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# MAHALAKSHMI

ENGINEERING COLLEGE
TIRUCHIRAPALLI 621213
QUESTION BANK DEPARTMENT: EEE SEMESTER: IV SUBJECT CODE / Name: EE2254 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
PARTA UNIT-I : IC FABRICATION AND CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR IC 1. What are the two requirements to be met for a good current source? [AUC MAY 2012] 2. List the various methods of realizing high input resistance in a differential amplifier. [AUC MAY 2012] 3. What are the applications of current source. [AUC MAY 2011] 4. Define slew rate. [AUC MAY 2011] 5. What is the need for frequency compensation in practical op-amps? [AUC MAY 2011] 6. What is the need for constant current source in differential amplifier? [AUC MAY 2011] 7. Justify the statement: CMRR value of an ideal op-amp should be infinite. [ AUC MAY 2011] 8. Define CMRR. [AUC April 2004,MAY2010] 9. What is the reason for drop in gain at high frequencies in op-amp?[AUC MAY2010] 10. Draw a neat sketch showing the frequency response of A741 OP AMP. [AUC Nov 2004] 11. Write down the characteristics of ideal operational amplifier.[AUC May 2005,Nov 2006] 12. Draw the equivalent circuit of an ideal amplifier.[AUC June 2006] 13. An opamp circuit shown in figure has differential gain Ad=5mv.Calculate V0. [AUC Nov 2006]

## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

R4 10k

R1 v1 1k v2 1k R2 10k R3 3 2

7 1
+ R3 10k

v0

14. Compare the ideal and practical characteristics of op-amp.[Nov 2006] 15. What does the term linear circuits generally convey?[Nov 2007] 16. Give the circuit schematic of simple current mirror circuit.[AUC Nov 2007] 17. Define unity gain bandwidth of an Op-Amp.[AUC April 2008] 18. Define slew rate. What causes it ?[AUC May 2008,May2009] 19. State the applications of band gap reference circuit[AUC Nov 2008] 20. What is a current mirror circuit? What are its advantages?[AUC Nov 2008] 21. Define current mirror.[AUC May 2009] 22. List the basic blocks of an op-amp. [AUC Nov2009] 23. How can you increase the input resistance of an op-amp. [AUC Nov2009] PART-B 1. i)With neat diagrams ,explain the operation of voltage reference circuit using temperature compensation voltage reference circuit using avalanche diode reference.(12) ii) The current mirror shown below ,explain the operation of voltage reference circuit using temperature compensation voltage reference circuit using avalanche diode reference.(4) [AUC MAY 2012] 2. (i) List and explain the non-ideal DC characteristics of an operational amplifier. (8) (ii)Explain the AC characteristics of an operational amplifier. [AUC MAY 2012] 3. a) What are the ideal characteristics of op-amp?[AUCApril 2004,Nov 2007] b) Explain the frequency compensation used in operational amplifiers.[AUC Nov09] 4. Draw the circuit diagram of a symmetrical emitter coupled difference amplifier and show that a very high CMRR will result if the diff.amp is supplied by a constant current bias.[AUC Nov 2004] 5. a) Explain the working of a current source with a circuit diagram.[ AUC Apr 2005] b) Explain the operation of a basic differential amplifier.

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## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

6. a) Define CMRR ,PSRR and slew rate of an op-amp. [AUC Dec 2006] b) A 741 op-amp is used as a non-inverting amplifier with a voltage gain of 50.Find the typical output voltage that would result from a common mode input with a peak level of 100mv. Assume a typical CMRR of 90dB. Find the slew rate of a frequency compensated op-amp at room temperature which has a unity cross-over frequency of 5MHz. 5. a) Explain the working of a simple current source.[ AUC Nov 2006] b) Write notes on dominant pole compensation used in op-amps. 6. a) Explain the concept of widlar current source used in opamp circuits. b)For the non inverting opamp shown find the output voltage v0. [AUC Nov 2007]
R4 10k

## R1 2 5k 3 R3 10k 2v 3v 4v R3 V1 V1 V1 10k R3 10k

4 5
-

v0

7.

a)Describe the cause of slew-rate limiting and its effect on the highest frequency of undistorted sinusoidal output.[AUC Dec 2007] b)Explain how the feed-forward compensation extends the BW of an OPAMP.

8.

What is a current mirror circuit? Discuss in detail the widlar current source.[AUCApril 2008]

9.

Explain a) Band gap reference b) Methods of improving slew rate. [AUC April 2008,may2010]

10.

a)What is an active load? Explain the CE amplifier with active load.[AUC Dec2008] b)Explain the pole Zero compensation.

11.

Discuss the Various electrical parameters and its specifications specified in the data sheet for an op-amp.[AUC June 2009]

## 12. 13. 14.

Explain the AC and DC characteristics of an op-amp.[ AUC June 2009] Define slew rate and explain the methods to improve slew rate[AUC Nov09] Explain the working principle of monolithic IC op-amp. [AUC Nov09] 3

## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

7 1

15.

Explain briefly the necessary functions of different stages of op-amp with respect to its block schematic. [AUC MAY 2010]

16.

a)Write down the ideal characteristics of op-amp [MAY 2010] b) Explain in detail about frequency compensation applied in operational amplifier.[ AUC MAY 2010]

17.

With a neat sketch explain the operation of a differential amplifier with Constant current source. [AUC MAY 2011] Perform a detailed analysis to find CMRR of a differential amplifier.

18.

Explain the following i) DC characteristics ii) AC characteristics of an op-amp. [AUC MAY 2011]

UNIT-II: APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS PARTA 1. An input of 3v is fed to the non-inverting terminal of an op-amp. The amplifier has a Ri of 10K and Rf of 10K .Find the output voltage[AUC April 2004] 2. Draw an integrator circuit using op-amp.[ AUC April 2004] 3. Mention two characteristics of instrumentation amplifier.[ AUC May 2005] 4. Mention two applications of Schmitt trigger.[ AUC May 2005] 5. Draw an adder circuit using op amp to get (0.1+v2+5v3)[ AUC May 2006] 6. Draw the circuit of a voltage follower using op-amp and prove that its gain is exactly equal to unity.?[ AUC May 2006] 7. Draw the block diagram of a multiplier using log and antilog amplifiers.[ AUC May 2006] 8. State the requirements of an instrumentation amplifier. [AUC Nov 2006] 9. Name four applications of operational amplifier based comparator.[ AUC Nov 2006,April 2008] 10. What is an antilog amplifier? Draw the circuit diagram of an antilog amplifier.[ AUC Nov 2007] 11. What is the principle of regenerative comparator.[ AUC Nov2007] 12. Draw the circuit diagram of a non-inverting amplifier ?[ AUC May 2008] 13. Draw the circuit of an integrator[AUC Nov 2008] 14. What is a V to I converter?[ AUC Nov 2008] 15. Draw the Schmitt trigger and give its application?[ AUC May2009] the output expression as vo=-

## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

16. Draw the input and output waveforms for an integrator for square wave input.[ AUC May 2010] 17. Mention the applications of an instrumentation amplifier.[ AUC May 2009] 18. In what way, a precision rectifier using op-amp is superior to a conventional rectifier. [AUC Nov09] 19. Draw an op-amp subtractor circuit. . [AUC Nov09] 20. Design an inverter using op-amp [AUC MAY 2010] 21. Design a peak detector using op-amp [AUC MAY 2010] 22. Design an inverter using op amp. [AUC MAY 2011] 23. Distinguish between active and passive filter. [AUC MAY 2011] 24. What are the advantages of precision rectifier over ordinary rectifier. [AUC MAY 2011] 25. Why active guard drive is necessary for an instrumentation amplifier?[AUC MAY 2012] 26. What is comparator? [AUC MAY 2012] PART-B 1. a)Explain briefly about the working of voltage to current converter[AUC May 2004] b) )Explain briefly about the working of triangular wave generator 2. a)Draw the circuit diagram of an op-map differentiator and derive an expression for the output in terms of the input. [AUC Nov,04] b)Design a schmitt trigger for UTP=0.5v and LTP=-0.5v 3. a)State the advantages and limitations of active filters. b)A second order low pass filter is to be designed with Ao=6,f0=200hz and b=0.6 calculate the component values [AUC Dec 2006] 4. a)Explain the working of an instrumentation amplifier. b) Explain the working of the sine wave oscillator[AUC MAY 2005] 5. a)Draw the circuit of a second order butterworth low pass filter and derive its transfer function. b)Draw the circuit of an astable multivibrator using op-amp and derive an expression for its frequency of oscillation[AUC June 2006] 6. a)Using opamp design a monostable multivibrator to get a pulse for a duration of 10msec each time when it is triggered. b)Explain briefly about log amplifiers[AUC Dec 2007] 7. With diagram explain the working principle of ICL 8038 function generator. [AUC Dec 2007]
EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

8. Design a differentiator to differentiate an input signal that varies in frequency from 10hz to about 1khz.[ AUC April 2008] 9. Explain with neat sketch about the working of an instrumentation amplifier and show with derivation that gain of this amplifier can be varied by using a variable resistance R.[ AUC June 2009] 10. Show with help of circuit diagram an op-amp used as i) Scale changer ii) Phase Shifter iii)inverting adder iv)Non-inverting adder. Draw output is v1+v2-v3-v4.[ AUC June 2009,nov 09] 11. Draw the circuit of a fourth order butterworth low pass filter having an upper cutoff frequency of 1 Khz.[ AUC May2009] 12. Explain voltage follower, operation of op-amp in detail[AUC Nov 2009] 13. Draw the circuit diagram and explain the working of precision rectifier. [AUC Nov 2009] 14. Draw and explain the commonly used three op-amp instrumentation amplifiers and derive expression for its gain [AUC MAY 2010] 15. Explain the working principles of regenerative comparator with necessary diagrams[AUC MAY 2010] 16. What are the limitations of an ideal op-amp differentiator ?How are these limitations overcome in practical differentiator ? Explain with necessary diagrams. [AUC MAY 2011] 17. Explain the working of logarithmic and antilogarithmic amplifiers using op-amp with necessary diagrams . [AUC MAY 2011] 18. Explain the working of an instrumentation amplifier with neat diagrams. [AUC MAY 2011] 19. Explain the working of Schmitt trigger with necessary waveforms. Also ,explain the phenomenon of hysteresis. [AUC MAY 2011] How can be an op-amp used as Logarithmic amplifier. 20.(i) Sketch the basic circuit using op-amp to perform the mathematical operation of differentiation and explain. What are the limitations of an ordinary OP-AMP differentiator? Draw and explain the circuit of practical differentiators that will eliminate these limitations. (8) (ii) Draw and explain the circuit of a voltage to current converter if the load is (1) Floating (2) Grounded. [AUC MAY 2012]
EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

## an op-amp circuit whose

20. (i) Explain the working of OP-AMP based Schmitt trigger circuit. (8) (ii) Design an OP-AMP based second order active low pass filter with cut off Frequency 2 kHz. (8) [AUC MAY 2012]

UNIT-III : ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND PLL PARTA 1. What are the advantages of variable transconductance technique? [AUC MAY 2012] 2. VCO is also called as V-f converter. Why? [AUC MAY 2012] 3. How is VCO different from oscillators? [AUC MAY 2011] 4. Define lock in and capture range in PLL. [AUC MAY 2011] 5. Draw the circuit diagram of FSK modulator using op-amp. [AUC MAY 2011] 6. Name two applications of PLL. [AUC April 2004 ,2010] 7. Draw the circuit diagram of FSK modulator using op-amp. [AUC MAY 2011] 8. What is a voltage controlled oscillator[AUC April2004,2010] 9. What is a two quadrant multiplier. [AUC NOV 2004] 10. With reference to a VCO, define voltage to frequency conversion factor kv. [AUC MAY 2004] 11. What is amplitude modulation. [AUC April2005] 12. Define : Lock range [AUC MAY 2005,2009] 13. What is a PLL[[AUC Nov 2006] 14. Draw the block diagram of a delta modulator.[AUC NOV 2006] 15. Define capture range of PLL ?[ AUC May 2006] 16. What is a compander IC? Enlist the features[AUC Nov 2006] 17. Write the significance of lock range of PLL?[ AUC Nov 2007] 18. Draw the block diagram of NE566 VCO ?[ AUC Nov2007] 19. What is an operational transconductance amplifier? Draw the schematic [AUC Nov 2007] 20. What is frequency synthesizer?[ AUC April 2008] 21. Draw the circuit of AM detector using PLL.[ AUC April 2008] 22. List the applications of PLL.[ AUC Nov 2008,2009] 23. Draw the block diagram of a multiplier using log and antilog amplifiers.[ AUC May 2010] 24. what is pull-in time? .[ AUC May 2010]

## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

PART-B 1. Explain the purpose and functioning of i) Variable transconductance multiplier ii)Frequency synthesizer.[ AUC April 2004,2008] 2. Explain the working of a i)VCO ii) AM demodulation using PLL[AUC April 2004] 3. With a neat circuit diagram ,explain how 565 PLL can be used as a FSK demodulator[AUC Nov 2004,2007,2008,Nov09] 4. a)Explain the working of a four quadrant Gilbert multiplier.[ AUC May 2010] b)Write notes on any one compander IC.[ AUC May 2005,Nov 2006] 5. Explain working of PLL using appropriate block diagram and explain any one application of the same.[ AUC May 2005,Nov 2006,May 2010] 6. Explain the operation of four quadrant multiplier.[ AUC Nov 2006] 7. Draw the block diagram of delta modulation circuit.[ AUC May 2005] 8. With circuit diagram explain the working of a NE 566 VCO. [AUC Nov 2006] 9. Explain the operation of phase locked loop as a frequency synthesizer.[ AUC Nov 2006,2007] 10. a)Draw and explain the operation of a triangular wave generator. b)What is the difference between the saw tooth wave and triangular wave.[ AUC June 2009] 11 Perform the closed loop analysis of PLL using appropriate diagram and explain any one application of the same. [AUC MAY 2011] 12 Explain the application of PLL for AM and FM detection [AUC MAY 2011] 13 Explain the operation of gilbert multiplier with neat sketches. [AUC MAY 2011] 14 What is phase locked loop ? Explain its operation with diagrams [AUC MAY 2011] 15 List and define the various performance parameters of a Multiplier IC. (6) (ii) How the multiplier is used as voltage divider? (5) (iii) How the multiplier is used as frequency doubler? (5) [AUC MAY 2012] 16 Explain, with neat block diagrams, how PLL is used as (i) AM Detector . (5) (ii) FM Detector . (5) (iii) Frequency Synthesizer. (6) [AUC MAY 2012]

## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

UNIT-IV: ANALOG TO DIGITAL AND DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS PARTA 1. How many resistors are required in a 12 bit weighted resistor DAC.[ AUC April 2004] 2. Which is the fastest ADC and why?[ AUC April2004,Nov 2006,June 2009] 3. Define monotonicity with respect to D/A.[ AUC Nov 2005] 4. What output voltage will be produced by a 4 bit D/A converter whose output range is 0v to 10v and whose input binary number is 0110.[ AUC Nov 2004] 5. How many comparators are required to build an n bit flash type A/D converter. [AUC Nov 2004,June 2006,Nov09, May 2010] 6. Define :Resolution of a D/A converter [AUC May 2005,Nov2008,nov 09] 7. Draw the block diagram of a delta modulator [AUC Nov 2006] 8. Name two A/D converter.[ AUC June2006] 9. An 12 bit D/A converter has resolution of 30mv / LSB .Find the full scale output voltage[AUC Nov 2006] 10. Draw the schematic diagram of switch used in DAC[AUC Nov 2007] 11. Define the terms setting time and conversion time related to DACs?[ AUC Nov 2007] 12. Calculate the quantizing error for an 8 bit A/D converter with full scale input voltage of 2.55v ?[ AUC Nov2007] 13. What is a sample and hold circuit? Mention any two applications. [AUC Nov 2007] 14. What is the principle of operation of voltage to time conversion?[ AUC April 2008] 15. What is a switched capacitor filter?.[ AUC April 2008] 16. Mention the difference between linear and switching regulators.[ AUC June 2009] 17. Find out the step size and analog output voltage of a D/A converter when the input is 1000.Assume Vref=+5v. [AUC May2009] 18. What is delta modulation? [AUC May2009] 19. Why do switching regulators have better efficiency than the series regulator [AUC May 2010] 20. Define resolution of DAC. [AUC MAY 2011] 21. State the advantages of R-2R ladder DAC. [AUC MAY 2011] 22. Mention the fastest ADC and specify its disadvantages. [AUC MAY 2011] 23. What is the limitation of weighted resistor DAC network? [AUC MAY 2011] 24. Define settling time of D/A converter. [AUC MAY 2012] 25. What is the main drawback of dual slope ADC? [AUC MAY 2012]

## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

PART-B 1. a) Explain the working of voltage to time converter.[ AUC April 2004,2005] b) Explain the R-2R ladder type D/A converter 2. Explain the working of a weighted resistor D/A converter and what is its limitations.[ AUC April 2004,May 2010] 3. Explain the working of counter type A/D converter[AUC Nov 2004] 4. a)Explain the working of successive approximation A/D converter.[ AUC April 2005, June 2006,may2010,nov09] b) Explain the working of high speed sample and hold circuit 5. a)Explain the working of dual slope ADC.[ AUC Nov 2006,June 2006,May 2008,Nov2008,June2009,Nov 09,May 2010] b) Explain the working of any one type of voltage to frequency converters 6. a)Draw the diagram of sample and hold circuit .State how will you reduce its hold mode droop.[ AUC May 2006] b) A dual slope ADC has a full scale input of 2 volts .it uses an integrating time of 10ns and integrating capacitor of 0.1f.The maximum magnitude of the integrator output should not exceed 3 volt.calculate the value of the integrating resistor. 7. For a 4 bit R-2R ladder network, determine the size of each step if r=10k,Rf=40k and vcc= +/- 15v.Calculate the output voltage for d0=1,d1=0,d2=1,if bit 1 applied as 5v and bit 0 is applied as 0v[AUC Nov2007] 8. Explain R-2R and Inverted R-2R ladder network and explain which is the better [AUC June 2009] 9. Draw and explain the working of a delta sigma modulator.[ AUC May2009] 10. Explain the working of R-2R ladder type DAC and state its important features. [AUC MAY 2011] 11. with necessary diagrams explain the working of dual slope A/D converters. [AUC MAY 2011] 12. Derive the expression of output voltage in an R-2R ladder DAC. Explain the fastest type ADC. [AUC MAY 2011] 13 Explain the working of successive approximation type DAC with neat Diagrams The basic steps of a 9 bit DAC is 10.3mv.000000000 represents 0 V What is the output if input is 101101111? [AUC MAY 2011]. 14. Explain the following types of electronic switches used in D/A converter, with suitable diagrams:
EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

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(1) Totem pole MOSFET switch (4) (2) CMOS inverter as a switch. . (4) (ii) Explain the working of R-2R ladder DAC, by taking example of a 3-bit DAC circuit. Sketch the corresponding equivalent circuits and hence obtain the equation for output. (8) [AUC MAY 2012]. 15. (i) With neat circuit diagram and wave form of output, explain the working of Dual slope A/D converter. (10) (ii) Give a table of comparison of Flash, Dual-slope and Successive approximation ADCs, in terms of parameters like speed, accuracy, resolution, input-hold-time. (6) [AUC MAY 2012].

UNIT-V : WAVEFORM GENERATORS AND SPECIAL FUNCTION ICs PARTA 1. Define line regulation.[AUC April 2004] 2. Name a timer IC and a voltage regulator IC?.[ AUC April2005,May 2010] 3. Define ripple rejection with respect to voltage regulators.[ AUC April 2005] 4. In a monostable multivibrator using 555 timer ,R=100 K and time delay is 100ms find the value of c. [AUC June 2006] 5. Draw the internal block diagram of an IC voltage regulator [AUC June 2006] 6. State the conditions required for designing a video amplifier [AUC June2006] 7. What is a switched capacitor filter? Mention any two advantages[AUC Nov 2006] 8. What is the basic principle of operation of a F to V converter.[ AUC Nov2007] 9. What is a staged tuned amplifiers[AUC Nov 2007] 10. What is the basic principle of switching voltage regulator[AUC April 2008] 11. List the characteristics of optocoupler[AUC April 2008,May2010] 12. What are the advantages of a switched capacitor filter.?[ AUC Nov2008] 13. Give the working principle of optocouplers. [AUC June 2009] 14. Mention the application of 555 timers in monostable mode of operation.[AUC May2010] 15. What is monostable multivibrator. [AUC Nov09] 16. Define ripple factor.[ AUC Nov 09] 17. What are the limitations of linear voltage regulators? [AUC MAY 2011] 18. Mention any two applications of timer IC 555 in monostable mode. [AUC MAY 2011] 19. What are the limitations of three terminal voltage regulators? [AUC MAY 2011]

## EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

11

20. In a monostable multivibrator using 555 timer R=100 K ohm and time delay T=100ms , calculate the value of capacitor. [AUC MAY 2011] 21. What are the limitations of three terminal regulator? [AUC MAY 2012] 22. What is a switched capacitor filter? [AUC MAY 2012]

PART-B 1. a) Explain the working of a timer circuit.[AUC April 2004] b) Explain the working of a video amplifier circuit. 2. Write short notes on i) optocoupler ii) switched capacitor filter[April 2004,June2006] 3. Design an astable multivibrator using 555 timer to produce a 1Khz square waveform for duty cycle D=0.50[AUC Nov 2004, May 2010] 4. Draw and explain the functional block diagram of a 723 regulator.[ AUC Nov 2004,May2010] 5. Explain the working of i) isolation amplifier ii) Voltage regulator[AUC Apr 2005] 6. a)Explain the internal details of 555 timer.[ AUC Nov 2006] b) Explain the usage as astable multivibrator. 7. a)Explain the working of 555 timer in monostable mode[AUC June2006,May 2008,Nov 2008,09] b) Explain the working of a basic series voltage regulator. 8. With neat diagram explain the working of step down switching regulator[AUC June 2006] 9. a)With circuit diagram explain the working principle of IC 723 voltage regulator. [ AUC Nov 2006,May2010] b) Write a note on switched mode power supply. 10. a) Write briefly about switching mode voltage regulator[AUC Nov 2007] b) Write short notes on i) Switched capacitor filter ii) video amplifiers. 11. a)write short notes on i) Frequency to voltage converter ii) opto couplers [AUC May 2008,June 2009,Nov 09,May2010] b) )write short notes on i) Power amplifiers ii) Isolation amplifiers. 12. Design an voltage regulator(5v to 15v) with a short circuit current limit of 50ma using a 723 regulator[AUC May 2008] 13. State barkhausen principle for oscillation and explain a RC phase shift oscillator using op-amp and derive for frequency of oscillation and gain of the amplifier.[ AUC May 2010] 14. Design a 555 based square wave generator to produce a 1 KHZ square waveform.
EE2254 - Linear Integrated Circuits IV SEM EEE L.M.I.LEOJOSEPH Asst.Prof. / ECE

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Write a note on switched capacitor filters. [AUC MAY 2011] 15. Draw and explain the functional block diagram of a IC 723 regulator Discuss the advantages of opto coupler. How is it superior to an electrical coupling. [AUC MAY 2011] 16. Draw the internal functional diagram of 555 timer and explain its astable mode of operation with necessary diagrams [AUC MAY 2011] 17. What are the applications of video amplifier? Write short notes on : Switched capacitor filter, Opto couplers [AUC MAY 2012] 18. Sketch the functional block diagram of the following and explain their working principle: (i) IC 555 Timer. (8) (ii) General purpose voltage regulator IC 723. (8) [AUC MAY 2012] 19. (i) With neat diagram, explain the working principle of isolation amplifier. (8) (ii) With neat diagram, explain the principle of operation of optocouplers. (8) [AUC MAY 2012]

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