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General Method of Preparation of Alkanes (Paraffins): Alkanes can be prepared by the following methods: 1. From unsaturated Hydrocarbons 2.

From Haloalkanes By Wurtz Reaction By reduction 3. By the Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones 4. 5. 6. From Grignards Reagent From salts of Carboxylic acids By Kolbes electrolytic method By Heating Na-salt of Carboxylic acid From Metal Carbides

1. From unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkanes can be prepared by the catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the presence of catalyst Ni or pt at 200C to 300C. general methods of preparation of alkane 2. From Haloalkanes By Wurtz Reaction: When alkyl halides are heated with sodium metal in the presence of dry mther, alkanes are obtained (generally having double number of C-atoms than in alkyl halides). This reaction is known as Wurtz reaction and used for the preparation of symmetrical alkanes. general methods for preparation of alkane

By Reduction of alkyl halides (RX) Haloalkanes (R-X) when heated with reducing agents like; LiAlH4/ether, Pd/H2, Pt/H2, Zn/conc. HCl, alkanes are produced. R-X chemical-2h R-H + HX 3. By the Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones can be reduced into alkanes in the presence of reducing agents: amalgated zinc and conc. HCl. general method of preparation of alkane 4. From Grignards Reagent Hydrolysis of Grignards reagent in the presence of ether gives alkanes. dry ether RMgX + H2O > R-H + Mg(OH)X alkyl magnesium halide (alkane) (Hydroxy magnesium halide) 5. From salts of Carboxylic acid By Kolbes electrolytic method Electrolysis of aqueous conc. solution of sodium or potassium salt of carboxylic acid gives alkanes. >>RCOONa-Sodium salt

>>RCOOKPotassium salt RCOONa> RCOO- + Na+ anion cation During electrolysis; Electrode reaction occurs as At anode: RCOO- - e > RCOO > R-R + 2CO2 unstable alkane At cathode: Na+ + OH- > NaOH By Heating Na-salt of Carboxylic acid When Na-salt of carboxylic acid is heated with soda lime (NaOH & CaO), alkane is obtained having one carbon less than salt by removal of a molecule of CO2. This reaction is also known as decarboxylation. RCOONa + NaOH cao R-H + Na2CO3 Eg: general method of preparation of alkane Sodium ethanoate (methane) This is the principle reaction for laboratory preparation of methane gas.

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From Metal Carbides Metal carbide like aluminium carbide (Al4C3) and beryllium carbide (Be2C) reacts with pure water to produce methane. Al4C3 + 12H2O -> 4Al(OH)3 + 3CH4

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