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Design of an Anchor Block – Type 3

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Model of Type 3 Anchor Block:

 
Example: Anchor block of Ghatta Khola MHP, Lamjung

Example: Anchor block of Ghatta Khola MHP, Lamjung

H 1

= 1.6 m

L

= 1.2 m

w

= 0.9 m

Z

= 0.3 m

h

1

= 0.8 m = 0.6 m = 0.5 m

h 2

i

h c

= 0.3 m = 36° = 0.5 m

X

l c

a

= 35°

b

= 29° = 170 mm 5 mm

= = 40 lps

Pipe Diameter, d Pipe Thickness, t Discharge, Q

Gross Head, h gross = 97 m Surge Head, h surge = 111 m

Distance to u/s support pier, L 2u = 4m

 

L 1u

= 2 m

Distance to d/s support pier, L 2d = 4m

 

L 1d

= 2 m

Distance to u/s expansion joint = 30m

 

L 4u

= 30 m

Number of piers at upstream = 7

Relation Used for Area Calculation:

 

A

1

h

0 (H 1 – h 0 ) tana

   

0.43

m 2

A

2

1 (H 1 – h 0 ) 2 tana
2

   

0.14

m 2

A

3

H 2 [L – (H 1 – h 0 ) tana ]

   

0.82

m 2

A

4

1 (H 1 – H 2 ) [L – (H 1 – h 0 )tana ]
2

   

0.19

m 2

Relation Used for Centre of Gravity Calculation:

 

X

1

1

2

(H 1 – h 0 ) tana

   

0.22

m

X

2

3

2

(H 1 – h 0 ) tana

   

0.30

m

X

3

1

2

[L + (H 1 – h 0 ) tana ]

   

0.82

m

X

4

1

L +

2 (H 1 – h 0 ) tana

   

0.70

m

 

3

3

 

Relation Used for Calculating Deduction Volume Occupied by Penstock:

 
 

p

p

 

m 3

V

p

4

l u (d u + 2t) 2 +

4 l d (d d + 2t) 2

   

0.03

Where

h

0 = H 1 – (2Z + d + 2t)cosa

   

h 0 = 0.96 m

Y = h 0 +

2Z + d + 2t X tana 2 cosa

Y = 1.02 m

H 2 = Y – (L – X)tan b

+

d + 2t

2 cos b

+ Z

H 2 = 1.09 m

Manual for Anchor Block, Saddle Support & Machine Foundation Design Aids © 2004, Prepared By Pabitra Gurung

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l u =

X

1

– (Z + 2 d + t)tana

 

cosa

l u = 0.46 m

 

L - X

l d =

cos b

l d = 0.69 m

Further Design Procedure for the Block,

Total head, h total

= h gross + h surge

Block volume excluding pipe volume, (V)

Unit weight of concrete, ( g Weight of block, W B

Unit weight of concrete, ( g Weight of pipe, W P

Unit weight of concrete, ( g

concrete

steel

water

)

)

)

Weight of water, W W

W P + W W

Calculation for relevant forces:

1. F 1u

= (

= 0.43 ¥ 2 ¥ cos 35°

W

P

+W

W

)

L

1u

cosa

= 97 + 111 = 208 m

= w (A 1 + A 2 + A 3 + A 4 – l c h c ) – V p

= 0.9 (0.43 + 0.14 + 0.82 + 0.19 – 0.5 ¥ 0.5) – 0.03 m 3

= 1.17 m 3

22 kN/m 3 V g

=

=

= 1.17 ¥ 22

= 25.74 kN

concrete

77 kN/m 3 p (d + t)tg

=

=

= p

= 0.21 kN/m

steel

¥ 0.175 ¥ 0.005 ¥ 77

= 9.81 kN/m 3

=

p

d

2

4

¥ g

water

p

¥ 0.17 2

=

= 0.22 kN/m

4

¥ 9.81

= 0.43 kN/m

= 0.70 kN

2.

F 1d

cos b

= 0.43 ¥ 2 ¥ cos 29°

= (

W

P

+W

W

)

L

1d

3. Frictional force per support pier:

cosa

=

± f W

(

P

+W

W

)

L

2u

= 0.75 kN

Where f = 0.6 for steel on concrete

= ± 0.6 ¥ 0.43 ¥ 4 ¥ cos 35° = ± 0.85 kN per support pier Since there are 4 support piers then,

F 2u

= ± 0.85 ¥ 7

= ± 5.95 kN

Note that F 2d is zero since an expansion joint is located immediately downstream of the anchor block.

Manual for Anchor Block, Saddle Support & Machine Foundation Design Aids © 2004, Prepared By Pabitra Gurung

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4. F

3

=

2

g

water

h

total

p

d

2

4

Ê

sin Á

Ë

b

-

a

2

ˆ

˜

¯

=

2¥ 9.81¥ 208¥

p

¥ 0.17 2

4

¥ sin

= – 4.85 kN

Ê 29

Á

Ë

-

35 ˆ

˜

2

¯

5. = F 4d is negligible since an expansion joint is placed immediately downstream of the anchor block, i.e., L 4d ˜ 0 and therefore F 4d ˜ 0

F

4u

W L

P

4u

sina

= 0.21 ¥ 30 ¥ sin 35°

= 3.61 kN

6. F 5

= EaDTp (d + t)t

Since the expansion joint is installed between the blocks,

F 5

= 0

7.

F 6

= ± 100d

= ± 100 ¥ 0.17

= ± 17 kN

8. =

F

7

g

water

h

total

p (

d

+

t t

)

F 7u

F 7d

= 9.81 ¥ (208 – 30 sina ) ¥

= 5.15 kN

= 9.81 ¥ 208 ¥

= 5.61 kN

p

¥ 0.175 ¥ 0.005

p

¥ 0.135 ¥ 0.005

Note that as discussed earlier the resultant of these forces is insignificant.

9. F 8

=

=

8

Q

2

pd

2

sin Á Ê b

-

a

ˆ

˜

Ë

2 ¯

8

¥

0.04

2

p

¥ 0.17

2

sin

Ê 29

Á

Ë

-

35 ˆ

˜

2

¯

= – 0.01 kN

Note that as discussed earlier, this force is insignificant.

p

10. F 9

g

water

h

(

d

u

2

- d

d

2

)

=

= 0

4

Since the pipe diameter does not change,

F 9

total

11. Soil force, F 10 Unit weight of concrete, (? soil ) For stiff clay and stiff sandy clay (Ø)

= 20 kN/m 3 = 30°

cos

i

-

cos

2

i

-

cos

2

f

 

2

2

cos

i

+

2 i - cos 2 f   2 2 cos i + cos i cos f

cos

i

cos

f

K a

- Since, Ø = 30° is less than i = 36°, then K a will be imaginary. So take K a = 1

=

F 10

=

K

a

w

g soil

h

1

2

2

cos i

But in this example, h 1 – h 2 = 0.8 – 0.3 = 0.5 < 1, So F 10 is insignificant, therefore F 10 = 0

Manual for Anchor Block, Saddle Support & Machine Foundation Design Aids © 2004, Prepared By Pabitra Gurung

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Resolution of forces:

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a

= 35°, b

= 29°

 

Forces (kN)

   

X – component (kN) Æ +

Y – component (kN) Ø +

F 1u = 0.70

 

F 1u sina

= 0.40

 

+ F 1u cosa

= + 0.57

 

F 1d = 0.75

 

F 1u sin b

= 0.36

 

+ F 1u cos b

= + 0.66

 
 

±

F 2u cos

a

= ±

4.87

±

F 2u sin a

= ± 3.41

 

F 2u = ± 5.95

 

Negative during 1 expansion Positive during 2 contraction

Negative during 1 expansion Positive during 2 contraction

   

Ê

b

+

a

ˆ

Ê b

+

a

ˆ

F 3 = 4.85

 

+ F 3 sin

Á

 

˜

= 2.57

F 3 cos

Á ˜

=

+ 4.11

   

Ë

2

¯

Ë

2

¯

F 4u = 3.61

 

+ F 4u cosa = + 2.96

 

+ = + 2.07

F 4u sina

 
 

± F 6 (cosa

– cos b ) = ± (0.94)

± – sina ) = ± (1.51)

F 6 (sin b

F 6 = ± 17

 

Positive during 1 expansion Negative during 2 contraction

Positive during 1 expansion Negative during 2 contraction

F 7u = 5.15

 

+

F 7u cosa = + 4.22

 

+ F 7u sina

= + 2.95

 

F 7d = 5.61

 

F 7d cos b

= 4.91

 

F 7d sin b

= 2.72

 
   

Ê

b

+

a

ˆ

Ê b

+

a

ˆ

F 8 = 0.01

 

+

F 8 sin

Á

˜

˜

0

F 8 cos

Á ˜

=

+ 0.01

 

Ë

2

¯

Ë

2

¯

W B = 25.74

 

0

+ 25.74

 

 H

= 6.87 1 Expansion

ÂV = + 28.47 1 Expansion ÂV = + 38.31 2 Contraction

 

SUM

 H = + 4.75 2 Contraction

Note that forces are positive in X-direction is towards the right and Y-direction downwards.

Sum of horizontal forces that act at the bend, 1 Expansion case 2 Contraction case

Sum of vertical forces that act at the bend,

1 Expansion case 2 Contraction case

=

= – 6.87 – 0 = + 4.75 – 0

Â

H

-

F 10 x

= – 6.87 kN = + 4.75 kN Æ

=

= + 28.47 – 0 – 25.74

= + 38.31 – 0 – 25.74 = + 12.57 kN Ø

ÂV - F

10 y

-W

B

= + 2.73 kN Ø

Calculate for the centre of gravity of the block from the upstream face of the block taking the moment of mass. The effect of the pipe passing through the block is considered negligible, so need not be calculated.

X

=

=

Â

A X

i

i

¥

w

r

concrete

Â

0.43

A

¥

i

0.22

r

w

+

concrete

0.14

¥

0.30

+

0.82

¥

0.82

+

0.19

¥

0.70

-

0.5

¥

0.5

¥

0.25

0.43

+

0.14

+

0.82

+

0.19

-

0.5

¥

0.5

= 0.66 m

\The weight of the block W B acts 0.66 m from point O.

Manual for Anchor Block, Saddle Support & Machine Foundation Design Aids © 2004, Prepared By Pabitra Gurung

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A force diagram on the block is as shown in Figure;

Checking for Safety of the Block:

1. Checking safety against overturning

1 Expansion Case

Taking sum of moment about point O with clockwise moments as positive:

 M at O,

 

=

25.74¥ 0.66+2.73 ¥ 0.60 – 6.87¥ 1.02

=

11.62 kN-m

 

Â

M

11.62

Â

V

= 28.47

= 0.41 m

 

e

=

L Â M - 2 Â V
L
Â
M
-
2
Â
V

= ¦ 0.60 – 0.41¦

= 0.19

e allowable

=

L base

=

1.20

= 0.20

6 6

\e < e

allowable

OK

 

2 Contraction Case

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OK   2 Contraction Case GREAT Nepal Consultants Taking sum of moment about point O with

Taking sum of moment about point O with clockwise moments as positive:

 M at O,

25.74¥ 0.66 +12.57 ¥ 0.60 + 4.75¥ 1.02

=

= 29.38 kN-m

Â

M

Â

V

29.38

=

38.31

= 0.77 m

e =

= ¦ 0.60 – 0.77¦= = 29.38 kN-m  M  V 2 9 . 3 8 = 38.31 =

e

allowable

=

L

base

6

=

1.20 = 0.20

6

= 0.17

\e < e

Since

allowable

e <

eallowable

OK for both cases, the structure is safe against overturning.

2. Checking safety on bearing capacity

For stiff clay allowable bearing pressure is 200 kN/m 2

1 Expansion Case

P base

P

base

=

Â

V

A

base

Ê

Á 1

Á

Ë

< P

allowable

+

6 e

L

base

ˆ

˜

˜

¯

OK

=

28.47

¥

0.90

1.20

Á Ê 1 +

Ë

6

¥ 0.19 ˆ

1.20

˜

¯

= 51.40 kN/m 2

Manual for Anchor Block, Saddle Support & Machine Foundation Design Aids © 2004, Prepared By Pabitra Gurung

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2 Contraction Case

P base

=

Â

V

A

base

Ê

Á 1

Á

Ë

+

6 e

L

base

ˆ

˜

˜

¯

=

38.31

¥

0.90

1.20

Á Ê 1 +

Ë

6

¥ 0.17 ˆ

1.20

˜

¯

= 65.62 kN/m 2

P

base

< P

allowable

In both cases

P

base

OK

< P

allowable

= 200 kN/m 2 , \the structure is safe against sinking.

3. Checking safety against sliding

1 Expansion Case

Â

H < m ÂV

m

= 0.5 for concrete/masonry on soil

6.87

kN < 0.5 ¥ 28.47 kN

6.87

kN < 14.24 kN

OK

2 Contraction Case

Â

H < m ÂV

m

= 0.5 for concrete/masonry on soil

4.75

kN < 0.5 ¥ 38.31 kN

4.75

kN < 19.16 kN

OK

Since, Â H < m ÂV in both cases the structure is safe against sliding. \The anchor block is stable.

Manual for Anchor Block, Saddle Support & Machine Foundation Design Aids © 2004, Prepared By Pabitra Gurung

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