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Results: Table 2.

1: Weighing Results
Samples A and B 01 02 03 04 05 06 First Weighing Second Weighing

7.6612 g. 0.0001 g. 7.7231 g. 0.0001 g.

7.6611 g. 0.0001 g. 7.7230 g. 0.0001 g.

7.7628 g. 0.0001 g. 7.7627 g. 0.0001 g. 7.7278 g. 0.0001 g. 7.7278 g. 0.0001 g. 7.5807 g. 0.0001 g. 7.5808 g. 0.0001 g. 7.7052 g. 0.0001 g. 7.7054 g. 0.0001 g. The table above simply illustrates the weighed and recorded mass of the different samples which are the five-peso coins. Every sample was weighed twice and hence the first and second weighing. The samples are also weighed in grams with a 0.0001 g. allowable error/tolerance. Table 2.2: Computed Statistical Tools
Statistical Tools Mean Allowable Error Standard Deviation Range Relative Standard Deviation 95% Confidence Limit First Weighing Second Weighing Average(First and Second)

7.6911 g. 0.0001 g.

7.6911 g. 0.0001 g.

7.6911 g. 0.0001 g.

0.0718 g. 0.0717 g. 0.0718 g. 0.1821 g. 0.1819 g. 0.1820 g. 9.3755 ppt 9.3225 ppt 9.3490 ppt 7.6911 0.0575 7.6911 0.0574 7.6911 0.0575 The table shows the statistical computations from the first and second weighing. It also shows the total average of every statistical tool. Take in mind that the following computations are only done for the coins in sample A. Discussion Given 5 five-peso coins for Sample A and a single coin for Sample B, each of the coins are weighed twice using the analytical balance. Then the taken weight results of the coins are analyzed by means of some statistical tools that are used to describe accuracy and precision. These are the mean, standard deviation, range, relative standard deviation, and the 95% confidence limit. In the first weighing, the sample mean or the average value of the measurements is equal to 7.6911 grams and the same mean is also computed for the second weighing of Sample A. It shows then that there is consistency between the first and second weighing and there is not much error in recording the mass of the coins. But if one will compare it to the mass of Sample B, there would be a difference 0.0141 gram. The next statistical tool used is the standard deviation. The standard deviation at the first weighing is 0.0718 g. and at the second weighing is 0.0717 gram. The standard deviation is a measure of the precision of a population of data. The standard deviation of each of the first and second weighing wants to show that in between of every weight of the coins, there would be a difference of 0.0717 g. or 0.0718 g. Since the standard deviation is already calculated, the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) can also be calculated. The RSD gives a clear picture of data quality. So the RSD of the first weighing is equal

to 9.3775 ppt or 0.93% and the RSD of the second weighing equates to 9.3225 ppt or 0.93%. The total average of both the RSD is then equal to 9.3490 ppt or 0.94%. Range or spread is the difference between the highest and lowest data which are respectively at coin number 03 and coin number 05. If the difference between the two shall be taken, it will give a range of 0.1821 g. at the first weighing and a range of 0.1819 g. at the second weighing. In total average, there would be a range of 0.1820 g. The last statistical tool used was the 95% confidence limit which indicates the reliability of an estimate. So the total average of the 95% confidence limit between the weightings equates to 7.6991 g. 0.0575 g. In this experiment, one of the errors that we can consider is an instrumental error. This error mentioned is the incapability of the analytical balance to give exact and correct measurement. The error now would greatly affect the resulting computations of the recorded data. Another error to be considered is the probability that the masses of the coins are imperfectly equal thus giving some variations. The environmental conditions are surely to may have caused some error but we cannot certainly assure what it could have been.

Note: Pakisali sa appendix yung mga mga equations na ginamit sa mga statistical tools.. thanks.. hindi ko na kasi linagay ditto.. hehe