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Atiq Khan Politics, History, Contemporary Affairs and Issues of Pakisan Feeds: Posts Comments Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad GhoriMongol Policy of Sultanate of Delhi Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri July 30, 2010 by Atiq Khan 1-Introduction:

Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri are the two important personalities of the sub-continent during the medieval age. Both were enterprising soldiers and invaded India time and again. A careful and close scrutiny of their respective achievements and character shows that they resembled each other in more than one respect and differed in many respects. Mahmud was far more a great general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was more brilliant than that of the Muhammad Ghouri.

2-An Overview of the campaigns of Sultan Mahmud:

Mahmud was a man of ambition and enterprise. On receiving the recognition of his sovereignty from al-Qadir Billah, the Khalifah of Baghdad, he made it obligatory on himself to undertake every year an expedition to Hind. From 1000 to 1026 Mahmud led a good many expeditions to Hind. According to Sir Henry Elliot, Mahmud led as many as seventeen expeditions; it is accepted by

the most of the historians.

3-Prominent Invasion of Mahmud:

a-Capture of Frontier Forts:

The first expedition of Mahmud which was undertaken in 1000 A.D. against the frontier towns of the Khyber Pass was an important one. During this expedition he captured a few forts and towns of the Khyber Pass.

b-Defeat of Jaypal of Hindushahi kingdom:

Second expedition of the Mahmud was against his fathers enemy, Jaypal, the king of Hindushahi kingdom. A fierce battle was fought at Peshawar in November, 1001 in which the Muslims came out victorious. Jaypal could not tolerate this insult. He after appointing his son Anandpal as the next king, burnt himself to death.

c-Conquest of Multan:

The fourth expedition of Mahmud was led against the Muslim ruler of Multan. Abul Fateh Daud the ruler of Multan had friendly relation with Anandpal. In 1006, Mahmud marched across the Punjab, Anandpal was defeated and driven to Kashmir hills. Mahmud than invaded Multan. Daud fled, and Multan was captured. Sukhpal or Nawasa Shah, a grandson of Jaypal was left in charge of Multan.

d-Battle of Waihind:

The sixth expedition of Mahmud was led against Anandpal 1008. He organized a confederacy against the Muslims in which the great Hindu Rajas of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Qanauj, Delhi and Ajmer had joined. Mahmud had never met such a vast army organized by the Hindu confederates. The Khokars, a tribe of Punjab also joined the Rajputs in their struggle against the Muslims. It was a challenge to Mahmud. He met the huge Hindu army near Waihind. The bear-footed and bear-headed Khokars fought very bravely against the Muslims. It was a critical moment for the Muslims. but fortunately the elephant of Anandpal got frightened and fled away from the battle-field. This caused a great confusion and panic among the Hindu soldiers who also ran away from the battle-field. Mahmud won victory.

e-Conquest of Punjab:

Trilochanpal son of Anandpal, after exile again came to Punjab and established himself in the Sivalik hills. He entered into an alliance with Vidyadhar, the chandela ruler of Bundelkhan. In order to break this alliance, Mahmud again came to IndoPakistan, and finally defeated Trilochanpal. The result of this expedition was more enduring than those of others. He annexed the Punjab to his dominions and entrusted a regular Amir with the government of the province.

f-Expedition against Qanauj:

The next important expedition of Mahmud was directed against Qanaj, the imperial capital of Hindustan. In 1018. Mahmud at the head of a large army, set out from Ghazni. He captured all the forts on the way. The Raja of Baran or Bulandshahar, offered his submission and embraced Islam along with ten thousand men. Mahmud appeared before the gate of Qanauj in 1019, January, Rajaypal, the Pratihara ruler of Qanauj submitted to Mahmud without any fighting.

g-Causes of Attack on Somnath:

After the fall of Punjab, the Hindu think tank assembled at Somnath which was more of a political center than a temple to plan a big war against Mahmud. He took all the Rajas and Maharajas by surprise when he attacked Somnath and crushed the Hindu headquarter of political intrigue. With the destruction of Somnath he broke the backbone of the Hindus in the region and thus had no need to attack India again.

The most momentous expedition of Sultan Mahmud was indeed the capture of Somnath in Kathiwar. Regarding the cause of this expedition, the famous historian, Ibn-ul-Athis says that, when Mahmud of Ghazni was gaining victory after victory in India, the Hindu began to say that the success of Mahmud was due to displeasure of the Somnath god with the inhabitants of the defeated territories. At this, Mahmud decided to conquer Somnath in order to prove the futility of their belief. This view is corroborated by Ibn Khaldun, Farishta and Wolseley Haig.

Towards the close of 1025, Mahmud set from Ghazni and passing through Multan and the desert of Rajputana, he stood before the gates of Somnath on the 9th of January 1026. The Hindus offered a stubborn resistance, but were defeated.

The expedition to Somnath says Dr. M. Nazim, is one of the greatest feats of Military adventure in the history of Islam.

h-Last expedition:

The last expedition was undertaken against the Jats of Salt Range in 1027 who had molested the Muslim army on its return journey from Somnath. The Jats were defeated and many of them were

put to death.

4-Estimate of Sultan Mahmud:

He came to South Asia seventeen times and went back to Ghazni every time with a great victory. He fought against the strong forces of Jaipal, Annadpal, Tarnochalpal, Kramta and the joint forces of Hindu Rajas and Maharajas but all of them were forced to flee away from the battlefield due to Mahmuds war strategy as a general.

According to S. M. Jaffar, Mahmud was endowed with a genius of war. He was a scientific general, skillful in planning and thorough in execution. His army consisted of heterogeneous elements such as Arabs, Afghanis, Turks and Hindus but he showed wonderful ability in welding together these elements into a powerful and invincible unit. As a conqueror, his purpose was to achieve fame and glory and he had achieved it.

5-Nature of the Mahmuds Invasions:

Sultan Mahmud made seventeen expeditions into Indo-Pakistan and conquered a number of places in the sub-continent. But he didnt establish his rule over them or annex any part of the conquered territories except the Punjab. Various opinions have been expressed by the historians about the motives of Sultan Mahmuds invasions.

6-Mahmud one of the Greatest Conqueror:

One of the most controversial personalities in the history of South Asia, Mahmud Ghaznavi is known as one of the greatest conquerors the world has ever seen. He was one of the very few leaders who were never defeated in a battlefield.

Unlike other great conquerors like Alexander and Chengez Khan, Mahmud did not leave the areas conquered to the mercy of his soldiers. After becoming the first Muslim ruler to conquer Northern Punjab, he consolidated his rule in the area and established his provincial headquarters at Lahore. He established law and order in the areas that he ruled, giving special attention to the people he ruled.

Professor Sharma is of the view that, Mahmud was a seasoned soldier. Fear did not find any place in his heart. His army won against the rulers of India like comb through a poll of hair. It was no small achievement to develop a small mountain principality of Ghazni into a large and prosperous empire by sheer force of arms. He never shrank from war; rather he took delight in it. His military exploits in the east effaced the glories of Alexanders conquest from the minds of many.

7-Mahmud forerunner of Ghouri:

The establishment of Muslim rule in Punjab is a significant event in the history of Islam in Sub-continent. Muslims gained their first foothold in Northern Indian. The conquest of Punjab also paved the way for other conquerors like Muhammad Ghuri. After the death of Mahmud, the Ghaznavid dynasty lost much of its vigor; yet during the days of his son Masud and grandson Mahmud, Lahore remained an important province of the Ghaznavid Empire. Later, the Ghaznavid rulers moved their headquarter from Ghazni to Punjab and ruled Peshawar, Lahore and Multan till the last half of 12th century when Muhammad Ghuri defeated them.

8-An Overview of Muhammad Ghouri:

Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam, better known in history as Muhammad Ghouri, became the ruler of Ghazni in 1173. He was an ambitious king and fired with the love of conquest and power. The Ghourid wanted to establish an empire but their successive defeats at the hands of Shah of Khwarzim forced them to give up the idea of founding an empire in Central Asia and they now turned their attention towards India. Having established himself at Ghazni, he turned his attention to the fertile plains of the subcontinent.

The Ghaznavid who were defeated and ousted from Ghazni took shelter in the Punjab. They became so strong in the country that their very presence was regarded as source of future troubles to the Ghourids. Hence the destruction of the Ghaznavid power in the Punjab demanded the immediate attention of the Ghouri king.

India was divided into many warring States and there was no political unity in the country. Muhammad Ghouri found in the disunited condition of India a brilliant prospect of his success.

9-Campaigns of Muhammad Ghouri:

i-Conquest of Multan and Uch: (1175-76)

First invasion of Muhammad Ghouri was directed against Multan which was at the time ruled bby Karamathians. He captured the city and appointed his own governor there. From Multan he proceeded to Uch and Sind which was captured after sometimes.

ii-Unsuccessful Attempt on Gujrat:

Fin 1178, Muhammad Ghouri led an expedition against Anhilwara, capital of Gujrat but he was defeated by Bhim II, the Vaghela king

of Anhilwara.

iii-Conquest of the Punjab:

Finding it impossible to conquer India through Sind and Multan, Muhammad Ghouri thought of conquering the Punjab which was the key of Hindustan. After a few years of war, Khusrau Malik, the last ruler of Ghaznavid dynasty, was captured and imprisoned in Ghur. The Punjab was then annexed to his empire and the Ghaznavid rule in West Pakistan came to an end.

iv-First Battle of Tarain: (1191)

After the fall of Ghaznavids, Muhammad Ghouri had to face the opposition of the Rajputs. The rapid success of Muhammad Ghouri alarmed Pirthviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Delhi and Ajmer. He gathered a big force and marched against the Ghouri chief. In 1191 both the armies met in the field of Tarain, near Thaneswar and a battle was fought in which the Muslims were defeated and routed. But Muhammad Ghouri did not lose heart at this failure.

v-Second Battle of Tarain: (1192)

Having organized a strong army, Muhammad Ghouri invaded in 1192. He along with his force reached a place near Tarain and encamped there. Pirthviraj appealed to the Rajput princes to join him against the Muslim invader. It is said that as many as 150 Rajput princes with the exception of Raja of Qanauj lent him their help.

Muhammad Ghouri adopted a new tactics of attacks. He divided his army into four divisions and ordered one division to engage the Rajputs at one time while the others were resting. The division was further ordered to pretend or feign flight after

sometime fighting. The Rajputs fought bravely but the new tactics of Muhammad Ghouri proved to be too strong for them. Prithviraj tried to run away from the battle field but he was captured and put to death.

vi-Expedition against Jai Chand of Qanauj:

In 1194, Muhammad Ghouri again came to India in order to subdue Jai Chand of Qanauj, the mortal enemy of Pirthviraj. Qutbud-Din joined his master with his force. Jai Chand met the combined forces of his enemy and was defeated in a battle near at Chandwar. The victorious army then proceeded to Benares and captured it.

According to Professor S. R. Sharma, The fall of Jai Chand at Chandwar made Muhammad the master of the political as well as the religious capitals of Hindustan, Qanauj and Benares.

vii-Qutbub-ud-Din Aibak Incharge of Conquered Territories.

After the Second battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghouri returned to Ghazni and his trusted lieutenant, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak was entrusted with the charge of his conquered territories. Aibak was a man of military ability and political insight. He consolidated and extended the conquests of his master. He soon conquered Meerut, Koil (Modern Aligarh) and Delhi. He made Delhi the capital of empire (1194) thinking that Lahore was too far from his new possessions.

In 1196 he capture Gwalior and then marched against Bhim Deva of Anhiwala. He conquered Anhiwala in Gujrat (1198).

Kalinjar was invaded by Aibak in 1202 which was the military capital of Parmardi Deva, the Chandela king of Bundelkhan. They

offered a strong resistance to Muslims but ultimately they were defeated and the fort of Kalinjar fell into the hands of the Muslims. Thus all the important places of Northern India were brought under the control of Muslims by Aibak.

viii-Conquest of Bihar and Bengal by Bakhtiar Khilji:

Ikhtiyar-ud-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji, a lieutenant of Qut-ud-Din, was extending the Turkish supremacy over Eastern India. Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji was an outstanding figure in the history of Bengal. He marched towards Nadia, the capital of Bengal, with such rapidity that only 18 horsemen could pace with him. He was so bold that he did not hesitate to launch an attack with this small force. On hearing the news of his attack, Lakshman Sen who was taking his meal, fled away by a back door and took shelter at Vikrampur near Sonargaon. Bengal was captured and the seat of government was transferred to Lakhnauti or Gaur. The brave soldier died on his return journey from Tibet to Devkot in 1206.

10-Estimate of Sultan Muhammad Ghouri:

Muhammad Ghouri was a great politician and a far-sighted statesman. He fully realized the rotten political condition of India and therefore decided to establish a permanent kingdom here.

11-Nature of Ghouris Conquest:

His first and foremost aim was to found a permanent Muslim empire in Indian and he furnished during his life time all the resources required for the maintenance of his empire. He trained under his guidance a number of able administrators who amply justified his confidence and trust.

12-The Founder of Muslim Empire in India:

Though the life of Muhammad Ghouri came to a tragic end, the traditions established by him were continued under his able successors, the Turkish slaves who ruled after him. He lives in history not a mere conqueror, but as an empire builder, Muhammad Ghouri is, therefore, justly called the founder of the Muslim Empire in Indo-Pakistan.

13-Remarkable Figure in Indo-Pak History:

Muhammad Ghouri was one of the most remarkable figures in Medieval India. He was a man of courage, enterprise and spirit. He had to fight against the Hindu States incessantly for several years and during this period he showed extraordinary coolness and perseverance. It was no small credit for him that he, with limited resources, was able to establish a large empire which extended from Afghanistan to Bengal. He was a God fearing and just sovereign who was well known for his sympathy and kindness to his subjects.

14-Conclusion:

Both Mahmud Ghazni and Muhammad Ghouri were the greatest soldiers but Mahmud was far greater general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was far more brilliant than that of the latter. Mahmud never suffered a reverse but Muhammad Ghouri was an ordinary soldier and suffered many defeats in India but he never lose heart on these defeats and take revenge of them and crushed the power of Hindu Rajas. Muhammad Ghouri is called the founder of Muslim Empire in India. He took great care in consolidating his conquests. Both of them rendered a great service to the cause of Islam.

Source: R.C Majumdar, Ishwari Prasad, K.Ali, Oxford History of

India etc.

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Atiq Khan Politics, History, Contemporary Affairs and Issues of Pakisan Feeds: Posts Comments Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad GhoriMongol Policy of Sultanate of Delhi Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri July 30, 2010 by Atiq Khan 1-Introduction:

Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri are the two important personalities of the sub-continent during the medieval age. Both were enterprising soldiers and invaded India time and again. A careful and close scrutiny of their respective achievements and character shows that they resembled each other in more than one respect and differed in many respects. Mahmud was far more a great general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was more brilliant than that of the Muhammad Ghouri.

2-An Overview of the campaigns of Sultan Mahmud:

Mahmud was a man of ambition and enterprise. On receiving the recognition of his sovereignty from al-Qadir Billah, the Khalifah of

Baghdad, he made it obligatory on himself to undertake every year an expedition to Hind. From 1000 to 1026 Mahmud led a good many expeditions to Hind. According to Sir Henry Elliot, Mahmud led as many as seventeen expeditions; it is accepted by the most of the historians.

3-Prominent Invasion of Mahmud:

a-Capture of Frontier Forts:

The first expedition of Mahmud which was undertaken in 1000 A.D. against the frontier towns of the Khyber Pass was an important one. During this expedition he captured a few forts and towns of the Khyber Pass.

b-Defeat of Jaypal of Hindushahi kingdom:

Second expedition of the Mahmud was against his fathers enemy, Jaypal, the king of Hindushahi kingdom. A fierce battle was fought at Peshawar in November, 1001 in which the Muslims came out victorious. Jaypal could not tolerate this insult. He after appointing his son Anandpal as the next king, burnt himself to death.

c-Conquest of Multan:

The fourth expedition of Mahmud was led against the Muslim ruler of Multan. Abul Fateh Daud the ruler of Multan had friendly relation with Anandpal. In 1006, Mahmud marched across the Punjab, Anandpal was defeated and driven to Kashmir hills. Mahmud than invaded Multan. Daud fled, and Multan was captured. Sukhpal or Nawasa Shah, a grandson of Jaypal was left in charge of Multan.

d-Battle of Waihind:

The sixth expedition of Mahmud was led against Anandpal 1008. He organized a confederacy against the Muslims in which the great Hindu Rajas of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Qanauj, Delhi and Ajmer had joined. Mahmud had never met such a vast army organized by the Hindu confederates. The Khokars, a tribe of Punjab also joined the Rajputs in their struggle against the Muslims. It was a challenge to Mahmud. He met the huge Hindu army near Waihind. The bear-footed and bear-headed Khokars fought very bravely against the Muslims. It was a critical moment for the Muslims. but fortunately the elephant of Anandpal got frightened and fled away from the battle-field. This caused a great confusion and panic among the Hindu soldiers who also ran away from the battle-field. Mahmud won victory.

e-Conquest of Punjab:

Trilochanpal son of Anandpal, after exile again came to Punjab and established himself in the Sivalik hills. He entered into an alliance with Vidyadhar, the chandela ruler of Bundelkhan. In order to break this alliance, Mahmud again came to IndoPakistan, and finally defeated Trilochanpal. The result of this expedition was more enduring than those of others. He annexed the Punjab to his dominions and entrusted a regular Amir with the government of the province.

f-Expedition against Qanauj:

The next important expedition of Mahmud was directed against Qanaj, the imperial capital of Hindustan. In 1018. Mahmud at the head of a large army, set out from Ghazni. He captured all the forts on the way. The Raja of Baran or Bulandshahar, offered his submission and embraced Islam along with ten thousand men. Mahmud appeared before the gate of Qanauj in 1019, January,

Rajaypal, the Pratihara ruler of Qanauj submitted to Mahmud without any fighting.

g-Causes of Attack on Somnath:

After the fall of Punjab, the Hindu think tank assembled at Somnath which was more of a political center than a temple to plan a big war against Mahmud. He took all the Rajas and Maharajas by surprise when he attacked Somnath and crushed the Hindu headquarter of political intrigue. With the destruction of Somnath he broke the backbone of the Hindus in the region and thus had no need to attack India again.

The most momentous expedition of Sultan Mahmud was indeed the capture of Somnath in Kathiwar. Regarding the cause of this expedition, the famous historian, Ibn-ul-Athis says that, when Mahmud of Ghazni was gaining victory after victory in India, the Hindu began to say that the success of Mahmud was due to displeasure of the Somnath god with the inhabitants of the defeated territories. At this, Mahmud decided to conquer Somnath in order to prove the futility of their belief. This view is corroborated by Ibn Khaldun, Farishta and Wolseley Haig.

Towards the close of 1025, Mahmud set from Ghazni and passing through Multan and the desert of Rajputana, he stood before the gates of Somnath on the 9th of January 1026. The Hindus offered a stubborn resistance, but were defeated.

The expedition to Somnath says Dr. M. Nazim, is one of the greatest feats of Military adventure in the history of Islam.

h-Last expedition:

The last expedition was undertaken against the Jats of Salt Range

in 1027 who had molested the Muslim army on its return journey from Somnath. The Jats were defeated and many of them were put to death.

4-Estimate of Sultan Mahmud:

He came to South Asia seventeen times and went back to Ghazni every time with a great victory. He fought against the strong forces of Jaipal, Annadpal, Tarnochalpal, Kramta and the joint forces of Hindu Rajas and Maharajas but all of them were forced to flee away from the battlefield due to Mahmuds war strategy as a general.

According to S. M. Jaffar, Mahmud was endowed with a genius of war. He was a scientific general, skillful in planning and thorough in execution. His army consisted of heterogeneous elements such as Arabs, Afghanis, Turks and Hindus but he showed wonderful ability in welding together these elements into a powerful and invincible unit. As a conqueror, his purpose was to achieve fame and glory and he had achieved it.

5-Nature of the Mahmuds Invasions:

Sultan Mahmud made seventeen expeditions into Indo-Pakistan and conquered a number of places in the sub-continent. But he didnt establish his rule over them or annex any part of the conquered territories except the Punjab. Various opinions have been expressed by the historians about the motives of Sultan Mahmuds invasions.

6-Mahmud one of the Greatest Conqueror:

One of the most controversial personalities in the history of South Asia, Mahmud Ghaznavi is known as one of the greatest

conquerors the world has ever seen. He was one of the very few leaders who were never defeated in a battlefield.

Unlike other great conquerors like Alexander and Chengez Khan, Mahmud did not leave the areas conquered to the mercy of his soldiers. After becoming the first Muslim ruler to conquer Northern Punjab, he consolidated his rule in the area and established his provincial headquarters at Lahore. He established law and order in the areas that he ruled, giving special attention to the people he ruled.

Professor Sharma is of the view that, Mahmud was a seasoned soldier. Fear did not find any place in his heart. His army won against the rulers of India like comb through a poll of hair. It was no small achievement to develop a small mountain principality of Ghazni into a large and prosperous empire by sheer force of arms. He never shrank from war; rather he took delight in it. His military exploits in the east effaced the glories of Alexanders conquest from the minds of many.

7-Mahmud forerunner of Ghouri:

The establishment of Muslim rule in Punjab is a significant event in the history of Islam in Sub-continent. Muslims gained their first foothold in Northern Indian. The conquest of Punjab also paved the way for other conquerors like Muhammad Ghuri. After the death of Mahmud, the Ghaznavid dynasty lost much of its vigor; yet during the days of his son Masud and grandson Mahmud, Lahore remained an important province of the Ghaznavid Empire. Later, the Ghaznavid rulers moved their headquarter from Ghazni to Punjab and ruled Peshawar, Lahore and Multan till the last half of 12th century when Muhammad Ghuri defeated them.

8-An Overview of Muhammad Ghouri:

Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam, better known in history as Muhammad Ghouri, became the ruler of Ghazni in 1173. He was an ambitious king and fired with the love of conquest and power. The Ghourid wanted to establish an empire but their successive defeats at the hands of Shah of Khwarzim forced them to give up the idea of founding an empire in Central Asia and they now turned their attention towards India. Having established himself at Ghazni, he turned his attention to the fertile plains of the subcontinent.

The Ghaznavid who were defeated and ousted from Ghazni took shelter in the Punjab. They became so strong in the country that their very presence was regarded as source of future troubles to the Ghourids. Hence the destruction of the Ghaznavid power in the Punjab demanded the immediate attention of the Ghouri king.

India was divided into many warring States and there was no political unity in the country. Muhammad Ghouri found in the disunited condition of India a brilliant prospect of his success.

9-Campaigns of Muhammad Ghouri:

i-Conquest of Multan and Uch: (1175-76)

First invasion of Muhammad Ghouri was directed against Multan which was at the time ruled bby Karamathians. He captured the city and appointed his own governor there. From Multan he proceeded to Uch and Sind which was captured after sometimes.

ii-Unsuccessful Attempt on Gujrat:

Fin 1178, Muhammad Ghouri led an expedition against Anhilwara, capital of Gujrat but he was defeated by Bhim II, the Vaghela king of Anhilwara.

iii-Conquest of the Punjab:

Finding it impossible to conquer India through Sind and Multan, Muhammad Ghouri thought of conquering the Punjab which was the key of Hindustan. After a few years of war, Khusrau Malik, the last ruler of Ghaznavid dynasty, was captured and imprisoned in Ghur. The Punjab was then annexed to his empire and the Ghaznavid rule in West Pakistan came to an end.

iv-First Battle of Tarain: (1191)

After the fall of Ghaznavids, Muhammad Ghouri had to face the opposition of the Rajputs. The rapid success of Muhammad Ghouri alarmed Pirthviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Delhi and Ajmer. He gathered a big force and marched against the Ghouri chief. In 1191 both the armies met in the field of Tarain, near Thaneswar and a battle was fought in which the Muslims were defeated and routed. But Muhammad Ghouri did not lose heart at this failure.

v-Second Battle of Tarain: (1192)

Having organized a strong army, Muhammad Ghouri invaded in 1192. He along with his force reached a place near Tarain and encamped there. Pirthviraj appealed to the Rajput princes to join him against the Muslim invader. It is said that as many as 150 Rajput princes with the exception of Raja of Qanauj lent him their help.

Muhammad Ghouri adopted a new tactics of attacks. He divided his army into four divisions and ordered one division to engage the Rajputs at one time while the others were resting. The division was further ordered to pretend or feign flight after sometime fighting. The Rajputs fought bravely but the new tactics of Muhammad Ghouri proved to be too strong for them. Prithviraj tried to run away from the battle field but he was captured and put to death.

vi-Expedition against Jai Chand of Qanauj:

In 1194, Muhammad Ghouri again came to India in order to subdue Jai Chand of Qanauj, the mortal enemy of Pirthviraj. Qutbud-Din joined his master with his force. Jai Chand met the combined forces of his enemy and was defeated in a battle near at Chandwar. The victorious army then proceeded to Benares and captured it.

According to Professor S. R. Sharma, The fall of Jai Chand at Chandwar made Muhammad the master of the political as well as the religious capitals of Hindustan, Qanauj and Benares.

vii-Qutbub-ud-Din Aibak Incharge of Conquered Territories.

After the Second battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghouri returned to Ghazni and his trusted lieutenant, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak was entrusted with the charge of his conquered territories. Aibak was a man of military ability and political insight. He consolidated and extended the conquests of his master. He soon conquered Meerut, Koil (Modern Aligarh) and Delhi. He made Delhi the capital of empire (1194) thinking that Lahore was too far from his new possessions.

In 1196 he capture Gwalior and then marched against Bhim Deva of Anhiwala. He conquered Anhiwala in Gujrat (1198).

Kalinjar was invaded by Aibak in 1202 which was the military capital of Parmardi Deva, the Chandela king of Bundelkhan. They offered a strong resistance to Muslims but ultimately they were defeated and the fort of Kalinjar fell into the hands of the Muslims. Thus all the important places of Northern India were brought under the control of Muslims by Aibak.

viii-Conquest of Bihar and Bengal by Bakhtiar Khilji:

Ikhtiyar-ud-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji, a lieutenant of Qut-ud-Din, was extending the Turkish supremacy over Eastern India. Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji was an outstanding figure in the history of Bengal. He marched towards Nadia, the capital of Bengal, with such rapidity that only 18 horsemen could pace with him. He was so bold that he did not hesitate to launch an attack with this small force. On hearing the news of his attack, Lakshman Sen who was taking his meal, fled away by a back door and took shelter at Vikrampur near Sonargaon. Bengal was captured and the seat of government was transferred to Lakhnauti or Gaur. The brave soldier died on his return journey from Tibet to Devkot in 1206.

10-Estimate of Sultan Muhammad Ghouri:

Muhammad Ghouri was a great politician and a far-sighted statesman. He fully realized the rotten political condition of India and therefore decided to establish a permanent kingdom here.

11-Nature of Ghouris Conquest:

His first and foremost aim was to found a permanent Muslim empire in Indian and he furnished during his life time all the resources required for the maintenance of his empire. He trained

under his guidance a number of able administrators who amply justified his confidence and trust.

12-The Founder of Muslim Empire in India:

Though the life of Muhammad Ghouri came to a tragic end, the traditions established by him were continued under his able successors, the Turkish slaves who ruled after him. He lives in history not a mere conqueror, but as an empire builder, Muhammad Ghouri is, therefore, justly called the founder of the Muslim Empire in Indo-Pakistan.

13-Remarkable Figure in Indo-Pak History:

Muhammad Ghouri was one of the most remarkable figures in Medieval India. He was a man of courage, enterprise and spirit. He had to fight against the Hindu States incessantly for several years and during this period he showed extraordinary coolness and perseverance. It was no small credit for him that he, with limited resources, was able to establish a large empire which extended from Afghanistan to Bengal. He was a God fearing and just sovereign who was well known for his sympathy and kindness to his subjects.

14-Conclusion:

Both Mahmud Ghazni and Muhammad Ghouri were the greatest soldiers but Mahmud was far greater general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was far more brilliant than that of the latter. Mahmud never suffered a reverse but Muhammad Ghouri was an ordinary soldier and suffered many defeats in India but he never lose heart on these defeats and take revenge of them and crushed the power of Hindu Rajas. Muhammad Ghouri is called the founder of Muslim Empire in India. He took great care in consolidating his conquests. Both of

them rendered a great service to the cause of Islam.

Source: R.C Majumdar, Ishwari Prasad, K.Ali, Oxford History of India etc.

About these ads About

Atiq Khan Politics, History, Contemporary Affairs and Issues of Pakisan Feeds: Posts Comments Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad GhoriMongol Policy of Sultanate of Delhi Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri July 30, 2010 by Atiq Khan 1-Introduction:

Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri are the two important personalities of the sub-continent during the medieval age. Both were enterprising soldiers and invaded India time and again. A careful and close scrutiny of their respective achievements and character shows that they resembled each other in more than one respect and differed in many respects. Mahmud was far more a great general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was more brilliant than that of the Muhammad Ghouri.

2-An Overview of the campaigns of Sultan Mahmud:

Mahmud was a man of ambition and enterprise. On receiving the recognition of his sovereignty from al-Qadir Billah, the Khalifah of Baghdad, he made it obligatory on himself to undertake every year an expedition to Hind. From 1000 to 1026 Mahmud led a good many expeditions to Hind. According to Sir Henry Elliot, Mahmud led as many as seventeen expeditions; it is accepted by the most of the historians.

3-Prominent Invasion of Mahmud:

a-Capture of Frontier Forts:

The first expedition of Mahmud which was undertaken in 1000 A.D. against the frontier towns of the Khyber Pass was an important one. During this expedition he captured a few forts and towns of the Khyber Pass.

b-Defeat of Jaypal of Hindushahi kingdom:

Second expedition of the Mahmud was against his fathers enemy, Jaypal, the king of Hindushahi kingdom. A fierce battle was fought at Peshawar in November, 1001 in which the Muslims came out victorious. Jaypal could not tolerate this insult. He after appointing his son Anandpal as the next king, burnt himself to death.

c-Conquest of Multan:

The fourth expedition of Mahmud was led against the Muslim ruler of Multan. Abul Fateh Daud the ruler of Multan had friendly relation with Anandpal. In 1006, Mahmud marched across the Punjab, Anandpal was defeated and driven to Kashmir hills.

Mahmud than invaded Multan. Daud fled, and Multan was captured. Sukhpal or Nawasa Shah, a grandson of Jaypal was left in charge of Multan.

d-Battle of Waihind:

The sixth expedition of Mahmud was led against Anandpal 1008. He organized a confederacy against the Muslims in which the great Hindu Rajas of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Qanauj, Delhi and Ajmer had joined. Mahmud had never met such a vast army organized by the Hindu confederates. The Khokars, a tribe of Punjab also joined the Rajputs in their struggle against the Muslims. It was a challenge to Mahmud. He met the huge Hindu army near Waihind. The bear-footed and bear-headed Khokars fought very bravely against the Muslims. It was a critical moment for the Muslims. but fortunately the elephant of Anandpal got frightened and fled away from the battle-field. This caused a great confusion and panic among the Hindu soldiers who also ran away from the battle-field. Mahmud won victory.

e-Conquest of Punjab:

Trilochanpal son of Anandpal, after exile again came to Punjab and established himself in the Sivalik hills. He entered into an alliance with Vidyadhar, the chandela ruler of Bundelkhan. In order to break this alliance, Mahmud again came to IndoPakistan, and finally defeated Trilochanpal. The result of this expedition was more enduring than those of others. He annexed the Punjab to his dominions and entrusted a regular Amir with the government of the province.

f-Expedition against Qanauj:

The next important expedition of Mahmud was directed against Qanaj, the imperial capital of Hindustan. In 1018. Mahmud at the

head of a large army, set out from Ghazni. He captured all the forts on the way. The Raja of Baran or Bulandshahar, offered his submission and embraced Islam along with ten thousand men. Mahmud appeared before the gate of Qanauj in 1019, January, Rajaypal, the Pratihara ruler of Qanauj submitted to Mahmud without any fighting.

g-Causes of Attack on Somnath:

After the fall of Punjab, the Hindu think tank assembled at Somnath which was more of a political center than a temple to plan a big war against Mahmud. He took all the Rajas and Maharajas by surprise when he attacked Somnath and crushed the Hindu headquarter of political intrigue. With the destruction of Somnath he broke the backbone of the Hindus in the region and thus had no need to attack India again.

The most momentous expedition of Sultan Mahmud was indeed the capture of Somnath in Kathiwar. Regarding the cause of this expedition, the famous historian, Ibn-ul-Athis says that, when Mahmud of Ghazni was gaining victory after victory in India, the Hindu began to say that the success of Mahmud was due to displeasure of the Somnath god with the inhabitants of the defeated territories. At this, Mahmud decided to conquer Somnath in order to prove the futility of their belief. This view is corroborated by Ibn Khaldun, Farishta and Wolseley Haig.

Towards the close of 1025, Mahmud set from Ghazni and passing through Multan and the desert of Rajputana, he stood before the gates of Somnath on the 9th of January 1026. The Hindus offered a stubborn resistance, but were defeated.

The expedition to Somnath says Dr. M. Nazim, is one of the greatest feats of Military adventure in the history of Islam.

h-Last expedition:

The last expedition was undertaken against the Jats of Salt Range in 1027 who had molested the Muslim army on its return journey from Somnath. The Jats were defeated and many of them were put to death.

4-Estimate of Sultan Mahmud:

He came to South Asia seventeen times and went back to Ghazni every time with a great victory. He fought against the strong forces of Jaipal, Annadpal, Tarnochalpal, Kramta and the joint forces of Hindu Rajas and Maharajas but all of them were forced to flee away from the battlefield due to Mahmuds war strategy as a general.

According to S. M. Jaffar, Mahmud was endowed with a genius of war. He was a scientific general, skillful in planning and thorough in execution. His army consisted of heterogeneous elements such as Arabs, Afghanis, Turks and Hindus but he showed wonderful ability in welding together these elements into a powerful and invincible unit. As a conqueror, his purpose was to achieve fame and glory and he had achieved it.

5-Nature of the Mahmuds Invasions:

Sultan Mahmud made seventeen expeditions into Indo-Pakistan and conquered a number of places in the sub-continent. But he didnt establish his rule over them or annex any part of the conquered territories except the Punjab. Various opinions have been expressed by the historians about the motives of Sultan Mahmuds invasions.

6-Mahmud one of the Greatest Conqueror:

One of the most controversial personalities in the history of South Asia, Mahmud Ghaznavi is known as one of the greatest conquerors the world has ever seen. He was one of the very few leaders who were never defeated in a battlefield.

Unlike other great conquerors like Alexander and Chengez Khan, Mahmud did not leave the areas conquered to the mercy of his soldiers. After becoming the first Muslim ruler to conquer Northern Punjab, he consolidated his rule in the area and established his provincial headquarters at Lahore. He established law and order in the areas that he ruled, giving special attention to the people he ruled.

Professor Sharma is of the view that, Mahmud was a seasoned soldier. Fear did not find any place in his heart. His army won against the rulers of India like comb through a poll of hair. It was no small achievement to develop a small mountain principality of Ghazni into a large and prosperous empire by sheer force of arms. He never shrank from war; rather he took delight in it. His military exploits in the east effaced the glories of Alexanders conquest from the minds of many.

7-Mahmud forerunner of Ghouri:

The establishment of Muslim rule in Punjab is a significant event in the history of Islam in Sub-continent. Muslims gained their first foothold in Northern Indian. The conquest of Punjab also paved the way for other conquerors like Muhammad Ghuri. After the death of Mahmud, the Ghaznavid dynasty lost much of its vigor; yet during the days of his son Masud and grandson Mahmud, Lahore remained an important province of the Ghaznavid Empire. Later, the Ghaznavid rulers moved their headquarter from Ghazni to Punjab and ruled Peshawar, Lahore and Multan till the last half of 12th century when Muhammad Ghuri defeated them.

8-An Overview of Muhammad Ghouri:

Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam, better known in history as Muhammad Ghouri, became the ruler of Ghazni in 1173. He was an ambitious king and fired with the love of conquest and power. The Ghourid wanted to establish an empire but their successive defeats at the hands of Shah of Khwarzim forced them to give up the idea of founding an empire in Central Asia and they now turned their attention towards India. Having established himself at Ghazni, he turned his attention to the fertile plains of the subcontinent.

The Ghaznavid who were defeated and ousted from Ghazni took shelter in the Punjab. They became so strong in the country that their very presence was regarded as source of future troubles to the Ghourids. Hence the destruction of the Ghaznavid power in the Punjab demanded the immediate attention of the Ghouri king.

India was divided into many warring States and there was no political unity in the country. Muhammad Ghouri found in the disunited condition of India a brilliant prospect of his success.

9-Campaigns of Muhammad Ghouri:

i-Conquest of Multan and Uch: (1175-76)

First invasion of Muhammad Ghouri was directed against Multan which was at the time ruled bby Karamathians. He captured the city and appointed his own governor there. From Multan he proceeded to Uch and Sind which was captured after sometimes.

ii-Unsuccessful Attempt on Gujrat:

Fin 1178, Muhammad Ghouri led an expedition against Anhilwara, capital of Gujrat but he was defeated by Bhim II, the Vaghela king of Anhilwara.

iii-Conquest of the Punjab:

Finding it impossible to conquer India through Sind and Multan, Muhammad Ghouri thought of conquering the Punjab which was the key of Hindustan. After a few years of war, Khusrau Malik, the last ruler of Ghaznavid dynasty, was captured and imprisoned in Ghur. The Punjab was then annexed to his empire and the Ghaznavid rule in West Pakistan came to an end.

iv-First Battle of Tarain: (1191)

After the fall of Ghaznavids, Muhammad Ghouri had to face the opposition of the Rajputs. The rapid success of Muhammad Ghouri alarmed Pirthviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Delhi and Ajmer. He gathered a big force and marched against the Ghouri chief. In 1191 both the armies met in the field of Tarain, near Thaneswar and a battle was fought in which the Muslims were defeated and routed. But Muhammad Ghouri did not lose heart at this failure.

v-Second Battle of Tarain: (1192)

Having organized a strong army, Muhammad Ghouri invaded in 1192. He along with his force reached a place near Tarain and encamped there. Pirthviraj appealed to the Rajput princes to join him against the Muslim invader. It is said that as many as 150 Rajput princes with the exception of Raja of Qanauj lent him their

help.

Muhammad Ghouri adopted a new tactics of attacks. He divided his army into four divisions and ordered one division to engage the Rajputs at one time while the others were resting. The division was further ordered to pretend or feign flight after sometime fighting. The Rajputs fought bravely but the new tactics of Muhammad Ghouri proved to be too strong for them. Prithviraj tried to run away from the battle field but he was captured and put to death.

vi-Expedition against Jai Chand of Qanauj:

In 1194, Muhammad Ghouri again came to India in order to subdue Jai Chand of Qanauj, the mortal enemy of Pirthviraj. Qutbud-Din joined his master with his force. Jai Chand met the combined forces of his enemy and was defeated in a battle near at Chandwar. The victorious army then proceeded to Benares and captured it.

According to Professor S. R. Sharma, The fall of Jai Chand at Chandwar made Muhammad the master of the political as well as the religious capitals of Hindustan, Qanauj and Benares.

vii-Qutbub-ud-Din Aibak Incharge of Conquered Territories.

After the Second battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghouri returned to Ghazni and his trusted lieutenant, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak was entrusted with the charge of his conquered territories. Aibak was a man of military ability and political insight. He consolidated and extended the conquests of his master. He soon conquered Meerut, Koil (Modern Aligarh) and Delhi. He made Delhi the capital of empire (1194) thinking that Lahore was too far from his new possessions.

In 1196 he capture Gwalior and then marched against Bhim Deva of Anhiwala. He conquered Anhiwala in Gujrat (1198).

Kalinjar was invaded by Aibak in 1202 which was the military capital of Parmardi Deva, the Chandela king of Bundelkhan. They offered a strong resistance to Muslims but ultimately they were defeated and the fort of Kalinjar fell into the hands of the Muslims. Thus all the important places of Northern India were brought under the control of Muslims by Aibak.

viii-Conquest of Bihar and Bengal by Bakhtiar Khilji:

Ikhtiyar-ud-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji, a lieutenant of Qut-ud-Din, was extending the Turkish supremacy over Eastern India. Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji was an outstanding figure in the history of Bengal. He marched towards Nadia, the capital of Bengal, with such rapidity that only 18 horsemen could pace with him. He was so bold that he did not hesitate to launch an attack with this small force. On hearing the news of his attack, Lakshman Sen who was taking his meal, fled away by a back door and took shelter at Vikrampur near Sonargaon. Bengal was captured and the seat of government was transferred to Lakhnauti or Gaur. The brave soldier died on his return journey from Tibet to Devkot in 1206.

10-Estimate of Sultan Muhammad Ghouri:

Muhammad Ghouri was a great politician and a far-sighted statesman. He fully realized the rotten political condition of India and therefore decided to establish a permanent kingdom here.

11-Nature of Ghouris Conquest:

His first and foremost aim was to found a permanent Muslim empire in Indian and he furnished during his life time all the resources required for the maintenance of his empire. He trained under his guidance a number of able administrators who amply justified his confidence and trust.

12-The Founder of Muslim Empire in India:

Though the life of Muhammad Ghouri came to a tragic end, the traditions established by him were continued under his able successors, the Turkish slaves who ruled after him. He lives in history not a mere conqueror, but as an empire builder, Muhammad Ghouri is, therefore, justly called the founder of the Muslim Empire in Indo-Pakistan.

13-Remarkable Figure in Indo-Pak History:

Muhammad Ghouri was one of the most remarkable figures in Medieval India. He was a man of courage, enterprise and spirit. He had to fight against the Hindu States incessantly for several years and during this period he showed extraordinary coolness and perseverance. It was no small credit for him that he, with limited resources, was able to establish a large empire which extended from Afghanistan to Bengal. He was a God fearing and just sovereign who was well known for his sympathy and kindness to his subjects.

14-Conclusion:

Both Mahmud Ghazni and Muhammad Ghouri were the greatest soldiers but Mahmud was far greater general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was far more brilliant than that of the latter. Mahmud never suffered a reverse but Muhammad Ghouri was an ordinary soldier and suffered many defeats in India but he never lose heart on these defeats and

take revenge of them and crushed the power of Hindu Rajas. Muhammad Ghouri is called the founder of Muslim Empire in India. He took great care in consolidating his conquests. Both of them rendered a great service to the cause of Islam.

Source: R.C Majumdar, Ishwari Prasad, K.Ali, Oxford History of India etc.

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Atiq Khan Politics, History, Contemporary Affairs and Issues of Pakisan Feeds: Posts Comments Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad GhoriMongol Policy of Sultanate of Delhi Military compaigns of Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri July 30, 2010 by Atiq Khan 1-Introduction:

Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad Ghouri are the two important personalities of the sub-continent during the medieval age. Both were enterprising soldiers and invaded India time and again. A careful and close scrutiny of their respective achievements and character shows that they resembled each other in more than one respect and differed in many respects. Mahmud was far more a great general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was more brilliant than that of the Muhammad Ghouri.

2-An Overview of the campaigns of Sultan Mahmud:

Mahmud was a man of ambition and enterprise. On receiving the recognition of his sovereignty from al-Qadir Billah, the Khalifah of Baghdad, he made it obligatory on himself to undertake every year an expedition to Hind. From 1000 to 1026 Mahmud led a good many expeditions to Hind. According to Sir Henry Elliot, Mahmud led as many as seventeen expeditions; it is accepted by the most of the historians.

3-Prominent Invasion of Mahmud:

a-Capture of Frontier Forts:

The first expedition of Mahmud which was undertaken in 1000 A.D. against the frontier towns of the Khyber Pass was an important one. During this expedition he captured a few forts and towns of the Khyber Pass.

b-Defeat of Jaypal of Hindushahi kingdom:

Second expedition of the Mahmud was against his fathers enemy, Jaypal, the king of Hindushahi kingdom. A fierce battle was fought at Peshawar in November, 1001 in which the Muslims came out victorious. Jaypal could not tolerate this insult. He after appointing his son Anandpal as the next king, burnt himself to death.

c-Conquest of Multan:

The fourth expedition of Mahmud was led against the Muslim ruler of Multan. Abul Fateh Daud the ruler of Multan had friendly relation with Anandpal. In 1006, Mahmud marched across the Punjab, Anandpal was defeated and driven to Kashmir hills. Mahmud than invaded Multan. Daud fled, and Multan was captured. Sukhpal or Nawasa Shah, a grandson of Jaypal was left in charge of Multan.

d-Battle of Waihind:

The sixth expedition of Mahmud was led against Anandpal 1008. He organized a confederacy against the Muslims in which the great Hindu Rajas of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Qanauj, Delhi and Ajmer had joined. Mahmud had never met such a vast army organized by the Hindu confederates. The Khokars, a tribe of Punjab also joined the Rajputs in their struggle against the Muslims. It was a challenge to Mahmud. He met the huge Hindu army near Waihind. The bear-footed and bear-headed Khokars fought very bravely against the Muslims. It was a critical moment for the Muslims. but fortunately the elephant of Anandpal got frightened and fled away from the battle-field. This caused a great confusion and panic among the Hindu soldiers who also ran away from the battle-field. Mahmud won victory.

e-Conquest of Punjab:

Trilochanpal son of Anandpal, after exile again came to Punjab and established himself in the Sivalik hills. He entered into an alliance with Vidyadhar, the chandela ruler of Bundelkhan. In order to break this alliance, Mahmud again came to IndoPakistan, and finally defeated Trilochanpal. The result of this expedition was more enduring than those of others. He annexed the Punjab to his dominions and entrusted a regular Amir with the government of the province.

f-Expedition against Qanauj:

The next important expedition of Mahmud was directed against Qanaj, the imperial capital of Hindustan. In 1018. Mahmud at the head of a large army, set out from Ghazni. He captured all the forts on the way. The Raja of Baran or Bulandshahar, offered his submission and embraced Islam along with ten thousand men. Mahmud appeared before the gate of Qanauj in 1019, January, Rajaypal, the Pratihara ruler of Qanauj submitted to Mahmud without any fighting.

g-Causes of Attack on Somnath:

After the fall of Punjab, the Hindu think tank assembled at Somnath which was more of a political center than a temple to plan a big war against Mahmud. He took all the Rajas and Maharajas by surprise when he attacked Somnath and crushed the Hindu headquarter of political intrigue. With the destruction of Somnath he broke the backbone of the Hindus in the region and thus had no need to attack India again.

The most momentous expedition of Sultan Mahmud was indeed the capture of Somnath in Kathiwar. Regarding the cause of this expedition, the famous historian, Ibn-ul-Athis says that, when Mahmud of Ghazni was gaining victory after victory in India, the Hindu began to say that the success of Mahmud was due to displeasure of the Somnath god with the inhabitants of the defeated territories. At this, Mahmud decided to conquer Somnath in order to prove the futility of their belief. This view is corroborated by Ibn Khaldun, Farishta and Wolseley Haig.

Towards the close of 1025, Mahmud set from Ghazni and passing through Multan and the desert of Rajputana, he stood before the gates of Somnath on the 9th of January 1026. The Hindus offered a stubborn resistance, but were defeated.

The expedition to Somnath says Dr. M. Nazim, is one of the

greatest feats of Military adventure in the history of Islam.

h-Last expedition:

The last expedition was undertaken against the Jats of Salt Range in 1027 who had molested the Muslim army on its return journey from Somnath. The Jats were defeated and many of them were put to death.

4-Estimate of Sultan Mahmud:

He came to South Asia seventeen times and went back to Ghazni every time with a great victory. He fought against the strong forces of Jaipal, Annadpal, Tarnochalpal, Kramta and the joint forces of Hindu Rajas and Maharajas but all of them were forced to flee away from the battlefield due to Mahmuds war strategy as a general.

According to S. M. Jaffar, Mahmud was endowed with a genius of war. He was a scientific general, skillful in planning and thorough in execution. His army consisted of heterogeneous elements such as Arabs, Afghanis, Turks and Hindus but he showed wonderful ability in welding together these elements into a powerful and invincible unit. As a conqueror, his purpose was to achieve fame and glory and he had achieved it.

5-Nature of the Mahmuds Invasions:

Sultan Mahmud made seventeen expeditions into Indo-Pakistan and conquered a number of places in the sub-continent. But he didnt establish his rule over them or annex any part of the conquered territories except the Punjab. Various opinions have been expressed by the historians about the motives of Sultan Mahmuds invasions.

6-Mahmud one of the Greatest Conqueror:

One of the most controversial personalities in the history of South Asia, Mahmud Ghaznavi is known as one of the greatest conquerors the world has ever seen. He was one of the very few leaders who were never defeated in a battlefield.

Unlike other great conquerors like Alexander and Chengez Khan, Mahmud did not leave the areas conquered to the mercy of his soldiers. After becoming the first Muslim ruler to conquer Northern Punjab, he consolidated his rule in the area and established his provincial headquarters at Lahore. He established law and order in the areas that he ruled, giving special attention to the people he ruled.

Professor Sharma is of the view that, Mahmud was a seasoned soldier. Fear did not find any place in his heart. His army won against the rulers of India like comb through a poll of hair. It was no small achievement to develop a small mountain principality of Ghazni into a large and prosperous empire by sheer force of arms. He never shrank from war; rather he took delight in it. His military exploits in the east effaced the glories of Alexanders conquest from the minds of many.

7-Mahmud forerunner of Ghouri:

The establishment of Muslim rule in Punjab is a significant event in the history of Islam in Sub-continent. Muslims gained their first foothold in Northern Indian. The conquest of Punjab also paved the way for other conquerors like Muhammad Ghuri. After the death of Mahmud, the Ghaznavid dynasty lost much of its vigor; yet during the days of his son Masud and grandson Mahmud, Lahore remained an important province of the Ghaznavid Empire. Later, the Ghaznavid rulers moved their headquarter from Ghazni to Punjab and ruled Peshawar, Lahore and Multan till the last half

of 12th century when Muhammad Ghuri defeated them.

8-An Overview of Muhammad Ghouri:

Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam, better known in history as Muhammad Ghouri, became the ruler of Ghazni in 1173. He was an ambitious king and fired with the love of conquest and power. The Ghourid wanted to establish an empire but their successive defeats at the hands of Shah of Khwarzim forced them to give up the idea of founding an empire in Central Asia and they now turned their attention towards India. Having established himself at Ghazni, he turned his attention to the fertile plains of the subcontinent.

The Ghaznavid who were defeated and ousted from Ghazni took shelter in the Punjab. They became so strong in the country that their very presence was regarded as source of future troubles to the Ghourids. Hence the destruction of the Ghaznavid power in the Punjab demanded the immediate attention of the Ghouri king.

India was divided into many warring States and there was no political unity in the country. Muhammad Ghouri found in the disunited condition of India a brilliant prospect of his success.

9-Campaigns of Muhammad Ghouri:

i-Conquest of Multan and Uch: (1175-76)

First invasion of Muhammad Ghouri was directed against Multan

which was at the time ruled bby Karamathians. He captured the city and appointed his own governor there. From Multan he proceeded to Uch and Sind which was captured after sometimes.

ii-Unsuccessful Attempt on Gujrat:

Fin 1178, Muhammad Ghouri led an expedition against Anhilwara, capital of Gujrat but he was defeated by Bhim II, the Vaghela king of Anhilwara.

iii-Conquest of the Punjab:

Finding it impossible to conquer India through Sind and Multan, Muhammad Ghouri thought of conquering the Punjab which was the key of Hindustan. After a few years of war, Khusrau Malik, the last ruler of Ghaznavid dynasty, was captured and imprisoned in Ghur. The Punjab was then annexed to his empire and the Ghaznavid rule in West Pakistan came to an end.

iv-First Battle of Tarain: (1191)

After the fall of Ghaznavids, Muhammad Ghouri had to face the opposition of the Rajputs. The rapid success of Muhammad Ghouri alarmed Pirthviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Delhi and Ajmer. He gathered a big force and marched against the Ghouri chief. In 1191 both the armies met in the field of Tarain, near Thaneswar and a battle was fought in which the Muslims were defeated and routed. But Muhammad Ghouri did not lose heart at this failure.

v-Second Battle of Tarain: (1192)

Having organized a strong army, Muhammad Ghouri invaded in

1192. He along with his force reached a place near Tarain and encamped there. Pirthviraj appealed to the Rajput princes to join him against the Muslim invader. It is said that as many as 150 Rajput princes with the exception of Raja of Qanauj lent him their help.

Muhammad Ghouri adopted a new tactics of attacks. He divided his army into four divisions and ordered one division to engage the Rajputs at one time while the others were resting. The division was further ordered to pretend or feign flight after sometime fighting. The Rajputs fought bravely but the new tactics of Muhammad Ghouri proved to be too strong for them. Prithviraj tried to run away from the battle field but he was captured and put to death.

vi-Expedition against Jai Chand of Qanauj:

In 1194, Muhammad Ghouri again came to India in order to subdue Jai Chand of Qanauj, the mortal enemy of Pirthviraj. Qutbud-Din joined his master with his force. Jai Chand met the combined forces of his enemy and was defeated in a battle near at Chandwar. The victorious army then proceeded to Benares and captured it.

According to Professor S. R. Sharma, The fall of Jai Chand at Chandwar made Muhammad the master of the political as well as the religious capitals of Hindustan, Qanauj and Benares.

vii-Qutbub-ud-Din Aibak Incharge of Conquered Territories.

After the Second battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghouri returned to Ghazni and his trusted lieutenant, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak was entrusted with the charge of his conquered territories. Aibak was a man of military ability and political insight. He consolidated and extended the conquests of his master. He soon conquered

Meerut, Koil (Modern Aligarh) and Delhi. He made Delhi the capital of empire (1194) thinking that Lahore was too far from his new possessions.

In 1196 he capture Gwalior and then marched against Bhim Deva of Anhiwala. He conquered Anhiwala in Gujrat (1198).

Kalinjar was invaded by Aibak in 1202 which was the military capital of Parmardi Deva, the Chandela king of Bundelkhan. They offered a strong resistance to Muslims but ultimately they were defeated and the fort of Kalinjar fell into the hands of the Muslims. Thus all the important places of Northern India were brought under the control of Muslims by Aibak.

viii-Conquest of Bihar and Bengal by Bakhtiar Khilji:

Ikhtiyar-ud-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji, a lieutenant of Qut-ud-Din, was extending the Turkish supremacy over Eastern India. Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji was an outstanding figure in the history of Bengal. He marched towards Nadia, the capital of Bengal, with such rapidity that only 18 horsemen could pace with him. He was so bold that he did not hesitate to launch an attack with this small force. On hearing the news of his attack, Lakshman Sen who was taking his meal, fled away by a back door and took shelter at Vikrampur near Sonargaon. Bengal was captured and the seat of government was transferred to Lakhnauti or Gaur. The brave soldier died on his return journey from Tibet to Devkot in 1206.

10-Estimate of Sultan Muhammad Ghouri:

Muhammad Ghouri was a great politician and a far-sighted statesman. He fully realized the rotten political condition of India and therefore decided to establish a permanent kingdom here.

11-Nature of Ghouris Conquest:

His first and foremost aim was to found a permanent Muslim empire in Indian and he furnished during his life time all the resources required for the maintenance of his empire. He trained under his guidance a number of able administrators who amply justified his confidence and trust.

12-The Founder of Muslim Empire in India:

Though the life of Muhammad Ghouri came to a tragic end, the traditions established by him were continued under his able successors, the Turkish slaves who ruled after him. He lives in history not a mere conqueror, but as an empire builder, Muhammad Ghouri is, therefore, justly called the founder of the Muslim Empire in Indo-Pakistan.

13-Remarkable Figure in Indo-Pak History:

Muhammad Ghouri was one of the most remarkable figures in Medieval India. He was a man of courage, enterprise and spirit. He had to fight against the Hindu States incessantly for several years and during this period he showed extraordinary coolness and perseverance. It was no small credit for him that he, with limited resources, was able to establish a large empire which extended from Afghanistan to Bengal. He was a God fearing and just sovereign who was well known for his sympathy and kindness to his subjects.

14-Conclusion:

Both Mahmud Ghazni and Muhammad Ghouri were the greatest

soldiers but Mahmud was far greater general than Muhammad Ghouri and the military career of Mahmud was far more brilliant than that of the latter. Mahmud never suffered a reverse but Muhammad Ghouri was an ordinary soldier and suffered many defeats in India but he never lose heart on these defeats and take revenge of them and crushed the power of Hindu Rajas. Muhammad Ghouri is called the founder of Muslim Empire in India. He took great care in consolidating his conquests. Both of them rendered a great service to the cause of Islam.

Source: R.C Majumdar, Ishwari Prasad, K.Ali, Oxford History of India etc.

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