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Power Cables

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Contents
Components of a HV cable How to select a cable Determining loads Derating of cables Voltage drop Cable losses

Requirements of a cable
To maximize the conductor temperature and hence the power transmitted To provide high resistance to mechanical wear and tear To withstand the effects of chemical attack from the environment To withstand the damaging effects of overvoltages To withstand the impact of heat from fire and high radiant temperatures To withstand freezing temperatures and embrittlement

Low Voltage Cables

Cables Lecture.PDF

Medium Voltage Cable

Cables Lecture.PDF

Components of a HV Cable

Cables Lecture.PDF

Components of a HV Cable

Components of a HV Cable
1 stranded copper conductor 2 - semi conductive screen layer 3 - insulation 4 - semi conductive screen 5 - copper tape screen layer 6 filler and tape 7 PVC inner sheath 8 stainless steel wire armour 9 PVC outer sheath

Components of a HV Cable

Components of a HV Cable

Components of a HV Cable Conductors


Copper or aluminium Stranded or solid Al is lighter than Cu and therefore easier to handle Al has a higher resistivity and Cu but is cheaper Care must be take when jointing al cables Contact surfaces must be free from oxide

Components of a HV Cable - Screening


To minimize the possibility of discharge at the inner surface of the dielectric Comprises of one or two layers of semiconducting tapes or compounds over the core Screens are used at the following voltage levels and insulation types: PILC cables 6350/11000 V PVC cables 7200/12500 V XLPE cables 3300/6000 V

Components of a HV Cable - Screening

Components of a HV Cable Insulation Types


Paper insulation:
Been reliably used in the past rarely specified in new insulations Insulations deteriorates rapidly if exposed to moisture (hygroscopic nature) To prevent ingress of water lead or corrugated aluminium alloy metal sheaths are used At high voltages (above 200 kV) paper suffers from dielectric losses (therefore reduction in cable rating) Cannot withstand the thermal effects of short circuit currents Joints and terminations often require special materials and labour

Components of a HV Cable Insulation Types


Polypropylene Paper Laminate (PPL) insulation:
Used in applications above 200 kV that require oil filled cables Material consists of 50% polypropylene and 50% paper Has a lower dielectric loss factor than paper therefore heat generated within the insulation at high voltages is reduced Has a higher impulse strength compared to paper and can therefore operate at higher stress levels

Components of a HV Cable Insulation Types


Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) insulation:
Suitable for cables rated up to 7.2 kV Is non hygroscopic Requires no metallic sheath Absence of sheath simplifies joining Is lighter and more flexible than paper insulated cables PVC is thermoplastic material which softens at high temperature

Components of a HV Cable Insulation Types


Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) insulation:
Cannot withstand the thermal effects of short circuit currents Maximum operating temperature is 650 C - 700 C Hardens at low temperature and becomes brittle (not suitable for applications below 00 C)

Components of a HV Cable Insulation Types


Cross Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) insulation:
Has high dielectric strength Has good mechanical strength Is non hygroscopic Has no true melting point and remains elastic at high temperatures Has greater current carrying capacity and overload and short circuit performance

Components of a HV Cable Insulation Types


Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) insulation:
Has the same durable and thermal characteristics of XLPE Has a higher degree of elasticity than XLPE over a wider temperature range

Components of a HV Cable Insulation Types


Mineral Insulated Mineral insulated copper conductor (MICC) cables are used for 600 V and 1000 V applications involving high temperature, rough mechanical handling, surface knocks and contact with oil Conductors are insulated with a highly compressed magnesium oxide compound surrounded by a copper or stainless steel tube Will operate continuously under fire conditions at sheath temperatures up to 2500 C Specified for high security applications (fire alarm sysyems) Impulse withstand capability is not as good as other insulation types

Components of a HV Cable Sheaths


Very little lead sheathing is now specified except for special HV cables Lead and lead alloy sheaths have been traditionally used to prevent ingress of moisture into cables Corrugated aluminium sheaths help improve cable flexibility

Components of a HV Cable Sheaths


Corrugated aluminium sheath

Components of a HV Cable Armouring


Protects cable from mechanical damage Also used when cable is exposed to excessive vibration For three core cables, galvanized steel tape, galvanized steel wire braid or galvanized steel wire (SWA) is used SWA is preferred because it gives more flexibility, is easy to gland and gives better performance when the cable is subjected to longitudinal stresses in service For single core cable, aluminium is used instead of steel

Components of a HV Cable Armouring


Multi-core XLPE Insulated Steel wire armouring

Cable Sizing
After specifying the correct voltage for the cable, the following considerations apply: Current carrying capacity Short circuit rating Voltage drop Earth loop impedance Loss evaluation

Cable Sizing Current carrying capacity


When calculating the current rating of a cable the following factors need to be considered: Installation conditions (in air, direct buried, in ducts) Ambient temperature Phase spacing and arrangement Proximity of other cables Type of sheath bonding

Cable Sizing Current carrying capacity


Cables laid in air: Ambient temperature is generally accepted as 25o C. Manufacturers tables state the factors to be applied to obtain current ratings for different conditions

Cable Sizing Current carrying capacity


Cables laid in air (Example): A 36 kV, 3 core, 300 mm2 Cu conductor cable is to be laid in ambient air temperature of 35o C. The rating is given in manufacturers tables as 630 A at 25o C and a derating factor of 0.9 is applicable for 35o C operation. What is the cable rating for the 35o C application? (Ans 567A)

Cable Sizing Current carrying capacity


Cables laid directly in ground: The ground thermal resistivity G is typically 0.8 2.5 oC m/W For a desert area G 2.5 oC m/W For a thermal resistivity G = 2.5 oC m/W, standard ground temperature is taken to be 15 oC Installation at variances from standard 15 oC ground temperature are taken into account using suitable derating factors (1% per oC)

Cable Sizing Current carrying capacity


Cables laid directly in ground: Cable laying depth is typically 1 metre When cables are laid together in one trench the proximity will necessitate derating factors to be used to obtain the correct current rating

Cable Sizing Current carrying capacity


Cables laid directly in ground (example): Two 12 kV three phase circuits comprising of single core, 500 mm2, XLPE insulated, Al conductor cables are laid in ground in trefoil formation in parallel at a nominal 0.7 m depth and 0.25 m apart with their 35 mm copper screens bonded at each end. The 90 oC XPLE cable rating is 655 A. What is the rating of each circuit in this configuration?

Cable Sizing Current carrying capacity


Depth 0.7m derating factor f1 = 1.0 Temperature 25 oC derating factor f2 = 0.93 Ground thermal resistivity 1.5 oC m/W derating factor f3 = 0.91 Proximity of parallel circuits (grouping) 0.25 m apart derating factor f4 = 0.86 (Ans 477 A)

Laying of Underground cables


Three main methods exist Direct laying Draw-in-system Solid system

Direct laying

Advantages Simple and the least costly method Provides the best dissipation of heat Clean and safe method (cable is invisible & free from external disturbances)

Direct laying
Disadvantages Load extension requires new excavation (costly) Alterations in the cable network cannot be made easily Maintenance cost is very high Location of fault is difficult Cannot be used in congested areas

Draw-in-system

Draw-in-system
Advantages Repairs and alterations to the cable network can be made without opening the ground Joints become simpler (no armour) Maintenance costs are reduced Very reliable due to the strong mechanical protection provided by the system

Direct laying
Disadvantages Initial cost is very high Current capacity of the cables is reduced due to the unfavourable conditions for heat dissipation

Solid systems
Rarely used Disadvantages More expensive than direct laid cables It requires skilled labour Current capacity of the cables is reduced due to the unfavourable conditions for heat dissipation

Insulation resistance of a single core cable


The insulation prevents leakage current The path for leakage current is radial through the insulation The opposition offered by the insulation to leakage current is called the insulation resistance of the cable

Insulation resistance of a single core cable


Let 1 be the conductor radius Let 2 be the internal sheath radius Let be the length of cable Let be the resistivity of the cable Then insulation resistance of entire length of cable is 2 = ln
2 1

Insulation resistance Example


A single core cable has a conductor diameter of 1 cm and insulation thickness of 0.4 cm. If the resistivity of the insulation is 5 x 1014 cm, calculate the insulation resistance of a 2 km cable.

Solution
Conductor radius 1 = 0.5 cm Internal sheath radius 2 = 0.5 cm + 0.4 cm = 0.9 cm Length of cable = 2 km = 2000 m Resistivity = 5 x 1014 cm = 5 x 1012 m 2 = ln =
2 1 5 1012 2(2000) 0.9 ln 0.5

= 234 M

Class exercise
The insulation resistance of a single core cable is 495 M per km. If the core diameter is 2.5 cm and the resistivity of the insulation is 4.5 x 1014 cm, find the insulation thickness (Assume a cable length of 1 km) (Ans 1.25 cm)

Tutorial exercise
A single core cable 5 km long has an insulation resistance of 0.4 M. The core diameter is 20 mm and the diameter of the cable over the insulation is 50 mm. Calculate the resistivity of the insulating material.

Capacitance of a single core cable


Let be the conductor diameter Let be the inner sheath diameter Let be the cable length Let = =
20
ln( )

(F/m) (F)

20
ln( )

Where 0 = 8.854 x 1012 is the permittivity of free space is the relative permittivity of the insulation

Capacitance example
A single core cable has a conductor diameter of 1 cm and an internal sheath diameter of 1.8 cm. If impregnated paper with a relative permittivity of 4 is used in the insulation, calculate the capacitance for 1 km length of cable.

Solution
= =
20 ln( ) 2 8.854 1012 (4) ln(
1.8 ) 1

= 3.785 x 1010 F/m Therefore capacitance C = (3.785 x 1010 )(1000) = 3.785 x 107 F

Class exercise
Calculate the capacitance and charging current of a single core cable used in a 3-phase, 66 kV system . The cable is 1 km long and has a core diameter of 10 cm and an impregnated paper insulation thickness of 7 cm. The relative permittivity of the insulation is 4 and the supply frequency is 50 Hz. (Ans 0.254 F) (Ans 3.04 A)

Tutorial exercise
A 33 kV, 50 Hz, 3 phase underground cable, 4 km long uses three single core cables. Each of the conductors has a diameter of 2.5 cm and the radial thickness of the insulation is 0.5 cm. If the relative permittivity of the insulation is 3, determine i) The capacitance of the cable per phase ii) The charging current per phase iii) The total charging kilovars (kVArs)

Dielectric stress in a single core cable


Insulation is subjected to electrostatic forces under operating conditions. This is known as dielectric stress. The dielectric stress at any point is the potential gradient or electric intensity at that point.

Dielectric stress in a single core cable


Let be the conductor diameter Let be the inner sheath diameter Let be the potential difference between conductor and sheath Then the potential gradient (dielectric stress) at any point x metres from the centre of the cable is =
ln( ) 2

(volts/m)

For x = , is a maximum So =
2 2 ln( ) 2 ln( )

(volt/m)

For x = , is a minimum So = (volt/m)

Dielectric stress in a single core cable


The maximum stress is an important consideration in the design of a cable. Eg if a cable is to be operated at a voltage such that the maximum stress is 5 kV/mm, Then the insulation used must have a dielectric strength of at least 5 kV/mm, otherwise insulation breakdown will occur.

Dielectric stress example


A 33 kV single core cable has a conductor diameter of 1 cm and an internal sheath diameter of 4 cm. Find the maximum and minimum stress in the insulation.

Solution
=
2
ln( )

and =

2
ln( )

V = 33 kV (rms) d = 1 cm and D = 4 cm = =
2(33) 1 4
4 ln( ) 1 4 ln( ) 1

= 47.61 kV/cm = 11.9 kV/cm

2(33)

Class Exercise
The maximum and minimum stresses in the dielectric of a single core cable are 40 kV/cm (rms) and 10 kV/cm (rms) respectively. If the conductor diameter is 2 cm, find i. The insulation thickness (Ans 3 cm) ii. The operating voltage (Ans 55.45 kV rms)

Tutorial Exercise
A single core cable for use on a 11 kV, 50 Hz system has a cross sectional area of 0.645 2 and internal sheath diameter of 2.18 . The permittivity of the dielectric used in the cable is 3.5, find i. The maximum electrostatic stress in the cable ii. The minimum electrostatic stress in the cable iii. The capacitance of the cable per km length iv. The charging current