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Abstract

,

Special cementing problems con- cerning gas storage wel!s and tubing- less completion wells have indicated the need for better pipe-cement bond- ing. This presentation stresses some of the problems involved, and possible

solutiim.r, The application of a resin- sand, coating at specific points on the caring wilt give “ugreater adhesion at the cement-pipe interface. llesistance of the cement-pipe bond to fluid intru-

sion and loading

tory and jield results as well as acous-

tic logs emphasize the improvement in bonding when a roughness factor {s introduced, Comparative bonding data both with and without mill varnish on the pipe are ako evaluated.

is increased.

Labora-

Introduction

The two types of bonds

sidered ,ia this

presentation

to be con- are shear

and hydraulic bond between cement and pipe. Shear bond is dellned as the bond that meclianic,ally supports pipe in, the hole, and is determined by, measuring the force required to initi- ate pipe movement in a cement sheath, .This force when divided by the ce- ment-casing contact surface area,

yields the shear bond in psi. Hydraulic

bond blocks migration

cemented area and is deter+ed by”

of fluids

in

a

applying

pressure

at

the

pipe-cement

interface

until

‘leakage

occurs.

The

hydrau)ic pressure when Ieafcage ap- pegrs at either end of the specimen is defined as the” bond failure pressure irr psig. Gas bond tests were ‘determ- I ined using compressed, air or nitrogen as the pressuring medhrm. Fig. 1 illua- , trates the sample configu~ation gener-

~ ally used for determining these bond

1, G. CARTER; MEMBER AIME. G. W, ZVANS

HALLIBURTON CO.

DUNCAN, OKIA.

streng@s in the laboratory, Dimen- sionally, the specimens can be of any size without significant effect.’

Hydraulic bonding is of primary im- portance, particularly in isoIating zones ‘irr a producing or injection well, as most cementing jobs provide ade- quate mecht+nical support (shear bond) to hold the pipe in place. Shear bond should lot be overlooked, however, in dettmul, ing WOC time prior to sub- sequent d$lling or ,eompletion work~ It is neeessary to consider the effect of various easing conditions and eom- pletiorr techniques if optimum bond is

to. be obtained

and maintained. Some

of the primary considerations in plan- ning a more successful cement job

“from

the

easing-bonding

s~dpoint

are: (1) pipe surface finish, (2) drilling fluid; (3) thermal and, stimulation

stresseq and (4) casing equipment.

Pipe Surface

Fittfeh

resin-sand

coated.

Two ~typea of phts-

,

tic

pipe

used

were

filament

wound

and

cen~ifugally

east

with

both

,

smooth

and

rough

external

surfaces.

 

Titble 1 shows the hydraulic, gas, and shear bond strength measurements. of

 

cement

to steel

and

plastic

pipe with

varying external

surface

finishes.

As

may be seen, the rougher

the external

 

pipe firdsh, (13g. 2) the bigher the hy-

draulic

bond using iiquids or g~.

i

These bond strengths indicate the importance of preparing pi@ surfaces prior to placement of cement in the well. As an example, mill varnish ex- hibits the lowest bond strengths com- pared witlf other types of finishes, with, time dependency after setting being ~oted in new mill varnish pipe below 140F. Table 2 ilhrstrates the reduc- tion in bondhg of cemerit to pipe that occurs at’ about “two days with this type of surface finish, -Acoustic cement bond logs were run on a test well to verk!y results ob-

Hydraulid and gas bond were direct-

tained

in physical

bond

measurement,

Iy affected by’ the pipe, surface finkh

and

correlation

was

obtained

in that

against which the cement was placed.

acoustic Io~

indicated

a correspond~,

Types of casing investigated wefe

ing reduction

in bond from two to five

steel and plastic as used in field ap- plications, Hydraulic bonds were de-

days after cementing. It is evident tha~

this 19w physical bond strength period

termined

o? steel pipe with the follow-

would be a critical time for running

ing surface

finishes: new mill varnish,

acoustic

logs or

completion

practices

mill simle (chemical

removal

of var-

on

new

mill

varriish

pipe,

especially:

nish), sandblasted,

used

(rus~)

and

where ,Ahe temperature is below 140F. ,,

 

FORCE

 
 

,

 

.

El.

ill!?

.

F@ l--$hem bond test(left), and hydkkdk band test.topipe (right).

,

 

‘.>

TABLE

I-BONDING

PROPERTIES

OF

VARIOUS

PIPE

FIN ISHES

TYD.

OF Nnbh

Bend StreniNh

 

yg

Shear

PSI

Hydraullc

Psls

Gas

Psia

New

(Mill ~arnlsh)

-z-

“-T

New [VatnlshChemlcslly

 
 

Removed)

104

300.400

70

New

\Sa#asted)

123

300.700

150

Used

141

500-700

150

New

fSani:M#d-RnIn-Sand

 

2400

I 100-1200

400+

Pia%tlc

Fllement

Weund

(Smooth]

79

210

9?

270

Centrlf\g.ally

Cast %%[h)

S1

220

101

310

 

Cement—APl Class A .ioment

 

{ WOtOr 5,2 sal/5ack

 
 

casing

S110--2

h!.

Inside 4 in.

 

Curlnp Temperatur~O P. Curtng Time-l day

joint of used pipe at 560 ft, showing

had sections of mill

higher

varnish

amplitude,

still intact.

As vvou~d be expected, plastic pipe

with smooth exterior surfaces exhibits similar hydraulic bond values to milf

varnish

casing., Thk

type

‘of

casing

with its lower collapse

pressure

flexes

more readily than steel pipe; thus low- er bond failure pressure was experi- enced with rough surface plastic pipe

than with the corresponding steel pipe, Application of a resin-sand coating to the pipe exterior resulted in con-

siderable imfirovement in bond. Thk *‘ type of surf;ce finish as compared to sandblasted pipe, illustrated in Fig. 2,. This phenomenon of time dependency increases the shear bond strength has not, been evidenced on other types about 20 times and the hydraulic bond

of pipe surfaces or at higher tempera- approxirnately IWO, tinies (Table 1). tures, Athigher temperatures, the rate Even more pronounced improvement /

of cement expa,psion overcomes the

t~me dependency

es.

time is required

pand sufficiently to overcome those here, therefoLe, faiiure occurs within

was ~oted for resistance, to gas flow

at

the

bonded

interface,

The

resin-’

sand coat provides a rougher surface

finish

to

which

the

cement

can

ad-

effect of mill varnish-

temperatures

a

longer

for the cement toex-

At

lower

effects, A, comparison between vtious

,the

cement

sheath

(Fig.

4)

after jet

pipe finishes according

to an acoustic

perforating

rather

than

at

the

bond

bond log is shown in Fig. 3, This

Iog

interface.

.The hydraulic

bond

failure

was run

three and seven days after

pressure

using

water

on

this type

of

cementing. Subsequent

logs

showed

pipe

finish is about

5:1

compared

to

the n4w and used pipe sections to be

new

mill

varnish

pipe,

Gas

failure

completely acoustically bonded. The

pressure

is approximately

40:1, com-

,,,,

w.!

niG

--.,

e .!:

P3(F

 

TABLE

2-BUNIS

Sl\Ea:GTH

.

 

time

Hydraulic

 

Shear

Days

(Wnter.pds)

[Nitroseo.pslg]

psi

 

200

15

74

 

i

170

63

3

210

i:

72

 

250

40

74

.;

270

55

?6

CaslnS Cendltlen-new mill varnish

I Cement-APl Class A cement WaIer 15.2 gal/eack Curfng Temper@ure-100 F.

‘paring

resin-sand

coated

pipe

to new

mill varnish

pipe.

Drilling FhtIds

 

Variations

in

hydraulic

bond

strengths ‘were observed whenever pipe surfaces were wet with fluids other than water, Drilling fluids used in these tests included water-base, oil- base and inverted oil-emulsion muds, Pipe surfaces coated with mud ‘cause reduction of the cement-pipe bond, with oil-wet surfaces ex~ibiting the lowest bond on equivalent pipe tlnish- es. Under these condititms rougher surfaces again” provide higher bcmds than smooth surfaces. The bond of ce- ment to an oil-wet surface is approxi-. mately one-half that of a water-wet or dry surface (Table 3). This should be an important consideration in any well completion program. Therefore, the practice of running a chemical wash ahead of primary cementing jobs to remove the circulatable mud

rind return the casinjg to a water-wet surface condition is desirable,’ The use of friction-reducing additives in a cement slurry results in better mud re-

‘.

RESIN-SAND

COATED

!

.

Rti$lY

.

.

SANO SLAST6D

,

~“

MILL VARNIStf

2400

I ioo. 1200

,.”

.141

500.7C0

123

SO0700

 

,’

 

t

79

2oa

400.

moval, thus, providing’ a mor~ satis- factory bonding condition.:

Thermal

and Stimulation Stresses

The direction in which pressure is

applied

and

the

length

of time

pres-

1<0-250

on are other important factors in hydrau- lic bonding. TWO major applications of pressure should’be considered: com- pletion and stimulation pressure where maximum presstrr’e is inside .tfie cas- ing; rmd production pressures where formation. pressures are maximum and

sure

is heId

the

bonded

interface

150.250

tubing pressures are minimum,

13earden and Lane’ have pointed out that closed-in pressure after comple- tion of a primary cement job is very detrimental to a cement-pipe bond. Ad- ditional work has been doqe on both hydraulic and shear bonding which

verifie$ previous data.’ Fig. 5 shows

diameter expadsion of umnfpported

I0.20

pipe with reference to interna[ #res- sure.

,.

fig. >Grrelation

ofextemal

-.=-

~pefinishand

bond. strengtl1s.

The heat

of hvdration

of a setting sirnilar~ effec~

a to- internal uresiuiiriti “of the- “ctiing–

cement

canflrotiuce

and cause ex~ansion ~f tlie pipe. Abi~ ity to dhsipate this heat depends upon

152s

,,

:.

,

,,

.

,’?

,.

1’

.

.

I

.

“-

9

,!

I

.

.

,,

,!

,

TAB(E 3-SONBINO

,

SURFACE

WETTING

PROPERTIES

PIPE

@F

ON

—. TyP@cl: Mud

None

Water

Inverted

O!l-sase

Bose

011 Emulslo;

Shea:~d

——

141

97

66

63

Cprlns

Casing SIZO-2

Type

Cement-APl

Water 5.2 Eal/sacIc CurIns Temperature-fJO F.

lime-l

day

III, Indde 4 In.

WMeflf

CasfnB—usad

Class A

t

the thermal conductivity and heat ca-

pacity of the displacing

fhLi&. The

build-up of heat inside the casing will normally begin when the cement takes its initial set, with maximum increase in temperature occurring at a later stage. After the cement has set, the ““temperature will slowly return to that of the formation, “’causing the casing to contract, This oxpan$io,n and con- traction of the pipe places an add~-

tional stress on the casing and c~ment

decrease in

bond strength. Additional damage to the borid might occur should the cas- ing be closed in at the time the tem# erature is rising inside the casing.

which could result in: ~

formations

thafi: through impermeable

formations

such as shales, due to pos-

sible cement dehydration. Faster bond strensh development will also occur

across higher temperature formations

than opposite ,cooler zones. The use of proper cement aMitives add different types of cement can minimize thk variation,e’:

During stimulation through a per- foration, high internal, casing pressures may cause horizontal and yertical frac- turing of the cement sheath, Vertical fracturing of the cement sheath norm- ally occurs after hydraulic bond fail-’ ure is initiated when the cement sheath

is forced

the pipe

.Sween the pipe and cement.

into tension by expansion of

and pressure

of Jhe fluid be-

is

a time function dependent upon ce- ment properties, presmre applied, and viscosity of the pressuring medium. The rate at which ,bond failure pro-

gresses has been measured in both lab-

in-

on

.

oratory

Hydraulic

bond

failure

extension

and well tests. Laboratory

entalleci measuremems

r vestlgation

use of a itraddie packer. These investi- ~aticms showed ~he bond failure rate ~fi~ water varied between 1.125

Temperature

variations

will

occur

10-ft lengths of hydraulic bond test

work consisted of

throughout

due to the various types of formations

encountered.

a cement column in a we~l

Bond strengths

normW

specimens. Test-

cementing

with communication

tell

casing in a normid manner,

being established

1’ i=

develop

;.

more

readily

F RESIN

?SANC

COATED

II

~~H--JSANDBLASTED

across

porous

410

420

430

440

450

460

4?0

RUBBER

NEW

PIPE

SPACER

SANDBLASTED

J-- .>

,

USED

METAL

CENTRALIZER

PIPE

~

480

490

500

b+tllTlllll/

510

520

530

540

Nllllllllllll.

550

560

3~

I

between two sets of perforations by

.’

. .1

IM

,’

t--t-u

t-t+

1

1

I

-

1

II

1-

1111

.!/’

 

!.,

>-.

lt-=:sAN:s:

.

 

-

1

“.

1

FEBRUARY,

1~64

 

.

“570

.

5s

n

,:.-.’:

‘--LLLU I I I IIll I I ~I I

L$$Q .,

,’J

,;

-,

.

.

.

.s

3

DAY s

7

D4YS

~~

Fig.

3—Acotistic bortd logs.

,,,

>

.

J

.

.,

.<

-,.

.,.

,.,

/

‘,

~4@@-%%

 

w.

&Failure

within S.

-’

-.

 

,:

-,,,

‘.’

159.

.

.

.

.

i.

E

-’. 1

1

I

,,

.

/

and L25 ft/rnin. Laboratory tests in- dicate tkt even with stronger back-

ups to simulate denser’ formations,

rate

Normally, gas pressuring causes faster bond failure -progression (linear rate) than water, oil or mud. For in- stance,, gas pressuring teats indicate that bond failure progression is in ex- cess of 20 ft/rrrin. Prewtsre require- ments with gas, 6n similar type sur- faces, are considerably lower than for water, bsing approximately 1/20 as great,

the

is approximately

the

adme.

(

!.

Inward

pipe

deflection

has

been

calculated

and

then

measured

at

0.000015 in., at the ‘time hydraulic bond failure <occurred on used pipe.

This will ~vary with the type of surface finish and pressuring medium. The above value was measured using water,

while

re- sult in higher deflectiori, and gases would g~ye Iower readings.

m’ore viscous

fluids

should

“Vertical bond failure wiii normally

occur 30° either side of the pressure application point when a uniform ce- ment sheath is. in place around the pipe. Unequal distribution of cement may cause bond failure to 6ccur at

ac-

count for communication in multiple string tubingless completions.

the

weakest

plane

which

could

‘Casing Rquipment

.’

Tests have been conducted

on vari-

ous types of casing attachments,

as collar$, centralizers and wall clean-

ers, to evaluate their effect on ily-

draulic and shear bonding

dicate that casing intrusions into the cement column have little influence ‘on hydrauiic or gas bond failure pressure,, but the rate of failure, progression is apparently decreased, There is the pos- sibility that: in some instances casing attachments cani be responsible for a change ‘jn direction of the hydraulic bond failure path. Attachments might direct bond failure from casing-cement interface to the formation-cement in- terface, which m~ fail at lower pres- sures as pointed out in previous work.] However, a large increase in shear bonding strength is obtained because of the! necessity to shear a portion of the cement itself rather than the pipe- cement interface,

such

Results in-

Hydraulic

Ststnntary

~

and sh&r

bond increases

with surface roughness.

Viscosity

of

the

pressuring

“fluid

will increase

viscosity increasea.

bond

failure

smessure as

a

Oil-wet

pipe’ surfaces

reduce

hy-

,,.

,

r

~EXPANSION

R

OF

PIPE

Vs

DIAMETER!

!i

IiNTERNAL

.’

Ei

NOTE:

CURVES

WELO

PRESSURE

VALIO

POINT

TO

1

Fig. &Diamet&

160

,.

;.

.

 

-.

expansion of stusuppor-ted pipe with reference

to internal

pressure

,

 

.

.

,.

 

-,<.

-.,

i,

/

f

-

,,,

-1

draulic

atid shear bond strength of ce-

,

ment

to

pipe,

A

change in casing internal pres-

 

sure and temperature will cause a cor-

responding change in hydraulic and shear bond qtrengQs. (

?.

Mill

varnish

has

a detrimental

ef-

fect on cement

bond strengths.

Hydraulic

primarily

bond failure-is a function of pipe expansion or con-

traction,

-

Caiktg

attachtptmts

increase

shear

bond strength but have BO significant .

effect on hydraulic

bond ,faihtre

In

(hschrsion

plannin~ primary

cementing jobs

;

more consideration should be given tsx (1) casing surface finishes; (2) .cement- itig placement techniques; and (3)

~ timing

of operations

in the

cemented

casing.

;

,

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to express their appr~ciation to the management, of Halhburton Co. for permission to pre- pare and publish thw paper, to those

in this

gestions for the preparation of this paper; and especially to Glen Cordell, J who helped obtain much of the’’data.

I

‘,

organization

who

offered sug-,

 

L

“)

 

References

 

.’

,.

 

L Evans,

G. W.

. and ‘Carter,L. G.: “BOnd--

.

.

,.

ing ‘Studies of Cementing

Composition? to

 

Pipe

and

Formations”,

Drill.

and

Prod.

Prac., API

(196!/)

72.

 

J

2, Bearden,

Lane,

R. D.:

“Engi-

 

steered

W, G. and Cementing

Operations

to. Elimi-

nate WOC Time”,

Drill.

and Prod.

Prac.,

API

(’1%1).

“-

3. Becker,

H.

and

Peterson,

G,:

“Bond. of

 

,;

‘$%%re~t Compositions

 

for

Cmnentmg

:

 

,

Proc.,

Sixth

World

Petrolerim

 

i

 

Coneress.

Frankfurt.

Germanv

(June

19-

4. Jones,

P.

H.

and

Berdine,

D.: “Factors

 

Influencing

Bond Between

~ement

and

,

Formation”,

[Yrill. rmd Prod: Pr&.,

API

(1940)

46.

5. “Coppinger, J. E: and Goode, J. N.:

“Ire.

pro~ed - Primary Cementing Practices Through Hydt-dic WeII-Bore Analysis”, Spring Meeting of the Smithweatern D]s- trict, Div. of Produotiptr, API (March 13- 15, 1963) .

 

6. SlagIe,

K. A. and Smith,

D, K,:

“Salt Ce-

 

:

:-. ~,

ment

for

ShaIe

and

Bentoni tic

Sands”.

r

Jour. Pet.

Tech,

(Feb.,

1963)

187,

7. Walker,

T.:

“Report

of

Bond

Lo@tg’;,

 

.

Spring Meeting

of the Mid-Continent

Dis-

trict, Div. of Production, API

(April, +6,.

 

I

Eb31To&NoT&.P1c2XUw

 

MD

BltJ- ~

!

‘; 6-RAPtitCAL SKETCHES OF

L.

.G. CARTER

AND ~G. W, EVAN;

APPEAR

ON PACiE

 

,

I

 

168.

.

“’-i

,“ JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY ,.

.,

.,.

 
 

1’

-’

,,

/:,

,

,.

,,

o’

/

,“

1’

,

I

.2

i

,/

.,

Carter and Evans

/

,’

Author

Bonding

Study

L.

G.’: Carter

(right)

and

G.

W.

Evans

(Ieft)

are

co-authors

of

,the

Technics]

Article,

“A

Study

of

Ce-

ment-Pip$

Bo’nding” w~lch begins

on

,

BS de-

gree in chemistry and mathematics from Southwestern State College in Du-

Okla,, in 1954. He held a teach-

ing position before joining Halliburton Co. At present’ he is senio} chemist in the Cement Section of the Research

rant,

page

157. “Carter received

his

‘ &

Development Lab working +,withoil-

well cementing materials. Evans was awarded a BS degree in mechanical engineering” by Okla%orna State U. in 1950. Employed, by Halliburton fol- lowing graduation,. Evans is a develop-

, ment engineerf in the Mechanical. Re-,

,’

,

\

.

.

,, search & Development Dept., work- ing on tools. services and equipment.

,,

,

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