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Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Material

Selection

Charts

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Lecture 1: Introduction to Material Selection in Mechanical Design

The Design Process

COMPETITIVE DESIGN of new products is the key capability that companies must master to remain in business. It requires more than good engineering, it is fraught with risks and opportunities, and it requires effective judgment about technology, the market, and time. The concept and configuration development process:

Activities occur throughout product development

Activities occur throughout product development

The process starts with identifying the customer population for the product and developing a representation of the feature demands of this group. Based on this representation, a functional architecture is established for the new product, defining what it must do. The next step is to identify competitive products and analyze how they perform as they do. This competitive benchmarking is then used to create a customer-driven specification for the product, through a process known as quality function deployment. From this specification, different technologies and components can be systematically explored and selected through functional models. With a preliminary concept selected, the functional model can be refined into a physically based parametric model that can be optimized to establish geometric and physical targets. This model may then be detailed and established as the alpha prototype of a new product.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Customer Needs & Problem Definition:

In the early 1980s, Sony offered an improved magnetic videotape recording technology, the Betamax system. Although it offered better magnetic media performance, it did not satisfy customers, who rather were more concerned with low cost, large selection of entertainment, and standardization. In 1996, both Ford and Toyota launched new family sedans. Three years earlier, each had torn apart and thoroughly analyzed each other's cars. Ford decided to increase the options in its Taurus, matching Toyota's earlier Camry, while Toyota decided to decrease the options in its Camry, matching Ford's earlier Taurus.

Note how the design depends on the viewpoint of the individual who defines the problem

As Proposed by Project Sponsor As Specified in the Project Request As designed by the
As Proposed by Project Sponsor As Specified in the Project Request As designed by the
As Proposed by Project Sponsor As Specified in the Project Request As designed by the

As Proposed by Project Sponsor

As Specified in the Project Request

As designed by the senior designer

in the Project Request As designed by the senior designer As producer by manufacturing As installed
in the Project Request As designed by the senior designer As producer by manufacturing As installed
in the Project Request As designed by the senior designer As producer by manufacturing As installed

As producer by manufacturing

As installed at the user’s site

What the user wanted

Task Clarification Conceptual and configuration design of products begins and ends with customers, emphasizing quality processes and artifacts throughout. We thus initiate the conceptual design process with task clarification:

understanding the design task and mission, questioning the design efforts and organization, and investigating the business and technological market. Task clarification sets the foundation for solving a design task, where the foundation is continually revisited to find weak points and to seek structural integrity of a design team approach. It occurs not only at the beginning of the process, but throughout.

not only at the beginning of the process, but throughout. Lecture 1 [Introduction to Material Selection

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Mission Statement and Technical Questioning A mission statement and technical clarification of the task are important first steps in the conceptual design process. They are intended to:

Focus design efforts

Define goals

Define timelines for task completion

Provide guidelines for the design process, to prevent conflicts within the design team and concurrent engineering organization

The first step in task clarification is usually to gather additional information. The following questions need to be answered, not once but continually through the life cycle of the design process:

What is the problem really about?

What implicit expectations and desires are involved?

Are the stated customer needs, functional requirements, and constraints truly appropriate?

What avenues are open for creative design?

What avenues are limited or not open for creative design? Are there limitations on scope?

What characteristics/properties must the product have?

What characteristics/properties must the product not have?

What aspects of the design task can and should be quantified?

Do any biases exist in the chosen task statement or terminology? Has the design task been posed at the appropriate level of abstraction?

What are the technical and technological conflicts inherent in the design task?

For further informa tion about the design process, review ASM Handbook, Volume 20, Ma terials

For further information about the design process, review ASM Handbook, Volume 20, Materials Selection and Design

Relation of Materials Selection to Design:

and Design Relation of Materials Selection to Design: • An incorrectly chosen material can lead not

An incorrectly chosen material can lead not only to failure of the part but also to unnecessary cost.

Selecting the best material for a part involves more than selecting a material that has the properties to provide the necessary performance in service; it is also intimately connected with the processing of the material into the finished part.

A poorly chosen material can add to manufacturing cost and unnecessarily increase the cost of the part.

Also, the properties of the material can be changed by processing (beneficially or detrimentally), and that may affect the service performance of the part.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

The Place of Materials Selection in the Design Process

Materials selection should contribute to every part of the whole design process. This is because it is hardly possible to proceed very far with a genuinely innovative design without taking account of all the materials and manufacturing methods that are available for use.

Any technical system consists of assemblies and components, put together in a way that performs
Any technical system consists of assemblies and components, put together in a way that
performs a function. It can be described and analyzed in more than one way based on the
ideas of systems analysis-thinks of the flows of information, energy and materials into and
out of the system. The system transforms inputs into outputs.
Assembly
Component 1.1
[1]
Component 1.2
Component
Assembly
Component
Technical
[2]
System
Component
Component
Assembly
Component
[3]
Component
Component
Analysis of a technical system

The figure illustrates the analysis of a technical system as a breakdown of the system into

assemblies and components. Each component is made of a material, “different components of different materials”.

Material selection is at the component level. Some components are standard, common to many designs: a wood screw, for instance; but even among standards there is a choice of material (the screw could be of brass, or mild steel, or stainless steel). Some are specific, unique to the design: then the designer must select the material, the shape, and the processing route.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

The Design Flowchart

Design is an iterative process. The starting point is a market need or an idea; the end point is a product that fills the need or embodies the idea. A set of stages lie between these points:

the stages of conceptual design, embodiment design and detailed design, leading to a set of specifications the production information, which define how the product should be made.

informa tion, which define how the product should be made. Design flow chart The design flow

Design flow chart

The design flow chart shows how design tools and materials selection enter the procedure. Information about materials is needed at each stage, but at very different levels of breadth and precision.

At the conceptual design stage all options are open: the designer considers the alternative working principles or schemes for the functions which make up the system, the ways in which sub functions are separated or combined, and the implications of each scheme for performance and cost.

Embodiment design takes a function structure and seeks to analyze its operation at an approximate level, sizing the components. And selecting materials, which will perform properly in the ranges of stress, temperature and environment suggested by the analysis. The embodiment stage ends with a feasible layout that is passed to the detailed design stage.

At the detailed design stage, specifications for each component are drawn up. Critical components may be subjected to precise mechanical or thermal analysis using finite element methods. Optimization methods are applied to components and groups of components to maximize performance; materials are chosen the production route is analyzed and the design is costed. The stage ends with detailed production specifications.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Function, Material, Shape and Process Interactions

Function, material, shape and process interact:

Function dictates the choice of material.

The shape is chosen to perform the function using the material.

Process is influenced by material properties: by formability, machinability, weldability, heat-treatability and so on.

Process obviously interacts with shape. The process determines the shape, the size, the precision and of course the cost.

The interactions are two-way.

Specification of shape restricts the choice of material, so does specification of process.

The more sophisticated the design, the tighter the specifications and the greater the interactions.

The figure shows the central problem of material selection in mechanical design, which is the interaction between function, material, process and shape.

interaction between function, material, process and shape. FUNCTION Transmit loads, heat, contain pressure, store
FUNCTION Transmit loads, heat, contain pressure, store energy, etc. MATERIAL SHAPE PROCESS Interaction of
FUNCTION
Transmit loads,
heat, contain
pressure, store
energy, etc.
MATERIAL
SHAPE
PROCESS
Interaction of function, material, process and shape

The interaction between function, material, shape and process lie at the heart of the Design process.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Motivations for Material Selection

Forces for Change: [1] Market Competition & Cost Reduction

The creation of a completely new product should commence with a clearly defined objective, derived from market research in the case of a component for sale, and associated cost accountancy and with a time scale which should allow an optimum choice to be made. For such a venture to be successful a program for market entry in relation to the cost of development and getting into production has to be fulfilled. However, markets will change, new competitors will arise and to some extent known competitors may change their approach also. A new venture in an engineering product will always be something of a gamble. However, for the maximum chance of success, the choice of materials will be a key decision in terms of 'value for money' in service and the impact on the market. Also, since the choice may well control the method of fabrication, it will influence the whole production line specification involving a very large capital investment, which cannot always accommodate a subsequent change of material. The design process must continually operate even in an established manufacturing operation. The figure below illustrates the product lifetime. Here we see that each product offered in the market place has a life-cycle. Research and development (R&D) enables its introduction to be effected, prior to the period of growth during which the product finds acceptance. After a while, it becomes mature, either through built-in obsolescence or as a result of new developments; by this time the far-seeing company will have replacement products already in the R&D stage. Inevitably (and this may occupies a period of months or of decades), the product will go into market decline. Decisions must be made as to whether any of the design features can be retained to produce a new revitalized product, or whether the operation has to be closed down to make way for an entirely new family of products.

Technical Production Phase-out decision Concept Market screening Design feasibility pro- production Obsolescence
Technical
Production
Phase-out
decision
Concept
Market screening
Design feasibility pro-
production
Obsolescence
Modification to
Cut-off point
broaden product
family
Cost reduction
Introduction
Growth
Maturity
Decline
Sales volume
Return on
investment
Research &
Profit
development
Time
Types of corporate
decision
Capital investment
Recruitment of new
employees
Change of price
Expansion of
production
New market
strategies
Changes in product
design
Extend market
to overseas
Reduce the
product price
The life cycle of a product

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Forces for Change: [2] The Design Status of the Product

The terms dynamic and static are used to describe the type of change in the product design. Dynamic product is a product where design changes are innovative, the concept is likely to change, and Static Product is a product where design changes are incremental or non-existent, the concept is unlikely to change.

Factors that create or retain a STATIC plateau

 

Improving environment for the existing design

Factors that cause a product to become DYNAMIC

Commodities and resources

 

Government action or legislation

 

Customers

not

willing

to

change

Changing environment

User familiarity

 

Commodities and resources

Stable technology

 

Customers willing to change

Conformance standards

 

Technical advancement

Stable or decreasing number of producers

No conformance standards

Few large producers

 

Many small producers (increasing)

Product

available for a long

time

No infrastructure

Existing infrastructure

 
 
 
 

Balance diagram of the macro factors that change / maintain a product status.

 

Factors that create or retain a STATIC plateau

 

Insufficient design resources

Poor market research

Restricted design

Product interfaces with existing design

Rationalization or commonality of parts

Assembling component made by others

Using experience in design

Factors that cause a product to become DYNAMIC

 

More

process

design

than

product design

Management

committed

to

Management not committed to deign

deign

Changing PDS

Stable effective PDS

Process design small

 

Restricted PDS

Adequate time for design

 

Limited Design time

Wide effective market research

 

Limitation

Companies seeking new concepts

 

Automation CAD

Flexible machinery subcontract, manufacture

Purchasing

new

machinery

(dedicated)

 
 

Balance diagram of the micro factors that change / maintain a product status.

 

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Forces for Change: [3] The Science-Push: Curiosity-driven Research

Curiosity is the life-blood of innovative engineering. Technically advanced countries sustain the flow of new ideas by supporting research in three kinds of organization: universities, government laboratories and industrial research laboratories. Some of the scientists and engineers working in these institutions are encouraged to pursue ideas, which may have no immediate economic objective, but which can evolve into the materials and manufacturing methods of the next decade. Numerous now-commercial materials started in this way.

Forces for Change: [4] Energy and Environment: Green Design

There is a growing interest in reducing and reversing the environmental damage. This requires processes, which are less toxic and products, which are easier to recycle, lighter, and less energy-intensive; and this must be achieved without compromising product quality. New technologies must be developed which can allow productivity without cost to the environment. Concern about environmental friendliness must be injected into the design process, taking a life-cycle view of the product, which includes manufacture, distribution, use and final disposal. All materials contain energy. Energy is used to mine, refine, and shape metals; it is consumed in the firing of ceramics and cement; and it is intrinsic to oil-based polymers and Elastomers. When we use a material, we are using energy, and energy carries with it an environmental penalty: CO2, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur compound, dust, and waste heat. The energy content is only one of the ways in which the production of materials pollutes, but it is the one, which is easier to quantify than most others are.

Forces for Change: [5] The Pressure to Recycle and Reuse:

Discarded materials damage the environment; they are a form of pollution. Materials removed from the manufacturing cycle must be replaced by drawing on a natural resource. And materials contain energy, lost when they are dumped. Recycling is obviously desirable. But in a market economy it will happen only if there is profit to be made. To allow this we have to look first, at where recycling works well and where it does not. Primary scrap-the turnings, trimmings and tailings, which are a by-product of manufacture- has high value: it is virtually all recycled. That is because it is uncontaminated and because it is not dispersed. Secondary scrap has been through a consumption cycle-a newspaper, a beer can, or an automobile; the other materials to which it is joined; by corrosion products; by ink and paint contaminate it; and it is dispersed. It is worth little or nothing or less than nothing meaning that the cost of collection is greater than the value of scraps itself. Newsprint and bottles are common examples: in a free market it is not economic to recycle either of these. Recycling does take place, but it relies on social conscience and good will, encouraged by publicity. It is precarious for just those reasons.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Main Situations for Material Selection:

The decision-making process of materials selection may be initiated for a variety of reasons and several situations. The three main situations are:

1

The introduction of a new product, component or plant, which is being produced or built for the first time by the organization concerned.

2

A desire for the improvement of an existing product, or a recognition of over design where economy can be effected, which may be considered as an evolutionary change.

3

A problem situation, due for example to the failure of components leading to rejection by customers, failure of supplies, or failure of in-house manufacturing plant, necessitating a change in material use. This is the area where the metallurgist must be employed, for investigating a failure, and on determination of the cause, suggesting a change of design or of the material employed.

Materials Selection Objectives:

The selected material should be:

1

Readily available.

2

Can be formed into the desired shape with the required dimensional tolerances.

3

After getting the shape, will perform the designed functions of the product.

4

Will continue performing the functions satisfactorily for the required lifetime of the product.

5

Can be disposed of, or recycled, in the way, which is environmentally acceptable.

Note that:

The selected material should achieve these objectives at a cost, which permit the product to be offered at a price that attracts customers and gives a profitable return to the manufacturer.

Among the material selection many objectives, there is a main objective, which is failure prevention.

Material Failure Modes

The different material failure modes are listed in following table as classified by Collinos,

Each failure mode has:

1.

Elastic deformation

8.

Corrosion

10.

Fretting

2.

Yielding

a.

Direct chemical attack

a. Fretting fatigue

3.

Brinelling

b.

Galvanic corrosion

b. Fretting wear

4.

Ductile failure

c.

Crevice corrosion

c. Fretting corrosion

5.

Brittle fracture

d.

Pitting corrosion

11. Galling and seizure

6.

Fatigue

e.

Intergranular corrosion

12. Scoring

a.

High-cycle fatigue

f.

Selective leaching

13. Creep

h.

Low-cycle fatigue

g.

Erosion-corrosion

14. Stress rupture

c.

Thermal fatigue

h.

Cavitation

15. Thermal shock

d.

Surface fatigue

i.

Hydrogen damage

16. Thermal relaxation

e.

Impact fatigue

j.

Biological corrosion

17. Combined creep and

f.

Corrosion fatigue

k.

Stress corrosion

fatigue

g.

Fretting fatigue

9.

Wear

18. Buckling

9.

Impact

a.

Adhesive wear

19. Creep buckling

a.

Impact fracture

b.

Abrasive wear

20. Oxidation

b.

Impact deformation

c.

Corrosive wear

21. Radiation damage

c.

Impact wear

d.

Surface fatigue wear

22. Bonding failure

d.

Impact fretting

e.

Deformation wear

23. Delamination

e.

Impact fatigue

f.

Impact wear

24. Erosion

 

g.

Fretting wear

a failure mechanism

material selection guide lines

material selection rules to prevent the failure mode from taking place.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Investigations about the frequency of failure causes in some engineering industries indicate that the main cause for failure is improper material selection.

Frequency of Causes of Failure in Some Engineering Industries Investigations:

Frequency of Failure Modes in Some Engineering Industries Investigations.

Origin

%

Improper material selection

38

Fabrication defects

15

Faulty heat treatments

15

Mechanical design fault

11

Unforeseen operating conditions

8

Inadequate environment control

6

Improper or lack of inspection and quality control

5

Material mix-up

2

Origin

%

Corrosion

29

Fatigue

25

Brittle fracture

16

Overload

11

High temperature corrosion

7

Stress corrosion / corrosion fatigue / hydrogen embrittlement

6

Creep

3

Wear, abrasion, and erosion

3

Failure experience matrix Collins suggested a failure experience matrix, which is an attempt to place failure analysis on a firm analytical basis by classifying each failure with respect to failure mode, the elemental function that the component provided, and the corrective action that should be taken recurrence of the failure. Thus the failure experience matrix is a three dimensional assemblage of information cells. Corrective action is defined as any measure or steps taken to return failed component or system to satisfactory performance.

action is defined as any measure or steps taken to return failed component or system to
action is defined as any measure or steps taken to return failed component or system to
action is defined as any measure or steps taken to return failed component or system to

Three dimensional experience matrix assemblage of information cells

Elemental Mechanical Function

Failure Mode

Corrective Action

Dieter stated that if there ware a computerized database that encompassed a national inventory of failures, it would have a great use in engineering design. An engineer who needed to design a critical component would enter the matrix with elemental mechanical function and learn about failure modes that likely to occur as well as the corrective actions most likely to avoid failure.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Some of elemental mechanical functions and the corrective actions of failure experience matrix in a study on 500 failed parts from U.S. army helicopters

Elemental mechanical functions:

1. Supporting

36. Permanent fastening

71. Force sensing

2. Attaching

37. Pressure increasing

72. Spacing

3. Motion constraining

38. Streamlining

73. Temporary supporting

4. Force transmitting

39. Motion reducing

74. Gas switching

5. Sealing

40. Filtering

75. Electrical transforming

6. Friction reducing

41. Lighting

76. Power absorbing

7. Protective covering

42. Pumping

77. Information attaching

8. Liquid constraining

43. Gas transferring

78. Sound absorbing

9. Pivoting

44. Aero. force transmitting

79. Constraining

10.

Torque transmitting

45. Motion transmitting

80. Flexible coupling

11.

Pressure supporting

46. Signal transmitting

81. Removable coupling

12.

Oscillatory sliding

47. Motion damping

82. Damping

13.

Shielding

48. Force distributing

83. Electrical distributing

14.

Sliding

49. Reinforcing

84. Load distributing

15.

Energy transforming

50. Pressure sensing

85. Gas guiding

16.

Removable fastening

51. Information transmitting

86. Pressure indicating

17.

Limiting

52. Coupling

87. Electrical insulating

18.

Electrical conduction

53. Displacement indicating

88. Sound insulating

19.

Contaminant constraining

54. Clutching

89. Temporary latching

20.

Linking

55. Fastening

90. Force limiting

21.

Continuous rolling

56. Information indicating

91. Force maintaining

22.

Liquid transferring

57. Position indicating

92. Variable position maintenance

23.

Force amplifying

58. Movable lighting

93. Liquid pumping

24.

Power transmitting

59. Partitioning

94. Electrical reducing

25.

Covering

60. Position restoring

95. Rolling

26.

Oscillatory rolling

61. Flexible spacing

96. Position sensing

27.

Energy absorbing

62. Electrical amplifying

97. Energy storing

28.

Light transmitting

63. Adjustable attaching

98. Liquid storing

29.

Viewing

64. Shape constraining

99. Flexible supporting

30.

Energy dissipating

65. Deflecting

100.

Switching

31.

Guiding

66. Disconnecting

101.Pressure to torque transmitting

32.

Latching

67. Electrical limiting

102. Electrical transmitting

33

electrical switching

68. Motion limiting

103. Flexible motion transmitting

34.

Stabilizing

69. Pressure limiting

104. Flexible torque transmitting

35.

Gas constraining

70. Sensing

105. Torque limiting

Corrective actions for failure-experience matrix:

Direct replacement Change Of material Supplement part Added adhesive Provided drain Added sealant Repositioned part Repaired part Reinforced part Eliminated part Strengthened part Adjusted part

Changed vendor Changed dimensions Improved quality control Changed lubricant type Improved lubrication Applied surface coating Applied surface treatment More easily replaceable part Changed to correct part Made part interchangeable Changed loading on part Relaxed replacement criteria

Improved instructions to user Design change to improve part Changed mechanism of operation Improved run-in procedure Changed manufacturing procedure Changed mode of attachment Changed method of lubrication Added or changed locking feature Revised procurement specification Provided for proper inspection Changed electrical characteristics

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept . Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Review question:

What is the meaning of Task Clarification & Mission Statement?

Explain how the Information about materials is needed at each design stage.

Discuss the different forces for change, which motivate the material selection process.

Discuss the interaction between Function, Material, Shape and Process.

Explain the Main Situations for Material Selection.

What are the main Materials Selection Objectives?

What is the meaning of Failure-experience matrix?

Text Book:

M. F. Ashby, (1992), Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Pergamon Press.

References:

J.A. Charles, FAA Crane, (1989), Selection and Use of Engineering Materials, Butterworths Heinemann.

E.H. Cornish, (1987) Materials and The Designer, Cambridge University Press

Bill Hollins, and Stuart Pugh, (1990), Successful Product Design, Butterworths.

J. A. Collins, (1981) Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design, Wiley-Inter-science.

George Dieter, (1983) Engineering Design, A Materials and Processing Approach, McGraw- Hill.

ASM Metals Handbook, (1999), Volume 20, Materials Selection and Design, American

Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, USA.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Lecture 2: Engineering Materials & Their Properties

Classes of Engineering Materials:

Metals

They have relatively high elastic moduli.

They can be made strong by alloying, mechanical working, and heat treatment.

They show good ductility. This allows them to be formed by deformation processes.

They typically yield before fracturing.

They are prone to fatigue failure.

Relative to other material classes they are not very resistant to corrosion.

Ceramics and Glasses:

They have too high elastic moduli, but unlike metals they are brittle. Because ceramics have no ductility, they have a low tolerance to stress concentrations or for high contact stresses.

Their strength in compression is about 15 times larger than their strength in tension. Brittle materials always show a wide scatter in strength.

They are stiff hard and abrasion resistant, hence their use in bearing and cutting tools.

They retain their strength to high temperatures.

They are resistant to corrosion. Polymers & Elastomers:

They have low elastic moduli, about 50 times less than those of metals. However, some polymers can be very strong – nearly as strong as metals. As a consequence, the elastic deflections can be large.

Polymers creep even at room temperature. Very few polymers having useful strength above 250C.

When specific properties, e.g. strength per unit mss, are important, then some polymers are as good as metals.

They are easy to shape.

Polymers are corrosion resistant.

They have a low coefficient of friction.

resistant. • They have a low coefficient of friction. Composites: • They combine attractive properties of

Composites:

They combine attractive properties of other classes of materials while avoiding some of their drawbacks.

They are light, stiff and strong, and they can also be tough.

Most currently available composites have polymer matrices – epoxy or polyester, usually enforced by fibers of glass, graphite, or Kevlar. They cannot be used above 250C because of the polymer matrices.

Composite components are expensive, and manufacturing processes are not well developed. They are also difficult to join.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Material classes, generic members, and abbreviated names:

Class

Members

Short name

Engineering alloys (The metals and alloys of engineering)

Aluminium alloys

Al alloys

Copper alloys

Cu alloys

 

Lead alloys

Lead alloys

Magnesium alloys

Mg alloys

Nickel alloys

Ni alloys

Steels

Steels

Tin alloys

Tin alloys

Titanium alloys

Ti alloys

Zinc alloys

Zn alloys

Engineering polymers (The thermoplastics and thermosets of engineering)

Epoxies Melamines Polycarbonate Polyesters Polyethylene, high density Polyethylene, low density Poly formaldehyde Poly methyl metha crylate Polypropylene Poly tetra fluor ethylene Polyvinyl chloride

EP

MEL

 

PC

PEST

HDPE

LDPE

PF

PMMA

PP.

PTFE

PNC

Engineering ceramics (Fine ceramics capable of load bearing application)

Alumina

Al2O3

Diamond

C

 

Sialons

Sialons

Silicon Carbide

SiC

Silicon nitride

Si3N4

Zirconia

ZrO2

Engineering composites (The composites of engineering practice) A distinction is drawn between the properties of a ply – UNIPLY – and of a laminate – LAMINATES

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer Glass fiber reinforced polymer Kevlar fiber reinforced polymer

CFRP

GFRP

KFRP

Porous ceramics (Traditional ceramics, cement, rocks, & minerals)

Brick

Brick

Cement

Cement

 

Common rocks

Rocks

Concrete

Concrete

Porcelain

Pcln

Pottery

Pot

Glasses (Ordinary silicate glass)

Borosilicate glass

B-glass

Soda glass

Na-glass

 

Silica

SiO2

Woods Separate envelopes describe properties parallel to the grain and normal to it, and wood products)

Ash

Ash

Balsa

Balsa

Fir

Fir

 

Oak

Oak

Pine

Pine

Wood products

Wood products

Elastomers (Natural and artificial rubbers)

Natural rubber Hard butyl rubber Polyurethane Silicone rubber Soft butyl rubber

Rubber

Hard butyl

 

PU

Silicone

Soft butyl

Polymer foams (Foamed polymers of engineering)

Cork

Cork

Polyester

PEST

 

Polystyrene

PS

Polyurethane

PU

Note that abbreviated names as used in material selection charts developed by M.F. Ashby.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

[2] Material Properties:

Each material has a set of attributes (properties).

The designer seeks a specific combination of these attributes (a property profile).

The material name is the identifier for a particular property profile.

The properties themselves are standard, density, strength, toughness, etc.

Design Limiting Material Properties

Class

Property

Symbol

Units

General

Relative Cost

C R

---

Density

ρ

Mg/m 3

Mechanical

Elastic Modulus Strength (yield / ultimate / fracture)

E, G, K σ f G c

K IC

GPa MPa KJ/m 2 MPa m 1/2 ------ ------

Toughness Fracture Toughness Damping Capacity

η

Fatigue Ratio

f

Thermal

Thermal Conductivity

λ

W/m K

Thermal Diffusivity Specific Heat Melting Point Glass Temperature Thermal Expansion Coefficient

a

m 2 /s J/Kg K K

C P

T m

T g

K

α

K

-1

Thermal Shock resistance

ΔT

K

Creep Resistance

-----

------

Wear

Archard Wear Constant

K A

MPa -1

Corrosion /

Corrosion Rate Parabolic rate constant

-----

Oxidation

K P

------ m 2 /s

Elastic Modulus

Shear Modulus

Bulk Modulus

E= 3G/(1+G/3K)

G= E/2(1+ν)

K= E/3(1-2ν)

ν =1/3

σ f = K IC /(πC)

K IC the resistance to the propagation f a crack.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Density, ρ

Mass per unit volume, Mg/m 3

Stiffness, Elastic MODULUS, E

Slope of the liner elastic part of the stress-strain curve, GN/m 2 = GPa Poisson’s ratio, ν

ν = ε lateral / ε axial

For isotropic materials:

E

Young’s Modulus

ν

Poisson’s ratio

G= E/2(1+ν)

Shear Modulus

K= E/3(1-2ν) Bulk Modulus

Typically

ν

1/3,

G 3/8 E

K E

Elastomers are exceptional:

ν

1/2,

G 1/3 E

K>>E

Material

Mg/m 3

Iron, Steels Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium alloys Polycarbonate

7.8

4.5

2.7

1.7

1.2

Material

E, GPa

ν

Iron, Steels Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium alloys Polycarbonate Rubbers Silicon SiC

200

0.27

116

0.34

70

0.33

43

0.35

2.6

0.4

0.01-0.1

0.49

160

0.22

410

0.3

0.4 0.01-0.1 0.49 160 0.22 410 0.3 Strength, σ f , MN/m 2 = MPa. Strength

Strength, σ f , MN/m 2 = MPa.

Strength requires careful definition and usually defined differently for different materials and mode of loading.

Metals

σ f is identified with the 0.2% offset yield strength σ y. It is the stress level the application of which has caused dislocations to move large distances through the crystals of the metal, so that upon unloading from this stress level there is a measurable permanent plastic strain of 0.2%.

σ y in compression σ y in tension

Material

Steels Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium alloys

Steels Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium alloys
Steels Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium alloys
Steels Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium alloys

σ y , MPa

200-2000

800-1200

200-500

100-200

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Ceramics & Glasses

Strength for ceramics and glasses depends strongly on the mode of loading. In tension, strength means

strongly on the mode of loading. In tension, strength means the fracture strength, σ f t
strongly on the mode of loading. In tension, strength means the fracture strength, σ f t

the fracture strength, σ f t . In compression it means

the crushing strength σ f C , which is much larger, typically

σ f C in compression 15 σ f t in tension

Modulus of Rupture, MOR – MPa

If the material is difficult to grip, as is the case with ceramics, its strength can be measured in bending. The Modulus or Rupture, MOR, is the maximum surface stress in a bent beam at the instant of failure.

In ceramics MOR 1.3 σ f t in tension

failure. In ceramics MOR ≈ 1.3 σ f t in tension Polymers: σ f is identified

Polymers:

σ f is identified as the stress σ y at which the stress strain curve has become markedly non-linear- typically a strain of 1%. Yield mechanisms: shear yielding, crazing.

a strain of 1%. Yield mechanisms: shear yielding, crazing. Polymers are a little stronger ≈ 20%

Polymers are a little stronger 20% in compression than in tension.

σ y in compression 1.2 σ y in tension

Composites:

The strength of a composite is typically defined by a set deviation e.g. 0.5% from linear elastic behaviour. The strength of long fibre composites is approximately 30% lower in compression than in tension, because in compression the fibres buckle.

Material

Polycarbonate

PMMA

σ y , MPa

80

100

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Ultimate tensile strength, σ u - MPa

This defined as the maximum engineering stress that can be achieved in an un-notched round bar of the material loaded in tension. For brittle solids – ceramics, glasses and brittle polymers it is the same

as σ f in tension. For metals, ductile polymers and most composites it is larger than σ f , by factor of

between 1.1and 3. In metals σ u is higher than σ y because of work hardening.

Hardness, H – MPa:

The hardness of material is a crude measure of its strength. It is measured by pressing a point diamond or hardened steel ball into the surface of the material. It is defined as the indenter force divided by the projected area of the indent.

H 3 σ f

by the projected area of the indent. H ≈ 3 σ f Resilience, R- J/m 3

Resilience, R- J/m 3

the

maximum elastic strain energy per unit volume stored in a material. It is the area under the elastic part of the stress strain curve.

This

measure

R

R

= ½

σ f ε f

=

= σ f 2 / 2E

σ f 2 / 2E

Materials with large values of R are suitable for good springs

with large values of R are suitable for good springs Fracture Toughness, K I C -

Fracture Toughness, K IC - MPa m The fracture toughness of a material is a measure of the resistance of the material to failure by parting of the solid into two or more pieces by the propagation of a macro crack. Where; K IC is the critical stress intensity factor, material property, and 2c= crack length.

K IC = σπc

property, and 2c = crack length. K I C = σ √ π c Lecture 2

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Fracture Criterion:

K I < K IC K I >= K IC

Rule of thumb:

Avoid materials with fracture toughness less than 15 MPa m Most metals have values of K IC in the range 20 – 100 MPa m Engineering ceramics have values of K IC - 1 – 5 MPa m Therefore, engineers view them with great suspicion.

No Fracture

Fracture

Material

K IC MPa m

Steels Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Epoxies Polystyrene Polycarbonate PMMA PETP Soda-Lime Glass Al 2 O 3 Si 3 N 4 SiC Al 2 O 3 , 15% ZrO 2

50-200

20-75

20-40

0.3-0.5

0.5

2.5-3.8

1.2-1.7

3.5-6.0

0.7

3.0-5.0

4.0-5.0

3.5

10.0

Loss coefficient The loss coefficient η, measures the fractional energy dissipated in a stress-strain cycle.

D= ΔU/U

η = D / 2π

η = ΔU/ 2π

specific damping capacity

The loss coefficient

Thermal ConductivityThermal conductivity λ measures the flux of heat driven by a temperature gradient dT/dX.

q= λ (dT / dX)

driven by a temperature gradient dT/dX. q= λ (dT / dX) Lecture 2 [Engineering Mate rials
driven by a temperature gradient dT/dX. q= λ (dT / dX) Lecture 2 [Engineering Mate rials
driven by a temperature gradient dT/dX. q= λ (dT / dX) Lecture 2 [Engineering Mate rials

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Linear thermal ExpansionThe linear- thermal expansion coefficient a measures the change in length, per unit length, when the sample is heated.

α = (1/L) (dδ/dT)

length, when the sample is heated. α = (1/L) (d δ /dT) T m , melting

T

m , melting temperature

T

g , glass temperature, is a property of non-crystalline solids, which do not have a sharp melting

point; it characterizes the transition from true solid to a very viscous liquid.

T max is the maximum service temperature, at which the material can be used reasonably without

oxidation, chemical change or excessive creep becoming a problem.

T s is the softening temperature, which is needed to make the material flow easily for forming and

shaping.

The thermal shock resistance is the maximum temperature difference through which a material can be quenched suddenly, without damage.

The thermal shock resistance and creep resistance are important for high temperature design.

CreepCreep is the slow time dependent deformation, which occurs when materials are loaded above 1/3 T m or 2/3 T g . it is characterized by a set of creep constants:

n, creep exponent (dimensionless) Q, activation energy (KJ/mole) A, kinetic factor (s -1 ) σ o , reference stress (MPa) The strain rate ε o

ε o = A [σ /σ o ] n * exp [Q/RT]

= A [ σ / σ o ] n * exp – [ Q / R

Wear & Corrosion:

Wear, oxidation and corrosion are harder to quantify, partly because they are surface, not bulk, phenomena, and partly because they involve interactions between two materials, not just the property of one.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

WearWear is the loss of material from surfaces when they slide. The wear resistance is measured by the Archard wear constant K A (m 2 /MN or MPa -1 ) W/A = K A P Where; W, wear rate (volume of weight lost per unit distance slid) A, area of the surface. P, normal pressure. Data of K A is available, but it must be interpreted as the property of the sliding couple, not of just one member of it.

Corrosion Corrosion is the surface reaction of the material with gases or liquids. Sometimes a simple rate equation can be used but normally the process is too complicated to allow this. Dry corrosion, oxidation behavior is characterized by the parabolic rate constant for oxidation K P (m 2 /s). Wet corrosion is much more complicated, and cannot be captured by rate equations, it is more useful to catalogue corrosion resistance by a simple scale such as A (very good) to E (very bad).

by a simple scale such as A (very good) to E (very bad). Summary There are
by a simple scale such as A (very good) to E (very bad). Summary There are

Summary There are six important classes of materials for mechanical design: Metals, polymers, ceramics, glass, and composites. Within a class there is certain common ground:

Ceramics as a class are hard, brittle, and corrosion resistant.

Metals as a class are ductile, tough, and electrical conductors.

Polymers as a class are light, easily shaped, and electrical insulators. This is makes the classification of materials into classes useful.

Importance of material properties versus material classes:

Each material has some attributes, its properties, e.g. density, modulus, strength, toughness, thermal conductivity, etc.

A designer does not seek a particular material, but a specific combination of these attributes: a property-profile.

The material name is merely the identifier for a particular property-profile

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Lecture 3: The Performance Maximizing Indices

Material Selection has 4 basic steps:

1. Translation of design requirements into a material specification

2. Screening out of materials that fail constraints

3. Ranking by ability to meet objectives; material indices

4. Search for supporting information for promising candidates

Note that: the task is explained in the following three lectures as follows;

Step 1

Lecture 3

Performance maximizing indices

Step 2

Lecture 4

Material selection charts

Step 3 & 4

Lecture 5

Formalization of material selection

Analysis of design requirements:

The analysis of design requirements and development of performance index steps are:

Identify function, constraints, objective and free variables, (list simple constraints for limit-stage).

Write down equation for objective -- the “performance equation”.

If it contains a free variable other than material identify the constraint that limits it.

Use this to eliminate the free variable in performance equation.

Read off the combination of material properties that maximise performance.

of material properties that maximise performance. The concept is illustrated in more details in the next

The concept is illustrated in more details in the next page.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Performance Maximizing Indices:

Three things specify the design of a structural element, the functional requirements, the geometry, and the properties of the material of which it is made. The performance of the element is described by an equation of the form:

P= f (F, G, M)

Where:

F is “functional requirements”,

G is “geometric parameters”, and

M is “material properties”.

P describes some aspect of performance of the components: its mass, or volume, or cost, or life for example.

Optimum design is the selection of the material and geometry, which maximize or minimize P, according to its desirability. The three groups of parameters can be separable, P can be written as follow P= f1 (F)* f2 (G)* f3 (M), Where f1, f2, and f3 are functions.

When the groups are separable, the optimum choice of material becomes independent of the details of the design; it is the same for all the details of F and G. This enables enormous simplification; the performance for all F and G is maximized by maximizing f3 (M), which is called the performance index. Experience shows that he groups are usually separable.

Procedure for driving a Performance Index:

1 Identify the attribute to be maximized or minimized (weight, cost, stiffness, strength, etc.).

2 Develop an equation for this attribute in terms of functional requirements, the geometry and the material properties (the objective function).

3 Identify the free (unspecified) variables.

4 Identify the constraint; rank them in order of importance.

5 Develop equation for the constraints (no yield, no fracture, no buckling, max heat capacity, cost below target, etc.).

6 Substitute for the free variables from the constraints into the objective function.

7 Group the variables into three groups: functional requirements, F, geometry, G, and material properties, M, thus: ATTRIBUTE< f (F, G, M)

8 Read the performance index, expressed as a quantity M to be maximized.

9 Note that a full solution is not necessary in order t o identify the material property group.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Example 1: Performance Index for a Light Strong Tie

A material is required for a solid cylindrical tie rod of length L, to carry a tensile force F with safety

factor S f ; it is to be of minimum mass.

The mass is:

Where A is the cross sectional area, ρ is the density

m= A L ρ

To carry the tensile load F

F/A = σ f / S f

Eliminating A between the two equations.

The first bracket contains the functional requirement that is the specified load is safely supported.

The second bracket contains the specified geometry (the length of the tie).

The last bracket contains the material properties.

m= (S f

F ) (L) (ρ / σ f )

The lightest rod, which will safely carry the load F without failing is that with the largest value of the performance index:

M = [σ f / ρ]

Example 2: Performance Index for a Light Stiff Column

A material is required for a solid cylindrical column of length L, to carry a compressive force F with

safety factor S f ; it is to be of minimum mass.

The mass is:

Where A is the cross sectional area, ρ is the density

m= A L ρ

The column will buckle elastically when the Euler load, F crit , is exceeded.

The design is safe if:

n is a constant that depends on the ends constraints.

F<= (F crit / S f ) = (nπ 2 E I /L 2 ) =(n π 2 E/ S f L 2 ) (πr 4 /4)

Eliminating A from the two equations.

The three brackets form.

m= 2 [S f F] 1/2 [L 4 / nπ ] 1/2 [ρ/E 1/2 ]

The best materials for a light column are

those with large values of the performance

index:

M = [E 1/2 /ρ]

The examples are explained with the aid of sketches in the following two pages.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef Lecture 3 [Performance Maximizing
Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef Lecture 3 [Performance Maximizing

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef Lecture 3 [Performance Maximizing
Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef Lecture 3 [Performance Maximizing

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef This simplified material selection chart explains

This simplified material selection chart explains the use of selection guidelines of the previous three examples for Screening out of materials that fail the selection constraints.

out of materials that fail the selection constraints. Attachments: Performance maximizing Property Groups table

Attachments:

Performance maximizing Property Groups table in 2 pages as carried out by M. Ashby.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Lecture 4: Material Selection Charts

Material Selection has 4 basic steps:

1. Translation of design requirements into a material specification

2. Screening out of materials that fail constraints

3. Ranking by ability to meet objectives; material indices

4. Search for supporting information for promising candidates

Note that: the task is explained in the following three lectures as follows;

Step 1

Lecture 3

Performance maximizing indices

Step 2

Lecture 4

Material selection charts

Step 3 & 4

Lecture 5

Formalization of material selection

Material Selection Charts:

The use of graphical relationship approach from the data is ideally engineer-friendly and particularly effective in the initial sorting stages of a selection procedure.

Ashby has described such a graphical approach for materials selection in conceptual design, i.e. the first stages of design, choosing from the vast range of engineering materials, an initial subset on which design calculations can be based.

In this approach the data for the mechanical and thermal properties of all materials are presented as a set of Materials Selection Charts. The axes are chosen to display the common performance-limiting properties: modulus, strength, toughness, density, and thermal conductivity wear rate etc. The, logarithmic scales allow performance-limiting combinations of to be examined and compared.

List of material selection charts proposed by Ashby:

1. Young’s' Modulus v Density

2. Strength v Density

3. Fracture Toughness v Density

4. Young's Modulus v Strength

5. Specific Modulus v Specific Strength

6. Fracture Toughness v Young's Modulus

7. Fracture Toughness v Strength

8. Loss Coefficient v Young's Modulus

9. Thermal Conductivity v Thermal Diffusivity

10. Thermal Expansion Coefficient v Thermal Conductivity

11. Thermal Expansion Coefficient v Young's Modulus

12. Normalized Strength v Thermal Expansion Coefficient

13. Strength v Temperature

14. Young's Modulus v Relative Cost

15. Strength v Relative Cost

16. Wear Rate v Hardness

17. Young's Modulus v Energy Content

18. Strength v Energy Content

Strength v Relative Cost 16. Wear Rate v Hardness 17. Young's Modulus v Energy Content 18.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Using Material Selection Charts

There are three main things to think about when choosing materials

(in order of importance):

1.Will they meet the performance requirements?

2.Will they be easy to process?

3.Do they have the right 'aesthetic' properties?

So that leaves us with performance requirements

Most products need to satisfy some performance targets, which we determine by considering the design specification. e.g. they must be cheap, or stiff, or strong, or light, or perhaps all of these things

Each of these performance requirements will influence which materials we should choose - if our product needs to be light we wouldn't choose lead and if it was to be stiff we wouldn't choose rubber!

So what we need is data for lots of material properties and for lots of materials. This information normally comes as tables of data and it can be a time-consuming process to sort through them. And what if we have 2 requirements - e.g. our material must be light and stiff - how can we trade- off these 2 needs?

The answer to both these problems is to use material selection charts.

Here is a materials selection chart for 2 common properties: Young's modulus (which describes how stiff a material is) and density.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef On these charts, materials of each

On these charts, materials of each class (e.g. metals, polymers) form 'clusters' or 'bubbles' that are marked by the shaded regions. We can see immediately that:

Metals are the heaviest materials,

Foams are the lightest materials,

Ceramics are the stiffest materials.

Selection charts are really useful is in showing the trade-off between 2 properties, because the charts plot combinations of properties. For instance if we want a light and stiff material we need to choose materials near the top left corner of the chart - so composites look good.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Consider a design problem where the specification is for a component that is both light and stiff (e.g. the frame of a racing bicycle).

light and stiff (e.g. the frame of a racing bicycle ). What can we conclude? •

What can we conclude?

The values of Young's modulus for polymers are low, so most polymers are unlikely to be useful for stiffness-limited designs.

Some metals, ceramics and woods could be considered – but composites appear best of all.

Note that the values for Young's modulus cover a huge range and we have therefore used a logarithmic scale.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

It is unlikely that only 2 material properties matter, so what other properties are important? Let's consider strength and cost - these properties are plotted as another chart.

and cost - these prop erties are plotted as another chart. What can we conclude? •

What can we conclude?

The strength of ceramics is only sufficient for loading in compression - they would not be strong enough in tension, including loading in bending.

Woods may not be strong enough, and composites might be too expensive.

Metals appear to give good overall performance

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Selection charts can also be used to select between members of a given class by populating it with the main materials. For instance, we can do this for metals in the stiffness-density chart.

we can do this for metals in the stiffness-density chart. What can we conclude? Some metals

What can we conclude?

Some metals look very good for light, stiff components - e.g. magnesium, aluminum, titanium, while others are clearly eliminated - e.g. lead.

Steels have rather a high density, but are also very stiff. Given their high strength and relatively low cost, they are likely to compete with the other metals.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Summary:

By considering 2 (or more) charts, the properties needed to satisfy the main design requirements can be quickly assessed.

The charts

materials, and then to look in more detail within these classes.

can be used

to identify the best classes of

There are many other factors still to be considered, particularly manufacturing methods.

The selection made from the charts should be left quite broad

to keep enough options open.

A good way to approach the problem is to use the charts to

eliminate materials, which will definitely not be good enough, rather than to try and identify the single best material too soon in the design process.

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

Example: Materials for Lightweight Table Legs

Solved by Cambridge material Engineering Selector software CES

Courtesy M. F. Ashby

The selection methodology used in CES Materials can be encapsulated by developing a case study. Here, we will use the design of a simple table to illustrate the development of some selection criteria; we will apply them and plot them on some selection stages by using CES. The Design Problem Luigi Tavolino, furniture designer, conceives of a lightweight table of daring simplicity: a flat sheet of toughened glass supported on slender, cylindrical legs. The legs must be solid (to make them thin) and as light as possible (to make the table easier to move). They must support the tabletop and whatever is placed on it without buckling. What materials could one recommend? Design Requirements We must first identify the Function, Objective and Constraints of our problem.

FUNCTION

Column (support compressive loads)

OBJECTIVE

Minimize mass

CONSTRAINTS

Must not buckle

The Model

Minimize mass CONSTRAINTS Must not buckle The Model Figure 1 - A lightweight table with slender

Figure 1 - A lightweight table with slender cylindrical legs The performance-maximizing index

M 1 = [E 1/2 /ρ]

Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept.

Faculty of Engineering Design & Prod. Eng. Dept. Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes

Material & Process Selection Summary of Lecture Notes Dr. Ahmed Farid A. G. Youssef

The Selection

We can now plot the material properties of our Performance Index using the CES software. In order to identify which materials maximize the performance index, we need to plot a line representing it on the graph. We use logarithmic axes on the graph and note that a simple performance index typically has the form:

M = P1/P2 n

Taking logs of this equation gives:

log P1 = n log P2 + log M

So, if P1 and P2 are plotted on logarithmic scales, the equation describes a line of slope n on the plot, with its position determined by the value of M. We are seeking to maximize the value