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Overview

www.vermontmathematics.org

1 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

to do today…

underlying principles

• Engage in an activity about formative

assessment

2 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

1

VMP OGAP Design

Team members

• Leslie Ercole,VMP

• Plus over 250 Vermont and

• Linda Gilbert, Dotham Brook School

Alabama teachers and about

• Kendra Gorton, Milton Elementary School

• Steph Hockenbury, Chamberlin School

5000 students who participated

• Beth Hulbert, Barre City Elementary and Middle School

in OGAP Exploratory Studies in

• Amy Johnson, Milton Elementary School

2004 and 2005, and 2006 -2007

• Bob Laird, VMP

and 2007-2008 roll-outs.

• Ted Marsden, Norwich University

• Karen Moylan, Former VMP Active OGAP National

• Cathy Newton, Dotham Brook School Advisory Board

• Susan Ojala, Vermont Mathematics Initiative

• Mary Lindquist, Callaway Professor of

• Marge Petit, Marge Petit Consulting, MPC

•

Mathematics Education, Emeritus; Past

Regina Quinn, VMP President of the National Council of Teachers

• Loree Silvis, VMP of Mathematics

• Tracy Thompson, Ottauquechee School

• Judith Zawojewski, Illinois Institute of

• Jean Ward, Bennington Rutland Supervisory Union

• Rebecca Young, Hardwick Schools

Technology

3 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Design Committee – school based leaders and teachers, assessment expert, a

mathematician (distillation of hundreds of research articles used as the foundation of

OGAP tools and resources)

2004 Study

2005 Study

revisions

revisions

Cognitive

Labs

Sub-studies and

revisions

Purpose: to refine tools, and processes, (Interaction with over 200 educators

OGAP professional development. (over 4000 students) in Vermont and Alabama.

~ Mentor observations ~ Materials feedback

~ Student work archives (over 30,000 pieces) ~ Samples of student work

~ Teacher logs linked to student work ~ Unit plans (teacher leaders)

~ Post Surveys ~ Teacher action research

~ Interviews ~ Post Surveys

~ Teacher background surveys ~ Teacher background surveys

~ Post focus forum ~ Pilot teacher assessment

~ Student retention study (8 months later) ~ Advisory

~ Follow-up surveys (8 months later)

4 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

2

The VMP Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP)

was developed to respond to two needs:

mathematics for all students as it relates

to state and national learning

expectations.

• To provide quality instructional

information as students are developing

their understanding of concepts so that

interventions for a class as a whole or

for individuals can be made “on time.”

5 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

and Interviews (VMP 2003)

• Teachers rarely monitored students’ understanding -

prior to or during instruction.

• Teachers believed that students had adequate prior

knowledge for the lesson - and that if they did not, it

was mostly due to low ability - innate deficiencies.

• Teachers believed that students in the class were

learning what the teacher was intending to teach –

usually based on the responses of a few students.

• Teachers were often surprised and frustrated when

students did poorly on subsequent assessments.

• Teachers attempted to use large scale assessment

information to inform instruction and were quickly

frustrated.

6 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

3

Four Principles

that Guided OGAP Thinking,

Work, and Products

7 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Design Principles

• Principle 1: Build on Pre-existing

Knowledge (National Research Council, 2000)

Understanding (NRC, 2001)

Assessment (NRC, 2003; Black and Wiliam, 1998)

Research (NRC, 2003; Black and Wilam, 1998)

8 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

4

Principle 3: Use Frequent

Formative Assessment

Examples Non-examples

from summative assessments

9 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

about formative assessment?

• “Learning gains from systematic attention

to formative assessment are larger than

most of those found for any other

educational intervention.” (NRC, 2003, page 13)

• Many of the studies show that improved

formative assessment helps low achievers

more than others, thereby reducing the

spread of attainment while also raising

achievement overall.

10 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

5

Principle 3: Use Frequent

Formative Assessment

Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP)…

11 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Fractions Multiplicative Reasoning Proportionality

formative assessment that

• involves pre-assessing student knowledge

• provides strategies for analyzing the pre-

assessment

• provides tools (item banks and analysis tools)

that supports a continuous and intentional

probing of students’ developing understanding

12 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

6

Principle 4: Build Assessment on

Cognitive Research

items (and bank of items)

… interpret student

designed to elicit developing

work and inform

understandings, common instruction.

errors, preconceptions, or

misconceptions.

13 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

knowledge of cognitive research alone…

empowers teachers.

14 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

7

Understand Evidence in Student

Work Used to Inform Instruction

Shade 5 of the figure

8

Thomas’s Response Dyson’s Response

different strategies TO… implications and taking action

15 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Additive Transitional Multiplicative

Strategy Multiplicative Strategy Strategy

three wheels. match this picture. donated 7 dozen

How many wheels do eggs to the senior

29 tricycles have? center. How many

eggs did he donate?

16 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

8

OGAP PROPORTIONALITY FRAMEWORK (11/2008)

Structures of Problem Students move back and forth

between proportional strategies,

and non-proportional reasoning,

Mathematical Topics Problem Multiplicative Relationships Ratio depending upon the structure of

and Context Types Relationships the problem, the context in

Ratios Ratio Both integral Part: Whole which the problem is situated,

Rates (Density) Rate Both non-integral Part: Part and the strength of their

Rates (D=RT) Comparison Some non-integral proportional reasoning.

Rates (Buy/Consume) Missing value Ratio Referents

Similarity Scale factor Numbers (Cramer, Post & Currier, 1993;

Implied

Scale Qualitative Karplus, Pulos & Stage, 1983;

All integers Explicit

Probability Non-proportional VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006 & 2007)

All non-integers

Percents

Both integer and non-integer Representations

Linear equitations

Linear patterns and Graph

relationships Internal structure Table

Slope Parallel structure Model

Frequency distributions Non-parallel structure

Proportional Transitional Proportional Non-proportional Underlying Issues,

Strategies Strategies Reasoning Errors, Misconceptions

• Finds and applies unit rate • Builds up/down • Guesses or uses random • Errors in the applications

• Compares simplified • Finds equivalent operations of cross-product

fractions, rates, or ratios fractions/ratios with • Uses additive reasoning • Uses additive strategy in solution

• Applies multiplicative an error • Uses whole-number • Misinterprets meaning of quantities

relationship • Uses models reasoning • Remainders are not treated

• Sets up proportions and uses • Makes a cross-product • Solves non-proportional correctly

cross-products error situations proportionally • Units inconsistent or absent

• Uses y=kx (either symbolic or • Makes an error in • Misinterprets vocabulary • Errors in equation

graphic representations) applying a multiplicative and related concept • Computational error

• Applies the correct ratio relationship • Rounding error

referent in ratio problem • Uses incorrect ratio referent

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the

National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR- 0227057) November 25, 2008 Version

Teachers say...

•that knowledge of research coupled

with tools and resources sensitive to the

research helps them…

• Understand the purposes of activities

in mathematics programs;

• Use evidence in student work to

inform instruction;

• Strengthen and focus initial

instruction;

• Respond to evidence in student work

as instruction proceeds.

17 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Structures

of Problems

Mathematical Other

Topics And Structures

Contexts

Evidence in Student

Work to Inform Instruction

Strategies Proportional Reasoning Issues, Errors,

Strategies Misconceptions

18 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

9

Graphic Comment Mid-year Student self

organizers only grading exams assessment

Non-graded Non-graded Student

Graded pre-

pre- exit work

assessments

assessment questions analysis

End of Unit Probing Screening

Homework

Projects questions Exams

Sharing

Stanford Algebra

NCLB assessment

Achievement Readiness

Assessments criteria with

Tests Test

students

Teacher Math

Weekly quiz Unit Tests

observation worksheet

Graphic organizers

Comment only

grading

Session 1, Formative Assessment 1

Non-graded pre-

assessment

Graded pre-

assessments

Session 1, Formative Assessment 2

End of Unit Projects

Homework

Session 1, Formative Assessment 3

NCLB Assessments

Stanford

Achievement Tests

Session 1, Formative Assessment 4

Teacher observation

Weekly quiz

Session 1, Formative Assessment 5

Mid-year exams

Student self

assessment

Session 1, Formative Assessment 6

Non-graded exit

questions

Student work

analysis

Session 1, Formative Assessment 7

Probing questions

Screening Exams

Session 1, Formative Assessment 8

Algebra Readiness

Test

Sharing assessment

criteria with students

Session 1, Formative Assessment 9

Math worksheet

Unit Tests

Session 1, Formative Assessment 10

FORMATIVE

ASSESSMENT

EXAMPLES

NON-EXAMPLES

Session 1, Formative Assessment 11

NOT SURE

Definition/Characteristics: Contexts/mathematical topics in which

proportionality occurs:

Proportionality

Examples of proportional situations: Non-examples of proportional situations:

problems:

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC October 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The

Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number

S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Warm-up OGAP Proportionality

1) Based on the shape of the graphs below select the graph that

represents a proportional situation.

a) Explain your choice and why the others were not selected.

b) These graphs were intentionally not labeled. Provide three

different situations (contexts) that would fit the graph you

selected. Label the axis given each context (do not put on a

scale).

graphs and place them on newsprint paper. Be prepared to

describe the situation.

The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number

S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

1) Carrie is packing apples. It takes 3 boxes

to pack 2 bushels of apples. How many

boxes will she need to pack 8 bushels of

apples? Show all your work for this

problem.

days. How long will it take Paul’s dog to

eat a 45 pound bag of dog food? Show all

your work for this problem.

every 3 minutes. How many gallons of

water does Bob use if he takes a 13 minute

shower? Show all your work for this

problem.

4) The chart below shows the population of raccoons

in two towns. Karl says that Town A has more

raccoons per square mile. Josh says that Town B

has more raccoons per square mile. Who is right?

Justify

Town A Town B your

60 square miles 40 square miles answer.

How much water does Nate use when he takes a 15

minute shower?

pasture. Jefferson Ranch raises 75 horses on 125

acres of pasture. Which ranch has more acres of

pasture per horse? Explain your answer using

words, pictures, or diagrams.

3.2 - Structures of Proportiojnality Problems Case Study

Case Study

A sixth grade teacher is starting a unit on proportionality and is reviewing the set of the problems at the end of the chapter to get an

idea of what her students should be able to do by the end of the unit. She notices that there is no instruction on using cross products in

the unit, but there is an emphasis on other strategies to solve proportionality problems.

As she looks at the problems, she thinks some of the problems will be more difficult than the other problems. She decides to sort the

problems into piles to help her think about features of problems she needs to think about as the unit progresses.

Step 1: With a partner sort the problems into three categories – 1) Easiest; 2) Moderate difficulty; 3) Most challenging

Step2: Make notes of features of the problems that would make them more or less challenging for students.

List Problems: List Problems: List Problems:

1 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number

EHR-0227057) Version 2.0 July 16, 2007

3.2 - Structures of Proportiojnality Problems Case Study

Unit Review

1) Carrie is packing apples. It takes 3 boxes to pack 2 bushels of apples. How many boxes will she need to pack 8 bushels of apples?

Show all your work for this problem.

2) Paul’s dog eats 20 pounds of food in 30 days. How long will it take Paul’s dog to eat a 45 pound bag of dog food? Show all your

work for this problem.

3) Bob’s shower uses 18 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How many gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 13 minute shower?

Show all your work for this problem.

Town A Town B

60 square miles 40 square miles

480 raccoons 380 raccoons

Karl says that Town A has more raccoons per square mile. Josh says that Town B has more raccoons per square mile. Who is right?

Justify your answer.

5) Nate’s shower uses 4 gallons of water per minute. How much water does Nate use when he takes a 15 minute shower?

6) Big Horn Ranch raises 100 horses on 150 acres of pasture. Jefferson Ranch raises 75 horses on 125 acres of pasture. Which ranch

has more acres of pasture per horse? Explain your answer using words, pictures, or diagrams.

2 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number

EHR-0227057) Version 2.0 July 16, 2007

3A.1 - Multiplicative Relationship Case Study

work gathered during an OGAP pilot study conducted in 2006. The pilot was

designed to explore the impact on student solutions of changing the multiplicative

relationship “within” and “between” ratios. As a part of the pilot 150 seventh

grade students solved the three problems below over a one week period. All of the

responses were analyzed.

While the sample doesn’t fully represent all the strategies that were evidenced, it

does provide a lens into the findings that illustrate the impact of changing the

multiplicative relationships as students solved these problems.

[There are two parts to this Case. Part 1 is focused on the problems used in the

study. Part 2 (page 3) is focused on an analysis of student work.]

Part 1:

1) Solve each problem

2) Identify the multiplicative relationship within and between the ratios for

each problem

3) Anticipate difficulties that students might have when solving each problem

Pilot 1

A school is enlarging its playground. The dimensions of the new playground are

proportional to the dimensions of the old playground.

80 ft.

1 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) October 2008 v2

3A.1 - Multiplicative Relationship Case Study

Pilot 2

are proportional to the dimensions of the old playground.

180 ft.

30 ft.

50 ft.

Pilot 3

Susan is enlarging her garden. The dimensions of the new garden are

proportional to the dimensions of the old garden.

7 ft.

13 ft.

19.5 ft.

2 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) October 2008 v2

3A.1 - Multiplicative Relationship Case Study

With a partner review the sets of student work from the study.

student work by placing an X in the cell that corresponds with your

analysis.

2) Complete discussion questions 1 – 3 below after you have completed

the review of student work.

Multiplicative Additive Multiplicative Additive Multiplicative Additive

Strategy Strategy Strategy Strategy Strategy Strategy

Student 1

Student 2

Student 3

Student 4

Student 5

Student 6

TOTALS

Discussion Questions;

3 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) October 2008 v2

1 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

2 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

3 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

4 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

5 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

6 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

7 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

8 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

9 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

10 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

11 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

12 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

13 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

14 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

15 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

16 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

17 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

18 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) July 17, 2007

3B - Interpreting the Meaning of Quantities Case Study

Part I: The student work below shows four different ways that a student may not be interpreting the meaning of the quantities in the

problem or in the solution. Review the student work and then answer the questions for each response.

Student Response A 1) What is the evidence that the student may not be interpreting the

meaning of the quantities in the problem?

you might do to help them understand the meaning of the quantities

in the problem and the solution.

1 version 1.0 June 20, 2008 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

3B - Interpreting the Meaning of Quantities Case Study

Student Response B

1) What is the evidence that the student may not be

interpreting the meaning of the quantities in the problem?

activities you might do to help them understand the

meaning of the quantities in the problem and the solution.

2 version 1.0 June 20, 2008 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

3B - Interpreting the Meaning of Quantities Case Study

interpreting the meaning of the quantities in the

problem?

Student Response C

students or activities you might do to help them

understand the meaning of the quantities in the

problem and the solution.

3 version 1.0 June 20, 2008 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

3B - Interpreting the Meaning of Quantities Case Study

Student Response D 1) What is the evidence that the student may not be

interpreting the meaning of the quantities in the

problem?

students or activities you might do to help them

understand the meaning of the quantities in the

problem and the solution.

4 version 1.0 June 20, 2008 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

3B - Interpreting the Meaning of Quantities Case Study

Part II: What evidence in the student solution below of the student understanding both the meaning of the quantities in the problem

and the solution?

5 version 1.0 June 20, 2008 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education

(Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

1 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

2 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

3 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

4 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

5 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

6 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

7 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

8 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

9 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Structures of Proportionality

Problems

Leslie Ercole, VMP

Marge Petit, Marge Petit Consulting

(MPC)

Modified October

2008

Original materials created as a part of the Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment

Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Structures of Problems

And Contexts

Strategies Proportional Reasoning Issues, Errors,

Strategies Misconceptions

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 2

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

1

Structure of the problems

that students solve

Structure refers to –

how the problems are

built

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 3

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

1983; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

• Context (Heller, Post, & Behr, 1985; Karpus, Polus, & Stage, 1983)

• Types of problems (Lamon, 1993)

• Complexity of the numbers (Harel & Behr, 1993)

• Meaning of quantities as defined by the

context and the units (Silver, 2006 Vermont meeting; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 4

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

2

A Research Finding

proportional situation are integral, it is easier for

students to solve than when they are non-integral.

(Cramer, Post, & Currier, 1993; Karplus, Polus, & Stage, 1983; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 5

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

Multiplicative Relationships

pack 2 bushels of apples. How many boxes will

she need to pack 8 bushels of apples?

Non-integral Integral

multiplicative multiplicative

relationship

3 boxes x boxes relationship

=

2 bushels 8 bushels

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 6

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

3

Multiplicative Relationships

pack 2 bushels of apples. How many boxes will

she need to pack 8 bushels of apples?

Non-integral

multiplicative Integral

relationship multiplicative

relationship

3 boxes 2 bushels

=

x boxes 8 bushels

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 7

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

Multiplicative Relationships

relationships in this

proportional situation?

order business. It takes 3 boxes to pack 2

bushels of apples. How many boxes will she

need to pack 7 bushels of apples?

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 8

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

4

A Research Finding

proportional situation are both non-integral then

students have more difficulty and often revert

back to non-proportional reasoning and

strategies. (Cramer, Post, & Currier, 1993; Karplus, Polus, & Stage, 1983; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 9

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002)

1983; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

• Context (Heller, Post, & Behr, 1985; Karpus, Polus, & Stage, 1983)

• Types of problems (Lamon, 1993)

• Complexity of the numbers (Harel & Behr, 1993)

• Meaning of quantities as defined by the

context and the units (Silver, 2006 Vermont meeting; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

October 2008 Version 12.0 Vermont Mathematics Partnership (funded by the National 1

Science Foundation EHR-0227057 and the US Department of Education S366A020002) 0

5

Case Study - Multiplicative Relationships

(VMP Pilot Study, Grade 7 Students, n=153)

(Monday, pilot 1; Wednesday, pilot 2; and Friday, pilot 3)

• Main difference between the problems is the multiplicative

relationship within and between figures.

the new playground are proportional to the dimensions of the old

playground. What is the length of the new playground?

40 ft.

120 ft.

80 ft.

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(n=6 students)

Part 1

• Solve each problem.

• Identify the multiplicative relationship within and between

the figures.

• Anticipate difficulties that students might have when solving

each problem.

Part 2

Discussion with a partner:

• Identify the multiplicative or additive relationship evidenced

in the student response (e.g., x 3, between figures; + 6, within figures).

• Place your analysis in the cell that corresponds with the

student number and pilot number in the table on page 3.

• Complete Discussion Questions on page 3.

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Multiplicative Relationships Study:

Discussion Questions

and assessment?

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(2006 Pilot, n=153)

within and between figures Responses

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Structures of Proportionality Problems

1983; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

• Context (Heller, Post, & Behr, 1985; Karpus, Polus, & Stage, 1983)

• Types of problems (Lamon, 1993)

• Complexity of the numbers (Harel & Behr, 1993)

• Meaning of quantities as defined by the

context and the units (Silver, 2006 Vermont meeting; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

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Context Matters

students than unfamiliar contexts. (Cramer, Post, & Currier, 1993)

impacts difficulty. (Harel, & Behr, 1993)

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Context Matters

Which contexts might be more familiar to students?

How does proportionality show up in these different contexts?

• The scale factor relating two similar rectangles is 1.5. One side of

the larger rectangle is 18 inches. How long is the corresponding

side of the smaller rectangle?

water does Nate use when he takes a 15 minute shower?

Toasty Oats costs $2.10. Which box costs less per ounce?

Explain your reasoning.

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1983; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

• Types of problems (Lamon, 1993)

• Complexity of the numbers (Harel & Behr, 1993)

• Meaning of quantities as defined by the

context and the units (Silver, 2006 Vermont meeting; VMP OGAP Pilots, 2006)

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Types of Problems

• Ratio

• Rate

• Rate and ratio comparisons

• Missing value

• Scale factor

• Qualitative questions

• Non- proportional

OGAP Proportionality Framework

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Types of Problems

of any two like quantities ratio. Its denominator is

(same unit). always 1.

The ratio of people with brown $3.00 per pound

eyes to blue eyes is 1:4. 25 horses per acre

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Types of Problems: Ratio

Relationships - Part : Part or Part : Whole

Referents - Implied or Explicit

OGAP Proportionality Framework

Dana and Jamie ran for student council president at Midvale Middle School. The

data below represents the voting results for grade 7.

Jamie Dana

Boys 24 40

Girls 49 20

John says that the ratio of the 7th grade boys who voted for Jamie to the 7th

grade students who voted for Jamie is about 1:2. Mary disagreed. Mary says it is

about 1:3. Who is correct? Explain your answer.

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Relationships - Part : Part or Part : Whole

Referents - Implied or Explicit

The ratio of red marbles to blue marbles is 1:2.

If there are 10 blue marbles in the bag, how

many red marbles are in the bag?

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Types of Problems: Rate Missing Value

What is the meaning of the answer?

How far did Leslie drive?

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of Toasty Oats costs $2.10. Which box costs less per ounce?

Explain your reasoning.

Jefferson Ranch raises 75 horses on 125 acres of pasture.

Which ranch has more acres of pasture per horse? Explain

your answer using words, pictures, or diagrams.

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Case Study - Meaning of the Quantities

In Part I of this case study, you will analyze 4 student

solutions to Ranch problem. The solutions represent the

kinds of “quantity interpretation” errors that students

make when they solve rate comparison problems.

Jefferson Ranch raises 75 horses on 125 acres of pasture.

Which ranch has more acres of pasture per horse? Explain

your answer using words, pictures, or diagrams.

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to the following.

• What is the evidence that the student may not be

interpreting the meaning of the quantities in the

problem?

• Suggest some questions you might ask each student

or activities you might do to help them understand the

meaning of the quantities in the problem and the

solution.

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Case Study - Meaning of the Quantities

the student’s understanding

of both the meaning of the

quantities in the problem

and in the solution?

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of a missing value problem?

pack 2 bushels of apples. How many boxes

will she need to pack 8 bushels of apples?

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A Research Finding

The location of the missing value may affect performance. (Harel, & Behr,1993)

It takes 3 boxes to pack 2 bushels of apples.

How many boxes will she need to pack 7 bushels of apples?

It takes 3 boxes to pack 2 bushels of apples. She needs 7

bushels of apples packed. How many boxes will she need?

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Research Applications

18 days. How long will it take Paul’s

dog to eat 45 pound bag of food?

easier, and then harder.

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Structures of The Problems

A school is enlarging its playground. The dimensions of the new

playground are proportional to the old playground. What is the

measurement of the missing length of the new playground?

Show your work.

Old Playground New Playground

630 ft.

this similarity problem? OGAP Proportionality Framework

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this similarity problem?

below. Which two rectangles are similar?

• 2” x 8”

• 4” x 10”

• 6” x 12”

• 6” x 15”

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Structures of The Problems

What is the general structure of

scale factor problems?

Jack built a scale model of the John Hancock Center. His model was

2.25 feet tall. The John Hancock Center in Chicago is 1476 feet tall.

How many feet of the real building does one foot on the scale model

represent? Be sure to show all of your work.

One side of the larger rectangle is 18 inches. How long

is the corresponding side of the smaller rectangle?

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1.5. One side of the larger rectangle is 18 inches.

How long is the corresponding side of the smaller

rectangle?

problem successfully, what variables

would you change to make it more

accessible? Why?

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A Research Finding

qualitative predictive and comparison

questions as they are developing their

proportional reasoning…. (Lamon,1993)

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Why do you think researchers suggest

these types of problems as important

stepping stones?

• Kim ran more laps than Bob. Kim ran her laps in

less time than Bob ran his laps. Who ran faster?

yesterday, would her running speed be: A) faster;

B) slower; C) exactly the same; D) not enough

information.

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A Research Finding

proportional and non-proportional

situations so they can determine when it

is appropriate to use a multiplicative

solution strategy. (Cramer, Post, & Currier, 1993)

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(Cramer, Post, & Currier, 1993)

running equally fast

3 U.S. dollars can be

around a track. Sue

exchanged for 2 British

started first. When she

pounds. How many

had run 9 laps, Julie had

pounds for $21 U.S.

run 3 laps. When Julie

dollars?

completed 15 laps, how

many laps had Sue run?

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A Research Finding

A Classic Non-proportional Example

(Cramer, Post, & Currier, 1993)

fast around a track. Sue Started first.

When she had run 9 laps, Julie had

run 3 laps. When Julie completed 15

laps, how many laps had Sue run?

treated this as a proportional relationship.

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pounds. How many pounds for 21 U.S. dollars?

using traditional proportional algorithm.

• No one in the same group could explain

why this is a proportional relationship

while the “running laps” is not.

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Case Study - Proportional and Non-proportional??

(VMP Pilot Study, ???)

around a track. Kim started first. When

she had run 9 laps, Bob had run 3 laps.

When Bob completed 15 laps, how

many laps had Kim run?

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Kim and Bob were running equally fast around a track. Kim

started first. When she had run 9 laps, Bob had run 3 laps.

When Bob completed 15 laps, how many laps had Kim run?

• 33/82 (40%) solved as an additive situation

• 10/82 (12%) non-starters

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Elements of a Proportional Structure

That Affect Performance

• Mathematical topics/contexts (scaling, similarity, etc.)

• Multiplicative relationships (integral or non-integral)

• Meaning of quantities (ratio relationships and ratio referents)

• Type of numbers used (integer vs. non-integer)

tough to teach and learn.

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Proportional Reasoner?

• Finds an efficient method based on multiplicative reasoning to

solve problems,

• Represents the quantities in the solution with units that reflect

the meaning of the quantities for the problem situation.

structures, such as context, problem types, the quantities in the

problems. (Cramer, Post, & Currier, 1993; Silver, 2006)

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Activity: Analyzing Pre-Assessment Tasks

• Problem types

• Mathematical topics/contexts (scaling, similarity, etc.)

• Multiplicative Relationships (integral or non-integral)

• Ratio Relationships (part:whole or part:part) and referents

(implied or implicit - if applicable)

• Type of numbers used (integer or non-integer)

• Internal Structure (parallel or non-parallel)

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General Directions:

Administering the OGAP Pre-assessment

next session

• Calculators are not allowed

• Tips for students

• Time

• Level of teacher assistance

• Do not analyze student work before our next meeting

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MMSTLC 1

(Rational) NUMBER AND OPERATIONS

N.ME.04.15 Read and interpret decimals up to two decimal places; relate to money and place value

decomposition.

N.ME.04.16 Know that terminating decimals represents fractions whose denominators are 10,

10 x 10, 10 x 10 x 10, etc., e.g., powers of 10.

N.ME.04.17 Locate tenths and hundredths on a number line.

N.ME.04.18 Read, write, interpret, and compare decimals up to two decimal places.

N.MR.04.19 Write tenths and hundredths in decimal and fraction forms, and know the decimal

equivalents for halves and fourths.

* revised expectations in italics

Understand fractions

N.ME.04.20 Understand fractions as parts of a set of objects.

N.MR.04.21 Explain why equivalent fractions are equal, using models such as fraction strips or the

number line for fractions with denominators of 12 or less, or equal to 100.

N.MR.04.22 Locate fractions with denominators of 12 or less on the number line; include mixed

numbers.*

N.MR.04.23 Understand the relationships among halves, fourths, and eighths and among thirds, sixths,

and twelfths.

N.ME.04.24 Know that fractions of the form mn where m is greater than n, are greater than 1 and are

called improper fractions; locate improper fractions on the number line.*

N.MR.04.25 Write improper fractions as mixed numbers, and understand that a mixed number represents

the number of “wholes” and the part of a whole remaining, e.g., 5/4 = 1 + ! = 1 !.

N.MR.04.26 Compare and order up to three fractions with denominators 2, 4, and 8, and 3, 6, and 12,

including improper fractions and mixed numbers.

N.MR.04.27 Add and subtract fractions less than 1 with denominators through 12 and/or 100, in cases

where the denominators are equal or when one denominator is a multiple of the other, e.g.,

1/12 +5/12 = 6/12; 1/6 + 5/12 = 7/12; 3/10 – 23/100 = 7100 . *

N.MR.04.28 Solve contextual problems involving sums and differences for fractions where one

denominator is a multiple of the other (denominators 2 through 12, and 100).*

N.MR.04.29 Find the value of an unknown in equations such 1/8 + x = 5/8 or

! - y = "*.

N.MR.04.30 Multiply fractions by whole numbers, using repeated addition and area or array models.

N.MR.04.31 For problems that use addition and subtraction of decimals through hundredths,

represent with mathematical statements and solve.*

N.FL.04.32 Add and subtract decimals through hundredths.*

Michigan Department of Education www.michigan.gov/mde

Grade 4

MMSTLC 2

N.FL.04.33 Multiply and divide decimals up to two decimal places by a one-digit whole number where the

result is a terminating decimal, e.g., 0.42 ÷ 3 = 0.14, but not 5 ÷ 3 = 1.6.

Understand meaning of decimal fractions and percentages

N.ME.05.08 Understand the relative magnitude of ones, tenths, and hundredths and the relationship of

each place value to the place to its right, e.g., one is 10 tenths, one tenth is 10 hundredths.

N.ME.05.09 Understand percentages as parts out of 100, use % notation, and express a part of a whole

as a percentage.

N.ME.05.10 Understand a fraction as a statement of division, e.g., 2 ÷ 3 = 2/3 , using simple fractions and

pictures to represent.

N.ME.05.11 Given two fractions, e.g., and , express them as fractions with a common

denominator, but not necessarily a least common denominator, e.g., !=4/8 and " = 6/8 ; use

denominators less than 12 or factors of 100.*

N.ME.05.12 Find the product of two unit fractions with small denominators using an area model.*

N.MR.05.13 Divide a fraction by a whole number and a whole number by a fraction, using simple unit

fractions.*

N.FL.05.14 Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators through 12 and/or 100, using the

common denominator that is the product of the denominators of the 2 fractions, e.g., 3/8 + 7/10; use 80

as the common denominator.*

N.MR.05.15 Multiply a whole number by powers of 10: 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1,000; and identify patterns.

N.FL.05.16 Divide numbers by 10!s, 100!s, 1,000!s using mental strategies.

N.MR.05.17 Multiply one-digit and two-digit whole numbers by decimals up to two decimal places.

N.FL.05.18 Use mathematical statements to represent an applied situation involving addition and

subtraction of fractions.*

N.MR.05.19 Solve contextual problems that involve finding sums and differences of fractions with unlike

denominators using knowledge of equivalent fractions.*

N.FL.05.20 Solve applied problems involving fractions and decimals; include rounding of answers and

checking reasonableness.*

N.MR.05.21 Solve for the unknown in equations such as # + x = 7/12.*

Grade 4

MMSTLC 3

N.MR.05.22 Express fractions and decimals as percentages and vice versa.

N.ME.05.23 Express ratios in several ways given applied situations, e.g., 3 cups to 5 people, 3 : 5, 3/5 ;

recognize and find equivalent ratios.

Sixth Grade

Work with number is essentially completed by the end of sixth grade, where students’

knowledge of whole numbers and fractions (ratios of whole numbers, with non-zero

denominators) should be introduced to integers and rational numbers. All of the number

emphasis is intended to lay a foundation for the algebra expectations that are included in

grade six. Students should use variables, write simple expressions and equations, and graph

linear relationships. In geometry, students continue to expand their repertoire about shapes

and their properties.

N.MR.06.01 Understand division of fractions as the inverse of multiplication, e.g.,

if 4/5 ÷ 2/3 = ! , then 2/3 • = 4/5, so = 4/5 • 3/2 = 12/10. [Core]

N.FL.06.02 Given an applied situation involving dividing fractions, write a mathematical

statement to represent the situation. [Core]

N.MR.06.03 Solve for the unknown in equations such as: 1/4 ÷ = 1, 3/4 ÷ = 1/4, and

1/2 = 1 • . [Fut]

N.FL.06.04 Multiply and divide any two fractions, including mixed numbers, fluently. [Core

– NC]

N.ME.06.05 Order rational numbers and place them on the number line. [Ext]

N.ME.06.06 Represent rational numbers as fractions or terminating decimals when

possible, and translate between these representations. [Ext]

N.ME.06.07 Understand that a fraction or a negative fraction is a quotient of two integers,

e.g., - 8/3 is -8 divided by 3. [Fut]

N.MR.06.08 Understand integer subtraction as the inverse of integer addition. Understand

integer division as the inverse of integer multiplication. [Fut]

N.FL.06.09 Add and multiply integers between -10 and 10; subtract and divide integers

using the related facts. Use the number line and chip models for addition and subtraction.

[Fut – NC]

N.FL.06.10 Add, subtract, multiply and divide positive rational numbers fluently.

[Core – NC]

N.ME.06.11 Find equivalent ratios by scaling up or scaling down. [Core]

N.FL.06.12 Calculate part of a number given the percentage and the number. [Ext – NC]

N.MR.06.13 Solve contextual problems involving percentages such as sales taxes and tips.

Grade 4

MMSTLC 4

[Core]

N.FL.06.14 For applied situations, estimate the answers to calculations involving

operations with rational numbers. [Core]

N.FL.06.15 Solve applied problems that use the four operations with appropriate

decimal numbers. [Core]

ALGEBRA

Calculate rates

A.P A.06.01 Solve applied problems involving rates, including speed, e.g., if a car is going

50 mph, how far will it go in 3 1/2 hours? [Core]

A.RP.06.02 Plot ordered pairs of integers and use ordered pairs of integers to identify

points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. [Core]

Use variables, write expressions and equations, and combine like terms

A.FO.06.03 Use letters, with units, to represent quantities in a variety of contexts, e.g., y

lbs., k minutes, x cookies. [Core]

A.FO.06.04 Distinguish between an algebraic expression and an equation. [Ext]

A.FO.06.05 Use standard conventions for writing algebraic expressions, e.g., 2x + 1

means “two times x, plus 1” and 2(x + 1) means “two times the quantity (x + 1).” [Fut]

A.FO.06.06 Represent information given in words using algebraic expressions and

equations. [Core]

A.FO.06.07 Simplify expressions of the first degree by combining like terms, and evaluate

using specific values. [Fut]

A.RP.06.08 Understand that relationships between quantities can be suggested by graphs

and tables. [Ext]

A.P A.06.09 Solve problems involving linear functions whose input values are integers;

write the equation; graph the resulting ordered pairs of integers, e.g., given c chairs, the

“leg function” is 4c; if you have 5 chairs, how many legs?; if you have 12 legs, how many

chairs? [Fut]

A.RP.06.10 Represent simple relationships between quantities using verbal descriptions,

formulas or equations, tables, and graphs, e.g., perimeter-side relationship for a square,

distance-time graphs, and conversions such as feet to inches. [Fut]

Solve equations

A.FO.06.11 Relate simple linear equations with integer coefficients, e.g., 3x = 8 or

x + 5 = 10, to particular contexts and solve. [Core]

A.FO.06.12 Understand that adding or subtracting the same number to both sides of an

equation creates a new equation that has the same solution. [Core]

A.FO.06.13 Understand that multiplying or dividing both sides of an equation by the same

non-zero number creates a new equation that has the same solutions. [Core]

A.FO.06.14 Solve equations of the form ax + b = c, e.g., 3x + 8 = 15 by hand for positive

integer coefficients less than 20, use calculators otherwise, and interpret the results. [Fut]

Grade 4

MMSTLC 5

Seventh Grade

The main focus in grade seven is the algebra concept of linear relationships, including ideas

about proportional relationships. Students should understand the relationship of equations

to their graphs, as well as to tables and contextual situation for linear functions. In addition,

work in algebra extends into simplifying and solving simple expressions and equations. The

main concept from geometry in grade seven is similarity of polygons, which also draws on

ideas about proportion. Students apply their understanding of ratio in data-based situations.

N.MR.07.02 Solve problems involving derived quantities such as density, velocity, and

weighted averages. [Fut]

N.FL.07.03 Calculate rates of change including speed. [Core]

N.MR.07.04 Convert ratio quantities between different systems of units, such as feet per

second to miles per hour. [Core]

N.FL.07.05 Solve proportion problems using such methods as unit rate, scaling, finding

equivalent fractions, and solving the proportion equation a/b = c/d; know how to see

patterns about proportional situations in tables. [Core]

N.FL.07.07 Solve problems involving operations with integers. [Core]

N.FL.07.08 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative rational numbers

fluently. [Core – NC]

N.FL.07.09 Estimate results of computations with rational numbers. [Core – NC]

ALGEBRA

relationships

A.P A.07.01 Recognize when information given in a table, graph, or formula suggests a

directly proportional or linear relationship. [Fut]

A.RP.07.02 Represent directly proportional and linear relationships using verbal

descriptions, tables, graphs, and formulas, and translate among these representations.

[Core]

A.P A.07.03 Given a directly proportional or other linear situation, graph and interpret the

slope and intercept(s) in terms of the original situation; evaluate y = mx + b for specific x

values, e.g., weight vs. volume of water, base cost plus cost per unit. [Fut]

A.P A.07.04 For directly proportional or linear situations, solve applied problems using

graphs and equations, e.g., the heights and volume of a container with uniform cross-

section; height of water in a tank being filled at a constant rate; degrees Celsius and

degrees Fahrenheit; distance and time under constant speed. [Core]

A.P A.07.05 Recognize and use directly proportional relationships of the form y = mx, and

distinguish from linear relationships of the form y = mx + b, b non-zero; understand that in

a directly proportional relationship between two quantities one quantity is a constant

multiple of the other quantity. [Fut]

Grade 4

MMSTLC 6

A.P A.07.06 Calculate the slope from the graph of a linear function as the ratio of

“rise/run” for a pair of points on the graph, and express the answer as a fraction and a

decimal; understand that linear functions have slope that is a constant rate of change.

[Fut]

A.P A.07.07 Represent linear functions in the form y = x + b, y = mx, and y = mx + b,

and graph, interpreting slope and y-intercept. [Fut]

A.FO.07.08 Find and interpret the x- and/or y-intercepts of a linear equation or function.

Know that the solution to a linear equation of the form ax + b=0 corresponds to the point at

which the graph of y = ax+ b crosses the x-axis. [Fut]

A.P A.07.09 Recognize inversely proportional relationships in contextual situations; know

that quantities are inversely proportional if their product is constant, e.g., the length and

width of a rectangle with fixed area, and that an inversely proportional relationship is of the

form y = k/x where k is some non-zero number. [Fut]

A.RP.07.10 Know that the graph of y = k/x is not a line, know its shape, and know that it

crosses neither the x- nor the y-axis. [Fut]

A.P A.07.11 Understand and use basic properties of real numbers: additive and

multiplicative identities, additive and multiplicative inverses, commutativity, associativity,

and the distributive property of multiplication over addition. [Core]

A.FO.07.12 Add, subtract, and multiply simple algebraic expressions of the first degree,

e.g., (92x + 8y) – 5x + y, or x(x+2) and justify using properties of real numbers. [Core]

A.FO.07.13 From applied situations, generate and solve linear equations of the form ax +

b = c and ax + b = cx + d, and interpret solutions. [Fut]

Solve problems

N.MR.08.07 Understand percent increase and percent decrease in both sum and product form, e.g., 3%

increase of a quantity x is x + .03x = 1.03x.

N.MR.08.08 Solve problems involving percent increases and decreases.

N.FL.08.09 Solve problems involving compounded interest or multiple discounts.

N.MR.08.10 Calculate weighted averages such as course grades, consumer price indices, and sports

ratings.

N.FL.08.11 Solve problems involving ratio units, such as miles per hour, dollars per pound, or persons

per square mile.*

• revised expectations in italics

A.RP.08.01 Identify and represent linear functions, quadratic functions, and other simple functions

including inversely proportional relationships (y = k/x); cubics (y = ax3); roots (y = !x ); and exponentials

(y = ax , a > 0); using tables, graphs, and equations.*

A.PA.08.02 For basic functions, e.g., simple quadratics, direct and indirect variation, and population

growth, describe how changes in one variable affect the others.

A.PA.08.03 Recognize basic functions in problem context, e.g., area of a circle is "r2, volume of a

sphere is "r3, and represent them using tables, graphs, and formulas.

A.RP.08.04 Use the vertical line test to determine if a graph represents a function in one variable.

Grade 4

MMSTLC 7

A.RP.08.05 Relate quadratic functions in factored form and vertex form to their graphs, and vice versa;

in particular, note that solutions of a quadratic equation are the x-intercepts of the corresponding

quadratic function.

A.RP.08.06 Graph factorable quadratic functions, finding where the graph intersects the x-axis and the

coordinates of the vertex; use words “parabola” and “roots”; include functions in vertex form and those

with leading coefficient –1, e.g., y = x2 – 36, y = (x – 2)2 – 9; y = – x2; y = – (x – 3)2.

A.FO.08.07 Recognize and apply the common formulas:

(a + b)2 = a2 + 2 ab + b2

(a – b)2 = a2 – 2 ab + b2

(a + b) (a – b) = a2 – b2 ; represent geometrically.

A.FO.08.08 Factor simple quadratic expressions with integer coefficients, e.g., x2 + 6x + 9, x2 + 2x – 3,

and x2 – 4; solve simple quadratic equations, e.g., x2 = 16 or x2 = 5 (by taking square roots);

x2 – x – 6 = 0, x2 – 2x = 15 (by factoring); verify solutions by evaluation.

A.FO.08.09 Solve applied problems involving simple quadratic equations.

inequalities

A.FO.08.10 Understand that to solve the equation f(x) = g(x) means to find all values of x for which the

equation is true, e.g., determine whether a given value, or values from a given set, is a solution of an

equation (0 is a solution of 3x2 + 2 = 4x + 2, but 1 is not a solution).

A.FO.08.11 Solve simultaneous linear equations in two variables by graphing, by substitution, and by

linear combination; estimate solutions using graphs; include examples with no solutions and infinitely

many solutions.

A.FO.08.12 Solve linear inequalities in one and two variables, and graph the solution sets.

A.FO.08.13 Set up and solve applied problems involving simultaneous linear equations and linear

inequalities.

* revised expectations in italics.

Each expectation is labeled [Core], [Ext] (Extended Core), [Fut] (Future Core) or [NASL] (Not

Assessed at the State Level); NC designates a Non-Calculator item

Grade 4

MMSTLC Session 17.5 SVSU 12/04/08

Step 1: Review the table of contents of your mathematics program. Highlight the

proportionality topics/contexts on the OGAP Proportionality Framework (use the copy

attached) that are addressed in your mathematics program.

Step 2: Select a MAJOR unit that focuses on developing proportional reasoning. Scan the

unit and then highlight the structures evidenced in the problems across the unit. Indicate

multiple hits on a structure with tic marks.

• Problem types

• Multiplicative relationships

• Internal structures

• For ratio problems – Referents (implied vs. explicit)

• Numbers

• Representations

Step 3: Given the GLECS at your grade level and the OGAP Framework answer the

following questions.

1) What surprised you?

2) In what ways does your program support the GLECS at your grade level? In what

ways does your program support the OGAP Framework Problem Structures?

3) In what ways does the unit (s) you reviewed provide opportunities for students to

solve different types of problems with varying problem structures?

4) What gaps, if any, did you find between your program and the OGAP Framework

Problem Structures?

• A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The

Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number

S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) November 2008

• Progam Review Task page 1 of 3

MMSTLC Session 17.5 SVSU 12/04/08

STEP 4:

1) Join the other groups at your grade and program and complete the flip chart paper

provided to you. Place your completed chart on the wall with the charts for other

grades and your program.

(Note: We will come back to these analyses after you have analyzed the student work from

the OGAP pre-assessment that you administered to your students. At that point you will

know what strategies your students used to solve the problems and how problem structures

did or did not affect their solution path.)

• A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The

Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number

S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) November 2008

• Progam Review Task page 2 of 3

Evidence in Student Work

to Inform Instruction

Leslie Ercole, VMP

Susan Ojala, VMI

Amy Johnson, Milton Elementary School

Marge Petit, Marge Petit Consulting (MPC)

Bob Laird, VMP

Krisan Stone, VMP

Ted Marsden, Norwich University

1 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Structures

of Problems

Mathematical Other

Topics And Structures

Contexts

Evidence in Student

Work to Inform Instruction

Strategies Proportional Reasoning Issues, Errors,

Strategies Misconceptions

2 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

1

Different Structures Effect

Student’s Reasoning

Pilot 1

Pilot 3

3 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

the strategies students use in

proportional situations?

• To support attainment of procedural fluency

• Procedural fluency “refers to the knowledge of procedures,

knowledge of when and how to use them appropriately, and skill in

performing them flexibly, accurately and efficiently.” (Adding It

Up! NRC (2000))

• To inform instruction

• Understanding students’ strategies – as they interact with problems

with different structures - helps teachers move students towards

procedural fluency.

• Ultimately, a proportional reasoner should not be influenced by

context, problem types, the multiplicative relationships, the

quantities in the problems and their associated units, or numerical

complexity (Cramer, Post & Currier, 1993)

4 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

2

OGAP Student Work

Disclaimer

• The primary purpose of the student work used

during this training is to help you recognize the

kinds of evidences found in student work when

students solve proportionality problems.

• For these purposes we will take the evidence in

the student work at face value :

• Understanding that an interview with a

student might reveal additional evidences.

• Understanding that the student might not

have shown all their thinking.

5 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Proportional Reasoning

Reasoning Proportional Strategies

Strategies

6 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

3

Proportional Reasoning

Non-proportional Transitional

Reasoning Proportional

Strategies

operations, or strategies

• Uses additive reasoning

• Uses whole number reasoning

• Solves a non-proportional situation proportionally

• Misinterprets vocabulary and related concept

(e.g., ratio, similarity)

7 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Non-proportional Reasoning

Bob’s shower uses 14 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How

many gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 8 minute

shower? Show all your work for this problem.

8 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

4

Non-proportional Reasoning

The chart below shows the

population of raccoons in two

towns.

Town A Town B

60 square miles 40 square miles

480 raccoons 360 raccoons

raccoons per square mile. Josh

says that Town B has more

raccoons per square mile. Who is

right? Justify your answer.

9 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Non-proportional Reasoning

Carrie is packing apples for an orchard’s mail order business.

It takes 3 boxes to pack 2 bushels of apples. How many

boxes will she need to pack 7 bushes of apples?

10 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

5

Non-proportional Reasoning

11 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Non-proportional Reasoning

Kim and Bob were running equally fast around a track. Kim

started first. When she had run 9 laps, Bob had run 3 laps.

When Bob had run 15 laps, how many laps had Kim run?

Explain your reasoning.

12 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

6

Proportional Reasoning

Proportional

Strategies

• Compares simplified fractions, rates, or ratios

• Applies multiplication relationships

• Sets up a proportion and uses cross products

• Uses y = kx (either symbolic or graphic)

• Applies the correct ratio referent when solving a

problem involving ratios

• Other

13 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Proportional Reasoning

Carrie is packing apples for an orchard’s mail order business.

It takes 3 boxes to pack 2 bushels of apples. How many

boxes will she need to pack 8 bushes of apples?

14 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

7

Proportional Strategies

Bob’s shower uses 18 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How

many gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 13 minute

shower? Show all your work for this problem.

15 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Proportional Strategies

Bob’s shower uses 18 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How

many gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 13 minute

shower? Show all your work for this problem.

16 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

8

Proportional Strategies

There are red and blue marbles in a bag. The ratio of red

marbles to blue marbles in a bag is 1:2. Sue opened the bag

and found 12 red marbles. How many marbles are in the bag

altogether? Explain your thinking.

17 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Proportional Strategies

Bob’s shower uses 14 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How

many gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 8 minute

shower?

18 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

9

Proportional Strategies

The dimensions of 4 rectangles are given below. Which 2

rectangles are similar?

19 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Proportional Strategies

The dimensions of 4 rectangles are given below.

Which 2 rectangles are similar?

20 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

10

Proportional Reasoning

Transitional

Proportional

Strategies

• Builds up/down

• Finds equivalent fractions/ratios with an

error

• Uses models

• Makes a cross product error

• Makes an error in applying a multiplicative

relationship

• Other

21 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Transitional Proportional

Strategies

Bob’s shower uses 14 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How many

gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 8 minute shower? Show all

your work for this problem.

22 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

11

Transitional Proportional

Strategies

Paul’s dog eats 20 pounds of food in 30 days. How long will it take

Paul’s dog to eat a 45 pound bag of dog food? Explain your thinking.

23 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Transitional Proportional

Strategies

The two rectangles are similar. What is the length of Rectangle B?

Rectangle A Rectangle B

4 in.

6 in. 12 in.

• x

24 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

12

Transitional Proportional

Strategies

Carrie is packing apples for an orchard’s mail order business. It takes

3 boxes to pack 2 bushels of apples. How many boxes will she need to

pack 7 bushes of apples?

25 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

or Misconceptions

• Error in application of cross products

• Error in equation

• Computational error

• Rounding error

26 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

13

Underlying Issues and Concerns

The chart below shows the

population of raccoons in two towns.

Town A Town B

60 square miles 40 square miles

480 raccoons 360 raccoons

raccoons per square mile. Josh says

that Town B has more raccoons per

square mile. Who is right? Justify

your answer.

27 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

There are red and blue marbles in a bag. The ratio of red marbles

to blue marbles in a bag is 1:2. Sue opened the bag and found 12

marbles. How many marbles are in the bag altogether?

Explain your thinking.

28 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

14

Underlying Issues and Concerns

Big Horn Ranch raises 100 horses on 150 acres of pasture. Jefferson

Ranch raises 75 horses on 125 acres of pasture. Which ranch has more

acres of pasture per horse? Explain your answer using words, pictures,

or diagrams.

29 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

Bob’s shower uses 14 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How

many gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 8 minute

shower? Show all your work for this problem.

30 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

15

Underlying Issues and Concerns

Bob’s shower uses 14 gallons of water every 3 minutes. How

many gallons of water does Bob use if he takes a 8 minute

shower? Show all your work for this problem.

31 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

• Bob’s Shower

• Raccoons

32 Vermont Mathematics Partnership Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) funded by NSF (EHR-0227057) and US DOE (S366A020002)

16

MMSTLC Session 17.7 SVSU 12/4/08

In this activity you wlll be using the OGAP Framework to help describe evidence

in over 20 student solutions to problems that you have encountered in previous

OGAP work.

• What is the solution strategy that the student used?

• What is the evidence of that strategy?

• What structure (s) in the problem facilitated the use of a proportional

strategy or may have resulted in a student using either a transitional or

non-proportional strategy?

• What might your next instructional/assessment step be given the student

solution? (e.g., what evidence of understanding can be built on? What

else do you need to know to help make decisions about the next

instructional step? What questions can you ask to build on understanding?

What activities or models can be used?)

instruction steps:

• A student solution usually provides evidence of understanding that can be

built upon;

• One might need to collect additional information about the student

understanding as a part of the next step;

• While you are identifying next instructional steps in response to one

student response in this activity, these evidences are common across

classrooms. So when you answer questions about individual pieces of

student work in this activity think about this being an example of common

errors across groups of students that can be applied to full classrooms of

students.

• Even when a student correctly solves a problem, there are instructional

next steps to consider.

Important Note: The purpose of reviewing this work is NOT to spend time to

reliably agree about the evidences, but to give us a way to describe the evidence

that will inform instruction.

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the

National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

8.4 A Student Work Bob's Shower

Student 1

1 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 2

2 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 3

3 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 4

4 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 5

5 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 6

6 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 7

7 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 8

8 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 9

9 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 10

10 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 11

11 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 12

12 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 13

13 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

8.5 A Student Work Raccoons

Student 1

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

1 These materials

Mathematics werefunded

Partnership createdby

byathe Vermont

grant Mathematics

provided by the US Partnership

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NationalEducation (Award Number

Science Foundation (AwardS366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Number EHR-0227057)

Student 2

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the

2 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 3

4 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 4

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

5 ThesePartnership

Mathematics funded

materials were by a by

created grant

theprovided

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grant provided S366A020002) and theof

the US Department

National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 5

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

6 These materials

Mathematics Partnership

werefunded

createdbybya the

grant provided

Vermont by the US Department

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funded (Award

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Science Foundation (AwardS366A020002)

(Award Number Number EHR-0227057)

and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 6

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

Mathematics Partnership

7 These materials funded

were by by

created a grant providedMathematics

the Vermont by the US Department

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the US Department of

National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 7

8 These materials were created by the Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of

Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 8

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

9 ThesePartnership

Mathematics funded

materials were by a grant

created by theprovided

Vermontby the US Department

Mathematics of Education

Partnership funded by a(Award Number by

grant provided S366A020002) and theof

the US Department

National Science Foundation

Education (Award(Award

NumberNumber EHR-0227057)

S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

Student 9

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

12 ThesePartnership

Mathematics materials were created

funded by theprovided

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NumberNumber EHR-0227057)

S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

MMSTLC Session 17.8 OGAP Proportional Reasoning Item Analysis Sheet

Item Background:

Proportional Strategies Transitional Proportional Strategies Non-proportional Strategies

Description of evidence to inform Description of evidence to inform instruction: Description of evidence to inform instruction:

instruction: • Guesses or uses random application of numbers,

• Builds up/down operations, or strategies

• Finds and applies unit rate to situation

• Finds equivalent fractions/ratios with an error • Uses additive reasoning

• Compares simplified fractions, rates, or

ratios • Uses whole number reasoning

• Uses models

• Applies multiplicative relationship • Solves a non-proportional situation proportionally

• Makes a cross product error • Misunderstands vocabulary and related concept (e.g.

• Sets up a proportion and uses cross ratio, similarity)

products

• Makes an error in applying a multiplicative • Not enough information to determine/lacks

• Uses y=mx relationship supporting evidence

For ratio problems:

• Applies the correct ratio referent • Other

Underlying Concerns/Errors

Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions: Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions:

• Error in equation

• Error in the application of cross products

• Uses incorrect ratio referent

• Uses additive strategies rather than multiplicative strategy (e.g., uses

repeated addition instead of multiplication) • Other

• Misinterprets the meaning of the quantities • Computational error

• Remainders are not treated correctly

• Rounding errors

Instructional Notes:

The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-

0227057) November 21, 2008

MMSTLC Session 17.8 OGAP Proportional Reasoning Item Analysis Sheet

Item Background:

Proportional Strategies Transitional Proportional Strategies Non-proportional Strategies

Description of evidence to inform Description of evidence to inform instruction: Description of evidence to inform instruction:

instruction: • Guesses or uses random application of numbers,

• Builds up/down operations, or strategies

• Finds and applies unit rate to situation

• Finds equivalent fractions/ratios with an error • Uses additive reasoning

• Compares simplified fractions, rates, or

ratios • Uses whole number reasoning

• Uses models

• Applies multiplicative relationship • Solves a non-proportional situation proportionally

• Makes a cross product error • Misunderstands vocabulary and related concept (e.g.

• Sets up a proportion and uses cross ratio, similarity)

products

• Makes an error in applying a multiplicative • Not enough information to determine/lacks

• Uses y=mx relationship supporting evidence

For ratio problems:

• Applies the correct ratio referent • Other

Underlying Concerns/Errors

Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions: Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions:

• Error in equation

• Error in the application of cross products

• Uses incorrect ratio referent

• Uses additive strategies rather than multiplicative strategy (e.g., uses

repeated addition instead of multiplication) • Other

• Misinterprets the meaning of the quantities • Computational error

• Remainders are not treated correctly

• Rounding errors

Instructional Notes:

The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-

0227057) November 21, 2008

MMSTLC Session 17.8 SVSU 12/4/08

There are three steps to the OGAP Student Work Sort Process. For a single

question:

STEP 1: Review and then sort the work for the class into three piles consistent

with the OGAP Proportionality Framework.

We suggest starting with the Proportional Strategy pile of student work first and

then repeat the process for each of the other piles.

A) Record the strategy (you may want to sub sort the work first (e.g., All that

use multiplicative relationships, or unit rate) by placing the students’ #s (in

your case name, initials) that corresponds with the strategy.

B) Record any underlying issues, errors, or misconceptions evidenced

in the work by placing the students’ #s (in your case name, initials) that

corresponds with the error et al.

Student 1

1

Student 1

STEP 3: In the “Instructional notes section or on the back make some quick

notes about trends in the class or instructional ideas that you may have after

reviewing the work.

A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The Vermont

Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the

National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

9.2 Analyzing Pre-assessment Participant Directions

Goals:

• To gather evidence about strategies your students’ use when they solve

proportionality problems to inform instruction and unit planning.

• To gather evidence about any underlying issues, errors, or misconceptions found

in student pre-assessments to inform instruction and unit planning.

Materials Needed:

• 5 OGAP Proportionality Item Analysis Sheets per person stapled together (9.4)

• The Pre-assessment Analysis Directions(9.2)

• Telling the Story (9.3)

• Completed student pre-assessments

Part I: Analyzing student work and collecting evidence on OGAP Item Analysis

Sheets (2.5 hours)

In General: You will analyze each item across all your students, NOT across a student.

As with the practice in the last session you will NOT grade or score the student

responses from the pre-assessment, but will collect descriptive information on the

OGAP Item Analysis Sheet that will be used to inform instruction and unit planning.

Suggested order for analyzing pre-assessments: Please analyze items in the order

suggested below. You can see that we suggest first analyzing the rate/ratio comparison

problems, then the missing value problems, and then other item types.

Order Grade 6 Item Type Grade 7 Item Type

1 Raccoons Rate comparison Big Horn Ranch Rate comparison

2 Car traveled Rate comparison Similarity Ratio comparison

3 Bob’s Shower Missing value Paul’s Dog Missing value

4 Marbles Ratio Bob’s Shower Missing value

5 Sherwood Forest Qualitative Kim and Bob Non-proportional

1) Make notes about the structures of the problem that might influence student

solutions on the fist line of an OGAP Item Analysis Sheet.

1 A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The

Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002)

and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

9.2 Analyzing Pre-assessment Participant Directions

2) Complete the OGAP Sort and collect evidence in the OGAP Item Analysis Sheet.

IMPORTANT: We suggest that you actually put the students’ initials on the item

analysis sheets. That way you won’t loose important individual student data as

you analyze items across the classroom of students.

3) Write comments on the “Instructional Notes” section of the OGAP Item Analysis

Sheet before moving onto the analysis of the next item.

After you complete the analysis of all the items in the pre-assessment address these three

questions on the Telling the Story template (9.3).

1) What are some strategies evidenced in the student work that you can build upon?

2) What are some underlying issues or concerns evidenced in the student work?

3) What are some implications for instruction?

You will use the information from this activity in the next session as you do unit

planning.

1) Return to your school level team. In a round robin have each teacher “Tell the

Story” for the group of students that they analyzed their pre-assessments (about 5

minutes each).

2) Be prepared to discuss general observations, findings, and implications for your

school.

2 A derivative OGAP product created for MMSTLC November 2008. Original materials were developed as a part of The

Vermont Mathematics Partnership funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002)

and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057)

MMSTLC Session 17.8 OGAP Proportional Reasoning Item Analysis Sheet

Item Background:

Proportional Strategies Transitional Proportional Strategies Non-proportional Strategies

Description of evidence to inform Description of evidence to inform instruction: Description of evidence to inform instruction:

instruction: • Guesses or uses random application of numbers,

• Builds up/down operations, or strategies

• Finds and applies unit rate to situation

• Finds equivalent fractions/ratios with an error • Uses additive reasoning

• Compares simplified fractions, rates, or

ratios • Uses whole number reasoning

• Uses models

• Applies multiplicative relationship • Solves a non-proportional situation proportionally

• Makes a cross product error • Misunderstands vocabulary and related concept (e.g.

• Sets up a proportion and uses cross ratio, similarity)

products

• Makes an error in applying a multiplicative • Not enough information to determine/lacks

• Uses y=mx relationship supporting evidence

For ratio problems:

• Applies the correct ratio referent • Other

Underlying Concerns/Errors

Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions: Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions:

• Error in equation

• Error in the application of cross products

• Uses incorrect ratio referent

• Uses additive strategies rather than multiplicative strategy (e.g., uses

repeated addition instead of multiplication) • Other

• Misinterprets the meaning of the quantities • Computational error

• Remainders are not treated correctly

• Rounding errors

Instructional Notes:

The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-

0227057) November 21, 2008

MMSTLC Session 17.8 OGAP Proportional Reasoning Item Analysis Sheet

Item Background:

Proportional Strategies Transitional Proportional Strategies Non-proportional Strategies

Description of evidence to inform Description of evidence to inform instruction: Description of evidence to inform instruction:

instruction: • Guesses or uses random application of numbers,

• Builds up/down operations, or strategies

• Finds and applies unit rate to situation

• Finds equivalent fractions/ratios with an error • Uses additive reasoning

• Compares simplified fractions, rates, or

ratios • Uses whole number reasoning

• Uses models

• Applies multiplicative relationship • Solves a non-proportional situation proportionally

• Sets up a proportion and uses cross ratio, similarity)

products

• Makes an error in applying a multiplicative • Not enough information to determine/lacks

• Uses y=mx relationship supporting evidence

For ratio problems:

• Applies the correct ratio referent • Other

Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions: Underlying issues or concerns in student solutions:

• Error in equation

• Error in the application of cross products

• Uses incorrect ratio referent

• Uses additive strategies rather than multiplicative strategy (e.g., uses

repeated addition instead of multiplication) • Other

• Misinterprets the meaning of the quantities • Computational error

• Remainders are not treated correctly

• Rounding errors

Instructional Notes:

The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-

0227057) November 21, 2008

Session 9.3 Telling the Story – Implications for Instruction

1) What are some proportional strategies evidenced student work across your class?

2) What are some underlying issues or concerns evidenced in student work across

your class?

1 The Vermont Mathematics Partnership is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Education (Award Number

S366A020002) and the National Science Foundation (Award Number EHR-0227057) v 1.0 June 13, 2007

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