bernard
['bc:ncdj
Bernstein
['bc:nstainj
Bertha
['bc:Ocj
Bertie
['bc:tij
Bertram
['bc:trcmj
Bessie
['bcsij
Betsy
[ bctsij
Bette
['bctij
Betty
['bctij
Biggs
[bigzj
Birmingham
['bc:mipcmj
Blake
[bIcikj
Blenheim
['bIcnimj
BloomIield
['bIu:mIi:Idj
Boas
['bcuzj
Boeing
['bcuipj
Boleyn
['buIinj
Bolingbroke
['b5Iipbrukj
Bolinger
['bcuIindcj
Booth
[bu:j
Bosinney
[b5'sinij
Boston
['b5stcnj
Bothwell
['b5OwcIj
Bournemouth
['b5:nmcOj
Bowen
['bcuinj
Boycott
['b5ik5tj
Bradbury
['brdbcrij

150
Bradley
['brdIij
Braine
[brcinj
Brian
[braicnj
Bridget
['briditj
Brighton
['braitcnj
Bristol
['bristIj
Britain
['britnj
Britten
['britnj
Broadway
['br5:dwcij
Bromwich
(district)
Bromwich
(surname)

['br5midj

['br\midj
Bronte
['br5ntij
Brougham
[brumj
Browning
['braunipj
Buchanan
[bju:'kncnj
Buckingham
['b\kipcmj
Buick
['bju:ikj
Bunyan
['b\njcnj
Burbage
['bc:bidj
Burns
[bc:nzj
Burrough(e)s
['b\rcuzj
Burt
[bc:tj
Bute
[bju:tj
Byrd
[bc:dj
Byron
['baicrcnj
Bysshe
[bijj


C.
Cadillac
['kdiIkj
Caedmon
['kdmcnj
Caldwell
['k5:IdwcIj
CaliIornia
[ kIi'I5:njcj
Cambridge
['kcimbridj
Camden
['kmdcnj
Camelot
['kmcIctj
Campbell
['kmbIj
Canberra
['knbcrcj
Candice
['kndisj
Canterbury
['kntcbcrij
Canute
[kc'nju:tj
Cape Town
['kciptounj
Capitol
['kpitIj
Capote
[kc'pcutij
Cardew
['ko:dju:j
CardiII
['ko:diIj
Carlisle
[ko:'IaiIj
Carlton
['ko:Itcnj
Carlyle
[ko:'IaiIj
Carnegie
[ko:'ncgij
Carol
['krcIj
Carolina
[ krc'Iaincj
Caroline
['krcIainj
Carr
[ko:j
Carrington
['kriptcnj
Carruthers
[kc'r\czj
Carter
['ko:tcj
Cary
['kccrij
Casey
['kcisij
Cassidy
['ksidij
Catherine
['kOrinj

151
Cavendish
['kvcndijj
Caxton
['kkstcnj
Cecil
['scsIj
Cecilia
[si'siIjcj
Cecily
['sisiIij
Cedric
['si:drikj
['scdrikj
Celtic (echipa
de Iotbal)
['scItikj

Celtic
['kcItikj
Chamberlain
['tjcimbcIinj
Chambers
['tjcimbczj
Chaplin
['tjpIinj
Charing Cross
[ tjrip 'kr5sj
Charles
[tjo:Izj
Charleston
['tjo:Istcnj
Charley/ie
['tjo:Iij
Charlotte
['jo:Ictj
Chase
[tjcisj
Chatham
['tjtcmj
Chaucer
['tj5:scj
Cheshire
['tjcjcj
Chester
['tjcstcj
Chesterton
['tjcstctcnj
Cheviot
['tjcvictj
Chevrolet
['jcvrcuIcij
Chicago
[ji'ko:gcuj
Chichester
['tjitjcstcj
Childe
[tjaiIdj
Chisholm
['tjizcmj
Chomsky
['tj5mskij
Christie
['kristij
Christine
['kristi:nj
Christopher
['kristcIcj
Chrysler
['kraizIcj
Churchill
['tjc:tjiIj
Cincinnati
[ sinsi'ntij
Cinderella
[ sindc'rcIcj
Clara
['kIccrcj
Clare
[kIccj
Clarence
['kIrcnsj
Clarendon
['kIrcndcnj
Claridge`s
['kIridizj
Clarissa
[kIc'riscj
Clark
[kIo:kj
Claude
[kI5:dj
Clemens
['kIcmcnzj
Clementine
|'kIcmcn tainj
Clementina
| klemcn'ti:nc|
Cleo
['kIicuj
Cleveland
['kIi:vIcndj
CliIIord
['kIiIcdj
Clive
[kIaivj
Clowes
[kIu:zj
Cockburn
['kcubc:nj
Colchester
['kcuItjistcj
Coleridge
['kcuIridj
Colgate
['kcuIgcitj
Collins
['k5Iinzj
Colombo
[kc'I\mbcuj
Columbia
[kc'I\mbicj
Compton
['k5mptcnj
['k\mptcnj

152
Congreve
['k5ngri:vj
Connecticut
[kc'nctikctj
Connie
['k5nij
Connolly
['k5ncIij
Conrad
['k5nrdj
Constable
['k\nstcbIj
Constantine
['k5nstcntainj
Copland
['k5pIcndj
['kcupIcndj
CopperIield
['k5pcIi:Idj
Cordelia
[k5:'di:Ijcj
Cornell
[k5:'ncIj
Cornish
['k5:nijj
Cornwall
['k5:nwcIj
Courtnay
['k5:tnij
Coventry
['k5vcntrij
Cowper (the
poet)
['ku:pcj
Craig
[krcigj
CrawIord
['kr5:Icdj
Crawley
['kr5:Iij
Cromwell
['kr5mwcIj
Cronin
['krcuninj
Crosby
['kr5zbij
Crusoe
['kru:scuj
Cumberland
['k\mbcIcndj
Cummings
['k\mipzj
Cunningham
['k\nipcmj
CynewulI
['kiniwuIIj
Cynthia
['sinOicj
D.
Daiches

['dcijizj
['dcitjizj
Daimler
['dcimIcj
Daisy
['dcizij
Dakota
[dc'kcutcj
Dallas
['dIcsj
Dan
[dnj
Daniel
['dnjcIj
Darien
['dccricnj
Darlington
['do:Iiptcnj
Dartmoor
['do:tm5:j
Dartmouth
['do:tmcOj
Darwin
['do:winj
Davenant
['dvcncntj
Davenport
['dvnp5:tj
David
['dcividj
Davis
['dcivisj
Dawson
['d5:snj
Dean(e)
[di:nj
Deborah
['dcbcrcj
DeIoe
[di'Icuj
De la Mare
[ dcIc'mccj
Delia
['di:Ijcj
Denis
['dcnisj
Denise
[dc'ni:zj
Dennis
['dcnisj
Denver
['dcnvcj
Derby
['do:bij
Derbyshire
['do:bijcj
Derek
['dcrikj
De Quincey
[dc'kwinsij
Des Moines
[di'm5inj
Desmond
['dczmcndj

153
Detroit
[di'tr5itj
Devereux
['dcvcru:j
Devon
['dcvnj
Diana
[dai'ncj
Dick
[dikj
Dickens
['dikinzj
Dickinson
['dikinsnj
Dinah
['daincj
Disney
['diznij
Disraeli
[dis'rciIij
Dixie
['diksij
Dixon
['diksnj
Dodgson
['d5dsnj
Donald
['d5nIdj
Doncaster
['d5pkcstcj
Donne
[d\nj
[d5nj
Dorchester
['d5:tjistcj
Doreen
[d5:'ri:nj
Dorothea
[ d5rc'Oicj
Dorothy
['d5rcOij
Dos Passos
[ d5s 'ps5sj
Dougal
['du:gcIj
Dougherty
['dcuctij
Douglas(s)
['d\gIcsj
Dover
['dcuvcj
Downing
['dounipj
Doyle
[d5iIj
Drayton
['drcitnj
Drew
[dru:j
Drury
['drucrij
Dryden
['draidnj
Dudley
['d\dIij
Dumphreys
['d\mIrizj
Dunbar
[d\n'bo:j
Duncan
['d\nkcnj
Dundee
[d\n'di:j
Dunhill
['d\nhiIj
Durell
[djuc'rcIj
Durham
['d\rcmj
Durrell
['d\rcIj
Dwight
[dwaitj
Dylan
['diIcnj
E.
Earl
[c:Ij
East-end
[ i:st 'cndj
Eaton
['i:tnj
Eckersl(e)y
['ckczIij
Edgar
['cdgcj
Edinburgh
['cdinbcrcj
Edith
['i:diOj
Edmond
['cdmcndj
Edna
['cdncj
Edward
['cdwcdj
Egbert
['cgbc:tj
Eilean
['i:Icnj
Eileen
['aiIi:nj
Eire
['ccrcj
Eisenhower
['cizn haocj
Elaine
[c'Icinj
Eleanor
['cIincj
Elgar
['cIgcj
Elgie
['cIdij
Elgin
['cIginj

154
Elisabeth
[i'IizcbcOj
Eliza
[i'Iaizcj
Eliot(t)
['cIjctj
Elton
['cItcnj
Emerson
['cmcsnj
Emily
['cmiIij
Emma
['cmcj
Endymion
[cn'dimicnj
England
['ipgIcndj
Enid
['i:nidj
Enoch
['i:n5kj
Epsom
['cpscmj
Eric
['crikj
Ernest
['c:nistj
Essex
['csiksj
Esther
['cstcj
Ethel
['cOIj
Eton
['i:tnj
Eugen
['ju:di:nj
Euler
['ju:Icj
Eva
['i:vcj
Evan
['cvcnj
Evans
['cvcnzj
Eve
['i:vj
Evele(i)gh
['i:vIij
Ewell
['ju:cIj
Ewing
['ju:ipj
Exeter
['cksitcj
Ezra
['czrcj


F.
Fagin
['Iciginj
Fairbanks
['Iccbpksj
FairIax
['IccIksj
Falkland
['I5:kIcndj
FalstaII
['I5:Isto:Ij
Faulkner
['I5:kncj
Fauntleroy
['I5:ntIcr5ij
Fawkes
[I5:ksj
Fay
[Icij
Fenimore
['Icnim5:j
Fenton
['Icntcnj
Fenwick
['Icnikj
Fielding
['Ii:Idipj
Fillmore
['IiIm5:j
Finchly
['IintjIij
Finley
['IinIij
Firth
[Ic:Oj
Fitzgerald
[Iits'gcrcIdj
Fitzroy
['Iitsr5ij
Flaherty
['IIcctij
Fleet Street
['IIi:tstri:tj
Fleming
['IIcmipj
Fletcher
['IIctjcj
Florence
['II5rcnsj
Florida
['II5ridcj
Floyd
[II5idj
Flynn
[IIinj
Foley
['IcuIij
Foot(e)
[Iutj
Forbes
[I5:bzj
Ford
[I5:dj
Forster
['I5:stcj
Forsyte
['I5:saitj
Fowler
['IauIcj

155
Foyle
[I5iIj
Frances
['Iro:nsisj
Francie
['Iro:nsij
Frank
[Irpkj
Franklin
['IrpkIinj
Fred
[Ircdj
Fries
[Iri:sj
Frost
[Ir5stj
Fulham
['IuIcmj
G.
Gabriel
['gcibricIj
Gainsborough
['gcinzbcrcj
Gallagher
['gIchcj
Galsworthy
['g5:Izwc:ij
Gard(i)ner
['go:dncj
Gargery
['go:dcrij
Gaskell
['gskcIj
Gatsby
['gtsbij
Gatwick
['gtwikj
Gawain
['go:wcinj
Gene
[di:nj
GeoIIrey
['dcIrij
George
[d5:dj
Georgiana
[ d5:di'o:ncj
Gerald
['dcrcIdj
Geraldine
['dcrcIdi:nj
Gershwin
['gc:jwinj
Gertie
['gc:tij
Getty
['gctij
Gettysburg
['gctizbc:gj
Gibbs
[gibzj
Gideon
['gidicnj
Gielgud
['gi:Igudj
Gilbert
['giIbctj
Giles
['daiIzj
Gill
[giIj
Gimson
['gimsnj
Ginsberg
['ginzbc:gj
Gladstone
['gIdstcunj
Glasgow
['gIo:sgcuj
Gloria
['gI5:ricj
Gloucester
['gI5stcj
Golding
['gcuIdipj
Goneril
['g5ncriIj
Goodman
['gudmcnj
Gorboduc
['g5:bcd\kj
Gordon
['g5:dnj
Gradgrind
['grdgraindj
Graham
['grcicmj
Grasmere
['gro:s micj
Graves
[grcivzj
Green(e)
[gri:nj
Greenwich
['grinidj
Gretna
['grctncj
GriIIith
['griIiOj
Grosvenor
['grcuvncj
Guernsey
['gc:nzij
Guggenheim
['gugcnhaimj
Guinness
['ginisj
Gulliver
['g\Iivcj
Guy
[gaij
Gwendolen
['gwcndcIinj
H.
Haig
[hcigj
HaliIax
['hIiIksj

156
Hal
[hIj
Hall
[h5:Ij
Halliday
['hIidcij
Halloween
[ hIcu'i:nj
Hamilton
['hmiItcnj
Hamlet
['hmIitj
Ham(m)ond
['hmcndj
Hampden
['hmpdcnj
Hampshire
['hmpjcj
Hampstead
['hmpstidj
Hannah
['hncj
Harcourt
['ho:kctj
Hardy
['ho:dij
Harlem
['ho:Icmj
Harold
['hrcIdj
Harper
['ho:pcj
Harriet
['hrictj
Harriot
['hrictj
Harris
['hrisj
Harrisson
['hrisnj
Harte
[ho:tj
Harvard
['ho:vcdj
Harvey
['ho:vij
Hastings
['hciztipzj
Hathaway
['hOcwcij
Hawaii
[hc'waii:j
Hawkins
['h5:kinzj
Hawthorne
['h5:O5:nj
Hazlitt
['hzIitj
Hayes
[hcizj
Hearst
[hc:stj
Helen
['hcIinj
Heller
['hcIcj
Hemingway
['hcmipwcij
Henness(e)y
['hcnisij
Henry
['hcnrij
Hepburn
['hcpbc:nj
Herbert
['hc:bctj
HereIord
['hcriIcdj
HertIord
['ho:Icdj
Hetty
['hctij
Higgins
['higinzj
Highgate
['haigitj
Highlands
['haiIcndzj
Hilary
['hiIcrij
Hilton
['hiItcnj
Hindley
['haindIij
['hindIij
Hitchcock
['hitjk5kj
Hobbes
[h5bzj
Hobbs
[h5bzj
Hockett
['h5kitj
Hogarth
['hcugo:Oj
Holiday
['h5Iidcij
Holinshed
['h5Iinjcdj
Holly
['h5Iij
Hollywood
['h5Iiwudj
Holmes
[hcumzj
Home
[hju:mj
Hooligan
['hu:Iigcnj
Hoover
['hu:vcj
Hopkins
['h5pkinzj
Hornby
['h5:nbij
Horwich
['h5ritjj
Hotspur
['h5tspc:j

157
Houghton
['h5:tnj/['hautnj
Houston
['hju:stcnj
Hubert
['hju:bctj
Huckleberry
['h\kIbcrij
Hugh
[hju:j
Humphr(e)y
['h\mIrij
Huxley
['h\ksIij
Hyde Park
[ haid 'po:kj
I.
Ian

[icnj
['i:cnj
Ida
['aidcj
Idaho

['aidchcuj
Idris
['idrisj
['aidrisj
IIor
['aivcj
Ike
[aikj
Illinois
[ iIi'n5ij
Indiana
[ indi'ncj
Indianapolis
[ indic'npcIisj
Inverness
[ invc'ncsj
Iowa
['aicucj
Ireland
['aicIcndj
Irene
[ai'ri:nj
Irving
['c:vipj
Isabel
['izcbcIj
Isherwood
['ijcwudj
Islington
['izIiptcnj
Ivanhoe
['aivcnhcuj
Ives
[aivzj
Ivor
['aivcj
1.
Jack
[dkj
Jackson
['dkscnj
Jacob
['dcikcbj
Jacqueline
['dkIi:nj
James
[dcimzj
Jane
[dcinj
Janet
['dnitj
Jean
[di:nj
JeIIerson
['dcIcsnj
JeIIrey
['dcIrij
Jekyll
['di:kiIj
['dckiIj
Jenkins
[dcpkinzj
Jenner
['dcncj
JenniIer
['dcniIcj
Jenny
['dcnij
Jeremy
['dcrcmij
Jerry
['dcrij
Jersey
['dc:zij
Jespersen
['jcspcsnj
Jesse
['dcsij
Jill
[diIj
Jim
[dimj
Joan
[dcunj
Joanna
[dcu'ncj
Jocelyn
['d5sIinj
Jock
[dz5kj
Joe
[dcuj
Joey
['dcuij
John
[d5nj
Johnson
['d5nsnj

158
Jolly
['d5Iij
Jolyon
['dcoIjcnj
Jonathan
['d5ncOcnj
Jones
[dcunzj
Joshua
['d5jwcj
Joyce
[d5isj
Judd
[d\dj
Jude
[du:dj
Judith
['du:diOj
Judy
['du:dij
Jukes
[du:ksj
Julia
['du:Ijcj
Juliet
['du:Ijctj
K.
Kane
[kcinj
Kansas
['knzcsj
Kate
[kcitj
Katharina
[ kOc'ri:ncj
Katharine
['kOcrinj
Katherine
['kOcrinj
Kathie
['kOij
Kathleen
['kOIi:nj
Katie
['kcitij
Keats
[ki:tsj
Keith
[ki:Oj
Kenilworth
['kcniIwc:Oj
Kennedy
['kcnidij
Kensington
['kcnziptcnj
Kent
[kcntj
Kentucky
[kcn't\kij
Kettering
['kctcripj
Kew
[kju:j
Kim
[kimj
Kimball
['kimbIj
Kingdon
['kipdcnj
Kingsley
['kipzIij
Kingstown
['kipstcnj
Kipling
['kipIipj
Kissinger
['kisindcj
Kitty
['kitij
Kleenex
['kIi:ncksj
Knightsbridge
['naitsbridj
Knowles
[ncuIzj
Knox
[n5ksj
Konrad
['k5nrdj
Kyd
[kidj
L.
Lacey
['Icisij
Lacy
['Icisij
LaIayette
[ Io:Ici'ctj
Lamb
[Imj
Lambeth
['ImbcOj
Lammermoor
['Imc mucj
Lancashire
['Ipkcjcj
Lancaster
['Ipkcstcj
Lancelot
['Io:nsIctj
Langhorne
['Iph5:nj
Langland
['IpIcndj
Larkin
['Io:kinj
Las Vegas
[ Is 'vcigcsj
Laura
['I5:rcj
Lawrance
['I5rcnsj
Lawrence
['I5rcnsj
Leacock
['Ii:k5kj
Lear
[Iicj

159
Leavis
['Ii:vizj
Lee
[Ii:j
Leech
[Ii:tjj
Leeds
[Ii:dzj
Lehmann
['Icimcnj
Leicester
['Icstcj
Leigh
[Ii:j
Leland
['Ii:Icndj
Lely
['Ii:Iij
Lennox
['Icncksj
Lenore
[Ic'n5:j/[Ii'n5:j
Leonard
['Icncdj
Leonora
[ Ii:c'n5:rcj
Leslie
['IczIij
Levi
['Ii:vaij
Lewis
['Iu:isj
Lexington
['Icksiptcnj
Lincoln
['Iipkcnj
Lindsay
['Iindzij
Liverpool
['Iivcpu:Ij
Livingstone(s)
['Iivipstcnj
Liza
['Iaizcj
Lloyd
[I5idj
Locke
[I5kj
Lomax
['Icumksj
London
['I\ndcnj
LongIellow
['I5p IcIcuj
Longman
['I5pmcnj
Lorimer
['I5rimcj
Lorna
['I5:ncj
Los Angeles
[I5s'ndcIi:zj
Louis
['Iu(:)i(s)j
['Iuisj
Louise
[Iu:'i:zj
Louisiana
[Iu: i:zi'ncj
Louisville
['Iu:iviIj
Lovel(l)
['I\vIj
Lovelace
['I\vIcisj
Lowell
['IaucIj
Lowry
['Iaucrij
Lucy
['Iu:sij
Luke
[Iu:kj
Luther
['Iu:Ocj
Lydgate
['Iidgcitj
Lyndon
['Iindcnj
Lyons
['Iaicnzj
M.
Mab
[mbj
Mabel
['mcibIj
Mac
[mkj
Macarthur
[mc'ko:Ocj
Macauly
[mc'k5:Iij
Macbeth
[mck'bcOj
MacCarthy
[mc'ko:Oij
McCormick
[mc'k5:mikj
MacDonald
[mck'd5ncIdj
MacFarlane
[mck'Io:Iinj
Mackenzie
[mc'kcnzij
Macmillan
[mck'miIcnj
Macnamara
[ mknc'mo:rcj
MacPherson
[mck'Ic:snj
Macready
[mc'kri:dij
Maddox
['mdcksj

160
Madeleine
['mdcIinj
Madison
['mdiscnj
Mae West
[ mci'wcstj
Mag
[mgj
Maggie
['mgij
Maguire
[mc'gwaicj
Maine
[mcinj
Makepeace
['mcikpi:sj
Malcolm
['mIkcmj
Mall
[mIj
Mallory
['mIcrij
Malone
[mc'Icunj
Malory
['mIcrij
Malvolio
[mI'vcuIjcuj
Manchester
['mntjcstcj
Mandalay
[ mndcIcij
ManIred
['mnIrcdj
Manhattan
[mn'htnj
Manley
['mnIij
Manning
['mnipj
MansIield
['mnsIi:Idj
Maple
['mcipIj
Marchbank
['mo:tjbpkj
Margaret
['mo:gcritj
Margery
['mo:dcrij
Maria
[mc'raicj
[mc'ricj
Marian
['mccricnj
Marilyn
['mriIinj
Marjorie
['mo:dcrij
Markham
['mo:kcmj
Marlborough
['mo:Ibcrcj
Marlene
['mo:Ii:nj
Marlow
['mo:Icuj
Martha
['mo:Ocj
Mary
['mccrij
Maryland
['mcriIcndj
Massachusetts
[ msc'tju:sitsj
Mat(t)hew
['mOju:j
Maud(e)
[m5:dj
Maugham
[m5:mj
Maureen
['m5:ri:nj
Mavis
['mcivisj
Max
[mksj
Maxwell
['mkswcIj
MayIair
['mciIccj
Meg
[mcgj
Melbourne
['mcIbcnj
Memphis
['mcmIisj
Mercedes
['mc:sidi:zj
Meredith
['mcrcdiOj
Merlin
['mc:Iinj
Mersey
['mc:zij
Methuen
['mcOjuinj
Miami
[mai'mij
Micawber
[mi'k5:bcj
Michael
['maikIj
Michigan
['mijigcnj
Middlemarch
['midImo:tjj
Middleton
['midIctnj
Midlothian
[mid'Icujcnj
Montana
[m5n'tncj
Montgomery
[mcnt'g\mcrij
Montmorency
[ m5ntmc'rcnsij
Moon
[mu:nj

161
Moreen
[m5:ri:nj
Morgan
['m5:gcnj
Morris
['m5risj
Morse
[m5:sj
Mortimer
['m5:timcj
Morton
['m5:tnj
Moynihan
['m5injcnj
Munro
[m\n'rcuj
Murdoch
['mc:d5kj
Muriel
['mjucricIj
Murphy
['mc:Iij
Myra
['maicrcj
Myrrha
['mircj
Myrtle
['mc:tIj
N.
Nabokov
[nc'bcuk5Ij
Nancy
['nnsij
Nannie
['nnij
Nash
[njj
Nathan
['nciOcnj
Nathaniel
[nc'OnjcIj
Nebraska
[ni'brskcj
Neil(l)
[ni:Ij
Nellie
['ncIij
Nelson
['ncIsnj
Nevada
[nc'vo:dcj
Nevill(e)
['ncviIj
Newark
['nju:ckj
Newcastle
['nju: ko:sIj
Newcome
['nju:kcmj
Newgate
['nju:gitj
Newham
['nju:cmj
Newman
['nju:mcnj
New Orleans
[ nju: '5:Iicnzj
Newton
['nju:tnj
New York
[ nju: 'j5:kj
Ngaio
['naicuj
Niagara
[nai'gcrcj
Nicholas
['nikcIcsj
Nick
[nikj
Nickleby
['nikIbij
Nigel
['naidcIj
Niven
['nivcnj
Nixon
['nikscnj
Noah
['ncucj
Nora(h)
['n5:rcj
NorIolk
['n5:Ickj
Norman
['n5:mcnj
Northampton
[n5:'Omptcnj
Northumberland
[n5:'O\mbcIcndj
Northumbria
[n5:'O\mbricj
Norwich
['n5ridj
Nottingham
['p5Oipcmj
Notting Hill
[ n5tip'hiIj
O.
Oakland
['cukIcndj
Oates
[cutsj
O`Brien
[cu'braicnj
O`Casey
[cu'kcisij
Occleve
['5kIi:vj
O`Connell
[cu'k5nIj
O`Connor
[cu'k5ncj
O`Doherty
[cu'dcuctij
O`Flaherty
[cu'IIcctij
Ogden
['5gdcnj

162
O`Hara
[cu'ho:rcj
Ohio
[cu'haicuj
Oklahoma
[ cukIc'hcumcj
Olive
['5Iivj
Oliver
['5Iivcj
Olivier
['5Iivicij
Omaha
['cumcho:j
O`Neil(l)
[cu'ni:Ij
Ophelia
[5'Ii:Ijcj
Oregon
['5rigcnj
Orkney
['5:knij
Orwell
['5:wcIj
Osborn(e)
['5zbcnj
Oscar
['5skcj
Osgood
['5zgudj
O`Shea
[cu'jcij
Othello
[cu'OcIcuj
Owen
['cuinj
OxIord
['5ksIcdj
P.
Packard
['pko:dj
Paddington
['pdiptcnj
Page
[pcidj
Pain(e)
[pcinj
Palliser
['pIiscj
Pall Mall
[ pI'mIj
Palmer
['po:mcj
Pam
[pmj
Pamela
['pmcIcj
Parnell
[po:'ncIj
Pasadena
[ psc'di:ncj
Patricia
[pc'trijcj
Patrick
['ptrikj
Paul
[p5:Ij
Pauline
[p5:'Ii:nj
Pearce
[picsj
Peggy
['pcgij
Pemberton
['pcmbctcnj
Pembroke
['pcmbrukj
Pendennis
[pcn'dcnisj
Pennsylvania
[ pcnsiI'vcinjcj
Pepys (Samuel)
[pi:psj
Percy
['pc:sij
Perdita
['pc:ditcj
Perkins
['pc:kinzj
Perry
['pcrij
Pershing
['pc:jipj
Perth
[pc:Oj
Pete
[pi:tj
Peter
['pi:tcj
Peterborough
['pi:tcbrcj
Peters
['pi:tczj
Petula
[pc'tju:Icj
Philadelphia
[ IiIc'dcIIjcj
Philip(p)s
['IiIipsj
Phineas
['Iinisj
Piccadilly
[ pikc'diIij
Pickering
['pikcripj
PickIord
['pikIcdj
Pickwick
['pikwikj
Pierce
[picsj
Pike
[paikj
Pinkerton
['pipkctcnj
Pinter
['pintcj

163
Piper
['paipcj
Pitt
[pitj
Pittsburgh
['pitsbc:gj
Plantagenet
[pIn'tdcnitj
Plummer
['pI\mcj
Plymouth
['pIimcOj
Poe
[pcuj
Pollock
['p5Ickj
Polly
['p5Iij
Pope
[pcupj
Porter
['p5:tcj
Portsmouth
['p5:tsmcOj
Potomac
[pc'tcumckj
Pound
[paundj
Powell
['pcucIj
['paucIj
Prescot(t)
['prcskctj
Preston
['prcstcnj
Princeton
['prinstcnj
Priscilla
[pri'siIcj
Pritchard
['pritjcdj
Priestley
['pri:stIij
Pulitzer
[puIitscj
Pullman
['puImcnj
Purcell
['pc:sIj
Putnam
['p\tncmj
Q.
Quentin
['kwcntinj
Quin
[kwinj
Quinc(e)y
['kwinsij
Quirk
[kwc:kj
R.
Rachel
['rcitjcIj
RadcliII
['rdkIiIj
Radley
['rdIij
Raleigh
['r5:Iij
Ralph
[rIIj
[rciIj
Ramsay
['rmzij
Randall
['rndIj
Randolph
['rnd5IIj
RatchiII(e)
['rtkIiIj
Ray
[rcij
Rea
[rcij
[ricj
[ri:j
Reading
['rcdipj
Reagan
['rcgcnj
Rebecca
[ri'bckcj
Redgrave
['rcdgrcivj
RedIord
['rcdIcdj
Reece
[ri:sj
Rees(e)
[ri:sj
Reeve
[ri:vj
Regan
['ri:gcnj
Reginald
['rcdinIdj
Reilly
['raiIij
Remington
['rcmiptcnj
Renshaw
['rcnj5:j
Rex
[rcksj
Reynolds
['rcnIdzj

164
Rhoda
['rcudcj
Rhode Island
[ rcud 'aiIcndj
Richard
['ritjcdj
Richmond
['ritjmcndj
Ridding
['ridipj
Rider
['raidcj
Ridley
['ridIij
Riley
['raiIij
Rio Grande
[ ri:cu'grndij
Ritchie
['ritjij
Robbins
['r5binzj
Robert
['r5bctj
Robeson
['rcubsnj
Robin
['r5binj
Robinson
['r5binscnj
Rob Roy
[ r5b'r5ij
Rochester
['r5tjistcj
RockeIeller
['r5kcIcIcj
Roderic(k)
['r5dcrikj
Rodgers
['r5dczj
Roger
['r5dcj
Roget
['r5gcij
Roland
['rcuIcndj
RolI(e)
[r5IIj
[rcuIj
Rolls-Royce
[ rcuIz'r5isj
Ronald
['r5nIdj
Roney
['rcunij
Roosevelt
['rcuzcvcItj
RoqueIort
['r5kI5:j
Rosa
['tcuzcj
Rosalie
['rcuzcIij
Rosalind
['r5zcIindj
Rosaline
['r5zcIainj
Rosamond
['r5zcmcndj
Roscoe
['r5skcuj
Ross
[r5sj
Rossetti
[r5'sctij
Rothschild
['r5OjaiIdj
['r5stjaiIdj
Routledge
['rautIidj
Rover
['rcuvcj
Rowena
[rcu'i:ncj
Roy
[r5ij
Rubinstein
['ru:binstoinj
Ruby
['ru:bij
Rudyard
['r\djcdj
Rupert
['ru:pctj
Ruskin
['r\skinj
Russell
['r\sIj
Ruth
[ru:Oj
RutherIord
['r\cIcdj
Ryan
['raicnj
S.
Sackville
['skviIj
Sacramento
[ skrc'mcntcuj
St. Alban
[snt'5:Ibcnj
St. Clair
['sipkIccj
Saintsbury
['scintsbcrij
Saki
['so:kij
Salem
['sciIcmj
Salesbury
['sciIzbcrij

165
Salinger
['sIindcj
Salisbury
['s5:Izbcrij
Sam
[smj
Samantha
[sc'mnOcj
Sammy
['smij
Samuel
['smjucIj
Sanders
['so:ndczj
SandIord
['snIcdj
Sandburg
['sndbc:gj
Sandra
['sndrcj
Sandy
['sndij
San Francisco
[ snIrcn'siskcuj
Santa Fe
[ sntc'Icij
Sapir
[sc'picj
Sarah
['sccrcj
Saratoga
[ src'tcugcj
Saroyan
[sc'r5icnj
Sassoon
[sc'su:nj
Saul
[s5:Ij
Saunders
['s5:ndczj
Savannah
[sc'vncj
Savoy
[sc'v5ij
Sawyer
['s5:jcj
ScoIield
['skcuIi:Idj
Scotland
['sk5tIcndj
Scott
[sk5tj
Sean
[j5:nj
Searle
[sc:Ij
Seaton
['si:tnj
Seattle
[si'tIj
Sedbergh
['scdbcj
Sedley
['scdIij
Selkirk
['scIkc:kj
Sellers
['scIczj
Seth
[scOj
Seton
['si:tnj
Severn
['scvcnj
Seward
['si:wcdj
Sewell
['sju:cIj
Seymour
['si:m5:j
ShaItesbury
['jo:Itsbcrij
Shakespeare
['jcik spicj
Shandy
['jndij
Shane
[jo:nj
[j5:nj
[jcinj
Shannon
['jncnj
Sharon
['jccrcnj
Shaughnessy
['j5:ncsij
Shaw
[j5:j
Shea
[jcij
SheIIield
['jcIi:Idj
Sheila
['ji:Icj
Shelley
['jcIij
Shenandoah
[ jcncn'dcucj
Sheraton
['jcrctcnj
Sheridan
['jcridcnj
Sherlock
['jc:I5kj
Sherman
['jc:mcnj
Sherwood
['jc:wudj
Shetland
['jctIcndj
Shields
[ji:Idzj
Shirley
['jc:Iij
Shrewsbury
['jrcuzbcrij

166
Shropshire
['jr5pjcj
Shylock
['jaiI5kj
Sikes
[saiksj
Silas
['saiIcsj
Sillitoe
['siIitcuj
Simon
['saimcnj
Simpson
['simpsnj
Sinatra
[si'no:trcj
Sinclair
['sipkIccj
Sitwell
['sitwcIj
Skelton
['skcItcnj
Slater
['sIcitcj
Sleight
[sIaitj
Sloan(e)
[sIcunj
Smike
[smaikj
Smiley
['smaiIij
Smithsonian
[smiO'scunjcnj
Smollett
['sm5Iitj
Smyth
[smiOj
[smaiOj
Smythe
[smaij
[smaiOj
Snodgrass
['sn5dgro:sj
Snowden
['sncudnj
Soames
[scumzj
Soane
[scunj
Soho
['scuhcuj
Somerset
['s\mcsitj
Sophia
[scu'Iaicj
Sousa
['su:zcj
Southampton
[sauO'mptcnj
Southey
['sauij
Spencer
['spcnscj
Spenser
['spcnscj
Staines
[stcinzj
StamIord
['stmIcdj
Stapley
['stpIij
Starr
[sto:j
Stead
[stcdj
Steele
[sti:Ij
Steevens
['sti:vnzj
Stein
[stainj
Steinbeck
['stainbckj
Steinway
['stainwcij
Stella
['stcIcj
Stephen
['sti:vnj
Sterne
[stc:nj
Steve
[sti:vj
Stevens
['sti:vnzj
Steward
[stjucdj
Stewart
[stjuctj
Stirling
['stc:Iipj
Stockton
['st5ktcnj
Stoddard
['st5dcdj
Stonehenge
|'stcun hcndj
Stow(e)
[stcuj
StraIIord
['strIcdj
StratIord
['strtIcdj
Stuart
[stjuctj
Studebaker
['stu:dcbcikcj
Stuyvesant
['staivcscntj
Sudbury
['s\dbcrij
Sue
[sju:j
SuIIolk
['s\Ickj
Sullivan
['s\Iivcnj
Summerville
['s\mcviIj

167
Surrey
['s\rij
Susan
['su:znj
Susanna
[su:'zncj
Sussex
['s\siksj
Sutherland
['s\cIcndj
Sutton
['s\tnj
Swansea
['sw5nzij
Sweeney
['swi:nij
Sweet
[swi:tj
SwiIt
[swiItj
Swinburne
['swinbc:nj
Swindon
['swindcnj
Swithin
['swiinj
Sybil
['sibiIj
Sydney
['sidnij
Sykes
[saiksj
Sylvia
['siIvicj
Syracuse
['sirckju:sj
T.
Talbot
['t5:Ibctj
['tIbctj
Tanner
['tncj
Tate
[tcitj
Taylor
['tciIcj
Teddy
['tcdij
Templar
['tcmpIcj
Templeton
['tcmpItcnj
Tennessee
[ tcnc'si:j
Tennyson
['tcnisnj
Teresa
[tc'ri:zcj
Terry
['tcrij
Tewkesbury
['tju:ksbcrij
Texas
['tckscsj
Teynham
['tcncmj
Thackeray
['Okcrij
Thames
[tcmzj
Thatcher
['Otjcj
Thelma
['OcImcj
Theo
['Oi:cuj/['Oicuj
Theobald
['Oicb5:Idj
Theouhilus
[Oi'5IiIcsj
Theresa
[ti'ri:zcj
Thomas
['t5mcsj
Thompson
['t5mpsnj
Thor
[O5:j
Thoreau
['O5:rcuj
Thorne
[O5:nj
Thornhill
['O5:nhiIj
Thornton
['O5:ntcnj
Thorp(e)
[O5:pj
Thor(r)owgood
['O\rcgudj
Througham
['Or\Icmj
Thuron
[tu'r5nj
Thynne
[Oinj
Tibbs
[tibzj
Tilley
['tiIij
Timothy
['timcOij
Tindall
['tindIj
Tipperary
[ tipc'rccrij
Tippett
['tipitj
Tobias
[tc'baicsj
Toby
['tcubij
Todd
[t5dj
Tolkien
['t5Iki:nj

168
Tom
[t5mj
Tompkins
['t5mpkinzj
Tottenham
['t5tncmj
Towcester
['tcustcj
TraIalgar
[trc'IIgcj
Travers
['trvczj
Travis
['trvisj
Treanor
['trcincj
Trelawn(e)y
[tri'I5:nij
Tremont
[tri'm5ntj
Trevelyan
[tri'viIjcnj
Trevor
['trcvcj
Trollope
['tr5Icpj
Truman
['tru:mcnj
Tucson
[tu:'s5nj
Tudor
['tju:dcj
Tussaud`s
[tc's5:dzj
Twain
[twcinj
Twickenham
['twikncmj
Twiggy
['twigij
Tybalt
['tibcItj
Tyburn
['taibc:nj
Tyler
['taiIcj
Tyndale
['tindIj
Tyne
[tainj
Tyrone
[ti'rcunj
U.
Udall
['ju:dcIj
Ulster
['\Istcj
Updike
['\pdaikj
Upton
['\ptcnj
Urbevilles
['c:bcviIzj
Uriah
[ juc'raicj
Urquhart
['c:kctj
Ursula
['c:sjuIcj
Usher
['\jcj
Ustinov
['ju:stin5Ij
Utah |'ju:tc|


V.
Valentine
['vIcntainj
Valery (-rie)
['vIcrij
Vanbrugh
['vnbrcj
Van Buren
[vn'bjurcnj
Vancouver
[vn'ku:vcj
Vanderbilt
['vndcbiItj
Vanessa
[vc'ncscj
Vaughan
[v5:nj
Vauxhall
[ v5ks'h5:Ij
Vermont
[vc:'m5ntj
Vernon
['vc:ncnj
Vincent
['vinscntj
Viola
['vaicIcj
Vivian
['vivicnj
Vooght
[vu:tj


W.
Wacey
['wcisij
Wade
[wcidj
WakeIield
['wcikIi:Idj
Waldegrave
['w5:Igrcivj
WaldorI
['w5:Id5:Ij
Wales
[wciIzj
Walker
['w5:kcj
Wallace
['w5Iisj

169
Walpole
['w5:IpcuIj
Walt
[w5:Itj
Walter
['w5:Itcj
Ward
[w5:dj
Warren
['w5rcnj
Warwick
['w5rikj
Washington
['w5jiptcnj
Watergate
['w5:tcgcitj
Waterloo
['w5:tcIu:j
Watling
['w5tIipj
Watteau
['w5tcuj
Waugh
[w5:j
Waverley
['wcivcIij
Wayne
[wcinj
Webb
[wcbj
Webster
['wcbstcj
Wedgwood
['wcdwudj
Weedon
['wi:dnj
Weighton
['wi:tnj
Welch
[wcIjj
Weldon
['wcIdcnj
Wellington
['wcIiptcnj
Wells
[wcIzj
Wembley
['wcmbIij
Wessex
['wcsiksj
Westbourne
['wcstb5:nj
Westmor(e)land
['wcstmcIcndj
Weston
['wcstcnj
Wharton
['w5:tnj
Wheathampstead
['wi:tcmpstcdj
Whickham
['wikcmj
Whigham
['wigcmj
Whitaker
['witckcj
Whitechapel
['wait tjpIj
Whitehall
['waith5:Ij
Whitman
['witmcnj
Whittier
['witicj
Whittington
['witiptcnj
WhorI
[w5:Ij
Wickham
['wikcmj
WickliIIe
['wikIiIj
Widemouth
['widmcOj
Wilbur
['wiIbcj
Wilde
[waiIdj
Wilder
['waiIdcj
WilIred
['wiIIridj
Wilkes
[wiIksj
William
['wiIjcmj
Willie
['wiIij
Willoughby
['wiIcbij
Wilma
['wiImcj
Wilmcote
['wiImkcutj
Wilson
['wiIsnj
Wimbledon
['wimbIcdnj
Winchester
['wintjistcj
Windham
['windcmj
Windsor
['winzcj
WiniIred
['winiIridj
Winkle
['wipkIj
Winnie
['winij
Winnipeg
['winipcgj
Winslow
['winzIcuj
Winston
['winstcnj
Wisconsin
[wis'k5nsinj
Witham
['wicmj
Wolsey
['wuIzij

170
Wolverton
['wuIvctnj
Woolwich
['wuIidj
Woolworth
['wuIwcOj
Worcester
['wustcj
Wordsworth
['wc:dzwcOj
Worthing
['wc:ipj
Wrenn
[rcnj
Wuthering
['w\cripj
Wyatt
['waictj
WycliIIe
['wikIiIj
Wyoming
[wai'cumipj


Y.
Yale
[jciIj
Yeats
[jcitsj
Yellowstone
['jcIcustcunj
Yorick
['j5rikj
Yorkshire
['j5:kjcj
Z.
Zachariah
[ zkc'raicj
Zachary
['zkcrij
Zapata
|zc'po:tc|
Zarathustra
| zrc'Oustrc|


B. NAMES OF COUNTRIES AND THEIR AD1ECTIVAL
DERIVATIVES

Name Adjective
AIghanistan |I'gnisto:n/stn| AIgan |'Ign|
AIrica |'Irikc| AIrican |'Irikn|
Alaska |c'Iskc| Alaskan |c'Iskn|
Albania |I'bcinic| Albanian |I'bcinicn|
Algeria |I'dicric| Algerian |I'dicricn|
America |c'mcrikc| American |c'mcrikcn|
Andorra |n'd5:rc| Andorran |n'd5:rcn|
Angola |p'gcuIc| Angolan |p'gcuIcn|
Antarctica |n'to:ktikc|
-
Antigua |n'ti:gc| Antiguan [n'ti:gcn|
Argentina | o:dcn'tinc| Argentinian | o:dcn'tinicn|
Armenia |o:'mi:nic| Armenian |o:'mi:nicn|
Asia |'cijc/'cic| Asian |'cijn/'cin|
Australia |5'strciIic| Australian |5'strciIicn|
Austria |'5stric| Austrian |'5stricn|
Azerbaijan | zcbai'do:n| Azerbaijani | zcbai'do:ni|

171
Bahamas |bc'ho:mcz| Bahamian |bc'hcimicn|
Bahrain |bo:'rcin| Bahraini |bo:'rcini|
Bangladesh | bpgIc'dcj| Bangladesh | bpgIc'dcj|
Bangladeshi | bpgIc'dcji| (person)
Barbados |bo:'bcid5s| Barbadian |bo:'bcidicn|
Belarus | bcIc'ru:s| Belorussian | bcIcu'r\jcn|
Belgium |'bcIdcm| Belgian |'bcIdcn|
Belize |bc'Ii:z| Belizean |bc'Ii:zicn|
Benin |bc'ni:n| Beninese | bcni'ni:z|
Bermuda |bc'mju:dc| Bermudan |bc'mju:dn|
Bhutan |bu:'to:n| Bhutanese | bu:tc'ni:z|
Bolivia |bc'Iivic| Bolivian |bc'Iivicn|
Bosnia and Herzegovina
| b5znic cnd hc:tscgcu'vi:nc|
Bosnian |'b5znicn|
Botswana |b5t'swo:nc| Tswana |'tswo:nc|
Montswana |m5t'swo:nc| (person
sing.)
Batswana |bt'swo:nc| (person pl.)
Burkina Faso |bc: ki:nc 'Iscu| Burkina |bc: ki:nc|
Burkinabe | bc:ki:n'bci| (person)
Brazil |brc'ziI| Brazilian |brc'ziIicn|
Brunei |bru:'nai| Bruneian |bru:'naicn|
Bulgaria |b\I'gccric| Bulgarian |b\I'gccricn|
Burma |'bc:mc| (Iormer name oI
Myanmar)
-
Burundi |bu'rundi| Burundian |bu'rundicn|
Cambodia |km'bcudic| Cambodian |km'bcudicn|
Cameroon | kmc'ru:n| Cameroonian | kmc'ru:nicn|
Canada |'kncdc| Canadian |kc'ncidicn|
Cape Verde | kcip 'vc:d| Cape Verdean |kcip 'vc:dicn|
Caribbean | kri'bi:cn| Caribbean | kri'bi:cn|

172
Cayman Islands
|'kcimcn aiIcndz|
Cayman Island
| kcimcn 'aiIcnd|
Cayman Islander (person)
| kcimcn 'aiIcndc|

Chad |tjd| Chadian |'tjdicn|
Chile |'tjiIi| Chilean |'tjiIicn|
China |'tjainc| Chinese | tjai'ni:z|
Colombia |kc'I\mbic| Colombian |kc'I\mbicn|
Congo |'k5pgcu| Congolese | k5pgc'Ii:z|
Costa Rica | k5stc 'ri:kc| Costa Rican | k5stc 'ri:kcn|
Croatia |krcu'cijc| Croatian |krcu'cijcn|
Cuba |'kju:bc| Cuban |'kju:bcn|
Cyprus |'saiprcs| Cypriot |'siprict|
Czech Republic | tjck ri'p\bIik| Czech |tjck|
Denmark |'dcnmo:k| Danish |'dcinij|
Dane |dcin| (person)
Djibouti |di'bu:ti| Djiboutian |di'bu:ticn|
Dominica | d5mi'ni:kc| Dominican | d5mi'ni:kcn|
Dominican Republic
| d5mi'ni:kcn ri'p\bIik|
Dominican | d5mi'ni:kcn|
Ecuador |'ckwcd5:| Ecuadorian | ckwc'd5:ricn|
Egypt |'i:dipt| Egyptian |i'dipjn|
El Salvador |cI 'sIvc d5:| Salvadorian | slvc'd5:ricn|
Equatorial Guinea
| ckwct5:ricI 'gini|
Equatorial Guinean
| ckwct5:ricI 'ginicn|
Eritrea | cri'trcic| Eritrean | cri'trcicn|
Estonia |c'stcunic| Estonian |c'stcunicn|
Ethiopia | i:Oi'cupic| Ethiopian | i:Oi'cupicn|
Europe |'jucrcp| European | jucrc'pi:cn|
Fiji |'Ii:di:| Fijian |Ii:'di:cn|
Finland |'IinIcnd| Finnish |'Iinij|
Finn |Iin| (person)

173
France |Iro:ns| French |Ircntj|
Frenchman |'Ircntjmcn| (person sing.
masc.)
Frenchmen |'Ircntjmcn| (person pl.
masc.)
Frenchwoman |'Ircntj wumcn| (person
sing. Iem.)
Frenchwomen |'Ircntj wimin| (person
pl. Iem.)
French |Ircntj| (people)

Gabon |g'b5n| Gabonese | gbc'ni:z|
Gambia |'gmbic| Gambian |'gmbicn|
Georgia |'d5:dc| Georgian |'d5:dcn|
Germany |'dc:mcni| German |'dc:mcn|
Ghana |'go:nc| Ghanian |go:ncicn|
Gibraltar |di'br5:Itc| Gibraltarian | 'dibr5:I'tccricn|
Greece |gri:s| Greek |gri:k|
Greenland |'gri:nIcnd| Greenlandic |gri:n 'Indik|
Greenlander |'gri:nIcndc| (person)
Grenada |grc'ncidc| Grenadian |grc'ncidicn|
Guatemala | gwo:tc'mo:Ic| Guatemalan | gwo:tc'mo:Icn|
Guiana |gi'o:nc| Guianan |gi'o:ncn|
Guinea |'gini| Guinean |'ginicn|
Guinea-Bissau | gini bi'sau| Guinea-Bissauan | gini bi'saucn|
Guyana |gai'nc| Guyanese | gaic'ni:z|
Haiti |'hciti| Haitian |'heijcn|
Holland |'h5Icnd| Dutch |d\tj|
Hollander |'h5Icndc|
Honduras |h5n'djucrcs| Honduran |h5n'djucrcn|
Hong Kong | h5p 'k5p|
-
Hungary |'h\pgcri| Hungarian |h\p'gccricn|
Iceland |'aisIcnd| Icelandic |ais'Indik|
India |'indic| Indian |'indicn|

174
Indonesia | indc'ni:c| Indonesian | indc'ni:cn|
Iran |i'ro:n| Iranian |i'rcinicn|
Iraq |i'ro:k| Iraqi |i'ro:ki|
Irish Republic | airij ri'p\bIik| Irish |'airij|
Irishman |'airijmcn| (person sing.
masc.)
Irishmen |'airijmcn| (person pl. masc.)
Irishwoman |'airij wumcn| (person,
sing. Iem.)
Irishwomen |'airij wimin| (person, pl.
Iem.)
Irish |'airij| (people)

Israel |'izrciI| Israeli |iz'rciIi|
Italy |'itcIi| Italian |i'tIicn|
Ivory Coast | aivcri 'kcust| Ivorian |ai'v5:ricn|
Jamaica |dc'mcikc| Jamaican |dc'mcikn|
Japan |dc'pn| Japanese | dpc'ni:z|
Jordan |'d5:dn| Jordanian |d5:'dcinicn|
Kazakhstan | kzk'sto:n| Kazakh |kc'zk|
Kenya |'kcnjc| Kenyan |'kcnjcn|
North Korea | n5:O kc'ric| North Korean | n5:O kc'ricn|
South Korea | sauO kc'ric| South Korean | sauO kc'ricn|
Kuwait |ku'wcit| Kuwaiti |ku'wciti|
Laos |'Io:5s| Laotian |'Iaujcn|
Latvia |'Itvic| Latvian |'Itvicn|
Lebanon |'Icbcncn| Lebanese | Icbc'ni:z|
Lesotho |Ic'su:tu:| Sotho |'su:tu:|
Mosotho |mc'su:tu:| (person sing.)
Bosotho |bc'su:tu:| (person pl.)
Liberia |Ioi'bicric| Liberian |Ioi'bicricn|
Libya |'Iibic| Libyan |'Iibicn|
Liechtenstein |'Iiktcnstain| Liechtenstein |'Iiktcnstain|
Liechtensteiner |'Iiktcnstainc| (person)

175
Lithuania | IiOju'cinic| Lithuanian | IiOju'cinicn|
Luxemburg |'I\kscmbc:g| Luxemburg |'I\kscmbc:g|
Luxemburger |'I\kscmbc:gc| (person)
Macedonia | msi'dcunic| Macedonian | msi'dcunicn|
Madagascar | mdc'gskc| Malagasy | mIc'gsi|
Malawi |mc'Io:wi| Malawian |mc'Io:wicn|
Malaysia |mc'Icizic| Malaysian |mc'Icizicn|
Maldives, the |'m5:Idi:vz| Maldivian |m5:I'divicn|
Mali |'mo:Ii| Malian |'mo:Iicn|
Malta |'m5:Itc| Maltese | m5:I'ti:z|
Marshall Islands
|'mo:jcI aiIcndz|
Marshall Islander
| mo:jcI 'aiIcndc|
Mauritania | m5ri'tcinic| Mauritanian | m5ri'tcinicn|
Mauritius |mc'rijcs| Mauritian |mc'rijn|
Mediterranean | mcditc'rcinicn| Mediterranean | mcditc'rcinicn|
Melanesia | mcIc'ni:zic| Melanesian | mcIc'ni:zicn|
Mexico |'mcksikcu| Mexican |'mcksikcn|
Micronesia | maikrcu'ni:zic| Micronesian | maikrcu'ni:zicn|
Moldova |m5I'dcuvc| Moldovian |m5I'dcuvicn|
Monaco |'m5nckcu| Monesgasque | m5ni'gsk|
Mongolia |m5p'gcuIic| Mongolian |m5p'gcuIicn|
Montserrat | m5ntsc'rt| Montserratian | m5ntsc'rcijcn|
Morocco |mc'r5kcu| Moroccan |mc'r5kcn|
Mozambique | mcuzcm'bi:k| Mozambican | mcuzcm'bi:kcn|
Myanmar |'mjnmo:| (Iormer Burma) Myanmarese | mjnmo:'ri:z|
Namibia |nc'mibic| Namibian |nc'mibicn|
Nauru |na:'u:ru:| Nauruan |na:'u:rucn|
Nepal |ni'p5:I| Nepalese | ncpc'Ii:z|

176
The Netherlands |c 'nccIcndz| Dutch |d\tj|
Netherlander |'ncc Indc|
Dutchman |'d\tjmcn| (person sing.
masc.)
Dutchmen |'d\tjmcn| (person pl.
masc.)
Dutchwoman |'d\tj 'wumcn| (person
sing. Iem.)
Dutchwomen |'d\tj 'wimin| (person
pl. Iem.)
Dutch |d\tj| (people)

New Zealand |nju: 'zi:Icnd| New Zealand |nju: 'zi:Icnd|
Maori |'mauri|
New Zealander |nju: 'zi:Icndc| (person)
Nicaragua | nikc'rgjuc| Nicaraguan | nikc'rgjucn|
Niger |'naidc|/|ni:'cc| Nigerien |ni:'ccricn|
Nigeria |nai'dicric| Nigerian |nai'dicricn|
Norway |'n5:wci| Norwegian |n5:'wi:dcn|
Oman |cu'mo:n| Omani |cu'mo:ni|
PaciIic |pc'siIik| PaciIic |pc'siIik|
Pakistan | po:ki'sto:n| Pakistani | po:ki'sto:ni|
Palestine |'pIcstain| Palestinian | pIc'stinicn|
Panama | pnc'ma:| Panamanian | pnc'mcinicn|
Papua New Guinea
| ppjuc nju: 'gini|
Papuan |'ppjucn|
Paraguay |'prcgwai| Paraguayan | prc'gwaicn|
Peru |pc'ru:| Peruvian |pc'ru:vicn|
Philippines, the |'IiIipi:nz| Philippine |'IiIipi:n|
Filipino | IiIi'pi:ncu| (person)
Poland |'pcuIcnd| Polish |'pcuIij|
Pole |pcuI| (person)
Polynesia | p5Ii'ni:zic| Polynesian | p5Ii'ni:zicn|
Portugal |'p5:tjugcI| Portuguese | p5:tju'gi:z|

177
Puerto Rico | pwc:tcu 'ri:kcu|
Puerto Rican
| pwc:tcu 'ri:kcn|
Qatar |k\'to:| Qatari |k\'to:ri|
Quebec |kwi'bck| Quebecois | kcbc'kwo:|
Romania |ru:'mcinic| Romanian |ru:'mcinicn|
Russia |'r\jc|
Russian Federation
|'r\jcn Icdc'rcijcn|
Russian |'r\jcn| (person)
Rwanda |ru'ndc| Rwandan |ru'ndcn|
Saint Kitts & Nevis
|scnt kits cnd 'ni:vis|
Kittitian |ki'tijcn|
Saint Lucia |scnt 'Iu:jc| Saint Lucian |scnt 'Iu:jcn|
Samoa |sc'mcuc| Samoan |sc'mcucn|
San Marino | sn mc'ri:ncu| Sanmarinese | snmri'ni:z|
Sao Tome & Principe
| saun tc'mci cnd 'prinsipci|
Sao Tomean | saun tc'mcicn|
Saudi Arabia | saudi c'rcibic|
Saudi Arabian
| saudi c'rcibicn|
Saudi/Saudi Arabian (person)
Senegal | scni'g5:I| Senegalese | scnigc'Ii:z|
Seychelles |sci'jcIz| Seychellois | scijcI'wo:|
Sierre Leone |si crc Ii'cun|
Sierre Leonean
|si crc Ii'cunicn|
Singapore | sipc'p5:| Singaporean | sipc'p5:ricn|
Slovak Republic | sIcuvk ri'p\bIik| Slovak |'sIcuvk|
Slovenia |sIcu'vi:nic| Slovene |'sIcuvi:n|
Solomon Islands
|'s5Icmcn aiIcndz|
Solomon Islander
|'s5Icmcn aiIcndc|
Somalia |scu'mo:Iic| Somali |scu'mo:Ii|
South AIrica |sauO 'Irikc| South AIrican |sauO 'Irikcn|
Spain |spcin| Spanish |'spnij|
Spaniard |'spnjcd| (person)
Sri Lanka |sri: 'Ipkc| Sri Lankan |sri: 'Ipkcn|
Sudan |su'dn| Sudanese | su:dc'ni:z|

178
Surinam | suri'nm| Surinamese | surinc'mi:zj
Swaziland |'swo:ziInd| Swazi |'swo:zi|
Sweden |'swi:dn| Swedish |'swi:dij|
Switzerland |'switscIcnd| Swiss |swiss|
Syria |'siric| Syrian |'siricn|
Tahiti |tc'hi:ti| Tahitian |tc'hi:jcn|
Taiwan | tai'wo:n| Taiwanese | taiwc'ni:z|
Tajikistan |to: di:ki'sto:n| Tajik |to:'di:k|
Tanzania | tnzc'nic| Tanzanian | tnzc'nicn|
Thailand |'taiInd|
Thai |tai|
Tibet |ti'bct| Tibetan |ti'bctn|
East Timor | i:st 'ti:m5:| Timorese | ti:m5:'ri:z|
Togo |'tcugcu| Togolese | tcugc'Ii:z|
Tonga |'t5pgc| Tongan |'t5pgcn|
Trinidad & Tobago
| trinidd cnd tc'bcigcu|
Trinidadian | trini'ddicn|
Tobagonian | tcubc'gcunicn|
Tunisia |tju'nizic| Tunisian |tju:'nizicn|
Turkey |'tc:ki| Turkish |'tc:kij|
Turk |tc:k| (person)
Turkmenistan | tc:kmcnni'sto:n| Turkmen |'tc:kmcn|
Uganda |ju:'gndc| Ugandan |ju:'gndcn|
Ukraine, the |ju:'krcin| Ukrainian |ju:'krcinicn|
United Arab Emirates, the
|ju: naitid rcb 'cmirits|
Emirian |c'micricn|
United Kingdom oI Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, the
|ju: naitid 'kipdcm cv grcit britn
cnd n5:cn aicIcnd|
British |'britij|
Briton |'britn| (person)
Britisher (Am.E.) |'britijc|
British |'britij| (people)



179
England |'ipgIcnd| English |'ipgIij|
Englishman |'ipgIijmcn| (person sing.
masc.)
Englishmen |'ipgIijmcn| (person pl.
masc.)
Englishwoman |'ipgIij wumcn|
(person sing. Iem.)
Englishwomen |'ipgIij wimin| (person
pl. Iem.)
English |'ipgIij| (people)

Scotland |'sk5tIcnd| Scottish |'sk5tij|/Scots |sk5ts|
Scot/Scotsman |'sk5tsmcn| (person
sing. masc.)
Scotsmen |'sk5tsmcn| (person pl.
masc.)
Scotswoman |'sk5ts wumcn| (person
sing. Iem.)
Scotswomen |'sk5ts wimin| (person pl.
Iem.)
Scots |sk5ts| (people)
Wales |wciIz| Welsh |wcIj|
Welshman |'wcIjmcn| (person sing.
masc.)
Welshmen |'wcIjmcn| (person pl.
masc.)
Welshwoman |'wcIj wumcn| (person
sing. Iem.)
Welshwomen |'wcIj wimin| (person
pl. Iem.)
Welsh |wcIj| (people)
United States, the |ju: naitid 'stcits| American |c'mcrikcn|
Uruguay |'jucrcgwai| Uruguayan | jucrc'gwaicn|
Uzbekistan | uz'bckisto:n| Uzbek |'uzbck|
Vanuatu | vnu'o:tu:| Vanuatuan | vnu'o:tucn|
Venezuela | vcni'zwciIc| Venezuelan | vcni'zwciIcn|

180
Vietnam | vjct'nm | Vietnamese | vjctnc'mi:z|
West Samoa | wcst sc'mcuc| Samoan |sc'mcucn|
Yemen |'jcmcn| Yemeni |'jcmcni|
Yugoslavia | ju:gcu'sIo:vic| Yugoslavian | ju:gcu'sIo:vicn|
Yugoslav | ju:gcusIo:v|
Zaire |zai'ic| Zairean |zai'icricn|
Zambia |'zmbic| Zambian |'zmbicn|
Zimbabwe |zim'bo:bwci| Zimbabwean |zim'bo:bwcicn|


C. FOREIGN ORIGIN NOUNS


Singular Plural
alga |'Igc| algae |'Idi:|
analysis |c'nIcsis| analyses |c'nIcsi:z|
antenna |n'tcnc| antennae |n'tcni:|
appendix |c'pcndiks| appendices |c'pcndisi:z|
aquarium |c'kwccricm| aquaria |c'kwccric|
bacillus |bc'siIcs| bacilli |bc'siIai|
bacterium |bk'ticricm| bacteria |bk'ticric|
basis |'bcisis| bases |'bcisi:z|
criterion |krai'ticricn| criteria |krai'ticric|
curriculum |kc'rikcIcm| curricula |kc'rikcIc|
datum |'dcitcm| data |'dcitc|
Iauna |'I5:nc| Iaunae |'I5:ni:|
Iormula |'I5:mjuIc| Iormulae |'I5:mjuIi:|
Iungus |'I\pgcs| Iungi |'I\pgai/'I\ndai|
ganglion |'gpgIicn| ganglia |'gpgIic|
genus |'di:ncs| genera |'dcncrc|
hypothesis |hai'p5Oisis| hypotheses |hai'p5Oisi:z|
index |'indcks| indices |'indisi:z|
larva |'Io:vc| larvae |'Iovi:|
matrix |'mcitriks| matrices |'mcitrisi:z|

181
maximum |'mksimcm| maxima |'mksimc|
medium |'mi:djcm| media |'mi:djc|
minimum |'minimcm| minima |'minimc|
nucleus |'nju:kIics| nuclei |'nju:kIiai|
oasis |cu'cisis| oases |cu'cisi:z|
optimum |'5ptimcm| optima |'5ptimc|
parenthesis |pc'rcnOisis| parentheses |pc'rcnOisi:z|
phenomenon |Ii'n5mincn| phenomena |Ii'n5minc|
schema |'ski:mc| schemata |'ski:mctc|/|ski:mo:tc|
series |'sicri:z| series |'sicri:z|
species |'spi:ji:z| species |'spi:ji:z|
spectrum |'spcktrcm| spectra |'spcktrc|
stimulus |'stimjuIcs| stimuli |'stimjuIai|
stoma |'stcumc| stomata |'stcumctc|
syllabus |'siIcbcs| syllabi |'siIcbai|
taxon |'tkscn| taxa |'tksc|
vertebra |'vc:tibrc| vertebrae |'vc:tibri:|


D. WORD-FORMING AFFIXES

PREFIXES

a-, ab-: to abhor, to abuse
ad-, af-, an- etc.: to aafure, to aafoin, to affright, another
an-, a- (neg. meaning): anomalistic, achromatopsy
be-: to belay
bi-, bis-: binormal, bimensal, bismarine
com-, con-, co-, cog-, col-, etc.: to compose, to concatenate, to
cohabit, to cogni:e, to collate
de-: to aehumani:e, to aehyarogeni:e
di-: aigraph, aiphtong
dis-, di-: to aiscomfit, to aisconnect, to aiscontent
ec-: eccentric
en-: to enaamage, to enchain, to enclasp
ex-, e-, ef-: to express, eaition, to effuse
for-: to forbear, to forgive
in-: inlana, inroaa

182
in-, il-, ir- (neg. meaning): inauaible, illicit, irrecogni:able
mis-: to misvalue, to miswrite
non- (neg. meaning): non-absorbent, non-obeaience
ob-, op-: to obfuscate, to oppress
out-: to outao, to outnumber
over-: to overlay, to overmaster
pre-: to preannounce
pro-: proconsul
re-: to realign, to reapply
sub-: subconscious
un-: unmanageable, unmenaable, to unnerve
under-: to unaerstate, unaerstatement
up-: to upbear, upshot

SUFFIXES

a. Noun-forming suffixes
- age: average, percentage
-ance, -ence, -ment, -ation, -sion, -ion: aisappearance, reference,
placement, obligation, possession, prostration
- ee: absentee, employee
- eer, -ier: musketeer, racketeer, pamphleteer
- er: gambler, painter, singer
- ese: Chinese, Japanese
- ess (Ieminine suIIix): lioness, tigress
- ing: aancing, making, walking
- ism: capitalism, , moaernism, po:itivism
- ist: iaealist, moaernist
- ite: socialite, aynamite
- ling: auckling, unaerling
-ness, -ship, -hood, -dom: gooaness, frienaship, loraship,
neighbourhooa, kingaom, staraom
- or: aoctor, professor
- ster: brewster, gamester, teamster, youngster
- th: length, wealth

b. Adjective-forming suffixes
- able: lauaable, profitable
- ed: brown-eyea, long-leggea
- ful: beautiful, plentiful, playful, sorrowful, mournful
- ish: reaaish, chilaish, longish, boyish, girlish
- less: heartless, useless

183
- ly, -y: weekly, winay, snowy

c. Verb-forming suffixes
- en: to lighten, to aarken, to sunken, to hasten
- fy, ify: to liquefy, to magnify, toe electrify, to mummify
- ize, -ise: to emphasi:e, to characteri:e, to analy:e, to burglari:e,
to anaestheti:e

d. Adverb-forming suffixes
- ly (when added to adjectives, it Iorms adverbs oI manner): kindly,
openly, warmly
- ward(s) (implies the idea oI direction): eastwara(s),
backwara(s), westwara(s)

E. SHORT FORMS AND LABELS


abbr. abbreviation
acc. accusative
ad. 1. advertisement 2. adverb
Add. addenda
add. addition
adds address
add`see addressee
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
adv. part. adverbial particle
AmE. American English
& and
ant. antonym
apos. apostrophe
App. appendix
arch. archaic
art. article
attrib. 1. attribute 2. attributive
aux. auxiliary
aux. v. auxiliary verb
B.A. Bachelor oI Arts
B.C. beIore Christ
bibl. 1. biblical 2. bibliographical 3. bibliography
BrE. British English
Brit. British usage

184
C countable noun
CanE. Canadian English
cap(s). capital(s)
CarE. Caribbean English
col. colon
Col. column
com. comma
comb. combination
comb. form combining Iorm
conj. conjunction
C.V. curriculum vitae
dat. dative
def. art. deIinite article
derog. derogatory
det. determiner
dial. dialectal
do. ditto
Dr. Doctor
D.Sc. Doctor oI Science
E East
edit. edited
e.g. Ior example
emph. emphatic
esp. especially
etc. et cetera
euph. euphemistic
fem. Ieminine
fig. Iigurative
fml. Iormal
gen. 1.gender 2. genitive
Gp. group noun
humor. humorous
ibid. ibidem
i.e. that is
indef. indeIinite
infml. inIormal
int. 1. initial 2. interjection 3. intransitive
interj. interjection
interrog. interrogative
i.q. the same as
IrE. Irish English
joc. jocular

185
Lat. Latin
law legal
ling. linguistics
lit. literary
M.A. Master oI Arts
masc. masculine
M.D. Doctor oI Medicine
med. medical
MS. manuscript
MSS. manuscrips
n. noun
N North
Nom. nominative
n.p. new paragraph
Nat.Sc.D. Doctor oI Natural Science
naut. nautical
neg. negative
old-fash. old-Iashioned
old use
op. cit. in the work cited
p. page
par. paragraph
pass. passive
p.d. per diem
P.E. printer`s error
pers. person
pers. pron personal pronoun
Ph.D. Doctor oI Philosophy/Philology
phr. phrase
phr.v. phrasal verb
pl. plural
poet. poetical
pomp. pompous
possess. possessive
pp. 1. pages 2. past participle
ppl. participle
pr. pronoun
pred. predicative
pref. preIix
prep. preposition
pres. p. present participle
pres. t. present tense

186
prof. proIessor
pron. pronoun
Prov. Proverb
P.S. postscript
p.s. postscript
pt. past tense
q.e. which is
Q.E.F. which was to be done
reflex. reIlexive
rare
rel. relative
rhet. rhetorical
S South
SAfrE. South AIrican English
sb. somebody
Sc.M. Master oI Science
ScotE. Scottish English
sem. semicolon
sing. singular
sl. slang
S.M. Master oI Science
sth. something
suff. suIIix
symb. symbol
syn. synonym
taboo
Th.D. Doctor oI Theology
techn. technical
U uncountable noun
US United States
US American usage
usu. usually
v. verb
v. aux. auxiliary verb
v.i. intransitive verb
v.p. passive verb
v.t. transitive verb
W West




187
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188
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189
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