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Invasion of External pathogenic factors Wind is a Yang pathogenic factor that frequently attacks the human body.

It is often combined with other pathogenic factors. Invasion of External Wind-Cold is one of the most common causative factors of pain throughout the body. The nature of Cold is contracting, so it may depress the Defensive Qi and lead to obstruction in the channels, muscles and Tendons. Wind exists in every season, being able to invade the superficial layers and the upper part of the human body easily. When there is an invasion of External Wind-Cold in the body, the Qi and Blood will not be able to circulate freely to nourish the body and there will be contraction of the channels, muscles and Tendons, leading to stagnation of Qi and Blood. This may cause pain throughout the body. Exposure to a cold environment without proper clothing and a direct invasion of Wind-Cold in people who sweat during the course of their work or from playing sports are the major causes. Damp is a substantial Yin pathogen; it has a heavy and sticky nature, easily blocking and damaging the circulation of Qi in the muscles. When Wind and Damp are combined together, they may obstruct the circulation of Qi and Blood and pain in the entire body follows. Pain in the entire body 48 generalised body pain Persistence of Damp may cause transformation of Damp into Damp-Heat. Moreover, living or working

in warm and humid conditions can lead to a direct invasion of External Damp-Heat into the human body. The External Damp-Heat may block the Qi circulation in the channels and muscles, leading to pain in the entire body. According to normal procedures, invasion of External pathogenic factors usually takes place in the Taiyang stage at first, and then if they are not eliminated completely and in time, then they could invade deeper and deeper. But it is also very possible that these External pathogenic factors invade the deep organs without passing the Taiyang stage firstly, causing serious health problems, for instance, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). For these two diseases, External pathogenic factors often attack the Taiyin or Shaoyin stages. Never forget, invasion of External pathogenic factors to deep stages often occur on those who have already disorders in their Zang-Fu organs. Improper diet Improper diet, such as eating too much high-fat and sweet food and dairy products, or drinking too much alcohol, or eating too much cold and raw food, may damage the Spleen and Stomach, leading to the formation of Damp-Phlegm or Damp-Heat in the Middle Burner, which in turn could stagnation of Qi and Blood, entire body pain occurs. Emotional disorders The Liver plays an important role in the emotional

stability. It also regulates the Qi circulation and stores the Blood. Negative emotions, such as overstress and frustration, may cause stagnation of Liver-Qi, which in turn causes poor circulation of Blood and Body Fluids. In this way, the muscles and Tendons as well as the channels will not be nourished sufficiently and pain in the entire body occurs. Prolonged sickness, improper daily life and weak constitution Prolonged persistence of chronic diseases, incomplete dispelling of Wind-Cold, and imbalance between warmth and cold, may all cause a slowing down of the circulation of Qi and Blood, leading to Qi and Blood stagnation. Too little exercise may also result in stagnation of Qi and Blood. Physical strain and inappropriate operations may directly damage the muscles, Tendons and channels, leading to stagnation of Qi and Blood. When Qi and Blood stasis block the muscles, Tendons and channels, pain in the entire body occurs. On the other hand, excessive physical work as well as mental work may cause Spleen-Qi and Kidney-Qi to be consumed. When Spleen-Qi is not strong enough to produce Blood, this may result in deficiency of Blood. In women, chronic excessive blood loss during menstruation may immediately lead to deficiency of Qi and Blood. Chronic diseases could also cause a gradual consumption of Qi and Blood, leading to their deficiency. Moreover, excessive sexual activity or giving birth to several children may decrease Kidney-Essence, leading directly to a deficiency of Qi and Blood. In all

these conditions, the muscles and Tendons will not be nourished properly, leading to pain in the entire body. Chronic febrile disease, improper treatment with hot herbs and even overeating spicy and hot food may gradually consume the Yin in the body. Poor constitution, old age and excessive sexual activities may also cause consumption of the Qi and Yin of the Kidney. The Liver and Kidney share the same origin, so deficiency of Kidney-Yin may cause deficiency of LiverYin. Where there is Yin deficiency, there will also be deficiency of Blood, thus the muscles, Tendons and channels will not be properly nourished and pain in the entire body will follow. Long-standing Cold diseases or excessive use of Cold herbs may damage Kidney-Yang. A weak constitution, ageing, too many operations, as well as chronic sickness, may all induce the damage of Kidney-Yang, gradually leading to deficiency. Cold has the characteristics of stagnation and contraction. If there is deficiency of Kidney-Yang, the Qi and Blood in the body will stagnate, the body temperature will decrease and pain in the entire body will follow. Treatment based on differentiation Differentiation Differentiation of External or Internal origin Entire body pain can be caused either by invasion of External pathogenic factors or by Internal disorder: If it is caused by invasion of External pathogenic factors, it is usually acute, and accompanied by External symptoms such as headache, fever, an

aversion to cold, runny nose, coughing, etc. If it is caused by disorder of Internal organs, it is chronic in nature and has no External symptoms. Differentiation of character of the pain Entire body pain with an acute onset, fever and aversion to cold is usually caused by External pain in the entire body 49 pathological factors, such as Wind-Cold, Wind-Damp or Damp-Heat: If entire body pain is accompanied by acute occurrence of spasm of the muscles, tension at shoulders, severe headache, stiff neck, slight fever, aversion to cold and no sweating, it is often due to invasion of Wind-Cold Acute occurrence of entire body pain with an obvious heavy sensation in the body generally, soreness and numbness of the muscles and joints, fever, an aversion to cold, a poor appetite and loose stools, is usually caused by invasion of Wind-Damp Entire body pain with a hot and heavy sensation, swelling of the joints, restlessness, a poor appetite with bitter taste, fever, an aversion to cold, thirst with no desire to drink water, a thick yellow tongue coating and a slippery and rapid pulse, is usually caused by invasion of Damp-Heat. Chronic entire body pain with a wandering nature, which is aggravated by stress or emotional upset, with insomnia, headache, irritability, palpitations, dull stomach or overeating, is caused by stagnation of Liver-Qi Chronic pain in the body with a fixed location,

or stabbing pain, history of trauma or operation, with aggravation of the pain at night, is caused by stagnation of Blood Chronic pain in the entire body, soreness of the muscles, fatigue and dizziness is often due to Deficiency. Patients usually have a weak constitution and a history of chronic disease: If the main cause is deficiency of Qi and Blood, there will be shortness of breath, a poor appetite, a pale complexion, and so on If it is deficiency of Kidney-Yin, there will be a sensation of heat in the palms and the soles of the feet, lower back pain with soreness, a low-grade fever, night sweating, and so on If it is deficiency of Kidney-Yang, there will be a cold sensation, lassitude, an aversion to cold, cold limbs, a pale complexion, oedema, lower back pain with soreness, and so on.