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11/9/2010

PNEUMATICS

UNIT 5

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SYLLABUS
Unit-5: Directional Control Val ves: Symbolic representation as per IS 1219 and IS 5599. Design and constructional aspects, poppet valves, slide valves spool valve. Simple Pneumatic control : direct and indirect actuation of pneumatic cylinder, Use of memory valve. Flow control valves and Speed control of cylinders- supply air throttling and Exhaust air throttling use of Quick exhaust valve.

Signal processing elements: Use of Logic gates OR and AND gates in pneumatic applications. Practical examples involving the use of logic gates. Pressure dependent controls-typesconstruction-practical applications. Time dependent controlsprinciple, construction, practical applications . 10 Hrs
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Directional Control Valves

Directional Control valves are mainly used to change the direction of

f low path of working medium or signal medium.


Directional control valves are designated as per the f ollowing

f unctions: Number of ports on the valves Number of switching positions Method of actuation Method of reset Design and constructional f eatures

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Construction of 3/2 directional valve


Distributing spool

Outlet port

Spring

Housing

Exhaust port

Pressure inlet port

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Port Marking of Direction Control Valve

As per IS-1219
Supply Port P Exhaust Ports R & S Out put Ports A & B Pilot Port [Set ] Z Pilot Port [Reset]Y

As per IS 5599
Supply Port 1 Exhaust Port 3 & 5 Out put Ports2 & 4 Pilot Port [Set] 14 Pilot Port [Reset]12

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Pneumatically operated directional control valve

The 5/2 directional control valves, operated by pneumatic impulse is applied in various practical solutions such as: pushing of loads; applying tools for performing operations, opening/closing doors and windows, stretch/bend of robot/manipulator arms.

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Pneumatically operated directional control valve


Control input

Valve spool

Outlet ports

Control input

Housing

Exhaust port

Pressure inlet port

Exhaust port

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Symbolic Representation

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Methods of Actuation

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Quick Exhaust Valve

In many applications especially with single acting cylinders, it is a common practice to increase the piston speed during retraction of the cylinder to save the cycle time This is carried out by incorporating a Quick exhaust valve. The Quick exhaust valve has essentially three ports
Supply port 1, is connected to the out put of the final control element (Directional control valve). The Output port, 2 of this valve is directly fitted on to the working port of cylinder. The exhaust port, 3 is left open to the atmosphere

2 1 3
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Quick Exhaust Valve

Use of Quick Exhaust Valve

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Controlling of Pneumatic Cylinders

Pneumatic cylinders can be controlled by the following methods:


1. Direct control of Single or Double acting cylinder 2. Indirect Control of Cylinder with Single Piloted Final Control Valve 3. Indirect Control of Cylinder with Double Piloted Final Control Valve

In the indirect control actuation, a pilot signal from a 3/2 N.C. valve is used to activate pilot ports of final control valve.

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Direct Control of Single Acting Cylinder

Pneumatic cylinders can be directly actuated by actuation of final control valve , manually or electrically

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Indirect Control of Single Acting Cylinder

Large cylinders as well as cylinders operating at high speed are generally actuated indirectly as the final control valve is required to handle large quantity of air.

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Use of Double Piloted Valve


Double piloted valve is also called as the Memory valve

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Use of Limit Switches


S1 F=0 S2

4 14

2 12

5 2 S1 1 3

3 2 S2 1 3

Use of Mechanically operated Roller lever Limit Switches

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Speed Control Of Cylinders

It is always necessary to reduce the speed of cylinder f rom

maximum speed based on selected size of f inal control valve to the nominal speed depending on the application
Speed control of Pneumatic Cylinders can be conveniently

achieved by regulating the f low rate supply or exhaust air.


The volume f low rate of air can be controlled by using flow

control valves which can be either Two way f low control valve or One way f low control valve

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One-way flow control valve

The pneumatic one-way f low control valve is also ref erred to as a

pneumatic throttle valve. Throttle valves are used in many pneumatic systems to control air f low.
There are two basic types of throttles - adjustable and non-

adjustable, the adjustable version is the most commonly used. When using adjustable flow-control valves the user can adjust the eff ective throttling area to best suit the air f low needs of the individual application.

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Construction of flow control valve

Housing

Regulating screw

Spring

Port 1

Check valve

Port 2

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Use of Flow Control Valve for Speed Control of Cylinder


Parts List
Sl. No.
1

Component
Double acting cylinder 5/2 DCV Solenoid operated, spring return Throttle check valve

Symbol

Quantity
1

FRL Unit

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Use of Flow Control Valve for Speed Control of Cylinder


Supply air throttling / exhaust air throttling

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Supply air throttling / exhaust air throttling


Supply Air Throttling
Supply air entering the cylinder through either of the working ports, undergoes throttling as the non

return valve is closed in the direction of flow.


During exhaust , the compressed air leaving the cylinder is by passed through the non return valve

and escapes freely as it does not under go throttling


Supply air throttling is used for single acting cylinder and small volume cylinder

Exhaust Air Throttling

Supply air flows freely to the cylinder through the bypass passage of the non return valve. The
supply air does not under go any throttling Exhaust air leaving the cylinder has to under go throttling as the non return valve is closed in the return direction The piston is loaded between two cushions of air Exhaust throttling should always be used for double acting cylinder Not suitable for small volume cylinders and cylinders with short strokes as effective pressure cannot build up sufficiently.

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Signal processing elements


To meet the requirement of various conditions in pneumatic applications, signal processing devices are often used. The following gates or valves are used, depending on the required conditions.

OR Gate Shuttle Valve Used to select one of the two input signals AND Gate- Two Pressure Valve- To combine two input signals i.e satisfy two conditions at the same time to

NOT Gate- 3/2 way, normally open, pilot operated Directional Control Valve- used to negate the function

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Signal processing elements


Shuttle Valve as OR gate

An Input Signal [1] can be applied on either side of the valve to obtain an out put signal at port 2. A small aluminum or plastic ball or spool is used as the shuttle which blocks the port opposite to the input signal.
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Signal processing elements


Selection of Parts
Sl. No.
1 2 3

Component
Double acting cylinder 5/2 Way Directional Control Valve (Single Piloted) 3/2 way Push button valve (NC)

Numbers
1 1 2

4
5

Shuttle valve
Air Service unit (Filter Regulator assembly)

1
1

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Signal processing elements

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Signal processing elements


Twin Pressure Valve as AND Gate

Input signal applied on any one side of the valve will block the signal passage on the same side of the port.

If a second signal is applied on the opposite side at the same time, it will be communicated to the out put port.
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Signal processing elements


Selection of Parts
Sl. No.
1

Component
Double acting cylinder

Numbers
1

2 3
4 5

5/2 Way Directional Control Valve (Single Piloted) 3/2 way Push button valve (NC)
Two pressure valve Air Service unit (Filter Regulator assembly)

1 2
1 1

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Signal processing elements


Circuit Diagram

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Signal processing elements


Not Gate
2 10

Not Gate is generally used to invert the signal status i. e to negate the signal. For example a normally closed timer or counter can be converted to normally open and vice versa

It is essentially a normally open 3/2 way, pilot operated directional control valve. Input signal is applied at pilot port 10 and out put is taken from port 2.

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Logical Control With Shuttle And Twin-pressure Valves

Task: The Piston of double acting cylinder of a supply station supplies work pieces under the following logical conditions:
The start button (S0) or an auxiliary button (S1) is actuated and parts are available in the work piece magazine (B2)
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Logical Control With Shuttle And Twin-pressure Valves

An optical display shows whether there are still enough parts available in the magazine

The cylinder should only retract into its back end position if it has actuation reached the front end position and an acknowledgement button (S4) is actuated.

A 5/2 impulse valve is used as an actuator. Additionally: for scanning work pieces in the magazine (B2) it is not possible lto use a mechanically operated signaler. The scanning should therefore occur in a non-contact manner through a reflex sensor. The working speed of the cylinder should be infinitely adjustable in both directions

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Logical Control With Shuttle And Twin-pressure Valves

Pneumatic circuit
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Pneumatic Timers

Figure : Pneumatic Timers- Normally closed and Normally Open

A Pneumatic Timer is a combination valve which consists of three parts 1. 3/2 way pilot operated directional control valve [NC or NO], 2. A one way flow control valve and 3. An accumulator

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Pneumatic Timers

e represents the signal status of input signal a represents the signal status of output signal Output signal appears after lapse of time t after input signal is Introduced in ON delay timer while in OFF delay timer the out put signal disappears after a time lag after input signal is introduced 0 state corresponds to no signal while1 state corresponds to presence of signal

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Time Delay Valve [N.C]

Signal input is supplied at port 12 and delayed signal out put is taken at 2. A signal source is connected at port 1

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Pneumatic Timers

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