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FUNDAMENTALS OF RESEARCH

PROF: ROSICAR ESCOBER

GIOVANNI V. MENDOZA IT III-1

MAXIMIZING THE USE OF COMPUTER RAM BY NOT USING ANTI VIRUS SOFTWARE AND PROTECTING IT AT THE SAME TIME

PART 1
1.)Introduction
- Nowadays alomost everyone are computer literated and has computers on their homes. It might be a laptop, netbook, desktop, or what ever you call it, as long as it was computer. Alomost all computer users are just user and not informed correctly about the proper management of their computer system to prevent in from viruses that are transferred thru the usb port.Those are what we considered local viruse that causes our computer system failed, corrupt, or not work properly. All they know is to have an antivirus to protect their computer from local viruses, but still some virus can enter the system of our computers. So the antivirus just cause a decrease to our computer RAM that make us not maximize the use of it. Most people sleep better at night knowing their PC is well equipped to thwart oncoming malware attacks. Out of paranoia some actually install multiple antivirus programs -- even though that's overly counterproductive. Indeed, with everything that you do on your computer and the information that resides on it, the safety of your sensitive data should be top priority. That said, with a little experience you can traverse the World Wide Web in peace with minimal security on active patrol. Many readers will probably say "no thanks" and slip out the back door, which is totally understandable. I will tell you flat out that most people are better off with some form of antivirus watching over their shoulder. But regardless of whether or not you keep one on guard, having safe browsing habits is essential to keeping your computer malware-free. To elaborate on that briefly, "safe browsing habits" means that those who spend their days on shady porn and warez sites need not apply. Recognizing the nefarious from innocuous is your greatest line of defense. Typically, malware gets onto a computer by being bundled with seemingly legitimate software, media, email attachments, and so on; so if something infects your system it's likely you've unknowingly let it mosey through

the front door. But there is a problem that we can encounter by using the antivirus software because it use a large amount of our computer ram.

Risk of Using a PC without an Antivirus


Let us know first the risk of not having or using the anti virus software.While anti-virus software protects your computer against a variety of security threats, it can also slow down your system's performance and cost a substantial amount of money. It is unwise but possible to not use it.

Worst-Case Scenarios
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When eliminating a safety measure, it's a good idea to estimate the worst thing that could happen without it. The worst kind of virus will quietly steal sensitive personal information from your computer, like credit card numbers, bank routing numbers, and social security, without ever letting you know.

Internet Use Without Anti-Virus Protection


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Not having an anti-virus limits your navigation to websites you know and trust, but even these websites can be "spoofed" (that is, faked) by coordinating with a hidden virus on your computer.

Email Without Anti-Virus Protection


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Likewise, you probably shouldn't open email from people you don't know, but you may find this unavoidable, leading to system intrusion based on a virus exploiting weaknesses in the design of your Internet browser.

Networking without Anti-Virus Protection


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Basically, any nearby computer that connects to yours will probably get infected, because computer viruses specialize in making copies of themselves and distributing those copies--sometimes through email.

Software Installation
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The Internet is full of utility program downloads that claim to "optimize" your computer, and full of downloads pretending to be something legitimate. Every application you download and install poses a threat.

Then now that we know the risk of using a computer without an antivirus software, all we need is the solutions for that.

1.1.)Rationale for this research


- I was doing this research to help the computer users maximize the RAM of their computers for the applications that they are using. I want to help the computer users protect their computer from local viruses without the use of anti virus software and maximize the use of their ram.

1.2.) Statement of the problem


-The general problem that I want to resolve with this research is the problem with the decreasing of available RAM memory in the computers because of anti virus softwares. I know that those who are wealthy and can afford to buy computer with high specification will just say that this is useless because they can buy computer with a very high amount of RAM memory. But I will say, how about those who can,t afford and want to maximize their ram to cope with softwares that requires a high RAM memory to work. Without the anti virus they can have a large free space of ram for installing and using softwares with a high memory. So I decided to make a research that will help computer users maximize their RAM by removing their anti virus and without worrying for their computers to be prone to virus.

1.3.)Objectives:
-I want to make a solution for preventing local viruses to enter our computers without the help of anti virus softwares. -I want to help the owners and users of computer maximize their RAM.

1.4.)Method
- I conduct proofing experiment.

1.5.)Structure of the reasearch structure of presentation


1.)Introduction Risk of Using a PC without an Antivirus Worst-Case Scenarios Internet Use Without Anti-Virus Protection Email Without Anti-Virus Protection Networking without Anti-Virus Protection Software Installation 1.1.)Rationale for this research 1.2.) Statement of the problem 1.3.)Objectives: 1.4.)Method 1.5.)Structure of the reasearch structure of presentation 2.) Related Literature Introduction to the antivirus protection - Ten commandments of an antivirus protection Use an antivirus software! Be careful using e-mail! Beware of illegal programs! Think over the web pages you want to visit! Use a personal firewall!

Use the electronic signing and encrypting! Get the information! Patch, patch, patch! Backup your data! When appropriate, contact experts!

3.) Analysis and Findings 3.1.) Model Analysis 3.2.) Solution Learn how to tell if your computer is running unnecessary software Your computer isn't a toaster Install a quality hardware firewall between your internet connection and the rest of your network Run as a non-admin user most of the time Use good judgment in deciding to install software Periodically run a free, online virus scanner Download and use Ad-Aware or Spybot S&D (or better yet, use both) from time to time Web Browser or Email specific guidelines

4.) Results and Discussion

5.) Conclusion and Recommendation 5.1.)Conclusion 5.2.)Recommendation Safe Browsing Habits Updated Software Online Tools Use Web Interface Security Features Security-Focused Browser Extensions Use Linux

5.3.) Bibliography

5.4.) Appendixes

PART 2
2.) Related Literature Reference: techten.com
TrustPort, a.s.,

Introduction to the antivirus protection - Ten commandments of an antivirus protection How should I protect my computer from viruses? Is it enough to have an antivirus program installed? What else can I do for the safety of my data? Each of us has surely asked himself these questions. In the following text you can find ten rules. If you obey them, they will enable you to decrease the threat of malicious codes affect.
1. Use an antivirus software! It is hard to imagine an antivirus protection without an antivirus software. It is the cornerstone of the whole information technology. In the modern global world it is impossible to distinguish between "safe" and "unsafe" sources of electronic data, but it is necessary to regard everything at least as "potentially unsafe". Malicious codes can get into a computer through e-mail (which is nowadays probably the most often source of infection), visited web pages, local network or even through original CDs (yes, there were many cases of infected software on the market in history). All these entry points can be protected by an antivirus program. As to the rest, it is beyond human power to scan all the incoming data for ninety thousands of known malicious codes that may, due to clever mask techniques, change into millions and millions various shapes. 2. Be careful using e-mail! As mentioned in the previous paragraph, the most serious danger is nowadays represented by malicious codes that use e-mail for their spread. How to protect from such a danger, i.e. how to minimize it (because avert it completely means not to use e-mail)? It is mentioned above that an antivirus software is the cornerstone. One of the other recommendations is not to use an e-mail preview, because some codes are able to activate without clicking on the attachment. Just opening the message and viewing this preview makes it easier to them. User has no possibility to remove the suspicious e-mail without infecting the computer. Moreover, it is convenient not to send emails in HTML, because a dangerous code can be inserted in it on reply. Plain text can not be coloured, cannot contain sounds or animations, but on the other hand it is safe. And the last rule:

be careful with any e-mail attachments! If you are not dead sure that it is a safe attachment, do not open it! It holds especially for various congratulations or funny programs. 3. Beware of illegal programs! The aim of the following lines is not to fight against copying illegal software because of law, but because of security. Today the danger of infecting copied programs on some "pirate's" computer where hundreds of programs are stored is not so serious as it used to be a few years ago. Today, whole CDs (or DVDs) are copied directly and the original is compared to the copy, so even copying on an infected computer should not cause infecting. The actual threat is something else: Producers police the (il)legality of their software on computers and do not enable fundamental functions for the security (for example patching) to irregularly gained programs. An example can be the operating system Windows XP that can be used in illegal version, but its dangerous errors cannot be corrected with the use of so-called Service Packs. 4. Think over the web pages you want to visit! Many web pages contain malicious codes that are able to install themselves on the computer and cause many problems there. The most illuminating example can be so-called dialers which are applications inserted into HTML pages that (usually without user's permission, but sometimes after a false excuse with user's permission) change the dial-up number that you are using to connect to the Internet with (if you use a dial-up coonection). Instead of an acceptable amount of money per hour, the Internet connection is suddenly realized by a foreign phone number and therefore is extremely expensive. Try to avoid suspicious pages where this or similar infection threats: erotics, illegally distributed games, software and music, serial numbers, cracks, warez, hackers etc. 5. Use a personal firewall! The times when an antivirus software was enough for the computer protection are over. If you are connected to the Internet, the use of a personal firewall is necessary. It is a computer program checking all the data flowing from or into your computer and at the same time blocking unrequested or unwelcome operations (attacks from hackers or viruses etc.). It can be simply said that a personal firewall is a sort of a computer port guard. Many current malicious codes spread through the Internet (i.e. not through e-mails or infected files). These codes use security defects and software weak points for attacking poorly protected computers directly from the Internet. The problem is that antivirus programs usually cannot deal with such codes. It is a question of principle: A net worm uses a network to get into the computer but "lives" only in the computer memory. If it does not create any file on the disk, antivirus software ignores it. Even if the user removes it from the computer memory, the malicious code is settling in the computer

immediately again. The whole process could last for ages getting and removing the worm. Personal firewalls can help us just in these situations. 6. Use the electronic signing and encrypting! In the introduction of this text we said that the virus threat cannot be averted, but only minimized. As well, the possibility of a successful attack cannot be excluded. An absolute security simply does not exist - not in the real world, neither in the cyber one. That is why you have to be prepared for possible attacks and ensure that their consequences were the less serious possible. Using the electronic signing contributes to an excellent prevention because it enables warning about any changes in documentation or files (and if they are infected by virus, they are of course modified). The electronic sign used in communication can help to the authentication of the message sender (that the message was sent by a specific person, not by a virus pretending to be the person). The data encryption technology ensures that even if an attacker gets the data, she or he can see only a nonsensical group of characters instead of the usable information. Therefore, encrypting protects data not only against viruses that steal documents from computers, but also against other inquisitives and unauthorized people. 7. Get the information! It is said (and true) that fighting against known enemy is much more easier than the fight against an unknown threat. Try to be "in the know" as for new computer viruses. It is good to monitor web pages of antivirus companies or "virus" paragraphs in the expert press. You will find there answers to many questions as well as advices how to solve individual situations. Filter the information properly - if an e-mail is sent to you by a colleague or friend about the most monstrous virus ever, that prompts you to forward it to as many addresses possible, it is probably a hoax (false alarm that expands on the world in order to molest as many users possible). 8. Patch, patch, patch! It is not so long ago when software companies were declaring their products to be absolutely perfect and bug-free. Although errors and problems evidently occurred, they were putted the blame on "objective reasons" or anything else. The situation has changed, the majority of software producers admit that their software might contain errors. No wonder - every computer in the world is a unique combination of software, hardware and its settings, whereas programs are tested only on a small group of machines. Software producers realized that if they do not bear the responsibility for these weak points, they could pay dear one day in the form of legal proceedings or the loss of important customers' trust. It is more acceptable to admit the possibility of errors existence, correct them periodically and pass the responsibility to the user. It cannot be demanded that users reinstall the whole program or operating system after every fix so patches have

originated. They are small programs that, applied on computer, change the source codes and configuration of the parent software in order to solve the known problems. These problems may be of various kinds - collision with another software, malfunction, an undesirable property that can be used by hackers or viruses and so on. All patches for the most frequent operating system are available at WINDOWSUPDATE.MICROSOFT.COM or through the Windows Update in the Start Menu. Be careful, some patches are very large (tens and tens of MB), which can be very unpleasant especially if you use the dial-up connection. 9. Backup your data! Backup, backup, backup! Backup in the morning, backup at noon, backup in the evening! And dream of backuping during the night... We are exaggerating a little, but really only a little. Close your eyes and try to answer these questions: If all the data disappeared from the computer right now, how long would it take to renovate it from backups and other sources? This can simply happen due to a computer virus attack, stealing your computer or just by an ordinary vase with water overturned by accident. So once more: backup, backup, backup! 10. When appropriate, contact experts! Yes, in case of a virus attack or any other problem it is simplest to call "a friend who has installed these programs". But this is a very problematical solution: the effects of the most computer viruses cannot be removed by anyone unexperienced. It requires some knowledge and tools. Statistics are very sad with regards to this - 95 percents of harm debited to computer viruses are caused by something different - by non-professional attempts to deal with them! If the virus encrypts the data on the hard disk and you remove it, you can bid farewell to that data immediately. But if you first use the virus for decrypting the data and then annihilate it, the data will remain all right.

Reference: ashikshareef.blogspot.com
Virus Protection without Anti-Virus software This is my first post other than movies. I like to share something I know which helps in protecting our computer from viruses. Thanks to my best friend Anvar, who has taught me with this information 3 years before.

Keeping our computer out of virus is an important task. There are plenty of antivirus programs available in the market. But there are ways to keep your computer out of virus threats without

using any such antivirus software. It is very well possible with the internal features available in Windows operating system.

Actually, Virus is a program that executes by itself. Its adverse effects vary from making certain applications not function properly to mother board failure at the worst case. Now that removable media is very common, virus gets easily transferred to our computer through pendrives. Usually the virus files are associated with an autorun.inf file that has the script to execute them, and they are hidden inside the drive. Those who use shared computers, like in college laboratories and offices, are more vulnerable to get a virus attack when they use their pen drives in one of those computers, and use them again in your personal one. The moment the USB drive is plugged into the computer, it starts executing, which we must prevent in order to keep our computer safe.

Using the Group Policy Editor in Windows operating system, the task is achieved. It works well in Windows XP, Vista and 7 operating systems and the steps are same for all the three variants. The main benefit of this method is that, it is a time one process only. A repetition is necessary only in re-installation of the OS. Before that, one important thing to keep in mind is, there shouldnt be any threats or suspicious files in your computer already. So here are the steps. The images shown below are from Windows 7 OS. Click on the images to see it enlarged.

1. Go to Start -> Run and type the command gpedit.msc. The local group policy editor window will appear (Image 2).

Image 1

Image 2 - group policy editor window 2. The Group Policy Editor window is divided into two panes. In the left pane, there are Computer Configuration and User Configuration. Select the User Configuration option by double clicking on it, and three sub headings under User Configuration will be displayed.

3. From the three, double Click the Administrative Templates. There will be another list of sub options displayed and choose Windows Components. Policies under Windows components are displayed and choose Autoplay policies option which is third from the top. Selecting the Autoplay policies will display the existing autoplay related options in the right pane of the window. The first one Turn off Autoplay is our concern (Image 3).

Image 3 - Autoplay policy 4. By default, it is Not Configured. Double clicking or a right click and choosing Edit option from the popup menu, its properties are displayed (Image 3).

Image 4 - Turn off Autoplay default properties 5. In the properties window, choose Enabled, and under the Options dropdown list, choose All Drives.

Image 5 - Turn off Autoplay properties after modified settings 6. Click Apply and then Ok. Mission accomplished!!

Hereafter you can simply use your USB drive without any fear about threats. As said earlier, virus files are usually hidden. So while using pendrive, there is no problem in leaving them as it, unless you manually execute the virus program by mistake. To avoid that, it is advised to first delete them. It can be done using either Winrar file compressing utility or Command prompt. Using Winrar is fairly easier than command prompt. One advantage of winrar application is that it shows all the hidden files in any folder or drive. This makes the process easier to spot and delete the malicious files.

Image 7 - Deleting virus files using Winrar After inserting the pendrive, and before the opening it, pen winrar application and using the address bar, open the drive in which the virus files have to be removed. In this case, the suspicious file is folder.tmp and autorun.inf is the file that has the script to execute the virus. Selecting them and pressing delete key will throw them off your computer. Misson accomplished again.!

It is a good practice to check every time you use pendrives in your computer, that whether it has any malicious contents. In this way, you can ensure the safety of your computer from threats. Please do share this information with others.

PART 3
3.) Analysis and Findings 3.1.) Model Analysis
Anti-virus software is often compared to medicine against viral infection. Extending that analogy, before giving medicine we should consider how to use it and in what dose, since using a tool to fight a viral infection in an ill-considered manner can do more harm than good.

How an anti-virus monitor works An anti-virus monitor is usually a constituent part of an anti-virus software package. It works either as a kernel-mode driver of the operating system or, more frequently, as a file system minifilter driver. It is called a TSR programme (terminate and stay resident), i.e. it operates continually from the moment when the computer is switched on to the moment when it is switched off. Its task is to continually analyse read and saved data and respond appropriately to any malicious code that it detects. It works like a filter, letting through or blocking data entering it. If an application saves or reads data from the hard disk, the anti-virus monitor intercepts those commands, analyses them, and either allows the I/O operations to be completed or, if it detects malicious code, takes predetermined action usually involving blocking the disk operation and reporting an alert or attempting to "cure" the problem by removing the data containing the code of the virus. If the monitor does not detect any malicious code, data flows freely in both directions. The word "freely" is used here to describe a theoretical model of the operation of an anti-virus monitor and should not be understood literally, for reasons that will soon become clear.

How an anti-virus monitor affects operations involving reading data from a disk When it is analysing data in transmission, an anti-virus monitor process uses up the computer's resources, i.e. processor power and RAM memory. The quantity of resources used by the monitor depends on the settings of the anti-virus programme (heuristic analysis, archive scanning, etc.) and on the programme manufacturer's optimisation of the algorithms for detecting harmful code. Some anti-virus programmes use more of the computer's resources than others, but even the best have a negative impact on its output. Processor cycles used to search for harmful code cannot be used by the application being used by the user. With the current fast processors, which nearly always have substantial power reserves when office tasks are being performed, the effect of the load placed on the processor by the anti-virus monitor may not be particularly significant. However, another aspect of the same issue is time, i.e. the time required to execute the filtering algorithm. In fact it is the increased duration of disk operations which is most

noticeable and troublesome for both computer users and computer network administrators (which will be discussed later in this article). Each I/O operation takes time. Regardless of what disk you have (S-ATA, SCSI or SSD) and its speed, each operation will take more or less time. We always try to have the fastest possible drive because slower disks are more cumbersome to work with. However, when installing an anti-virus monitor one should bear in mind that its operation can mitigate the benefits of using modern high-speed hard disks. When heuristic code analysis options (i.e. the most time-consuming) are switched off, resident anti-virus protection slows down data reading operations by 15 to 100 per cent. When the options for advanced analysis and scanning of archives and mail files are switched on, the time increase rises to 250600 per cent. This means that with the anti-virus monitor switched on, disk operations can be performed as much as six times more slowly [1, 2, 4]. While it is of little significance when working at home or performing simple office tasks whether a document will be opened in 50 ms or 300 ms, such a difference has huge significance for automatic processes operating on a large number of files, such as data archiving. Let us suppose that we want to create a backup for the entire hard disk of an office computer. In the case of the Windows Vista Home Basic system, there are 36,000 system files alone, as well as approximately 15,000 user files. The backup of the 51,000 files should be created within around 30 minutes, without obstructing the normal work of the user of the computer. After resident anti-virus protection has been activated, archiving time may increase to several hours, while the user's ease of work will be greatly reduced due to the large burden being placed on the CPU.

Fig. 1 The burden placed on the CPU by the process of an anti-virus monitor during backup (a file server) For servers of files, which sometimes contain more than 500,000 files, creating a full backup when the anti-virus monitor is active can take several dozen hours. In most cases, for this reason it will not be possible to complete the backup at all. Besides the problems mentioned above, it is also possible that the anti-virus monitor will block some or all of the files, because in certain situations some anti-virus programmes try to check (or

"cure") a file when another application has already started reading the file. Such a situation can lead to system errors occurring such as "Cannot find file", "Cannot open file" or "Incorrect path name". In the case of mapped network disks or compressed volumes, an error in reading file parameters can also occur. For example, when the actual size of a file is 100 kB, interference caused by anti-virus software can lead to zero byte size occurring or a size measured in PB [3]. If one of these errors occurs, the file in question will be bypassed during archiving (though relevant information will be recorded in the Event Log of FBS Server). The problems described above relate to workstations and can cause a discernible reduction in ease of work for the user (slow operation of the computer) and the administrator (copies take a long time to make or cannot be completed within the expected time) or result in the archiving of a file being bypassed due to a read error. Much more serious problems can occur when the antivirus monitor affects write operations.

Anti-virus measures on a backup server Backup servers are responsible for receiving and recording archives sent by workstations, as well as for recording and modifying the database and carrying out additional operations on archives when space is being freed up on a disk and during replication. As in the case of workstations, as described above, anti-virus monitors slow down I/O operations or block them. Although it may not seem to be cause for concern, slowing down write operations not only reduces backup speed, affects the preparation of tasks after the server core, and affects data recovery. If we are not archiving a large number of computers and backup speed is not of key importance, we can assume that an anti-virus monitor on a backup server on which no one is working (automatic backup on the basis of a scheduler) will not cause anyone any inconvenience. The problem is that in the case of databases, delays of 1-2 seconds, where it is not possible for the server to block a part of the database file, can cause "transaction timeout" errors and lead to the database server stopping or the integrity of the database being compromised. This applies not only to an FBS Server programme databases, but also to databases and mail systems of other manufacturers.

For the Ferro Backup System, a database only has an auxiliary role: it contains program settings and system logs. These data, however, are not necessary for recovery. Therefore, the impact of an antivirus monitor is greater when saving backup copies themselves. Workstations send packages containing ZIP archive fragments to the backup Server. The FBS Server receives and saves them on the hard drive. Meanwhile, the Fig. 2 Cyclical scanning of an archive file antivirus monitors detects the save operation and by an anti-virus monitor during backup attempts to analyze the information being saved. (fig. 2). Most antivirus programs recognize a ZIP file and try to scan its contents. Such an operation involves significant CPU load and blocks, for a considerable time, the saving operation carried out by the FBS Server. This may result in an interrupted connection with the workstation and an attempt to resend the last package. If the antivirus scanner detects that the archive being sent contains a file with malicious code and tries to "heal" it, a damaged backup may be produced as a result. For the same reason, damage may arise at a later stage - when replicating backups or when freeing up disc space, when files are moved between differential backups.

To prevent the problems described above from occurring, the anti-virus software must be appropriately configured.

Recommended configuration of anti-virus monitors on workstations Two options are usually available: 1. Excluding the FBSWorker.exe process in the options of the anti-virus monitor. The possibility of excluding a particular process is available in most anti-virus programmes. After the FBSWorker.exe process has been excluded, the anti-virus programme will not monitor I/O disk operations being executed by that process 2. Switching off the anti-virus monitor before backup and restarting it after backup. To switch off the anti-virus monitor, the command NET STOP AV_MONITOR_SERVICE_NAME should be executed. To restart it, the command NET START AV_MONITOR_SERVICE_NAME should be executed. Both commands can be executed automatically through the Remote Commands embedded in the Ferro Backup System

Recommended configuration of an anti-virus monitor on a backup server For an backup server, the following solutions should be considered: 1. Deinstalling the anti-virus monitor and periodically checking the disks using an anti-virus scanner. Disk checking can be started up automatically by a scheduler embedded in the anti-virus programme or by Windows Task Scheduler (the AT command) 2. Excluding the FBSServer.exe process in the options of the anti-virus monitor 3. Excluding the database of FBS Server (the file FBSDatabase.abs) and all the folders in which archives are being recorded from scanning by the anti-virus monitor

Summary Anti-virus programmes which monitor I/O disk operations in order to detect and protect against viruses place a burden on the processor and reduce the speed of reading and writing data. For home use or office tasks, where a small number of files are processed, the effect of an anti-virus monitor is hardly felt. For operations on thousands of files or in the case of an archiving server on which a database is stored and on which large archives are recorded, the operation of the monitor can place a substantial burden on the processor and reduce backup speed. In some situations, the filters of an anti-virus monitor can disrupt write operations. This can both compromise the integrity of the programme's database and damage the structure of backup copy files. In a business environment, anti-virus monitors must therefore be correctly configured so that they do not have a negative effect on processes being carried out automatically. In computers which are dedicated to specific tasks, such as backup servers, deinstalling the antivirus monitor completely and periodically checking the disks using an anti-virus scanner, started up using an embedded or external scheduler, should be considered. If the anti-virus software is able to exclude particular processes from monitoring, the processes making up the data backup system should be excluded.

Antivirus programs: their quality and issues


If we look at various antivirus solutions according to the criteria presented in the Selection of antivirus protection section, we will see that they score very differently. Unfortunately, an adequate level of antivirus protection is not always rendered, let alone guaranteed protection. There are no antivirus solutions that could offer infallible safeguard against all existing malware. The arms race between antivirus vendors and cybercriminals escalates year after year, and most antivirus solutions today fall short of providing reliable protection. This situation in fact can be described as a crisis in the antivirus industry associated with the inability to provide a reliable security level to the users. Malware detection This is the main aspect of protection quality. An antivirus solution must be capable of detecting the largest possible number of existing malicious programs this is what it is designed for. It must be able to detect new modifications of known viruses, worms and Trojans, including those located in packaged files (executable files modified by archive utilities), scan the content of archives and installation packages. So what problems may arise in front of antivirus programs apart from the usual competition between products? Looks pretty simple there computer viruses at large, so there are antiviruses to combat them. On the face of it, an antivirus has long become a regular commodity that is no too much different from the competing products, and sells for its attractive design, shrewd advertisement or other non-technical reasons. So, it looks like an antivirus has become a plain commodity or a mass-consumption product like a detergent, toothbrush or a car. However, an antivirus solution is more that a plain commodity, and the users choice may be affected by considerations other than the products design, price or aggressive advertisement. The basic criterion is the products technical performance, and different products may differ greatly if evaluated according to that criterion. So, the first questions to be posed are which specific IT threats a given product can guard against, and if the provided protection is of adequate quality.

An antivirus must be able to protect the user from all types of malware, and the better it does that job, the more comfortable the users life is and the better the system administrator sleeps. Should anybody fail to recognize that theoretical premise, reality will soon confront them with very practical problems, be it their money draining away from their bank accounts, their computer making unsolicited phone calls to unknown numbers, or the outgoing web traffic increasing dramatically without any obvious explanation. Given the antivirus product X detects 50% of all viruses active in the Internet at a given moment of time, the product Y detects 90%, and the product Z detects 99.9%, it is a trivial problem to calculate the probability of your computer remaining intact after N attacks. If your computer gets attacked 10 times, it will almost certainly get infected in the X case (99.9% probability), more than probably does so in the Y case (65%), and most probably stays safe and sound in the Z case (1% only). Unfortunately, far from all antivirus products available off the shelf or in the web provide a protection level any near to 100%. In fact, most products fall short of providing 90% security level! This is the major problem that antivirus programs face today. Problem No. 1. The number and diversity of malware grows steadily year after year. Many antivirus vendors cannot keep up and are losing the virus arms race. So, users of their products are not completely protected against all IT threats that exist today. Sadly, far from all products delivered by antivirus companies can be actually called an antivirus. Regular, frequent updates An antivirus must be updated regularly: cybercriminals become more active year after year, and new malicious programs appear more and more often in increasing numbers. It is by no means always that antivirus solutions can stop new viruses and Trojans using proactive methods. Therefore, an antivirus must be able to react promptly to new malware. Some five to ten years ago, one could say that protection should not be demanded against all new viruses and Trojans, as most of them are written by rowdy teenagers to raise their self-esteem or simply to satisfy their itchy curiosity, and never get to infect users computers; so, protection

should be only provided against those few viruses that make it to the victim computers. However, today this is not the case. As Kaspersky Lab says, more than 75% of malicious software is today created by underground cybercriminals so as to infect a large amount of computers, and new viruses and Trojans arising daily number in the hundreds. This means that the probability is far greater than zero that you can catch a new criminal malware while browsing, and it is quite possible that there are dozens to hundreds to thousands of infected users roaming around the web; however, if the new piece of malware happens to be a worm, the number of casualties may be counted in millions. The Internet is a very fast environment, and the antivirus vendors must release instant updates to address all newly detected viruses and Trojans. This is where the second problem lies. Problem No.2. These days, malware spreads very fast, compelling antivirus vendors to release protection updates as frequently as possible so as to protect their users from all newly arising computer pests. Sadly, some antivirus vendors may fail to deliver protection fast enough, and the protection updates may reach the user all too late. Removing malicious code Lets assume, however, that a virus still has made it to the victim machine across all barriers and settled down there, while the antivirus supposed to be on guard has failed to notice it creeping by. Or, alternatively, the laidback user or system administrator has not bothered to download the latest update of the antivirus database. The updates reach the computer sooner or later, and then the virus is detected. However, it needs to be carefully removed from the system before we call it a decisive victory. The key word here is remove accurately, and this is where yet another problem arises in front of the antivirus program. Problem No.3. Removing the detected malicious code from the infected system. Viruses and Trojans often take special action to disguise their presence in the system, or get embedded so deep into the system that it may be not an easy task to root it out. Unfortunately, antivirus programs may be sometimes unable to extract the malicious code smoothly and restore the systems normal operation.

Performance vs. protection The next step in this discussion is that any software uses computer resource, and an antivirus is no exception. In order to protect your computer, your antivirus program has to do certain activities, such as open files, read data from them, unpack archives for scanning etc. The more thorough the data scanning, the more CPU resource is used. An iron door is a good analogy: the heavier it is, the better it protects and the more effort it takes to open and close it. So we have to yet another problem: how to balance between complete security and computer performance. Problem 4. Appropriateness of consuming CPU resource. There is no proper solution to this problem. Practice shows that the fastest antivirus programs provide no good protection and pass malware like a sieve leaks water. However, the opposite is not correct: a slow antivirus does not necessarily provide adequate protection. Running more than one antivirus program In order to scan files on the fly and safeguard the computer under care, the antivirus program has to penetrate into the system kernel quite deep. Speaking in technical terms, an antivirus installs interceptors of system events deep within the protected system and pass the intercepted data to the antivirus engine for analysis so as to scan intercepted files, network packets and other critical data. Unfortunately, you cannot always use two lancets on a single incision. If there are two antivirus programs running on a single computer, they will try to install two interceptors into the same part of the system kernel. This will result in conflicts between the antivirus monitors. One of the two antivirus programs will fail to intercept system events or, alternatively, will attempt to install a parallel interceptor and thus cause the entire system to crash. This is the last but not least problem of antivirus protection. Problem 5. Two antivirus programs cannot run simultaneously on a single computer. In most cases, it is technically impossible to install two antivirus programs on the same machine so as to give it dual protection the two simply cannot get along.

3.2.) Solution

Note: Some of the following items apply only to Windows XP. Windows Vista and Windows 7 offer additional security enhancements that may make the suggested tactic irrelevant.

Learn how to tell if your computer is running unnecessary software: this means you must learn how to tell what belongs on your computer, what should be running: download and learn to use the holy trinity: Autoruns, Process Explorer, and RootKit Revealer . They're extremely high quality, and they are absolutely essential tools.

Your computer isn't a toaster. If you want to pretend that it is, I expect that you will have a lot of trouble with it. If you own and use a computer, you really ought to learn some of this stuff. It's not that difficult. If you don't want to be bothered, find someone local who really knows about Windows, and pay him or her to help you. In the long run, it's cheaper and more satisfying than paying Symantec or some other company a subscription fee in exchange for partial 'protection'.

Install a quality hardware firewall between your internet connection and the rest of your network. Ensure that all incoming ports are blocked. This is one exception to my "no personal firewalls" rule - if I traveled a lot, or used public WiFi hotspots, I'd probably install the simplest, most robust software firewall I could get my hands on - but it would not be something bloated like Norton Internet Security. Try Kerio Personal Firewall (I've not used it in a while, so I don't know if it's still lean and mean.)

Run as a non-admin user most of the time. This is known as Least User Access, or LUA. Windows users typically log in with full administrative privileges (at least, in versions up to XP and Server 2003) - exposing those users to severe security risks.

I log in as an administrator only when necessary to change system configuration or install trusted software. The added hassle actually reminds me that I need to think before I make a change to my system, or install some random software I just downloaded from the 'web.

Use good judgment in deciding to install software, visit a web site, or open an email. Periodically run a free, online virus scanner - check your system every once in a while to see if you have an infection.

Download and use Ad-Aware or Spybot S&D (or better yet, use both) from time to time like just after installing a new bit of software on your machine, or just after your kids have visited the latest MySpace or ringtone site.

Web Browser or Email specific guidelines

Think before you open that email! Your email software should be able to tell you, before you open the email, if the email is bogus. I look at the following bits:
o o

Size, attachment, recipient (TO) address, subject, sender (FROM) address If the sender or recipient looks strange, I don't open the message in my email client - I take steps to view the message's raw source (the technique varies depending on the email software) and look for telltale signs of malware. (This is worthy of its own discussion.)

Not sure about a web site? Check before visiting - go to www.stopbadware.org and see if the site is a reported malware site. Or, you can visit SiteAdvisor.com and see what it has to say about the site.

Configure Internet Explorer to use the highest level of security for normal internet browsing (set the 'Internet Zone' is to maximum security) - this will break many web sites that rely on advanced features of Internet Explorer, but this is the price you have to pay - I get around that by manually adding selected, trusted sites (the few critical sites that I really need to visit using Internet Explorer) to the "Trusted Sites Zone"

Keep Internet Explorer and Outlook or Outlook Express (or whatever email client you use) up-todate with the latest patches.

Configure Outlook / Outlook Express to read all emails in plain text by default Disable the "preview panel" if you must read email in HTML (rich text) format - the preview panel (combined with un-patched or improperly-configured systems) is one of the most dangerous features of Outlook or Outlook Express, and if you receive a malicious email, it can infect your computer just by appearing in the preview panel.

If you want to use the preview panel, or view HTML mails, set Outlook Express to display emails as plain text by default. Check the email information (sender, to:, etc.) before viewing it as HTML. Don't view suspicious emails (especially those having attachments) in HTML format... Just delete the damn things.

Configure Outlook / Outlook Express to use the 'Restricted Sites' zone Use the latest FireFox or Mozilla browser as the default browser (thus avoiding Internet Explorer most of the time)

Use Mozilla Thunderbird or other email reader as your default email reader.

PART 4
4.) Results and Discussion
Remove viruses and spyware If the computer is performing slowly after connecting to the Internet, adware or spyware programs might be installed. Spyware and adware software programs use the Internet to download and upload information in the background. Some of this information might be sensitive or unwanted advertising. Scan for viruses and spyware using antivirus or antispyware security software. Remove any viruses and spyware found.

Close all open programs not being used Only use programs that are necessary. Minimizing a programs window might not stop that program from using the processor and memory. Being connected to the Internet, listening to music, and running virus scans are all ways to use up your system resources. Try running virus scans and other system tools while no one is using the computer or when away from the desk. Work offline when convenient. Closing programs that are not necessary helps Windows perform more efficiently.

Manage startup programs by preventing background programs from loading A startup program is software that opens when Windows opens. Over time, as you install more and more software programs, the number of small icons in the notification area increases (usually these icons are in the lower-right corner, next to the time). Each of these small pictures represents a program running in the background, and each one uses valuable system resources. Move the mouse pointer over each small picture to find what software it is. Common programs that load and run in the background are Security Software, Windows update, Instant messaging software, and multimedia programs. You can increase system resources by stopping some of

these tasks from loading, or by changing their settings. This can be achieved in several ways because these programs often open from various places. Figure 1: System tray icons

Use System Configuration to prevent programs from launching Perform the following steps to selectively prevent items from starting when Windows launches.

CAUTION: Only disable items that are known and unwanted. Disabling system critical items might cause problems. 1. Click Start , and type msconfig into the Start Search field, and then press Enter

2. If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. 3. When the System Configuration window opens, click the General tab and make sure Selective startup is selected. Figure 2: General tab

4. Select the Startup tab and remove the checks from any tasks that do not contribute to the system and are unwanted. If unsure about a task, write the name down and research it on the Internet later. Do not remove a checkmark if you do not know what the task is (if possible, do not close HP Total Care Advisor, HPRun, and Microsoft Windows Operating System). For a list of files that are recommended not to remove, review the HP support document: Using Microsoft System Configuration (Msconfig) in Windows Vista . Figure 3: Startup tab of the System Configuration Window

5. Click OK to accept the changes. Restart the computer. After Windows starts, a message window might appear stating that Windows has blocked some startup programs. Click the message to view the blocked programs. Figure 4: Blocked programs message

6. If Windows or other software stops working after a checkmark is removed from a task you were unsure about, restart the computer and reverse these procedures to replace the checkmark. If needed, you can press F8 after the first blue HP startup screen (after the computer has been turned on) to open safe mode.

By completing these steps, Windows runs using Selective startup. This means that Windows prevents the selected programs from starting. If Selective startup is disabled in the future, all the selected software programs will open again. Remove icons from the Startup folder Use the following steps to prevent unwanted items from loading:

1. Right-click anywhere in an open area on the Windows desktop, and select New and Folder . Name the folder Notstartup . This folder will be used later. 2. Right-click Start , and select Open . The Start Menu folder opens.

3. Double-click Programs . 4. Find and open Startup . 5. Any icons present in Startup are programs loaded when Windows opens. Right-click any of these icons and select Properties to reveal more information about the icon. 6. Press and hold the Ctrl key. While holding this key down, click the icons that you do not want. 7. Click Edit , and select Cut . 8. Close all open windows to return to the Windows desktop. 9. Double-click the Notstartup folder on the desktop that was created earlier. 10. Select Edit and Paste from the Notstartup folder. The icons that were cut from the Startup folder are now placed in the Notstartup folder. 11. Restart the computer.

Any items removed from Startup no longer open, but can be opened by double-clicking the desired item in the Notstartup folder.

Empty the Recycle Bin

1. From the Windows desktop, double-click Recycle Bin

2. Right-click any mistakenly deleted items, and then select Restore . 3. Click Empty the Recycle Bin . Windows removes the contents of the Recycle Bin from the hard disk. 4. Select Yes to confirm. 5. Close the Recycle Bin . Deleting temporary files and directories This step increases hard disk space and reduces the time Windows takes to access the hard drive. It also resolves problems with spooling print jobs. Windows uses a TEMP folder to temporarily store files intended only for temporary use. Over time, these files can build up and cause problems. To delete these files, use the following set of steps depending on the Windows version: Show me how

1. Close all open software programs. 2. Click Start , All Programs , Accessories , System Tools , and then Disk Cleanup .

The Disk Cleanup Options window opens. Figure 5: Disk Cleanup Options

3. Click My files only or Files from all users on this computer . 4. Select the drive you want to clean up, and then click OK . A message displays telling you that Disk Cleanup is calculating how much space you can free on the disk drive. Figure 6: Disk Cleanup progress indication window

5. Place a check next to the types of files you want the Disk Cleanup tool to delete. Temporary files are safe to delete.

CAUTION:Selecting some options can have a negative effect. Examples: selecting Hibernation File Cleaner can prevent the computer from entering hibernation mode, selecting Setup Log Files deletes files that online phone support agents use to help

troubleshoot setup problems. If you are unsure about what to delete, do not delete the files until you know that the files are not important for your use of the computer. Figure 7: Disk Cleanup

6. Click OK . 7. Click Delete Files . Check for hard disk drive errors Perform the following procedure to check the integrity of the hard disk drive in Windows Vista. Close all open programs before beginning the disk check. 1. Close all open software programs.

2. Click Start

, and then click Computer .

3. Right-click the hard disk drive that you want to check, and then click Properties . Figure 8: Selecting Properties for the hard drive

4. In the Properties window, click the Tools tab. 5. Under Error-checking, click Check Now . Figure 9: Tools tab

6. If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. 7. If desired, click the check box next to Automatically fix file system errors and Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors . Figure 10: Check Disk window

8. Click Start . If prompted to Schedule a disk check, click Schedule disk check and follow the on-screen instructions to restart the computer and scan the disk for errors. Figure 11: Message that might appear if Windows is unable to check

Defragment the hard disk drive The Disk Defragmenter tool takes all the scattered bits of program data and groups them together in more efficient areas of the drive. Run Disk Defragmenter as follows: 1. Close all open software programs. This includes background programs such as scanners. 2. Click Start , All Programs , Accessories , System Tools , and then click Disk

Defragmenter .

If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.

NOTE:If Disk Defragmenter repeatedly starts, a hidden background program is still accessing the hard drive. Restart the computer in Safe mode and try again. 3. Click Defragment Now . Figure 12: Disk Defragmenter

4. If prompted, select the checkbox for each disk you want to defragment, and then click OK to start the disk defragmenter. This could take a few minutes or a few hours, depending on the amount of data on your hard disk drive. You have the option to click Cancel defragmentation to stop the tool.

Preventing memory allocation problems Allocated memory space from programs that are no longer open can cause problems. Over time, this unused memory space can build up, causing Windows to slow down and use the hard drive

more. These memory leaks are causing the system to slow down if the computer runs well when first turned on, but performs noticeably slower after several programs are opened and closed. Memory leaks can happen when software is closed before it has fully opened. Always allow programs time to fully open before closing them. As a rule, wait five seconds after a software program opens before closing it again, even if the program was opened unintentionally. In more rare occasions, an incompatible software program might continue to allocate memory while it is running, causing the system to slow down and eventually lock up. To immediately fix memory leaks, restart the computer. For a permanent fix, isolate software programs that might be causing the leaks by using the following steps: 1. Start with a fresh session of Windows by shutting down and then turning on the computer. 2. Press Ctrl + Alt + Delete , and then select Start Task Manager to open the Task Manager window. 3. Click the Performance tab to view the amount of available physical memory. Figure 13: Performance tab in Task Manager

4. Click the Resource Monitor button to view how your computer is using the memory. If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. Figure 14: Memory graph in Resource Monitor

5. Click the arrow next to Used Physical Memory, and then scroll down to view which programs are using memory.

6. Open a program suspected of causing the computer to run more slowly. 7. View the System Resources percentage or the amount of physical memory again and write it down. 8. Close and reopen a suspected program repeatedly, comparing this number to the one recorded. Each time, wait about 10 seconds before opening again. 9. If the system resources percentage or available physical memory continues to decrease, a memory leak is occurring. Contact the program's vendor for available patches or fixes. 10. If the System Resource percentage or available physical memory comes back near to the same numbers each time, the suspected program is probably not creating a memory leak.

Freeing up space on the hard drive Windows uses unused space (free space) on the hard drive for different types of operations such as caching and virtual memory. The computer might not run reliably if the free disk space drops below five percent of the total disk space.

CAUTION:You might see a Recovery (D:) hard drive. This hard drive is reserved for system recovery and should not be used for anything else. If the computer displays messages that the drive is full, see Error: Low Disk Space. You are running out of disk space on Recovery (Windows Vista) . To see how much space remains on the hard drive: 1. Click Start , and then click Computer .

2. Right-click the hard drive (C: is most common), and click Properties . 3. View the amount of space available next to Free Space.

Figure 15: Disk properties

Use the following steps to remove unwanted programs and increase hard drive space:

1. Click Start

, and then click Control Panel .

2. Under Programs, click Uninstall a program or double-click the Programs and Features icon. 3. Highlight a program name that is not used, and then click the Uninstall/Change button. If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. Click Yes to remove the program.

Figure 16: Removing programs

4. When done, a prompt might appear to restart Windows. Wait until completely removing the unwanted programs; then restart Windows.

Adjusting System Restore settings System Restore is a feature of Windows that can revert system software and settings back to a particular date. System Restore does this by saving the changes made to system files in a restore point. These restore points use a lot of hard drive space. System Restore can fill 12% of the hard drive with restore points if left unadjusted, regardless of the entire size of the hard drive. Turning off System Restore deletes all restore points for that disk. You cannot restore the disk until you turn on System Protection again and a restore point is created. Turning off System Restore To save hard drive space, use the following steps to turn off System Restore for a hard disk drive. 1. Click Start , Control Panel , System and Maintenance , System , and then click

System protection in the left pane.

If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. The System Properties window opens. 2. To turn on System protection for a hard disk drive, place a check in the check box next to the drive. Or To turn off System protection, remove the check next to the drive. 3. Click OK . Using System Restore to fix problems 1. Click Start , Control Panel , System and Maintenance , System , and then click

System protection in the left pane. If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. The System Properties window opens. 2. Click the System Restore button. The System Restore window opens. 3. Click Next and follow any on-screen instructions.

Updating software Software conflicts can cause the system to slow. HP, Microsoft, and other software manufacturers release updates to address these problems. Make sure that you go to the HP

software download site and use the Windows Update tool regularly. For more information, see the HP support document Obtaining Software and Drivers .

Recommended maintenance schedule To free resources and keep the computer running correctly, follow a maintenance schedule as listed below. Recommended maintenance schedule Daily tasks Manage e-mail

Weekly tasks Protect against viruses, adware, and

Monthly tasks

Quarterly tasks

Use Windows Update Set new passwords

Delete e-mail from unknown sources.

spyware

Check for updates or schedule a monthly

Update definition files or schedule a weekly automatic update.

automatic update.

Do not open attachments that you do not trust.

Organize email.

Run a full virus, adware, and spyware scan or schedule a weekly automatic scan.

Optimize system

Review the Start menu

Clean the computer, monitor, keyboard,

performance Set the Start menu to

and mouse

Run Disk Cleanup.

open only needed applications.

Use a portable vacuum to remove dust and debris from ventilation areas.

Check for disk errors.

Run Disk Defragmenter.

Clean up Web browser files

Clean up the desktop

Delete or remove

Delete cookies. Delete cache. Delete history files.

unneeded icons and software programs.

Turning off nonessential graphical features Graphical features and programs can use a lot of system resources. Turning off these features can improve system performance. This section explains how to close the Windows Sidebar and how to adjust visual effects for best performance. Closing Windows Sidebar If you are not using the Windows Sidebar, you can close this program to increase system performance. To close Windows Sidebar, right-click inside the Windows Sidebar and then click Close Sidebar . Figure 17: Closing Windows Sidebar

Adjusting visual effects for best performance Follow these steps to adjust visual effects, such as menu and window graphics, to optimize performance: 1. Click Start , right-click Computer , and then click Properties .

The System window opens. 2. Click Advanced System Settings . If you are prompted for an Administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.

The System Properties window opens. Figure 18: System Properties

3. Under Performance, click Settings . The Performance Options window opens. Figure 19: Performance Options

4. Click the Visual Effects tab. 5. Select Adjust for best performance , and then click Apply .

Disabling Windows Aero Windows Vista provides a visual experience known as Aero. Windows Aero can be used to change window colors, provide alternate tasking views, and make the window borders transparent.

CAUTION: Disabling Aero can greatly improve system performance, but might prevent certain software programs from opening. For example, if you have an HP Touch computer, disabling Aero prevents the HP TouchSmart software from opening. By default, Aero is enabled on Vista Home Premium, Business, Enterprise or Ultimate. While Windows Aero does offer benefits to your computing experience, it comes at a cost in system performance. If you do not want to use the Windows Aero features and increase the performance of your system, follow these steps to disable Windows Aero and apply a different theme: 1. Right-click an open area of the desktop and select Personalize . The Personalize appearance and sounds window opens. Figure 20: Personalizing appearance and sounds

2. Click Window Color and Appearance . The Window Color and Appearance window opens.

Figure 21: Window Color and Appearance window

3. Click Open classic appearance properties for more options . The Appearance Settings window opens. Figure 22: Appearance Settings window

4. Select a color scheme, and then click Apply .

PART 5
5.) Conclusion and Recommendation 5.1.)Conclusion
If you want to maximize the use of your rams and you prefer not to use antivirus software, and increase the usable amount of your ram, this research is very helpful to you. For plenty of users, getting and using anti-virus software can be a hassle for lots of different reasons. Not only can they be expensive (and then renewed every couple of years), but they can

be slow, difficult to control, and a major eyesore if the product happens to display its name everywhere you look. Whatever the reason may be, you might prefer to not have any antivirus software installed at all. In case you choose to go this route, here are some tips on keeping your computer virus-free without the protective software.

5.2.)Recommendation
Safe Browsing Habits
The most important tip, no matter if you have anti-virus software or not, is to try to maintain safe browsing habits. It is impossible to get a virus without being on the Internet or reading data from some other source. This means to only visit websites directly instead of clicking on links (especially in emails), not downloading any files unless youre 100% sure the source is safe, not surfing around for prolonged periods of time on sketchy websites, and so on. If youre not very good at determining whats good or not, this might help. If it looks different from what youre used to or get offered something that seems too good to be true, youre probably a click away from getting a virus. These tips should be followed even if you do have anti-virus software as such products arent perfect, and some viruses, especially zero-day threats, can pass right through the anti-virus software without so much as a warning.

Updated Software

The next step is to make sure that all your software, especially your browser, is up to date.

Newer versions will fix security bugs that may be present in older versions, and updates could also bring support for new security technologies. That way, it will be much harder for a hacker or virus to exploit a security hole to compromise your system. In Windows, go to Windows Update in your Start menu to check for essential updates. With a lot of software, there is normally a check for updates option in one of the menus. Just click through the menus until you find it.

Online Tools

Another option you have is to use online tools to check if a file contains a virus. There are plenty of anti-virus websites that will check files for you. I recommend using this site as it automatically sends it to a much larger collection of sites and compiles the results of each test. This way, youll have a higher chance of finding a hidden threat or determining if you have a false positive.

Use Web Interface Security Features


Additionally, email providers such as Gmail and Yahoo scan any attachments in an email when you open it, so you should be able to trust the results of those scans. Note that the email providers only scan the attachments when you open the email in their web interface. Therefore, this feature wont be of much help to you if you use an email client.

Security-Focused Browser Extensions

Another great idea is to use browser extensions, where possible, that have a focus on security. A top extension for Firefox would be NoScript. This extension helps block any website scripts that could potentially cause problems on your system. While it takes a while to tell it whats good and whats bad, it will help block any scripts that might break into a security hole. You can find more Firefox security extensions here. For Chrome, you could try SaferChrome.

Use Linux
Last but not least, it might be helpful to run Linux instead of Windows if you dont depend on certain software. While the above tips are definitely worth your time, you can dramatically reduce your risk of getting infected by a virus if you use Linux over Windows. This is because roughly 90% of viruses are for Windows, and 9.95% of the remainder are made for Mac OS X. In combination with the above tips, you can virtually eliminate the threat of viruses and enjoy a safe computing experiences without worries.

5.3.) Bibliography

5.4.) Appendixes

Curriculum Vitae Curriculum Vitae of Proofreader