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Optical Fiber Networks
By
Dr. Muhammad Khalil Shahid
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Optical Fiber Networks
Agenda
Basics of optical fiber communication system
Advantages and disadvantages of O F
transmission
Pre SDH System
SDH System
DWDM System
ONU/OLT
4
Important Terms/Definitions
Wavelength:
The distance between two successive peaks of a wave
The length of the light wave, which determines its color.
Common units of measurement are the micron, the
nanometer (10
-9
)
Bandwidth:
The measure of how quickly you can move information
from one point to another (bits/s)
It's similar to roadways - a four-lane highway can carry
more traffic than a two-lane highway.
5
Bit:
A bit is a binary digit, taking a value of either 0 or 1.
For example, the number 10010111 is 8 bits long
dB/dBm:
loss/gain is measured in dB, it is a logrithmic ratio
dB = 10 log10 (P1/P2)
dBm is a power level above I milli Watt,
dBm = 10 log (power / 1 mW)
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General Communication System
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Optical Communication System
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9
Telecommunication bands
Optical telecommunication in the near & short infrared is technically often separated Or
-O-band 1,2601,360 nm ---------- Original
-E-band 1,3601,460 nm ---------- Extended
-S-band 1,4601,530 nm------------- Short wavelength
-C-band 1,5301,565 nm----------- Conventional
-L-band 1,5651,625 nm------------ Long Wavelength
-U-band 1,6251,675 nm-----------Ultra long wave length
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Optical Windows
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Optical Fiber Cable
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Optical Fiber Cable
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FIBER Cable CONSISTS OF
Core
Innermost region of the fiber
Used to transmit the light
Cladding
prevented the light from leaking out of the core
by reflecting the light within the boundaries of the
core.
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Concept Of Reflecting
The angle at which light is reflected
is dependent on the refractive
indices of the two materials .
In our case, the core and the
cladding
The lower refractive index of the
cladding (with respect to the core)
causes the light to be angled back
into the core
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Total Internal Reflection
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Refractive Index
The refractive index of a medium is a measure for how
much the speed of light is reduced inside the medium
For example, typical Soda Lime Glass has a refractive
index of 1.5, which means that in glass, light travels at 1 /
1.5 = 0.67 times the speed of light in a vacuum
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Transmission of Optical Signals in
Optical Fibers
n>n1
Incident angle > Critical Angle
Total Internal Reflection
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Types of Fibers
Single-Mode Step Index
Multi-Mode Step Index
Multi-Mode Graded Index
Single Mode Graded Index
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Single-Mode:
Have only one wavelength
Laser diode is used as optical source
Uses for long haul transmission and AN
Multi-Mode
Have thousands of wave lengths
LED is used as optical source
Uses in high speed LAN
Cheaper fiber
Cheaper system
Types of Fibers
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Types of optical fibers
G.652: A single-mode optical fiber that has a
nominal zero-dispersion wavelength in the 1310nm
transmission region. (dispersion un-shifted fiber)
G.653: Dispersion-shifted fiber; zero dispersion at
1550nm transmission region
G.655: Non-zero dispersion fiber; used in 1550nm
transmission region. Less dispersion coefficient,
dispersion limited transmission distance can be
hundreds of km
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SMF Loss
Fiber Type
G.652 G.653 G.655
Typical loss value
(1310 nm)
0.3 dB/km ~ 0.4 dB/km - -
Typical loss value
(1550 nm)
0.15 dB/km ~ 0.25
dB/km
0.19 dB/km ~
0.25dB/km
0.19 dB/km ~ 0.25
dB/km
Working window
1310 nm and 1550 nm
1550 nm 1550 nm
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Advantages of Optical Fiber Communication
1) Large Bandwidth more Data
2) Small Physical Size
3) Light Weight
4) Electrical Isolation / Non Conductor
5) Immunity to Interference
6) Immunity to Cross Talk
7) Signal Security
8) Low Transmission Loss
9) Flexibility
10) Low Cost /bit(Installation , Maintenance
and Bandwidth)
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Advantages of Optical Fiber Communication
12) High-Quality Transmission
BER: Typically 10
-09
to 10
-11
& 10
-12
for Optical Fiber Medium
BER: Typically 10
-05
to 10
-07
for Copper and Microwave Media
13) Environmental Stability
-Low temperatures as 20 to 40 Celsius increase in attenuation in optical fiber, while
in copper cables temperature has continuous effects)
-Lower Corrosion Rates
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Main Disadvantage Of Fiber Optics
Expensive to install
ROW, labour
Dangerous for eyes
More fragile than wire and are difficult to split
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Factor Affecting Performance of Optical
Fiber Transmission
1) Attenuation (reduction in strength of signal):
decrease the transmission distance, measure
in dB/Km
2) Dispersion
Scattering of lightreduce the data rate
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Types Of Network Elements (NE)
Terminal Multiplexer (TM )
Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)
Optical Amplifiers (OA)
Digital Cross Connect (DXC)
Regenerators
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TM TM
1) Point-to-Point Network
Types of Networks
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TM
2) Point-to-Multi Point Network
TM ADM ADM
TM
TM
TM
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3)Ring Network
ADM-1
ADM-4
ADM-3
ADM-2
30
4) Mesh Network
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
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5) Composite Network
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Optical Fiber Systems
PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)
DWDM (Dense Wave Division Multiplexing)
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Synchronous & Plesiochronous ?
All the NEs use the same clock and are
synchronized with the one clock source (PRC)
in Synchronous operations
Plesiochronous:
Plesio means Nearly. If two networks need to
inter-work, their clocks may be derived from
two different PRCs. Even if these clocks are
extremely accurate, there is always a small
frequency difference among them.
34
PDH
Pre SDH Standard
3 standards..European, Japanese, North America
European Standard in Pakistan
Complex Multiplexing structure
Weak monitoring
35
PDH Data Rates
PCM 64Kbps
E1 2.048 Mbps (30 x64 Kbps)
E2 8.448 Mbps
E3 34.368 Mbps
E4 139.264 Mbps
E5 565 Mbps
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PDH Standards & Rates
Japanese Standard European Standard
565Mb/s
139Mb/s
34Mb/s
8Mb/s
2Mb/s
1.6Gb/s
400Mb/s
100Mb/s
32Mb/s
6.3Mb/s
1.5Mb/s
274Mb/s
45Mb/s
6.3Mb/s
x4
x4
x4
x4
x4
x4
x4
x4
x6
x7
x3
x5
North American
Standard
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
T1
T2
T3
J2
J1
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Adding & Dropping in PDH
140/34
Mb/s
34/140
Mb/s
34/8
8/34
8/2 Mb/s
2/8 Mb/s
2 Mb/s
Multiplexing
De-multiplexing
Optical Optical
Electrical
E
1
E1
E2 E2
E3 E3
E4
E4
38
Limitations of PDH
Impossible to interconnect three Incompatible
PDH standards
No worldwide optical interface standard
Week Monitoring due to insufficient capacity
for network management
No direct extraction of lower order signal
Lower data rates for current and future
demands
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SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDH is a hierarchical set of digital transport
structures, standardized for the transport of
suitably adapted payloads over physical
transmission networks
An integrated transmission network managed by
a powerful network management system
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STM-1: 155.52 Mbps
STM-4: 622.08 Mbps
STM-16: 2.488.32 Gbps
STM-64: 9.95 Gbps
STM-256: 40 Gbps
SDH Bit Rates
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SDH Signal Rates
STM-N Line Rate
(Mb/s)
E1
Capacity
E3
Capacity
E4
Capacity
N=1 155.52 63 3 1
N=4 622.08 252 12 4
N=16 2488.32 1008 48 16
N=64 9953.28 4032 192 64
N=256 39813.12 16128 768 256
* STM-0 is not SDH signal rate, however, it is equal to SONET basic rate 51.84Mbps
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SDH Network Elements
ADM: Add Drop Multiplexer
TM: Termination Multiplexer
DCS: Digital Cross Connect
REG: Repeater (Regenerator)
Four Types
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Adding & Dropping in SDH
ADM
Optical Interface Optical Interface
2 Mb/s
Electrical Signal
SDH: Direct & Simple to add/drop electrical signal
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Advantages of SDH
More Capacity
Easy to interconnect different systems
simple and direct adding or dropping of
electrical signals
Network Management System (NMS)
Flexible and self-healing networks (protection)
45
Advantages of SDH
All current PDH signals can be transmitted within the
SDH except 8 Mb/s (E2) which has no container.
A reduction in the amount of equipment & an
increase in network reliability.
Compatible.PDH, ATM, DQDB
46
Disadvantages of SDH
Lower Bandwidth utilization
Complicated SDH equipments due to variety
of management traffic types and options
Software based..vulnerable to computer
viruses, software bugs, configuration
problems, etc.
Direct add/drop needs pointer, which make it
complex and introduce jitter
Cant carry E2 due to un-availability of
container.
47
48
SDH Terminology
SDH refers to the rates and formats specified by ITU-T
for synchronous data transmission over fiber optic
networks.
Few Common Standards of SDH
ITU-T G.707: Network Node Interface for SDH
ITU-T G.781: Structure of Recommendations on Equipment for SDH
ITU-T G.783: Characteristics of SDH Equipment Functional Blocks
ITU-T G.803: Architecture of Transport Networks Based on SDH
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SDH Frame Structure
1
3
4
5
9
SOH
STM-N Payload
(including POH)
9N
261N
270N
SOH
AU-PTR
Block frame structure
In units of byte (8 bits)
Rate: 8000 frames/s, frame cycle: 125s
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RS, MS, and Path Overheads
Difference among POH, MSOH, & RSOH
Term
Mux
Term
Mux
Add-Drop
Mux
Repeater Repeater
POH
MSOH
RSOH
Path OH end to end circuit
Multiplex Section OH multiplexer to multiplexer
Regenerator Section OH repeater to adjacent node or vice versa
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Section Overhead (SOH)
Multiplex Section Overhead (MSOH)
MSOH supervises each STM-1 of STM-N frame
Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH)
RSOH supervises the whole STM-N frame
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Path Overhead (POH)
Lower order POH (LPOH)
Higher order (HPOH)
---HPOH and LPOH are used for VC4, VC3, and
VC12 monitoring
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SDH Overhead Overview
Overhead
SOH
POH
RSOH
MSOH
High Order POH
Low Order POH
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STM-1 Section Overhead
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 ~ ~
B1 E1 F1 ~ ~
D1 D2 D3
A U - P T R
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1 M1 E2 ~ ~
R
S
O
H
M
S
O
H
9
R
O
w
S
9 Columns
Frame Time=125s
~ Domestic Use
Transmission Media Usage
Blank indicate Future Use
55
Payload
where services are put in the STM-N
frame
2M, 34M or 140M information is packed and
put in the payload. It is then carried by STM-
N signal to send over SDH nodes
If we take STM-N frame as a truck, the
payload section can be looked as the
carriage of the truck
56
Administrative Unit Pointer (AU-PTR)
Locate lower rate signal inside a higher rate
signal of a STM-N frame (payload).
comprises of 9 bytes
The address range inside which the VC-4 is
able to float starts right after the AU pointer
block & extends until address 782 in the next
STM-1 frame
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AU-PTR
AU-4 pointer addresses only every 3
rd
payload
byte.
Last 3 bytes (H3) of AU-PTR are provided as
additional transmission capacity in order to
equalize clock difference.
Justification operation (positive or negative) can be
carried out no more than once in every 3
rd
STM-1
frame.
AU-PTR bytes: H1, Y, Y, H2, 1, 1, H3, H3, H3
H1=N N N N S S I D; H2=I D I D I D I D
* 10 bit pointer value indicated by I & D bits
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Mapping (Mode & Structure)
Low Rate SDH High Rate SDH: Byte Interleave
PDH STM-N: Synchronous Multiplexing &
Flexible Mapping
140MSTM-N
34MSTM-N
2MSTM-N
No container for E2 (8 Mbps)
59
Container
Container is an information structure, mainly in-
charge of adaptation functions so that
commonly used PDH signals can occupy fixed
space
ITU-T G.709 recommendations have stipulated
5 kinds of standard containers:
C-11, C-12, C-2, C-3 & C-4
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Container (C-4)
C-4 container is 260x9 bytes in dimension
(2340 bytes or 18720 bits)
Actual bits required by E4 signal are
139.264/8000=17408 bits
Remaining extra bits are used for clock
alignment, justification, opportunity bits,
justification control bits, & overhead bits.
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Container (C-3)
C-3 container is 9x84 bytes (756 bytes or 6048 bits)
Only 3xC-3 (3x6048 bit) of maximum can be
transmitted in one STM-1
Actual space required by E3 signal is 34.368 Mbps /
8000 = 4296 bits
The reason for over capacity is a recommendation
by ITU-T specifying that the transmission of a
44.736 Mbps (T3) signal must also be carried out in
container C-3. (44.736 Mbps/8000=5593 bits which
is still less than 6048 bits.
62
Container (C-12)
C-12 container is 34 bytes or 272 bits in size.
Actual space required by E1 signal is 2.048
Mbps/8000=256 bits.
Over capacity bits include clock alignment,
justification opportunity bits, justification control
bits, & overhead bits.
63 E1s can be transmitted through one STM-1.
63
Virtual Container
The digital flow from the standard container
combined with path overhead forms a virtual
container (VC).
C-4 + POH (9 bytes) = VC-4 (9x261 bytes)
C-3 + POH (9 bytes) = VC-3 (9x85 bytes)
C-12 + POH (1 byte) = VC-12 (35 bytes)
It is the most important information structure in
SDH which supports path layer connection.
64
AU & TU
The Administration Unit (AU) is an information
structure that performs adaptation functions for
the high order path layer and multiplexing
segment layer.
AU-4 = AU-PTR + VC-4
The Tributary Unit (TU) is an information structure
that performs adaptation functions for the low
order path layer and high order path layer.
TU-3 = VC-3 + PTR (3 bytes)
TU-12 = VC-12 + PTR (one byte)
65
TU-3 Pointer
Consists of 3 pointer bytes H1, H2, H3
TU-3 = VC-3 + 3 bytes pointer
66
TU-12 Pointer
TU-12 = PTR (one byte) + VC-12 (35 bytes)
67
TUG and AUG
TUG-3 = TU-3 + 6 Justification Bytes
TUG-2 = 3 x TU-12
TUG-3 = 7 x TUG-2
One or more AU with fixed locations in the STM-
N frame form an Administration Unit Group
(AUG). A single AU-4 can form one
Administration Unit Group (AUG).
AUG is useful for the AU-3 multiplexing, but
meaningless for AU-4 multiplexing.
68
Mapping
A process used when tributaries are adapted into
Virtual Containers (VCs) by adding justification
bits and Path Overhead (POH) information
Its essence is to make the various tributary
signals synchronized with related virtual
containers so that VC can be an independent
entity in the transmission, multiplexing and cross
connection
69
Alignment
This process takes place when a pointer is
included in a Tributary Unit (TU) or an
Administrative Unit (AU), to allow the first byte of
the Virtual Container to be located.
By setting the pointer, it can provide a flexible
and dynamic method for alignment of VC in the
unit (TU or AU-4) frame.
70
Multiplexing
This process is used when multiple lower-order
path layer signals are adapted into a higher-
order path signal, or when the higher-order path
signals are adapted into a Multiplex Section.
This type of multiplexing comes under
synchronous multiplexing category
71
Stuffing
When tributary signals are multiplexed &
aligned, some spare capacity is required in
SDH frames to provide space for various
tributary rates
This space capacity is filled with "fixed stuffing"
bits that carry no information, but are required
to fill up the particular frame.
72
Mapping & Multiplexing procedures
STM-N
xN x1
C-12 VC-12 VC-4 TUG-2 AUG-4 AU-4 TU-12 2Mb/s
Code rate
adjustment
LO POH
TU PTR
AU PTR
x3 Multiplexing
x7 Multiplexing
HO POH
xN Multiplexing
TUG-3
x3 Multiplexing
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Multiplexing procedure of 140M into STM-1
C-4 (Container-4): standard information structure for 140M signal.
VC-4 (Virtual Container-4): standard information structure related to
C4, supervising real time performance of the loading 140M signal.
1
140M
Rate
adjustment/
packing C4
1 260
9
125us
Add POH for
supervising/
packing
VC4
P
O
H
1 1
9
125us
1 261
Next page
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Multiplexing procedure of 140M into STM-1
Pointer
alignment
1 270
AU-PTR
AU-4
1
9
10 270
Add
SOH
RSOH
MSOH
Payload
AU-PTR
1
9
1
270
1
9
STM-1
AU-4 (Administrative Unit-4): information structure related to VC4.
Mapping way: 140MC4 VC4AU-4AUGSTM-1
* only one 140Mbps signal can be carried in STM-1.
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Multiplexing procedure of 34M into STM-1
C3 (Container 3): standard information structure for 34M signal.
VC3 (Virtual Container 3): standard information structure related to
C3, supervising real time performance of the loading 34M signal.
1 1
34M
C3
1 84
9
125us
Add POH for
supervising/
packing
VC3
P
O
H
9
125us
1 85
Next page
Rate
adjustment/
packing
76
Multiplexing procedure of 34M into STM-1
TU3 (Tributary Unit 3): standard information structure related to VC3,
finishing the first level pointer alignment.
TUG3 (Tributary Unit Group 3): standard information structure related
to TU3.
Mapping way: 34MC3VC3TU3TUG3; 3*TUG3VC4AU-
4AUGSTM-1
3 x34M can be multiplexed in one STM-1.
First level
pointer
alignment
1
86
86
Fill in
the
gap
TU-3
1
H1
H2
H3
1
9
H1
H2
H3
R
TUG-3
Byte
interleave
1
9
9
1
1
261
x3
P
O
H
R R
VC4
77
Multiplexing procedure of 2M into STM-1
C12 (Container-12): standard information structure for 2M signal, finishing
rate adjustment, 4 basic frame forming a multi-frame.
VC12 (Virtual Container-12); standard information structure related to C12,
supervising real time performance of the loading 2M signal.
TU12 (Tributary Unit 12): standard information structure related to VC12,
finishing the first level pointer alignment of VC12.
125us
Basic frame
POH

1 4
C12
1
9
Add POH for
supervising
First level
pointer
alignment
VC12 TU12
1 1 4 4
1 1
9 9
Next
Page
Rate
adjustment
78
Multiplexing procedure of 2M into STM-1
TUG-2 (Tributary Unit Group-2) TUG-3 (Tributary Unit Group-3)
2MC12VC12TU12; 3xTU12TUG-2; 7xTUG-2TUG-3;
3xTUG3VC4AU-4AUGSTM1
3x7x3=63x2M signals can be multiplexed in STM-1. Multiplexing structure
of 2M signal is 3-7-3 structure.
Byte
interleave
x3
1
12
TUG2
1
9

x7
R R TUG3
1
86
Byte
interleave
79
80
A1 & A2 Bytes
Framing bytes A1, A2
Used to identify the start of frame
A1=F6H & A2=28H
Generate Alarms OOF, LOF
81
A1 & A2 Bytes
Framing
Find
A1, A2
OOF
LOF
AIS
Next
Process
Y
N
82
Regenerator Section Trace Byte: J0 or C1
STM identification byte
Every STM-1 frame is assigned an identification
number before being multiplexed to an STM-N.
It makes sure that regenerator section of
sending and receiving points keep continuously
connecting.
83
User Channel Byte: F1
Provide a 64 kb/s data or voice channel for local
maintenance purpose to network operator.
Only transmitted in STM-1 #1 of STM-N signal.
84
D1~D12 Bytes
Data Communication Channel Bytes: D1~D12
These 12 bytes are provided for the transport of monitoring
& control data in Network Management System.
D1-D3 belongs to RSOH, bandwidth is 3x64 kb/s
D4-D12 belongs to MSOH, bandwidth is 9x64 kb/s
D1-D12 are transmitted in STM-1#1 of STM-N only.
OAM Massages: performance,
alarm, operation commands etc.
DCC Channel
NMS
85
Order Wire bytes: E1 & E2
Provide 64 kb/s digital telephone channels
E1 transmit RS order wire message
E2 transmit MS order wire message (express
channel)
Only present in STM-1#1 of STM-N
86
B1 & B2 Bytes
Bit Interleaved Parity 8 (BIP-8) byte: B1
Regenerator section error code monitoring
Detect unit is bit block
B1 BBE represented by RS-BBE
Only transmitted in STM-1 #1 of an STM-N
Bit Interleaved Parity 24 code (BIP-24) byte: B2
Multiplexing section error code monitoring
Detect unit is bit block
B2 BBE represented by MS-BBE
Only transmitted in STM-1 #1 of an STM-N
87
B1 & B2 Bytes
Verify each bit column
Works on Even parity basis
B1: In unit of 1 byte (8 bits)
B2: In unit of 3 byte (24 bits)
x1 00110011
x2 11001100
x3 10101010
x4 00001111
B 01011010
BIP-8
11001100 11001100 11001100
01011101 01011101 01011101
11110000 10110000 11110000
BIP-24
01100001 01100001 01100001
0000000 0100000 0000000
88
1st
Frame
A
B
1st
Frame
Tx
2
nd
Frame
No.n
Frame
2
nd
Frame
Rx
No.n Frame
Calculate B1,
B2
Verify B1,
B2
B1 & B2 Bytes
89
M1 Byte
Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication (MS-REI) byte: M1
A return message from Rx to Tx when Rx find MS-BBE
By evaluating the 3xB2, the M1 byte can report back the
number of parity code violations.
MS-REI will be generated in Tx.
M1 byte is one per STM-N frame.
Find B2 Error: MS-BBE
Rx
Tx
Traffic
Return M1
Generate MS-REI
90
K1 & K2 Bytes
Automatic Protection Switching (APS) bytes: K1, K2
(bits:b1-b5)
Used for network multiplex protection switch function
K1 & K2 only transmitted in STM-1 #1 of STM-N
Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication (MS-RDI): K2
(b6-b8)
Return alarm message from Rx to Tx
Indicate Rx receiving alarm
K2 (b6-b8) value is 110
91
Detect
K2 (b6~b8)
111
Generate MS-
AIS
Return MS-
RDI
Y
N
Normal
Operation
K1 & K2 Bytes
92
Synchronization Status Message (SSM) byte: S1
SSM indicates the status & quality level of SDH signal
Value indicates quality level of available clock source (b5-b8)
0010 = G.811 = External Clock
0100 = G.812 = Extract from SDH source
1000 = G.812 = Extract from PDH tributary
1011 = G.813 = Internal Clock
Only transmitted in STM-1 #1 of STM-N
93
High Order Path Overhead
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1
VC4
Structure of High Order Path Overhead
1 261
1
9
94
Path Trace Byte: J1
First byte of VC-4
Using J1 byte, every path can be assigned a trace.
Required matching at transmit and receive ends.
Set value as needed
95
B3 Byte
Path BIP-8 Code
Implements VC-4 transmission performance
monitoring
Monitoring principle: BIP-8 even parity
Layered monitoring: B1, B2, B3
Verify B3
Correct
Y
N
Next process
BBE
96
Signal Label Byte: C2
Indicates the type & composition of multiplexing structure.
Example:
4 00H means unused
4 02H means multiplexing structure is 3xTUG-3
4 13H means ATM cells
4 12H means C-4
97
Path Status Byte: G1
Indicates high order VC transmission status
Report back the fault from path end to path start
It is set in POH of opposite direction
4 HP-REI: Higher Order Path Remote Error
indication (sum of receiving error block of VC4)
4 HP-RDI: High Order Path Remote Defect
Indication
98
TU location indicator Byte: H4
Indicate the multi-frame types and location of the
payload.
For 2M PDH to SDH multiplexing structure, H4
indicates the current frame, which frame of the
multi-frame, allowing Rx to find TU-PTR & drop 2M
signals.
H4: 00H-03H
99
Other Bytes
F2 and F3: Network providers can use it for exchange
of data (local maintenance)
K3: APS for high order path
N1: another byte for network operator usage
(maintenance purposes)
100
Low Order Path Overhead
VC-12 POH
Location
4 First byte of each basic frame in a multi-frame
4 Consist of four bytes
Monitoring VC12 performance during signal transmission
1
1
9
500us VC12 Multi-frame
V5
J2 N2
VC12
VC12
VC12
4
K4
VC12
101
Path status & signal label byte: V5
The first byte of VC12 multi-frame
Pointed by TU-PTR
Monitor error block, signal label, path status
Error block monitoring: b1-b2
Return path status message:b3, b8
Signal label: b5-b7
Similar to B3, C2, and G1
102
Other Bytes
J2: Low order path trace byte (VC-12 level)
N2: byte for network operator usage
K4: APS for low order path
103
Self-Healing Network?
It is a network which can automatically
resume its loaded services within a very
short time in case of fault.
Its terminal users do not notice any service
interruption.
104
Self-Healing Basic Principle
When the working route fails or experience
problems, services will be switched to the protecting
route automatically within a very short time (<50ms).
Redundancy routes are essential for self-healing
networks.
Working Path
Protection Path
105
Self-Healing Network Classification
Classification
Based on Topology
Train or Chain Network Service Protection
Ring Network Service Protection
Inter-Ring Service Protection
Based on Protection Method
Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)
Path Protection (PP)
Logical Subnet Protection
106
Chain Network Protection Types
1+1 Path Protection
1+1 Multiplex Section Protection
1:1 Multiplex Section Protection
107
Chain Network 1+1 Path Protection
TR
CS
TR
CS
OL
OL
OL
OL
W
P
Receive One Send Together
108
Chain Network 1+1 Path Protection
At sending end, the STM-N signal is sent
simultaneously over both segments of the
work and protect.
At receiving side, only one (work or protect)
path is selected based on quality.
Send Together Receive One
109
Chain Network 1+1 Multiplex Section Protection
OL
OL
TR
OL
OL
TR
At sending end, the STM-N signal is sent simultaneously
over both segments of the work and protect.
At receiving side, only one (work or protect) path is
selected based on quality.
Send Together Receive One
work route
protect route
work or protect
CS
CS
110
Chain Network 1:1 Multiplex Section Protection
OL
OL
Work
CS
OL
OL
CS
Protection
Work
The 1:1 structure is the subset of the 1:N (where N=1)
structure.
It has the capacity to work in the 1+1 structure and to
interconnect with the 1+1 structure of the other end.
Protection
111
Self-Healing Networks
In Multiplexing segment 1:1 protection The
working payload is transmitted through the
working path while the protection path can be
used to carry extra payload which is of inferior
class.
When the working path fails, the extra payload on
the protection path will be superseded by the
working payload according to APS protocol. Thus
the working payload is protected.
Under normal circumstances, 1:1 becomes 2+0.
112
Automatic Protection Switch
source
end
source
end
PS
PS
WORK
PROTECT
K1
K1,K2
K2
5a
5b
WORKING PATH
PROTECTION PATH
2
3
4
1
7
6
113
Ring Network Protection
115
Basic Ring Network Protection Types
2-fiber Unidirectional Path Protection Ring
2-fiber Bidirectional Multiplex Section
Protection Ring
4-fiber Bidirectional Multiplex Section
Protection Ring
116
2-Fiber Unidirectional Path Protection Ring
It adopts 1+1 protection mode, the switching criteria is PATH-AIS, & APS
protocol is not needed.
At the source NE, the payload is send to the working path and protection path
simultaneously. The destination NE detect and compare the coming signal from
both paths, then determine to receive the payload of better quality.
AC
CA AC
A
B
C
D
CA
W1
W1
P1
P1
CA AC
A
B
C
D
W1
P1
P1
W1
CA AC
switching
117
2-Fiber Bidirectional MS Protection Ring
2 fiber: Two fibers between a pair of nodes
Bi-direction: Service between two NEs use the
same section of the network and are transmitted
by reverse direction
Multiplexing Section: Protection based on MS,
protect the payload part, use APS protocol for
protection.
118
Working Principle
S1/P2
S2/P1
A
C
B D
Working path
S1 & S2; under normal
situations, service are
transmitted over
working path. The first
half of one fiber is
working path. Taking
STM-16 as an example,
1-8 AU4 are used for
working path.
119
Working Principle
S1/P2
S2/P1
A
C
B D
Protecting Path
P1 & P2; services
transmit along
protection path after
switch over. The last
half part of the fiber is
used as protecting
path. Taking STM-16 as
example, 9-16 AU4 are
used as protecting
path.
120
Working Principle
S1/P2
S2/P1
A
C
B D
Relationship
between working
& protecting paths
The protecting path of
one direction protect
the working path of
the other direction,
i.e, P1 protects S1, &
P2 protects S2.
121
Working Principle
Use S1 & S2 to transmit
services.
Service AC is sent in S1
through path A->B->C
Service CA is sent in S2
through path C->B->A
P1 and P2 can be used to
send extra service now.
AC Tx
S1/P2
S2/P1
A
C
B D
AC Rx CA Tx
CA Rx
122
Switching Conditions
Auto Switch Conditions:
LOS, LOF, MS-AIS, Signal Degrade
123
Switching Procedure
SwitchIf the fiber between
B and C is broken, switching
occurs in B and C
B node: service AC crosses
from S1 to P1, and sent
through A->B->A->D->C
C node: service CA crosses
from S2 to P2, and sent
through C->D->A->B->A
AC Tx
S1/P2
S2/P1
A
C
B
D
AC Rx CA Tx
CA Rx
124
Features of 2 Fiber Bidirectional MSP Ring
Advantages: Time slots between two nodes can be
reused, thus increasing the transmission capacity.
Standby path P1 and P2 can be used to transmit
extra services of inferior class.
Disadvantages: longer switching time due to APS
protocol. Numbers of maximum nodes supported
by APS is limited to 16.
Transmission capacity: (k/2) x STM-N (k=no. of
nodes).
125
Protection Type 2f Unidirectional PP
Ring
2f Bidirectional MSP Ring 4f Bidirectional MSP Ring
No. of Nodes K K K
Line Speed STM-N STM-N STM-N
Transmission
Capacity
STM-N K/2*STM-N k*STM-N
APS Protocol No Yes Yes
Switching Time <30ms 50-200ms 50-200ms
Cost Low Medium High
System Complexity Simple Complex Complex
Field of Application Relay Networks
(Centralized Services)
Long Distance Networks
(Distribution Services)
Long Distance Networks
(Distribution Services)
Comparison of protection schemes
126
126
Subrack
Power consumption: < 350W;
A single subrack weighs
18.6kg
858mm (height) * 440mm
(width) * 290mm (depth)
127
127
SDH Cards
P
Q
1
P
Q
1
P
L
3
P
Q
1
X
C
S
X
C
S
S
1
6
S
1
6
S
P
Q
4
P
Q
1
P
Q
1
S
C
C
128
128
Interface Board
PD1 32-channel E1 electrical processing board
PQ1 63-channel E1 electrical processing board
PL3 3-channel E3/T3 electrical processing board
PQ3 12-channel E3/T3 electrical processing board
PDH processing board in IU slot
129
129
SDH Interface Unit
S16: 1-channel STM-16 optical interface board
SD4: 2-channel STM-4 optical interface board
SL4: 1-channel STM-4 optical interface board
SQ1: 4-channel STM-1 optical interface board
SD1: 2-channel STM-1 optical interface board
SL1: 1-channel STM-1 optical interface board
SP8: 8-channel STM-1 signal process board
130
130
Green: Running Indicator
5 times/s not in service
1 time/2s normal
1 time/4s off-line status
Red: Alarm Indicator
Constantly off no alarm
3 times/s Critical alarm
2 times/s Major alarm
1 time/s Minor alarm
Constantly on CPU self-check failed
Indicator
131
Alarms
Critical Alarms
Emergency situation like fiber cut or some
system failure, Need immediate attention,
interrupt services
Major Alarms:
Need attention, may interrupt some services
Minor Alarms:
No interruption in service
132
Why DWDM?
Increase in Band Width Demand
Growth of voice traffic
IP traffic
Data traffic
Telemedicine
Video conferencing
Remote education
Mobile telephony
133
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
DWDM
An optical technology used to increase
capacity over existing fiber cables
transmitting multiple signals simultaneously
at different wavelengths on the same fiber
one fiber is transformed into multiple virtual
fibers.
134
Different signals with
specific wavelengths are
multiplexed into a fiber for
transmission.
SDH signal
IP package
ATM cells
1
2

1 2 n

DWDM concept
135
DWDM Bandwidths
42.5Gb/s
162.5Gb/s
322.5Gb/s
3210Gb/s
16010Gb/s =1.6Tb/s
136
DWDM..Cost Saving
SDH
Electrical Regenerator
Light Amplifier
DWDM
137
- Transparent transmission
- Long haul transmission
- High capacity
- Use existing optical fibers
- High performance-to-cost ratio
- Reliability
- Easy up-gradation
Advantages of DWDM
138
OTU OTU
DMUX MUX
Optical
amplifier
OSC
A
c
c
e
s
s

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
A
c
c
e
s
s

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
139
Application of Amplifiers
PA: Pre-amplifier (gain 23 db)
LA: Line amplifier (gain 30-33 db)
BA: Booster amplifier (gain 23 db)
Multiplexer
De-
multiplexer
LA PA BA
140
OSC Operating wavelength 1510nm
2Mb/s full management with order wire
phone
Insert/extract data
No need of amplification
Optical supervisory channel
NMS Information (D1 to D12 Bytes)
Order wire (E1 & E2 Bytes)
GNE1 NE2
NMS (T2000)
NE3
TCP/IP
Two types of Information
141
Frame structure of DWDM OSC
TS0: FAS
TS1: E1
TS2: F1
TS3-TS14: D1-D12
TS15: E2
TS16-TS31: reserved
01 31 141516 23
142
Cabinet of DWDM
1- Power Box
2- ODF Sub-Rack
3- Equipment Sub-Rack/Interfaces
4- Rack Interface
143
Power Box
1
2 3
4 5
6
7
9
8 10
11
12
Note: 1. -48V ( Ist. Supply source Line); 2. -48V (2
nd
.Supply source Line);
3. Alarm clearing switch; 4. Sound/light test switch; 5. Indicator; 6. Master
switch (the first line); 7. Master switch (the second line); 8. Protection
ground; 9. Power ground; 10. Power switch of the upper subrack; 11. Power
switch of the lower subrack; 12. PMU board.
144
ODF Sub-Rack
1- Upper ODF (44 interfaces)
2- Middle Sub-Rack (60
interfaces)
3- Lower Subrack (60 interfaces)
145
Upper ODF
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
4
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
1: SCA-RI (Line Fiber) 4: SCA-TO (Line Fiber)
5 to 20: M16I1-M16I16 (From SDH)
23 to 38: D16-O1- D16-O16 (To SDH)
42-43: SC2-RM2-SC2-TM2
146
Middle/Lower ODF
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
147
Equipment Sub-Rack
1- Optical Conversion Sub-Rack (OCS)
2- Optical Integrated Sub-Rack (OIS)
3- Optical Amplifier Sub-Rack (OAS)
148
ABBRIVIATIONS
1- TWC Transmitting Wave length Conversion Board
2- RWC Receiving Wavelength Conversion Board
3- LWC Line Wavelength Conversion Board(TWC+RWC)
4- M16/D16 16 Channel Multiplexer/De-Multiplexer Board
5- SCA Supervisory Channel Access Board
6- SC1/2 Single/Dual Supervisory Channel Board
7- MR2 Two Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer Board
8- SCC System Control & Communication Board
9- OHP Overhead Processor Board
10- WPA Wavelength Pre-Amplifier Board
11- WBA Wavelength Booster Amplifier Board
12- WLA Wavelength Line Amplifier Board
149
Boards:
TWC, LWC,
RWC, SCC
150
D
1
6
O
H
P
S
C
C
S
C
1
S
C
A
M
S
2
M
1
6
W
B
A
W
P
A
Power Supply
Interface
Data traffic and equipment
maintenance interface
Data traffic and equipment
maintenance interface
X.25
Ethernet
BNC
F&f
RS-232 & RS-422
F1
order wire Interface
OptiX BWS 320GOptical Integrated
Sub-rack
Boards:
WPA, WBA, D16, M16, MS1, SCA, SC1,
SCC, OHP
151
Boards:
WPA, WBA, MS2,
SCA, SC2, SCC, OHP
152
SANGHAR
MIRPUR
KHAS
ADM
ADM
STM-16 RING 7
HUB
UTHAL
BELA
USMANI
BANDA
WADH
KHUZDAR
SORAB
KALAT
MASTUNG
QUETTA
MACHH
SIBBI
D.M.
JAMALI
ADM
ADM
ADM
REG
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
REG
REG
REG
STM-16 RING 6
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
HUAWEI DWDM NETWORK
RING 1
JHELUM
LAWRENCEPUR
PESHAWAR
MARDAN
BANNU
D.I.KHAN
JUMMAN SHAH
FAZILPUR
ROJHAN
DADU
KALARI
KOTRI
THATTA
K
A
R
A
C
H
I
NOORIABAD
HYDER
ABAD
NAWAB
SHAH
MORO
RANIPUR
KANDHKOT
SHIKARPUR
MULTAN
SUKKUR
BAHAWALPUR
DHERIKI
R.Y.KHAN DERA
JATTA
SAHIWAL FATEHPUR
MIAN
CHUNNU
CHOWK
QURESHI
BHAKKAR
HARNOLI
QUAIDABAD
GOJRA MORE
SARGODHA
FAISAL
ABAD
MANAWALA
LAHORE
GUJRANWALA
GUJRAT
Workstation
Workstation
Workstation
Workstation
SHAHBAZ
KHEL
AHMADI BANDA
NMS
RING 2
RING 3
RING 4 RING 5
OLA
MADM
OLA
M
A
D
M
OLA OLA
OLA OLA
OLA
OLA
MADM
OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA
MADM
MADM
OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA
MADM
MADM
OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA OLA
OLA
OLA
DWDM TERMINAL (OTM)
LEGEND
2.5 Gb/s ADD/DROP MULTIPLEXER (ADM)
2.5 Gb/s MULTI ADD/DROP MULTIPLEXER (MADM)
DWDM OPTICAL LINE AMPLIFIER (OLA)
EXISTING OPTICAL FIBRE LINK
MADM
ADM
OLA
PESHAWAR
(CITY)
ISLAMABAD
(IBA-I)
LAHORE
(CTH)
FAISALABAD
(S/ABAD)
MULTAN (C)
SIALKOT
KARACHI
(P/CAP)
REG SDH REGENERATOR (REG)
153
SOUTH RING
1883 Kms
2 Ch. x 10 Gb/s
30% Traffic Density
Shikarpur
Karachi
P/Cap
Hyderabad
Sukkur
Sardar
Garh
Ranipur
Kalari
Jampur
D G Khan
Kot
Bahadar
Rojhan
Khandh
Kot
Larkana
KN Shah
Dadu
Sehwan
Manzoorabad
Jheruk
Gharo
Nooriabad
N.Saeedabad
Morro
Ghotki
Chak 32
Anayatpur
Lodhran
NORTEL DWDM NETWORK
D I KHAN
Peshawar
City
Islamabad
IBA-I
Gujranwala
Sialkot
Lahore
CTH
Faisal
abad
Multan
Central
Qureshi
Chowk
NORTH RING
1650 Kms
2 Ch. x 10 Gb/s
70% Traffic Density
Kot Addu
Karor
Shabaz
Khel
Bannu
Ahmadi
Banda
Kohat
Lawrencepur
Mandra
Jehlum
Gujrat
Manawala
Fatehpur
Sahiwal
Mian Chunnu
Khanewal
Nowshera
LEGENDS
ADM (13)
OLA (33)
REG (05)
154
RING 1
JHELUM
PESHAWAR
-2
MARDAN
BANNU
D.I.KHAN
CHOWK
QURESHI
FAISALABAD
GUJRANWALA
GUJRAT
NMS
RING 2
M
A
D
M
SIALKOT
KHARIN CANTT
MADM
MADM
M
A
D
M
MADM
MADM
RING 3
RING 4
SDH RING 5
PESHAWAR
CANTT
MULTAN-2
NEW MULTAN
SARGODHA
LAHORE E/R
BAHAWALPUR
R.Y.KHAN
D.G. KHAN
SHIKARPUR
SUKKUR
K
A
R
A
C
H
I
-
2
HUB
KHUZDAR
QUETTA(CENT)
SIBBI
HYDERABAD
NAWAB
SHAH
KARACHI M/R
DADU LARKANA
SAHIWAL
OKARA
NEW 10G DWDM NETWORK
223
143
KOHAT
02
72
106
137
23
163
96
110
35
70
64
76
39
65
LODHRAN
200
191
38
350
213
25
10
164
145
256
79
129
407
259
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
UTHAL
BELA
SORAB
QALAT
DM JAMALI
MP KHAS
60
140
143
SDH
LAHORE- 2
03
RAWALPINDI-2
20
41
174
08
57
166
122
ADM
170
QUETTA(S/R)
138
73
97
206
60
100
86
22
75
155
OAN SYSTEM Hardware Structure
OAN basically consists of following components to
perform three major functions
a) service access, b) transmission and c)network
management,
1. OLT (Optical Line Terminal).
2. ONU (Optical Network Unit).
3. AN-NMS (Access Network-Network Management
System).
4. SDH / PDH Transmission System
156
OAN SYSTEM STRUCTURE
157
Optical line terminal (OLT)
collecting point of various services of the exchange
such as voice, data and image
provides the network interface of multiple services.
As a modularly structured unit, the OLT is composed
of multiple service interface modules which are
stacked together.
The capacity of the OLT can be expanded smoothly
by adding the service interface modules, so it is
flexible in configuration and expansion.
158
Optical line terminal (OLT)
LAN / WAN
ATM
Cable TV
Bay Networks
DDN/FR
Internet
PSTN/
ISDN
IDC
OLT
NMS
Optical Line Terminal (OLT)
belongs to the service node
equipment of the access
network. It is connected with
the service node through
service node interface to
perform the service access
of the access network.
159
INTERFACES AVAILABLE AT OLT
Following interfaces are available at OLT.
E1 leased line interface conforming to ITU-T G703
ISDN services,V5.2 if connected to ISDN exchanges.
DDN connection.
Internet ISP connection, Broadband services (ATM
switch, ATM server etc.)
CATV service
160
OPTICAL NETWORK UNIT (ONU)
The Optical Network Unit (ONU) belongs to
subscriber equipment of the access network
and provides subscribers with integrated
services of voice, data and image.
161
Optical Network Unit (ONU)
OPTICAL ACCESS NETWOK ONU includes
1) SIP module,
2) optical transmission module,
3) power and environment monitoring module
4) built-in primary power supply,
5) main distribution frame
6) batteries
162
INTERFACES PROVIDED BY ONU
Z interface. (POTS).
U interface. ISDN BRI (2B+D).ISDN PRA (30B+D).
Nx64kbps or subrate interface of V.35/V.24 to provide various
data services for subscribers.
E1 interface to provide 2M leased line through coaxial cable.
CATV signal through coaxial cable, connected to TV sets at
subscribers
10M/100M Ethernet interface
163
PSTN INTERFACE TO OLT
EXCHANGE OLT ODN
ONU
ONU
ONU
ONU
V5
Interface
or STE
164
Voice and ISDN Services Access
LE
V5.2
Centrex
CID
Full access of POTS and ISDN services.
SDH
OLT
ONU
ONU
ONU
Video phone
NT1
2B+D
G4 FAX Digital phone
Internet
NT1+TA
2B+D
POTS
V.24
2B+D/ 30B+D
LAN
Router
POTS
165
SDH
Data Services Access
E1 ( G.703 )
64K ( V.24,V.35 )
N 64K ( 1 N 31, V.35 )
Sub-rate ( 2.4/4.8/9.6/19.2/48K, V.24 )
OLT ONU
DDN Node
2B1Q
2M
N 64kbps
(V.35/E1)
64kbps
(V.24)
2B1Q
MTA
(V.24/V.35)
2B1Q
(V.24/V.35)
DTU
2.4~64kbps
(V.24/V.35)
2.4~19.2kbps
2.4~128kbps
2M
166
POTS
PSTN/ISD
N
ISDN
155M/622M/2.5G
DDN
DDN
O ZXA10
O
ZXA10
L
S300 N
Core network
S200
T
U
ADSL
IP FE/GE
Ethernet
FE/GE
ATM155/62
2 DSLAM
ATM FE/GE/ATM
VDSL
FE/GE
MSAN (ZXA10-C)
MSTP
167
Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)
High gain (10-30 dB)
Large o/p power
Wide operating bandwidths
Low noise (4-8 dB)
Amplifying characteristics independent to bit rate
and data format
..Extensive applications in DWDM Systems
168
WDM
EDF
TAP
ISO
Pumping laser
WDM
ISO
Pumping laser
TAP
Signal input
Signal output
EDF
PD
PD
Optical isolator
Optical splitter
Optical coupler
Optical detector
EDFA
169
EDF
Doped with Er
3+
The outer shell has 3 levels structure (E1, E2,
E3)
E1ground state
E2metastable state
E3high level state
Pumping lasers are used to excite the EDF
Lots of bound electrons of the Er
3+
are excited
from the E1 state to E3
170
Continue
E3 is not stable and ions are dropped to E2 state
(radiation-less decay process)
Particles at E2 state are transited to E1 state via
stimulated radiation on passing input optical
signal
This results in generation of photons identical to
photons of incident signal light
Continuous amplifying is implemented
171
E1
E3
E2
EDFA principle
172
Optical Coupler (WDM)
Used for Coupling
Couples the input signal and pumping light
Another name is Optical Mux
173
Optical Isolator (ISO)
For unidirectional light Tx
I/P ISO
block the backward ASE in EDF
protects transmitter from interference
Protects the generation of large noise when
reflected at the input end and reenters EDF
O/P ISO
Prevents the amplified signal from reentering the
EDF
174
Pumping Laser (PUMP)
Energy source of EDF
Semiconductor laser with o/p wavelength of
980nm or 1480nm
Pumps the ions from low to high level
Amplification is implemented by transferring
energy to signal light
175
Optical Splitter (TAP)
One I/P, two O/Ps
Tap off a small part of the signal for monitoring
Optical Detector (PD)
Convert the received optical power into
photocurrent (photoelectric conversion)
176
Gain equalization
Ordinary fiber has narrow flat gain range (1549-
1561)
utilizing heavily aluminum plus erbium-doped
optical fiber and Gain Equalization Filter (GEF)
optimizing the optical structure (1525-1560)
177
177
G
Aftergainequalization
1525
1565
Beforegainequalization
1525
1565
G
.
178
178
Impact of gain flatness in long haul transmission
179
179
>1dB
<0.5dB
Drop
Gain locking
180
180
>1dB
<0.5dB
Add
181
Application of Amplifiers
PA: Pre-amplifier (gain 23 db)
LA: Line amplifier (gain 30-33 db)
BA: Booster amplifier (gain 23 db)
Multiplexer
De-
multiplexer
LA PA BA
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