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The Louisiana Disaster

Recovery Foundation
Presents:

GreeNOLA: A Strategy
for a Sustainable New
Orleans

A Resource for Neighborhoods &


Residents to Engage in the Master
Planning Process and ensure
Sustainable Redevelopment
Acknowledgements
Principal Authors:
Earthea Nance, Ph.D., P.E. Zachary Embry
Director of Infrastructure and Environmental Planning Renewable Energy Specialist, City of New Orleans
City of New Orleans
Ernest Edmundson, Ph.D.
Wynecta Fisher Environmental Planner, City of New Orleans
Director of Environmental Affairs
City of New Orleans Dwight Norton
Intern, City of New Orleans
Jeffrey Schwartz
Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning Andrew Holbein
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Intern, City of New Orleans

David Quinn Participating Organizations:


Dept. of Architecture
Massachusetts Institute of Technology City of New Orleans

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Contributing Authors:
Orleans Recovery Foundation
John McGowin, P.E.
Energy Manager, City of New Orleans Louisiana Disaster Recovery Foundation

Kim Johnson, R.G. Bush Clinton Katrina Foundation


Environmental Planner, City of New Orleans

Danielle Purifoy
Environmental Projects Coordinator, City of New Orleans
© 2008 City of New Orleans
John Moore
Environmental Policy Analyst, City of New Orleans

1
Executive Summary
The City of New Orleans effective uses for within City Hall, the sustainability goals to
is establishing a materials that are green council, and a be achieved within the
comprehensive currently being green building following timelines:
approach to its recovery discarded as waste; and ordinance.
by incorporating leading protecting and restoring Short-term = 1 year
ideas about sustainable the urban and natural STEP 2. Reorganize Medium-term = 3 years
and smart urban environments. city government so that Long-term = 10 years
development into the it can more effectively
recovery process. We The City has taken the implement new What follows is a
are, in fact, rebuilding initial steps by initiatives related to roadmap for identifying
both the city’s physical becoming a national energy, development, and achieving
infrastructure and its Solar America City, by and environment. sustainability goals in
administrative adopting Energy Smart Establish an Energy six broad program
infrastructure. Our New Orleans principals, Office, a Disaster areas:
objective is not merely and by developing this Mitigation Office, and
to recover, but to Greening of New expand the existing 1. Green Buildings
recover smarter, Orleans sustainability Environmental Affairs & Energy
greener, and better action plan Office. Create a Efficiency
than we were before. (GreeNOLA), which is Consortium of Gulf
2. Alternative
the City’s roadmap for Coast Mayors to
In New Orleans,
Energy
making New Orleans collectively address
sustainable sustainable as it regional issues along 3. Waste
development means rebuilds. The GreeNOLA America’s Gulf Coast. Reduction,
establishing resilient action plan consists of Establish a Green Team Reuse, &
settlement patterns three major steps: to recommend Recycling
based on a thorough sustainable green 4. Transportation &
understanding of flood STEP 1. Revive building practices for Clean Fuels
risk; adopting better environmental ongoing recovery 5. Environmental
building standards that programs and policies projects as they are Outreach &
include energy that were lost as a being implemented. Justice
efficiency, design for result of Hurricane
6. Flood Risk
climate change, and Katrina, including STEP 3. Establish
alternative energy environmental
Reduction
specific, measurable,
sources; finding more conservation practices and attainable

Acknowledgements and Executive Summary 2


3
Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
Residential
years, New Orleans can “up-front” costs that indicators are:
quickly “green” its reap savings over the ! Energy use per
housing stock by life of the house. While square foot
INTRODUCTION creating a standard and the benefits almost ! Cost of energy
Residential buildings taking advantage of always outweigh the conservation per
are one of the largest existing and proposed costs in the long-run, square foot
users of energy in the programs and one of the city’s goals ! Savings on energy
country. Increasing the incentives. should be to assist New bills
energy efficiency of Orleanians, especially ! Adoption rate of
buildings helps make Other cities around the poorer citizens, to solar and other
housing more US have created green overcome the initial renewable
affordable by building programs for cost associated with technologies
decreasing energy bills residential buildings. greening houses so that SHORT-TERM
and operating costs for While all of such they may enjoy the Short-term goals should
the house. Because programs are voluntary, affordability that energy reduce energy bills by
New Orleans has to cities, developers, and efficiency imparts. taking advantage of
rebuild almost 80% of residents have all come existing incentives and
its residential housing to realize the economic weatherization
stock, the ongoing and quality-of-life Residential and programs.
rebuilding process benefits of building with Commercial Buildings
offers an opportunity to energy efficient and use 39% of the total Target Area & NORA
rapidly turn New environmental Green Projects
Orleans into one of the considerations in mind.
energy consumed in Green incentive
greenest cities in the the United States. packages and green
country. Incentives for Cost/Benefit standards should be
landlords are important It is necessary to implemented in certain
as New Orleans as a analyze all of the Target Areas identified
high percentage of proposed measure and Indicators by ORDA and NORA.
homes which are examining the cost and To measure the success Current work is being
rented. benefit of each of implementing the done by Clinton Climate
measure. Many of the following residential Initiative to introduce
Lessons Learned costs for making green building policies, green standards to
While other cities have residential units more an appropriate indicator NORA’s RFP’s for
had green programs for energy efficient are is required. Examples of adjudicated property

Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency 4


Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
development. and lower energy bills standard for residential energy raters in Safety
for residents. The City buildings needs to be and Permits, employ
Identify Barriers in could partner with compared, and the LEED or other certified
Code and Zoning Entergy and local most appropriate professionals in
The technical assistance partners to create a chosen for New appropriate city
from the Solar Cities weatherization Orleans. This could be a agencies, and provide
grant from the DOE as program. new standard based on job training through
well as the assistance MEDIUM-TERM similar cities, or could JOB1 for electricians,
from MIT and other Within the next three be a combination of plumbers, and
experts will identify years, New Orleans existing measures. contractors.
roadblocks and should expand existing LONG-TERM
impediments to adop- incentives for green Green Financing Barriers in code,
tion of energy efficiency building, adopt a green Prior to Katrina, several regulation, and zoning
housing. building standard, build New Orleans banks should be eliminated,
City capacity for green offered Green/Energy green standards should
Louisiana Senate Bill 90 residences, and begin Efficient Mortgages, become mandatory,
SB 90 provides for 50% training a “Green which should be and a full spectrum of
tax credit for up to Collar” workforce in expanded and packaged incentives for green
$25,000 of solar energy order to lay the with other incentives. residential building
and thermal systems. groundwork for wide The city should consider should be implemented.
The City needs to scale adoption of green green lending
ensure that an residential buildings. programs. Building Code
Interconnection Incorporating programs The city shall develop
Agreement is in effect Green Residential that assist home voluntary, New
between Safety and Standard owners in gap financing Orleans-specific green
Permits and Entergy. Chicago, Toronto, for their energy efficient standards and goals for
Seattle, and other retrofits can serve to sustainable residential
Weatherization North American cities alleviate the difficulties construction. New
Weatherization grants have crafted and with up front cost of Orleans should develop
are available from the adopted housing going green. and adopt a building
US Department of certification standards code that meets specific
Energy and elsewhere with attendant incentive Green Collar Job standards, and provides
to increase the packages. The relative Training Program incentives for reaching
efficiency of a house merits of each green The City will incorporate high-performance

5
Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
thresholds. BEST PRACTICES Cities grant from the
Portland Department of
Zoning and Master Plan Low income Energy
to include Density weatherization
Bonuses and TDRs program (750 Global Green
New Orleans zoning homes) In the Holy Cross
should be updated to Sliding scale fees neighborhood,
include density bonuses and rebates for Global Green is
and transferable permitting building a green
development rights for Houston residential
those developers Weatherization of development, and
including green and inner-city homes by Holy Cross has
energy-efficiency utility (CenterPoint committed to being
considerations in their Energy) carbon-neutral by
projects. Seattle 2020.
BuiltGreen
certification Build it Back Green
Figure 2
Chicago The Factor-10 House,
Program is currently
The Chicago designed by EHDD, was offered to low
Standard (construc- constructed through income home
tion standard) Chicago’s Green Homes for owners and Road
Green Permit Chicago competition, funded Home money
Program (DCAP) through a settlement with recipients.
Austin Chicago’s energy utility. The
All new homes zero- house has an ecological Low Income
footprint 1/10 of the average
net-energy by 2015 Weatherization Assis-
US house. [Source:
Figure 1 Architect and Atlanta tance Program
michellemarie from Flickr.com]
planner Steven Bingler’s Earth Craft House Total Community
home in Carrollton is the first program is offered in EXISTING NEW Action is
private LEED-certified the city of Atlanta. ORLEANS PROJECTS weatherizing 70
residence in the country. Coupled with grants Solar Cities Homes
[Source: katrinaevacuee200 to green program. The City of New
from Flickr.com] Build Smart
Orleans is one of 25
recipients for a Solar Weatherization Program

Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency 6


Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
Commercial
Alliance for Certified Green the structure.
Affordable Energy Building
Replacement and The City of New Orleans
Louisiana Housing Green Upgrade should work to promote
Finance Authority coverage. This new green building and
LEED points awarded coverage is energy efficient
for energy efficient specifically for green practices in existing and
installations on commercial buildings future commercial
renter occupied that address the buildings.
homes unique risks that are
acquired with The state recently
Energy Savings sustainable building adopted ASHRAE 90.1-
Initiative practices. 2004 code for all
Preparing a Building commercial buildings in
Code Analysis for Louisiana, except for
the City of New low-rise residential
Orleans. buildings. Low-rise
residential structures
Department of Energy must conform to the
Technical Analysis of International Energy
INTRODUCTION
the New Orleans Conservation Code
Commercial buildings
building code under 2006 (IECC-2006).
are one of the largest
an existing program Both are progressive
users of energy in the
codes and are the latest
country. Commercial
Green Mortgages available for energy
green building faces
JPMorgan Chase and efficiency
similar impediments to
others offer a considerations.
that of rental housing;
mortgage in this
unless the tenant also
category
owns the building, there
Portland’s G/Rated
is no incentive for the
Green Insurance program is one of the
building owner to
Fireman's Fund most comprehensive
decrease operating
Insurance Company programs in the
costs or improve the
has introduced country, meant to
working environment of

7
Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
accelerate the adoption Cost/Benefit of less than four years. Implement energy
and cost- According to a SHORT-TERM saving measures:
competitiveness of December 2006 Meet new building code ! CFL light bulbs
commercial and other Department of standards and take ! Occupancy sensors
green building. Energy/Pacific advantage of immediate ! Power
Chicago’s fast-track Northwest National opportunities. consumption
Green Permit Program Laboratory study, sensors
pays for energy commercial office Commercial Green ! Education of office
ratings/consultant buildings will enjoy an Building in Target Areas workers
reviews on qualifying 8-13% reduction in The Office of Recovery ! External solar
commercial buildings energy use per square Management Target shading
and approves foot as a result of the Areas should encourage ! Building envelope
permitting within 30 newly-adopted 90.1- commercial and mixed ! Efficient and
business days or less. 2004 code. use green buildings. appropriately sized
air-conditioning
LESSONS LEARNED Additionally, the Green Commercial systems
Commercial green analysis expects that Building Council MEDIUM-TERM
building programs can encouraging the Part of a larger green Firmly establish green
be difficult to adoption of a LEED business initiative with commercial programs
incentivize by city standard for large developers and and incentives,
government. Instead, commercial buildings institutions. expanding off
the city should focus on will reduce energy costs opportunities and
a limited incentive by up to 19% per Create a Green successes created in
program while square foot. Lastly, the Commercial Properties the short-term.
encouraging the study shows that office Program
creation of an energy building efficiency is Work with large Commercial Building
trust and other non- easiest to improve, and commercial building Standards
budgetary means of that even some of the owners and institutions The city shall develop
incentivizing most expensive such as local voluntary, New
commercial green measures to increase universities and Orleans-specific green
building. energy efficiency of hospitals to increase standards and goals for
lighting and windows in energy savings of sustainable commercial
commercial buildings commercial and construction. Establish
have a simple payback institutional buildings. a commercial green

Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency 8


Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
building standard that constructed according iciNOLA environments, and are less
meets ASHRAE 130.1 to a green standard. A Bywater mixed-use harmful to the environment.
for small offices or The city will pass a green commercial-
LEED-NC, such as green commercial residential project.
Portland’s G/Rating. building code.
Make it Right
Commercial Green Green Commercial 150 homes to be built
Building Incentives Building Code in the Lower 9th Ward of
Incentives should be Require all commercial New Orleans. All will be
created for commercial buildings to be LEED- built to LEED Platinum
green buildings. certified or meet standards.
! Tax credit for ASHRAE 130.1.
buildings that meet NOLA 100 Figure 4. Smaller
specific targets EXISTING NEW 44 homes were commercial buildings and
offices benefit greatly from
! Increased FAR and ORLEANS PROJECTS weatherized and energy design for energy efficiency
other density ArtEgg rated out of a possible and the environment. Such
bonuses The Alliance for 100 with assistance considerations immediately
! Expedited permitting Affordable Energy and from several non-profit impact the bottom line.
Pictured here are the
other organizations groups. The research on
Genzyme Center in
Green Financing have installed solar savings was calculated. Cambridge, MA, and the
Work with local financial panels on the roof of Corbett Garage in Portland,
institutions to create a the former American OR.
package of green Beauty butter
financing for businesses warehouse on Earheart. BEST PRACTICES
willing to build or The building is now New York
renovate according to used as art studios and Local Law 86
green building practices for the Alliance’s mandates green
! Green commercial activities. commercial building
loans Figure 3. Hearst Tower in
New York is one of the first NY ‘s State Energy
! Green commercial Global Green Research and
LEED Gold-certified office
insurance Holy Cross mixed-use Development
towers in the country.
LONG-TERM commercial residential Greener buildings are more Authority provides
All commercial buildings green building project. energy efficient, more services for green
in the city will be productive work building:

9
Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
Municipal
! Computer is an effective means at all have some municipal
modeling incentivizing buildings which a low

Facilities
! Eco-design commercial green environmental impact.
charrettes building.
! Tax credit
assistance Chicago and The green roof on
Chicago’s City Hall is a
!
!
Commissioning
Lifecycle costing
Chicago incentivizes
green building through Operations practical benefit to the
city’s bottom line as
Green Permitting well as a symbol of the
Arizona Program, with approval INTRODUCTION Chicago’s commitment
The Community Bank of in less than 30 business The facilities and to a greener future. The
Arizona has a green days. The Chicago properties owned and $2.5M roof was funded
building commercial Center for Green operated by City of New by a settlement with
loan available for those Technology is a LEED- Orleans are one of the ComEdison, the local
commercial structures Platinum building meant largest users of utility.
that attain an Energy to be both a model electricity in New
Star rating of 75 or municipal building as Orleans. The City has LESSONS LEARNED
better. well as an exemplar of the ability to New Orleans Local
green commercial dramatically impact Government has the
Portland building. how its facilities in the opportunity and the
The Oregon Energy city use energy and obligation to become
Trust was created in should lead by example. greener in its
1999 by a mandate According to the 1998 operations.
from the Oregon Public Green House Gas
ASHRAE standards
Utilities Commission (GHG) analysis of According to the City’s
that the investor-owned can improve municipal departments, 1998 Greenhouse Gas
utilities in the state commercial municipal buildings in (GHG) study, the
collect a 3% public buildings and small NO produced 32% of Sewerage and Water
purpose charge. The the total municipal Board (S&W B)
charge finances
offices by 30% to emissions. contributes to
incentives for energy 40% with off-the- approximately 60% of
efficiency, green shelf technologies. US cities that are widely the city’s GHG
building, and renewable known for their emissions. Working
energy measures, and environmental policies cooperatively with the

Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency 10


Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
S&W B to reduce or impact, taking month to look into the and the carbon footprint
offset emissions will advantage of ‘low- city purchasing decreased by implementing
dramatically reduce the hanging fruit.’ processes. cogeneration facilities at
wastewater and water
city’s GHG footprint.
treatment plants.
Green Rebuilding New Orleans Standard-
Costs and Benefits The city shall develop New Orleans should
Many of the energy- Municipal Building
voluntary, New develop specific
saving and Standard
Orleans-specific green standards for Municipal
environmental standards and goals for New Orleans should
Buildings so that the
measures here sustainable municipal follow other
local government can
considered will pay for municipalities in
construction. In the lead by example.
themselves within a committing to a LEED
meantime, the City will Greenhouse gas (GHG)
decade, and projects Silver-level for all new
establish a “Green emissions due to the
often have benefits municipal buildings.
Team” to recommend operation of municipal
(such as visibility and immediate green buildings in NO were
productivity) that are building improvements Center for Building
32% of the total
difficult to quantify. Technology Excellence
to the project municipal emissions.
Create a Center for
worksheets of ongoing
Indicators Building Technology
recovery projects.
To measure the success Excellence, in
of implementing the Green Procurement partnership with the
following policies, an Regional Planning
All City of New Orleans
appropriate indicator is Commission. The CBTE
departments should go
required. should conduct state-
through a green
Examples of indicators procurement review of-the-art research on
are: process in order to building technologies
! Energy use per for hot-and-humid
identify opportunities to Figure 5
square foot coastal climates and
“green” municipal
! Cost of energy Almost two-thirds of the City showcase building
facilities and
conservation per
of New Orleans’ municipal materials and
operations. Specifically,
greenhouse gas emissions techniques for the
square foot the Mayoral team that are generated by the
SHORT-TERM comprises the green region. The building
Sewerage and Water Board.
Short-term goals are itself should be a LEED
team will need to The efficiency of S & WB
immediately and visibly Platinum-quality
convene at least once a operations can be increased
building, and modeled

11
Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
after Chicago’s Center rain water and gray carbon reduction. EXISTING LOCAL
for Green Technology. water cistern usage. PROJECTS
Current laws restrict its Carbon-Offsetting ! Recycling of asphalt,
Sewerage & Water use and continue to The City should look to concrete and gravel
Board increase unnecessary offset its carbon from streets.
The S&WB should plan water loads on footprint by planting ! LED lights in 100%
for cogeneration municipal water supply. trees, building green of City-owned
facilities and other roofs on applicable city Buildings
upgrades which will GHG Reduction facilities.
improve S&WB The City of New Orleans BEST PRACTICES
efficiency. should commit to Cost-Benefit Portland
LONG-TERM reducing its energy Within 10 years, Invest in all energy-
The City of New Orleans footprint by meeting undertake all activities efficiency measures
should increase its use several ambitious goals. with 10-year payback with 10-year or less
of renewable energy Such goals can include: on municipal facilities. paybacks.
sources in municipal ! Reduce greenhouse Adopt energy
buildings, and all gas emissions by efficient standards
municipal buildings and 30% by 2020 from a for all new city
operations should 2005 baseline. buildings and major
operate at a high level ! Commit to reducing renovation projects.
of energy efficiency. consumption of
The City should also electricity and Chicago
look into ways to natural gas by Global Building
improve its storm 1%/year. Management System
drainage sedimentation ! Renewable energy (GBMS) was
policies. Reduction in purchase implemented in
Figure 6
sedimentation will agreements for order to monitor and
decrease pollutant run municipal Chicago City Hall’s renowned control municipal
off and increase potable operations-energy. green roof. The roof reduces energy efficiency
heating and cooling costs and
water The City of New systems.
retains stormwater. It is also
Orleans’ partnership a symbol of the city’s
The City should with ICLEI should be commitment to being one of Seattle
incorporate laws that used to create more the greenest in the world. Washington was the
are more amenable to feasible plans for first state in the

Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency 12


Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
Regulation,
country to mandate While all of Louisiana CPC has verbally agreed
that all new recently adopted IBC to collaborate with

Zoning, and
government 2003 building code, ORDA to assist with the
buildings meet LEED New Orleans’ zoning analysis of current
Silver.
Codes was last updated in the
1970s. Other cities such
zoning, code and
regulation. Once the
1998 New Orleans as Portland, New York, analysis is complete;
Greenhouse Gas Boston, and Seattle ORDA will supply CPC
Emissions: have dramatically with recommendations
! Total of 283,000 revamped their for incorporating
tons of CO2 released planning, zoning, and environmental and
from municipal code to encourage energy considerations
buildings. denser and greener in the comprehensive
! The Sewerage & development, but New zoning ordinance and
Water Board Orleans has lagged far master plan
contributed over behind.
60% of the city’s
carbon footprint. The 1999 Master Plan Boston’s
! The operation of and the 2001 Com- Redevelopment
municipal buildings INTRODUCTION prehensive Zoning Authority (BRA) is a
in NO was 32% of Energy and Ordinance have been dynamic organization
the total municipal environmental consider- shelved, and the City that does both planning
emissions. ations are paramount at Planning Commission and development for
several scales of has put revising the the City of Boston,
building. Land use, Comprehensive Zoning implementing planning
zoning, planning, and Ordinance out for bid. and development
development policy Energy efficient building policy, including recent
have to interface with standards and energy and
smaller-scale green sustainable, mixed-use environmental
building considerations urban design should considerations.
in order to make New both be considerations
Orleans a model in the city’s regulations, Portland has developed
sustainable city. zoning, and building one of the most
code. aggressive land use

13
Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
policies in the US, one Standard should meet are currently subject to
that encourages dense, Analyze Regulations, local requirements by revision and veto by the
center city and infill Code, and Zoning including City Council. Work with
development while Analyze current zoning, gray/stormwater the City Council and the
discouraging code, regulation, and retention, green roofs, City Planning
“greenfield” or new, planning. Prepare to transit, architectural, Commission to ensure
suburban development. pass the Master Plan and other locally- that the CPC’s decisions
and the Comprehensive oriented features. are given the force of
LESSONS LEARNED Zoning Ordinance. law. Pass the Master
Cities with the most Requirements should Plan and
effective environmental Create a New Orleans increase over time. Comprehensive Zoning
and energy programs Standard Portions of the standard Ordinance.
also have the most Review best practices should be made
coherent planning, and create a standard mandatory and Create Incentives for
zoning, and regulation. equivalent to that of integrated into the Green Building,
Seattle, Chicago, building code. Planning, and Design
Additionally, the Toronto, and LEED but MEDIUM-TERM Bonuses and incentives
importance of up-to- designed for warm, Pass comprehensive should be codified into
date zoning, planning, humid, coastal places. Zoning Ordinance and zoning and regulation.
and regulation cannot Master Plan with ! Floor Area Ratio
be overemphasized. The standard should environmental and bonuses for green
While New Orleans is include a certification, energy considerations. building.
now one of the best- such as Seattle’s Doing so will lay the ! Transferable
planned cities in the BuiltGreen or Chicago’s groundwork for development rights
world, zoning, planning, Chicago Standard, that sustainably rebuilding (TDRs) for green
and regulation are creates a brand for the City of New development.
required to buildings that meet Orleans. ! Additional
institutionalize post- certain qualifications. requirements could
Katrina plans. Review Restore City Planning be mandated for all
existing regulations, The standard should Commission Authority development above
code, and zoning, and differ for building types, over Planning, Zoning, a certain threshold
begin to implement such as the Florida and Land Use Decisions and for all national
recommended changes. Green Building Code. The City Planning chains.
The New Orleans Commission’s activities LONG-TERM

Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency 14


Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
Establish New Orleans Orleans’ existing urban
as a model for coastal design should guide
cities by creating code, development into
zoning, and planning extant neighborhoods
that shapes city and along the City’s
development with grand avenues.
energy and Bonuses and incentives Codes - A building code is a
environmental should be created for legal document used by a
considerations in mind. ! Infill development jurisdiction to specify regula-
Influence building ! Transit-oriented tions that protect the public
pattern for long-term development health, safety, and general
sustainability. ! Development along welfare regarding the con-
struction and occupancy of There are a variety of
specific avenues building standards and codes
building and structures.
Long-Term (Claiborne, Canal, & available from which New
Sustainability Planning Tulane). Orleans can draw.
The City should initiate
a process of long-term EXISTING LOCAL Standards - Building BEST PRACTICES
sustainability planning PROJECTS standards provide commonly Leadership in Energy
that incorporates green The City Planning accepted measures for and Environmental
building into plans for Commission currently materials, products, Design (LEED)
the long-term economic has put out an RFP for processes, or procedures. A widely used
and ecologic viability of revision to the Master standard developed
the Greater New Plan and the by the US Green
Orleans region. Comprehensive Zoning Building Council.
Ordinance. Both can be
High Density Corridors revised with energy- Model Green Home
Create a land-banking efficient building and Buildings Guidelines
program that ecologic viability in National Association
incentivizes New mind. of Home Builders
Orleans residents to
move from low-density, Portland G/Rating
below-sea-level areas G/Rated is a
to prescribed high- program designed to
density areas. New accelerate the

15
Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
adoption of green Toronto Green
building practices in
Portland.
Development Standard
Toronto, like
Conclusion
New Orleans is poised
Chicago, has devel- to become one of the
Seattle BuiltGreen oped its own greenest-built cities in
A certification that standard which has the world.
the newly con- been adapted from
structed home LEED and other
contains selected sources.
Built Green features
and meets the Florida Green Building
criteria on the Built Coalition
Green checklist. The coalition has
developed standards
The Chicago Standard for five building
The Chicago types, which are
Standard was designed for hot and
developed to guide humid climates such
the design, as New Orleans.
construction and
renovation of
municipal facilities in
a manner that
provides healthier
indoor
environments,
reduces operating
costs and conserves
energy and
resources.

Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency 16


Green Buildings & Energy Efficiency
SHORT-TERM MEDIUM-TERM LONG-TERM
Implement actions of The Executive Branch Create standards for
the Green Building and the City Council contractors and
Program as outlined in through its utilities facilities that resell the
Ordinance No. 22863. committee will jointly materials. Investigate
develop a unified bulk purchasing. By
Educational outreach to energy policy for the assembling resources
assist citizens with City, and will implement and purchasing
understanding the it according to their products in large
benefits of SB90, a respective duties as quantities, the city can
50% tax credit for up to outlined in the Home save money and still
$25,000 of solar, wind Rule Charter. utilize products that are
and thermal energy normally expensive.
systems. Work with stakeholders
to create programs to Develop voluntary, New
Prepare a Building Code educate contractors and Orleans–specific green
Analysis and Identify the public about the standards, certification
Barriers in Code that deconstruction process. criteria, and goals for
act as roadblocks and Work closely with the sustainable
impediments to Clinton Climate construction. The
adoption of energy Initiative on a green standard should differ
efficiency housing. building initiative that for building types, as
will create financing the Florida Green
ASHRAE standards can programs for low Building Code does. The
improve commercial income residents and New Orleans Standard
buildings and small mandatory green should meet local
offices by 30-40% with standards for requirements by
off-the-shelf developers. including gray
technologies. water/storm water
Establish a commercial retention, green roofs,
green building standard transit, architectural,
that meets ASHRAE and other locally-
130.1 or LEED-NC. oriented features.

17
Alternative Energy
is a grant designed to
Alternative
recent SB-90 bill for solar
make solar energy cost- tax credits, the creation
competitive by 2015. of two solar-powered
Energy According to a recent
schools by 2009, an
exploration of viable wind
“We are like tenant farmers report from the U.S. energy farms, and
chopping down the fence
around our house for fuel when
News & World Report, the continuous localized
we should be using Natures most widely used monitoring and
inexhaustible sources of energy renewable energies— improvement of the city’s
— sun, wind and tide. ... I'd put
my money on the sun and solar wind, solar, and energy footprint, New
energy. What a source of ethanol—only currently Orleans can in the next
power! I hope we don't have to
wait until oil and coal run out
provide 3.6 percent of two years build the
before we tackle that.”
As a city in the midst of the nation’s energy, and momentum necessary to
unprecedented rebuilding government predictions surpass the government’s
- Thomas Edison (1931) and revitalization, New are that the renewables predictions within the
Orleans is uniquely will only increase to 4.6 city, and to join California
INTRODUCTION positioned to assume a percent of the nation’s and other “greening”
Perhaps the most leading role in the energy by 2030. Kholsa states in the movement
significant roadblock to “ground-up” Ventures, a venture to effectively mitigate
mitigating climate change institutionalization of capital firm in Silicon climate change.
is the current policy for sound environmental Valley that has a goal of
the generation and practices and “green” far-surpassing the federal
distribution of energy. development, particularly government’s predictions One of the major tasks of
Reducing the city’s with regards to in California, estimates lowering emissions from
dependency on fossil diversifying its energy that a 50 percent the city’s vehicles is a
fuels by diversifying its resources. Major replacement of fossil fuel fundamental change in
energy sources (i.e. opportunities for this energies with renewables consumer habit and
solar, hydrokinetics, development are already is the minimum needed demand. A proposal
biofuels) will be a major underway in the city, to make a real impact on currently in Congress
step on the path to including the designation climate change. Through would force American
sustainable recovery and of New Orleans as one of an extensive marketing cars to increase their
diminishing the twenty-five “Solar Cities” and incentives program efficiency to an average
detrimental effects of by the U.S. Department spearheaded by the Solar of 35 miles per gallon by
greenhouse gas of Energy. The Solar Cities Initiative and the 2020. At a recent Tulane
emissions. America Cities Initiative

Alternative Energy 18
Alternative Energy
University-sponsored ! Greater New Orleans Lessons Learned
conference on the future WINDING RIVER Clean Cities Coalition is New Orleans needs to
of the petroleum New technology a part of a voluntary US begin laying the
industry, however, a could harness the Department of Energy technical, regulatory, and
representative of Shell Oil program to encourage financial groundwork for
power of Mississippi, the use of alternative
and the Society of the adoption of
turning it into a fuels.
Petroleum Engineers renewable energy
stated that increasing power plant ! New Orleans just passed
generation and
SB 90, which provides
fuel efficiency to 25 miles Source Times Picayune. for the most progressive
distribution.
per gallon would Sunday, November 04, 2007
solar energy and
drastically decrease the thermal tax credits in Emissions Inventory and
nation’s dependency on Existing Local the entire country for Forecast. The most
foreign oil, and Programs residential units. recent greenhouse gas
significantly reduce ! The Southeast ! Green Earth Fuels just audit in New Orleans took
carbon emissions, which Louisiana Clean Fuels built a new biodiesel place in 1998. The city is
reached 311.9 million Partnership, an plant in Jefferson Parish, in the process of
metric tons from motor initiative of the U.S. and South Coast recalculating its energy
gasoline alone in 2003. Department of Biodiesel sells biodiesel footprint audited again to
Energy’s Clean Cities processors from Belle establish the necessary
Chasse.
Setting a higher standard Program, is working to benchmarks for increased
! The New Orleans
for fuel efficient vehicles develop a market for efficiency.
metropolitan region
and carbon reduction in alternative fuels in the
has attracted two
New Orleans would not region and to increase Distributed Generation
major biofuel
only reduce the city’s public awareness Study. Study the
facilities, one built by
carbon footprint, but also about the benefits of potential for generating
the Renewable Energy
establish a greater utilizing such electricity from several
Group in St. Charles
consciousness and resources. smaller sources
Parish, which will
capacity within the ! Green Light New Orleans
produce 60 million
community for is a local non-profit that Capacity-Building.
has the goal to install 3 gallons of biodiesel
maintaining a healthy Through the Solar Cities
million CFL Energy Star fuel a year, and
balance between Initiative, and with the
Rated light bulbs in New another built by Green
consumption and aid of the city’s 44
Orleans’ residences in Earth Fuels in
environmental waste. energy initiatives
the next four years. Jefferson Parish.
affiliates, the city should

19
Alternative Energy
launch a major marketing Renewable Energy. The local startups to create
campaign to inform the City of New Orleans Renewables the first hydrokinetic
public about the should begin adopting Manufacturing. With the project in the Mississippi
environmental and renewable energy and demand-stimulation of River.
economic benefits of fostering renewable SB-90, the City of New
alternative energy, and energy and economic Orleans should attract at S&WB Anaerobic
hold neighborhood based development. least one major Cogeneration. New
workshops on these manufacturer of solar Orleans should encourage
resources to ensure that panels. the installation of
the message reaches all Localized Energy cogeneration on as many
members of the New Efficiency Initiatives. Renewable Energy S&WB facilities as
Orleans’ community. New Orleans should Incentives. As with the possible.
create a Memorandum of solar tax credits provided
Green Business Council. Understanding between by SB-90, create Renewable Portfolio
Create a council of green the City and community- incentives for ethanol, Standard. New Orleans
and renewable energy based organizations to wind, and biodiesel. should require that
business leaders. The jointly pursue funding Entergy New Orleans
partners should include resources for simple Renewable Power meet certain standards
representatives in these projects such as installing Procurement. In the for its energy portfolio.
technology areas: Solar, CFL Energy Star rated medium-term, 10 percent By 2010, 10 percent of
Wind, Biodiesel, Ethanol, light bulbs in New of New Orleans’ energy the city’s energy should
Geothermal and Orleans residences. should be purchased be renewable, and the
hydrokinetic energy from renewable sources figure should increase to
by 2010. 20 percent by 2015.
Ethanol. New Orleans
should coordinate with Explore Hydrokinetic Maintaining Localized
The Louisiana Power. Louisiana has Incentives. The city
Department of prime locations for should require all
Agriculture to develop hydrokinetic energy community-based
relationships with local farms, and it has the partners to establish
energy users and the water resource long-term goals to
sugarcane ethanol plants management expertise complete their missions
in the state. to maintain competitive in the neighborhoods
Figure 1. CFL Light bulb advantage. Work with which they serve, and

Alternative Energy 20
Alternative Energy
assist in when necessary to finance energy
to ensure that all goals incentives and is an
effective means at
are being met. incentivizing commercial
green building.
Greenhouse Gas Boston
Reductions/Carbon Caps. ! Boston’s green/renewable
power procurement policy
The City of New Orleans currently provides 8.6% of
should commit to Boston’s total energy use
reducing its greenhouse through renewable
gas emissions sources.
dramatically: 30 percent Austin
! 30% of city energy from
reduction by 2020. renewable sources by
2020.

Best Practices

Seattle
! Seattle City Light is the
first utility in the country to
achieve zero net emissions
of greenhouse gases
through the purchase of
Renewable Energy Credits
(RECs).
Salt Lake City
! Blue Sky program enables
residents to purchase
monthly blocks of wind
power for a flat rate
(100kWh for $1.95).
Portland
! Oregon Energy Trust was
created in 1999 by a
mandate from the Oregon
Public Utilities Commission
that the investor-owned
utilities in the state collect
a 3% public purpose
charge. The charge is used

21
SHORT-TERM MEDIUM-TERM LONG-TERM
Emissions Inventory Renewables Renewable Portfolio
and Forecast Manufacturing Standard
Recalculate the City’s Develop incentives to By 2010, 10 percent of
energy footprint to attract companies that the city’s energy should
establish the necessary provide products and be renewable, and the
benchmarks for increased services that support SB- figure should increase to
efficiency. 90. 20 percent by 2015.
Small-Scale Wind New Orleans should
Distributed Generation Power require that Entergy New
Study Work with local startups Orleans meet these
Study the potential for to create the first standards for its energy
generating electricity offshore U.S. wind-to- portfolio.
from several smaller energy farms. Louisiana
sources. has prime locations for Greenhouse Gas
wind energy farms and Reductions/Carbon
Capacity-Building the offshore expertise to Caps
Train and Certify Builders maintain a competitive New Orleans should
and Energy Raters. advantage. commit to reducing its
Hydrokinetic Power greenhouse gas
Ethanol Work with local startups emissions dramatically: a
Research the feasibility of to create the first Run-of- 30 percent reduction by
using sugarcane ethanol the-River Hydrokinetic in 2020.
in the city’s fleet. Louisiana. New Orleans
has prime locations for
hydrokinetic power
energy farms on the
Mississippi River.
Currently there are 3
private companies with
preliminary permits to
develop renewable
energy projects along the
City’s waterfront.

Alternative Energy 22
Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling
_ ! The recycling facility recycle, such as paying facilities it contracts
Recycling that New Orleans used
before Katrina was
them for their material
or instituting a pay as
with share revenues
from reselling
Introduction disabled during the you throw program. materials. They city
Recycling has become storm. It has been also has performance
an integral part of repaired and is now ! Education is a crucial requirements for the
waste management in operational. component to program facilities and haulers.
America and is a success.
prerequisite for a city to Lessons Learned ! A number of cities
be considered green. ! Allowing residents to have banned putting
Hurricane Katrina place all recyclables in a recyclables into trash.
disrupted curbside single bin is a good way Tickets are issued to
recycling and it has not to increase participation repeat offenders, but
been reestablished. rates and lower this is rarely needed.
New Orleans should payments to haulers.
reestablish curbside The biggest obstacle for ! British Columbia has
recycling by using the this method is keeping banned putting
model of other cities contamination rates computers, televisions
that have created low. and computer towers in
efficient and cost the trash. These
effective recycling ! Recycling programs materials are collected
programs. work best if recyclables Best Practices at curbside and the
are picked up on the ! In the early 90’s, manufactures of these
Existing Local same day as trash. California passed items are taxed to pay
Programs legislation requiring for the program.
! Phoenix of New ! Large bins increase each community to
Orleans is currently participation rates and reduce their landfill ! Bergen County New
collecting curbside allow for automated usage by 50% by 2000. Jersey and St. Paul
recycling. Residents pickup, which reduces This has spurred rapid Minnesota requires
pay $15 dollars a injury to workers. progress in recycling businesses to recycle.
month and the rates.
materials are taken to a ! Participation rates are ! Leverett,
facility in Baton Rouge. highest when citizens ! The city of Phoenix Massachusetts and a
are given incentives to and the recycling number of other

Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling 23


Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling
Composting
communities have drop and non profits who are Louisiana, including
off points where lobbying for it. Baton Rouge and
residents can bring Lafayette have active
materials that are too ! Pre Katrina recycling Introduction composting and yard
big to be picked up at rates were low. The Cities across the world waste programs.
curbside. city will have to expend have begun to view
resources to increase organic waste as a Lessons Learned
! Seattle has a “friends awareness and interest resource, not a burden. -Composting programs
of recycling” program in recycling. A composting program can reduce the waste
that trains people to follows this logic by stream by up to 30%.
serve as a Indicators taking yard clippings,
neighborhood resources ! Participation rates food scraps and -To create a vibrant
for residents who want ! Recyclable materials biosolids and turning market for compost,
to learn about recycling. disposed in landfills them into high quality cities need to create
! Waste management soil. This allows cities product standards,
! Ann Arbor Michigan costs to reduce their waste classifications to
contracts to local non handling and disposal identify high and low
profits that make more costs, drastically reduce quality material and
than 100 presentations land fill usage, sell the quality control
in schools each year. products for a profit, procedures.
reduce the use of
! Madison Wisconsin fertilizers, and control -Composting programs
makes announcements erosion. New Orleans run best when cities
called Earth Alerts should create a create standards for
during children’s composting program by how composting
television programs. using other successful facilities operate.
programs as a model.
Cost and Benefits -Backyard composting
Existing Local reduces hauling costs
! Reestablishing Programs and emissions.
curbside recycling will Several nonprofits in
appease a number of the city are running -Participation in
neighborhood groups small scale composting curbside composting
projects. Other cities in programs is highest if

24
Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling
compost is picked up on
the same day as trash.
The city has a lower
participation rate than
education. This reduces
their waste stream by
Deconstruction
cities with curbside 10-14%.
-High quality compost collection, but they do Introduction
compare favorably with not have the costs of -The State of North Deconstruction is an
peat and other high running a program. Carolina gives grants alternative to
quality fertilizers. and technical advice to demolition that involves
-A number of emerging composting reusing building
Best Practices communities encourage facilities. materials instead of
-San Francisco is one of residents to let grass placing them in a
many cities with clippings remain on Costs and Benefits landfill. Recycling
curbside collection of lawns, which reduces -New Orleans can housing materials used
yard waste and kitchen hauling and keeps reduce its waste to be a common
scraps. Materials are nutrients in the lawn. management costs with practice in America but
taken to privately- an efficient composting fell out of favor in the
owned composting -The Massachusetts program. 1950’s as the nation’s
facilities outside of the Department of wealth increased.
city and the facilities Environmental Indicators Deconstruction is
maintain ownership of Protection is working to -Waste diversion rates becoming more
the material. establish community -Number of private widespread in America
Christmas tree recycling composting facilities as costs have become
-Massachusetts has programs in every -Waste management competitive with
contracted a non profit region of the state. costs demolition in many
to run a program where circumstances. The
haulers collect compost -Over 20 states ban large number of houses
from restaurants, hotels putting yard waste in that need to be taken
and supermarkets. The landfills. down in New Orleans
materials are brought would allow the city to
to local farms. -A number of become a leader in the
communities have industry.
-Provo UT has drop off composting in
sites where residents elementary schools as
and businesses can part of earth and
bring their compost. environmental science

Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling 25


Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling
Existing Local non profit status. This -In San Jose,
Programs
During the summer,
allows residents to get
a tax write off by
homeowners have to
pay a deposit to get a
Waste into
FEMA required the
contractors they had
donating the materials
to them.
demolition permit. If
they recycle more than Energy
hired to take down 60 -As local industries 70% of the building
houses, deconstruct the become more material they get 90% Introduction
buildings, and give the established, costs for of the deposit back. Waste-to-energy is an
material to a local non- deconstruction drop. -After the Northridge established industry
profit for resale. -It is easier to receive earthquake in Los that has been in
Currently there are certification from LEED Angeles, 86% of the existence since the
three nonprofits that and the US Green building debris was early 1970s. It is an
are deconstructing Building Council if recycled. integral component of a
houses in the city, nine materials are recycled. comprehensive,
contractors that can be Costs and Benefits integrated solid waste
hired to deconstruct Best Practices -Reselling materials management program
properties, and seven -Massachusetts has creates low cost for many municipalities.
facilities that are banned putting brick, building products.
reselling materials. concrete, metal, wood -Deconstruction The 87 waste-to-energy
and asphalt from preserves architectural plants nationwide
Lessons Learned houses in landfills. heritage by keeping dispose of more than
-The extra costs of -Seattle requires a materials in use. 90,000 tons of trash
deconstruction can be license to demolish a -Deconstruction allows each day while
offset by selling house. To get the hazardous materials to generating enough
recovered materials. license, contractors be better handled than clean energy to supply
-Deconstruction must demonstrate that in demolition situations. electricity to about 2.3
industries work best if they will recycle 85% of million homes
local governments the materials. There Indicators nationwide (Source:
create standards for were several companies -Reduction of building ISWA).
contractors and doing deconstruction materials in landfills.
facilities that resell the before this requirement -Decrease in There are several
materials. was created and the deconstruction costs. federal statutes and
-Companies that resell industry has expanded -Growth of policies that define
materials can apply for quickly since then. deconstruction industry. waste-to-energy as a

26
Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling
renewable source of programs in the State Lessons Learned waste-to-energy
energy (as of 6/30/07): of Louisiana. According facility, an increase in
to the U.S. EPA, nearly carbon dioxide
! Energy Policy Act of The Jefferson Parish one ton of CO2 emissions that would
2005 Landfill provides energy equivalent emissions have been generated by
! Federal Power Act to Cytec Industries Inc are avoided for every a fossil-fuel fired power
! Public Utility via a 4.2-mile pipeline. ton of municipal solid plant is avoided.
Regulatory Policy Act Previously flared landfill waste handled by a
(PURPA) of 1978 gas used as alternative waste-to-energy plant Avoided CO2 emissions
! Biomass Research fuel reduces due to the following: from metals production:
and Development dependence on fossil Waste-to-energy plants
Act of 2000 fuels and provides long- Avoided methane recover more than
! Pacific Northwest term economic benefit emissions from landfills: 700,000 tons of ferrous
Power Planning and to both parties. When a ton of solid metals for recycling
Conservation Act waste is delivered to a annually. Recycling
! Internal Revenue In Shreveport, LA, the waste-to-energy metals saves energy
Code (Section 45) GM Shreveport facility, the methane and avoids CO2
! Executive Orders Assembly Plant. has a that would have been emissions that would
13123 and 13423 seven mile pipeline that generated if it were have been emitted if
! Federal Energy goes from the landfill to sent to a landfill is virgin materials were
Regulatory the GM Plant. This avoided. While some of mined and new metals
Commissions process uses LFG to fuel this methane could be were manufactured,
Regulations steam boilers at the collected and used to such as steel.
! (18 CFR.Ch. I, 4/96 plant for both heating generate electricity,
Edition, Sec. and cooling purposes. some would not be
292.204) captured and would be
Current Projects emitted to the
Existing Local Proposed in New atmosphere.
Programs Orleans
Currently, Orleans Avoided CO2 emissions
Parish does not have an ! Transload Facility from fossil fuel
operational waste-to- ! Sun Energy Plant combustion: When a
energy program, but megawatt of electricity 10/29/2007 Waste News
there are existing is generated by a

Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling 27


Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling
Best Practices and Power Some of for the emissions reductions of
The Integrated Waste (cogeneration) and energy generated at 0.0062 million metric
Services Association Direct Thermal (23 the plant is sold to tons of carbon
(IWSA), the American paint shop oven burners progress energy equivalents. Project
Society of Mechanical and indirect heating of (local utility was completed after
Engineers (ASME), and paint shop 4.8 company) Hurricane Katrina.
the Solid Waste megawatts (MW). The
Association of North project produced 72 Foreign Countries Indicators
America (SWANA) in million Btu/hr and Waste-to-energy -Significant energy
partnership with the saved the company $1 facilities in Japan production from waste
Waste-to-Energy million/yr handle biosolids as to energy facilities.
Research and The annual greenhouse well as municipal Related reductions in
Technology Council gas reductions is waste streams. In the costs of local
(WTERT) at Columbia equivalent to planting Germany, waste-to- energy due to increased
University host an 17,600 acres of forest, energy facilities supply.
annual conference that removing the emissions have allowed
is widely recognized as of 12,400 vehicles, or communities to
the leading industry preventing the use of achieve high
technical conference. 150,300 barrels of oil. recycling rates.
Annual energy savings
Studies have equate to powering Costs and Benefits
demonstrated that 3,000 homes and Jefferson Parish Landfill
communities served by heating 23,100 homes. LFG Project. Annual
waste to-energy have (BMW Manufacturing greenhouse gas
recycling rates that are Co., LLC) reductions equivalent to
nearly twenty percent planting 6,200 acres of
higher than the national Lancaster County, PA forest, removing the
average. Energy created at emissions of 4,400
the WTE facility vehicles, or preventing
Greer, South Carolina provides power for the use of 53,200
17.46 million tons the Turkey Hill barrels of oil. Annual
waste-in-place were Dairy. energy savings equate
converted to energy to heating 13,600
using Combined Heat Pinnelles County, FL homes. Estimated

28
Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling
SHORT-TERM MEDIUM-TERM LONG-TERM
Issue an RFP to re- Support the Create an integrated
establish curbside establishment of a system of facilities that
recycling in the City of waste-to-energy project combines recycling,
New Orleans that serves New composting, reuse,
Orleans. converting waste to
Require that waste-to- energy, household
energy developers Monitor compliance with hazardous waste
submit emissions their permitted centers, municipal
estimates, waste operating requirements. waste collection, and
diversion rates, energy landfilling to effectively
production estimates, manage the city’s waste
and identification of stream.
waste input sources and
types. Create a waste
diversion goal for the
Monitor compliance and city to encourage more
progress with the City’s sustainable practices.
Environmental Meet or exceed the goal
Conservation Policy by a set date.
(CAO Policy
Memorandum R103).

Monitor the overall rate


of recycling and waste
diversion in New
Orleans.

Waste Reduction, Reuse, & Recycling 29


Transportation & Clean Fuels
Introduction both incentives and pollution, traffic, or high especially metered on-
Transportation not only minimum environmental infrastructure costs. street parking, can
provides a critical link requirements, our city Public transit is another dramatically reduce time
from home to can encourage the use of alternative that provides vehicles spend circulating
employment, services, alternative transportation access to goods and and congesting
and community but also modes. Reduced services with minimal roadways. By reducing
reshapes the behavior automobile dependency environmental and social vehicle trips and
our residents and design reduces environmental costs. Additionally, circulating, we
of our cities. In recent pollution by lowering transit can generate significantly lower vehicle
decades, the public has vehicle emissions and economic development emissions.
become interested in increases socio-economic and allow for improved
promoting transportation equity by providing emergency preparedness. EXISTING LOCAL
options that align with comparable but less Much of New Orleans’ PROGRAMS
their community goals. costly alternatives to urban landscape was ! The Regional Planning
People want better automobile ownership. created before the Commission (RPC) has
access to goods and automobile and is thus created the New
services, cheaper and designed around Orleans Metropolitan
more efficient transit pedestrians and streetcar Bicycle and Pedestrian
between destinations, transit. As a result, New Plan.
and less environmental Orleans remains a ! RPC has also obtained
damage. walkable and bikeable full membership in the
city but much more could local chapter of the
The least environmentally be done to promote non- Department of
sound and cost effective motorized transportation Energy’s Clean Cities
transportation mode is and expand the city’s Coalition.
the private automobile. transit network. ! The Department of
Alternative, or Public Works has $4
sustainable, Effective parking million in bonds that
transportation modes management strategies can be used for
such as mass transit or Biking and walking are have a direct influence on bicycle facilities
non-motorized modes the most sustainable reducing vehicle trips including striping
provide greater societal methods of especially by commuters. bicycle lanes and
benefits at significantly transportation because In addition, management bicycle parking. 288
lower costs. By using they do not generate of parking supply, bicycle racks will be

Transportation and Clean Fuels 30


Transportation & Clean Fuels
installed throughout LESSONS LEARNED such as downtowns and California – Parking
the downtown area. Increasingly, alternative around college campuses. “cash-out” program has
! St. Charles streetcar fuels and vehicles are show early results of
service has been fully becoming an affordable Transit has also become reducing emissions by
restored by the option for reducing an increasingly popular 12%.
Regional Transit vehicle emissions. As the sustainable
Authority (RTA). Plans price of gasoline transportation Chicago – I-GO Car
to develop a line down continues to rise, alternative. Sharing is a local non-
Rampart/St. Claude alternative fuel vehicles profit and has
have been put on such as hybrids can also BEST PRACTICES demonstrated reduced
hold. significantly reduce Denver - Local voters transportation cost to
! RTA has also put 6 operational costs as well agreed to fund an members
biodiesel buses into as provided an extensive light rail
service. These buses environmental benefit. system. Denver – Green Fleet
significantly reduce Executive Order
the carbon emissions Flexible automobile usage Portland - The City built a
from the city’s can also have a great light rail network and is Los Angeles - Ports of
transportation sector. effect in reducing vehicle currently expanding the LA/Long Beach Clean
! The City of New trips. Technology has streetcar service in Truck Program
Orleans currently has made telecommuting a downtown adjacent
over 200 flex cheap and accessible neighborhoods. New York - Ports of
fuel/ethanol vehicles. option to work at home NY/NJ investing in
Work is currently or remote center some or Baton Rouge –Capital electric cranes and
underway to develop most days of the week. Regional Planning alternative fuel fleet
a fueling station to Car sharing programs Commission maintains update
provide E85 fuels for allow individuals to rent a the Baton Rouge Area
these vehicles. car for short periods of Commuter Services Seattle – Clean and
time for occasional Green Fleet: Action Plan
automobile use, Seattle - Telework for the City.
eliminating the need to Seattle helps companies
purchase and maintain establish commuter
one. Typically cars are programs.
located in highly
pedestrian neighborhoods

31
Transportation & Clean Fuels
Indicators vehicles whenever
! Establish a baseline possible.
inventory of current ! Support the
city fleet and establish establishment of city
yearly status reports. wide bike paths and
! Establish measurable alternative
goals to increase fleet transportation
corporate average fuel
economy, reduce
vehicle size where
necessary, and
minimize vehicle miles
traveled.
! Track commuter
telecommute choice
through employee
commuting surveys
! Number of car sharing
vehicles available in
the city.
! Miles of bicycle paths
and lanes, especially
contiguous miles.
! Survey usage of
bicycle parking
facilities to track
popularity.
! Collect employee
method of commuting
surveys annually by
employers
! Replace current city
owned vehicles with
biodiesel and hybrid

Transportation and Clean Fuels 32


3
WINDIN
G1
2
ReRIVER
siden
New Transportation & Clean Fuels
Was
Ene
Gre
tial and
technolo
Commer
SHORT-TERM MEDIUM-TERM LONG TERM
Develop program with Implement Bicycle and Build East-West light rail
DPW to coordinate street Pedestrian Master Plan linking airport to
resurfacing with proposed for the City. downtown
bicycle routes and
identify gap funding Create tele-commuter Support a commuter rail
where possible. Include centers that provide linking Baton Rouge and
Striping for bicycle lanes remote office services New Orleans
as part of the throughout the target
resurfacing. zones. Construct ethanol
refueling station for the
Ensure levee bike path Promote Transit-Oriented City’s 200+ E85 vehicles.
restored after Army Corp Work with RTA and local
levee work. businesses to develop Become an active
and promote an employer participant of Southeast
Create a green fleet transit pass program. Louisiana chapter of
procurement and Clean Cities Coalition.
management policy Expand streetcar system
to include (WHAT) Attract national company,
Encourage the Flexcar/Zipcar, to local
development of clean Work with Port of New area and help promote
fleets to other sectors Orleans to develop an service
including: action plan for greening
! School districts the port to reduce Foster development of
! Louis Armstrong emissions from port local car sharing
International Airport related activities and company for enhanced
improve air quality in coverage
surrounding community.
Promote light rail in the
Promote Transit-Oriented regional development of
Development along Greater New Orleans.
current transit corridors Enhance rail services.
(e.g., Canal Blvd.)

33
Environmental Outreach and Justice
Introduction the future. In the Lessons Learned disorders (ADHD),
As we rebuild our city in interim, the City will According to a recent behavioral problems,
the wake of Hurricane focus on reviving pre- survey conducted by stunted growth,
Katrina, the City of New Katrina environmental the City of New impaired hearing, and
Orleans is committed to programs, funding for Orleans, two of the top kidney damage.
recovering and existing and new three concerns noted by
preserving a healthy environmental citizens of New Orleans Higher levels of blood
environment, and to programs, capacity- include crime and Lead (Pb)
moving forward with building, public education – especially contamination may
just and ethical outreach, and the high failure rate and result in mental
environmental developing 10-year and dropout rate of New retardation, coma,
legislation and 20-year environmental Orleans students. seizures, and even
programs for all citizens plans. death. In addition,
and communities. The US Environmental recent scientific
Achieving the goal of Protection Agency (EPA) research indicates that
Traditionally, the Environmental Health states that the chemical childhood Lead (Pb)
movement for and Justice for all element Lead (chemical poisoning may be
Environmental Justice citizens of New Orleans symbol = Pb), “is a associated with juvenile
has been spearheaded will require the long- highly toxic metal that delinquency and
by activists, non-profit term coordination of was used for many criminal behavior.
groups, and non- diverse governmental years in products found
governmental agencies as well as in and around our In adults, blood Lead
organizations (NGOs). cooperation and homes.” Childhood (Pb) can increase blood
Because Environmental assistance from the exposure to Lead (Pb) pressure and cause
Justice has not many non-profit in our environment, fertility problems, nerve
historically been a organizations, non- even at very low levels disorders, muscle and
movement within governmental (low concentrations) joint pain, irritability,
Government itself, the organizations (NGOs), can result in a range of and memory or
City recognizes that it local businesses and health effects, ranging concentration problems.
will take time and business leaders, and from reduced IQ,
considered planning to the citizens of New learning disabilities, Children under 6 years
develop and achieve an Orleans. poor performance in of age are most at risk
Environmental Health school, attention deficit of blood Lead (Pb)
and Justice platform for / hyperactivity poisoning due to the

34
Environmental Outreach and Justice
presence of Lead (Pb) consumer use. Based highest concentrations Local “Lead Watch
in their environment. on the age of most of vehicular traffic have Community” Program
According to the EPA, homes and multi-family existed for decades. Utilizing grant money
research suggests that residences in New from the US
the primary sources of Orleans (some In the city of New Department of Housing
Lead (Pb) exposure for estimates are that up to Orleans, despite the and Urban Development
most children are 90 percent of the ban on these leaded (HUD), the City of New
deteriorating lead- housing in the City was products, studies led by Orleans is engaged in
based paint, lead- constructed prior to Dr. Howard Mielke, developing a “Lead
contaminated dust, and 1978), a very high Research Professor at Watch Community”
lead-contaminated percentage of the the Tulane / Xavier program. This
residential soil. The housing stock has the Center for community-focused
primary sources of potential to contain Bioenvironmental program aims to create
lead-contaminated dust lead-based paint. Research, indicated that model communities
and lead-contaminated Deterioration of both prior to Hurricane where the residents
soil are lead-based interior and exterior Katrina, over 20% of have been informed
paint, and the historic paint leads to lead- inner-city children ages about Lead (Pb)
use of leaded gasoline. contaminated dust and 6 years and under had hazards in their
Eating and breathing lead-contaminated soil. elevated blood Lead environment; the Lead
lead-based paint, lead- (Pb) levels at (Pb) hazards have been
contaminated dust, and In 1996, after a phase- concentrations above identified and
lead-contaminated soil out period, the EPA the Centers for Disease remediated or
puts children and even banned the sale of Control (CDC) mitigated; children ages
family pets at risk of leaded gasoline. recommended target 6 years and under have
blood Lead (Pb) Laboratory analysis of for elimination of 10 had blood Lead (Pb)
poisoning. soil samples collected micrograms per testing; and an ongoing
across Orleans Parish deciliter (10 ug/dL). community participation
In 1978, the US have shown that Some census tracts had exists in protecting
Consumer Product residual Lead (Pb) up to 50% of children residents and the
Safety Commission contamination of soil is with elevated blood environment from Lead
(CPSC) banned the sale generally higher in Lead (Pb) levels above (Pb) hazards in that
of paint containing inner city locations and 10 ug/dL. community. The title of
more than 0.06% Lead along major traffic the program, “Lead
(Pb) intended for corridors, where the Watch Community” is

Environmental Outreach and Justice 35


Environmental Outreach and Justice
based on the benefits have the regarding various currently working with
“Neighborhood Watch” potential to enhance methods for cleanup environmental Lead
program, where the desirability, and (remediation) and/or (Pb) and blood Lead
neighbors within a therefore potentially the reduction and (Pb) issues, the City of
community watch for market value, of prevention (mitigation) New Orleans looks
crime and criminal residences within a of Lead (Pb) hazards, forward to promoting a
behavior in an effort to Lead Watch so that appropriate new community
make the neighborhood Community. methods and awareness of the
safer for all residents. techniques can be existence of
In a “Lead Watch Additionally, these Lead selected and used on a environmental Lead
Community,” the Watch Communities are property-by-property (Pb) hazards. The
residents will take intended to be models basis. Examples of collective efforts of all
active responsibility for that become seed remediation and/or concerned agencies,
Lead (Pb) hazard communities for the mitigation options groups, and programs
awareness, safe work further spread of Lead include removal of should help reduce the
practices during (Pb) hazard awareness soil/paint, cover or frequency of blood Lead
cleanup (remediation) throughout the general encapsulation of (Pb) contamination, and
and/or prevention public, as well as soil/paint, installation of thereby lower the
(mitigation), and foundations for a hardscape over lead- resultant impact of
monitoring for further broader environmental contaminated soil, societal and health
Lead (Pb) consciousness and chemical stabilization of effects.
contamination. prioritization within the Lead (Pb) in soil,
citizenry of New phytoremediation Cost and Benefits
The steps taken by Orleans. (using plants to Additional studies by
citizens of a Lead Watch remediate soil), and Dr. Mielke and others
Community will make Environmental potentially other new estimate that the
the environment safer Cleanup technologies as they minimum cost to
for themselves and As part of the City’s may be developed. society associated with
their children and pets, Lead (Pb) remediation childhood blood Lead
thereby reducing the programs under this In collaboration with (Pb) contamination in
potential for childhood grant, the City aims to existing agencies and New Orleans is well
blood Lead (Pb) conduct community programs (both over $75 million
poisoning within the outreach to inform governmental and non- annually. The
community. These and/or teach the public governmental) that are estimated cost to

36
Environmental Outreach and Justice
remediate lead- Existing Local This program currently epidemiological support
contaminated soil in Programs has limited-duration to LACLPPP for
New Orleans is $300 ! New Orleans’ Office of funding. surveillance and
million. Mitigation or Environmental Health – analysis of data, Health
remediation of New Orleans Childhood ! Louisiana Department Education,
residential housing that Lead Poisoning of Environmental physician/health care
contains lead-based Prevention Program Quality (LDEQ): provider education, and
paint can range from a (NOCLPPP): Monitors Provides regulatory community-based
few hundred dollars to blood testing of children oversight of site research and education.
tens of thousands of throughout the city by evaluation and
dollars per residential private medical facilities remediation; assists the ! Louisiana Office of
unit or property. and City health clinics. public in understanding Environmental Health –
Elevated childhood and participating in the Department of Health
Every dollar spent blood levels trigger regulatory process and Hospitals (DHH) –
towards the cleanup of education, remediation, through outreach and Section of
environmental Lead medical intervention, education. Environmental
(Pb) contamination and/or medical Epidemiology and
reduces the yearly cost monitoring. ! Louisiana CLPPP: Toxicology (SEET):
to society – to the City Statewide monitoring of Environmental health
and her citizens – and ! New Orleans blood lead levels in research, public health
improves the quality of Department of Housing young children, care education, occupational
life. Benefits to and Neighborhood coordination for children health surveillance, and
individuals, families, Development (DHND) – with elevated blood other programs.
and society are likely to Neighborhood 1 – NO lead concentrations,
include improved LEAD Program: environmental ! Louisiana Office of
performance in school Qualifying low to inspections, and Environmental Health–
for children, and moderate income community and DHH–SEET–Adult Blood
reduced criminal families with a child professional education Lead Poisoning: Health
behavior by young under age 6 who tests on childhood lead education materials for
adults, as the positive for lead poisoning. adults, and information
prevalence of childhood poisoning can have lead for health care
blood Lead (Pb) hazards removed at no ! Tulane Center for providers on the
poisoning diminishes. cost to the Applied Environmental treatment of adult lead
resident/homeowner. Public Health: Provides poisoning.

Environmental Outreach and Justice 37


Environmental Outreach and Justice
Joint program planning may host periodic Such programs vastly
REVIVING PRE- can avoid duplication of round-table discussions increase the social
KATRINA efforts, and can further for local non-profit capital of our city and
ENVIRONMENTAL ensure that gaps in the groups, NGOs, foster a culture of social
PROGRAMS existing programs are businesses and responsibility,
In addition to reviving filled most effectively. business leaders, grassroots organization,
recycling programs that Teamwork between neighborhood and community
existed prior to agencies will result in associations, and investment.
Hurricane Katrina, the increased capacity to community groups, to
City will identify and inform citizens and ensure that the City is Sustainable
evaluate other pre- obtain positive effects maintaining an open Partnerships and
Katrina environmental over a wider range of line of two-way Green Project
programs for possible the community. communication with the Scoping
reimplementation, as community Over the next year, the
appropriate. To effect greater stakeholders. City will be developing a
collaboration between series of green projects
INTER-AGENCY governmental agencies, designed specifically for
COLLABORATION and the City’s Office of UTILIZING THE implementation by
CAPACITY-BUILDING Environmental Affairs VOLUNTEER BASE volunteers. The City is
Existing City agencies will host quarterly Already an integral interested in creating
that have a stake in stakeholders’ meetings contributor to the City’s sustainable
environmental issues between recovery process, the partnerships with local
can expand their impact environmental-related extensive volunteer non-profit organizations
and reach, and make City departments, and base in New Orleans who are invested in
the most productive use appropriate Parish and will also be an environmental
of limited funding, by State agencies to invaluable resource for conservation and
working cooperatively discuss current and the City’s future green remediation. These
on projects, programs, proposed programs, growth. New Orleans is organizations will be
public service funding opportunities, home to over 300 non- responsible for
announcement and sharing of profit community-based engaging staff and
campaigns, and resources. organizations, many of volunteeers to execute
community outreach which are funded assigned green
and education. In addition, the Office through the federal projects, and providing
of Environmental Affairs AmeriCorps program. trainings where

38
Environmental Outreach and Justice
appropriate. The citizen responsibility, Reform Now
primary objectives of maintaining solid -Volunteer participation (ACORN)
these partnerships are: connections between fosters a culture of - Groundwork New
city government and citizen service and Orleans
! To engage the New Orleans social responsibility, - People’s
organizations in community, and both of which are Environmental
important service institutionalizing critical for the future of Center
projects that will environmental green growth and - Common Ground
contribute to the long awareness and action community re-
term environmental as an essential development in New PUBLIC OUTREACH
sustainability of New component of New Orleans. Among the biggest
Orleans; Orleans living. challenges to
Environmental Non- environmental
! To provide continuous Lessons Learned Profit Organizations sustainability in New
green skills training -Utilizing the New in New Orleans Orleans is adequate
opportunities for the Orleans volunteer base - Louisiana Green pubic outreach and
City’s future green both bolsters the profile Corps education regarding
workforce; and capacity of the - Global Green new or existing
participating - Parkway Partners programs and
! To build city-wide organizations and - New Orleans Food completed recovery
capacity to execute improves the financial and Farm Network projects. It is critical
green projects; and and time efficiency with - Deep South Center for the success of any
which projects can be for Environmental program, new or
! To spread completed across the Justice existing, that the
environmental City. - Replant New Orleans general public be
awareness and - LA Bucket Brigade sufficiently informed of
concern throughout -Engaging youth in - Holy Cross program benefits and
the community. green projects creates Neighborhood processes. Public
interest in and training Association awareness can be
Secondary objectives for the green workforce, - HEAL enhanced through
for these partnerships which is already a - Association of targeted media
include creating a more significant and growing Community campaigns, public
permanent culture of sector of our nation’s Organizations for workshops, and
volunteerism and economy. educational outreach in

Environmental Outreach and Justice 39


Environmental Outreach and Justice
schools and at continuous public develop a series of face limited accessible
community events. outreach campaign to targeted media educational resources
encourage daily campaigns that that are designed to
To accomplish the goal environmentally promote green teach “environmental
of greater community conscious (“green”) practices in a way that best practices” and
and citizen awareness habits such as recycling will caputre the interest viable options for
regarding existing and energy and commitment of the transitioning to eco-
and/or new conservation. target audiences. In friendly living. One
environmental these campaigns, green component of the City’s
programs, the City Targeted Media practices will be tailored public outreach
seeks to develop a Campaigns to compliment the campaign will be
comprehensive public A successful specific needs of hosting a series of
outreach and media environmental different audiences, public workshops to
campaign strategy for campaign in New such that they become inform residents about
possible launch in late Orleans must focus on rewarding various household and
2009. bringing “green” into convieniences rather community strategies to
the daily consciousness than chores. As a improve the overall
After surveying regional of our residents of all critical part of campaign environmental quality
and national green ages. Although the development, the City of their lives. The City
campaign models, the recovery process is an will research various will enlist the support
City intends to adopt a enormous opportunity post-Katrina needs and assistance of local
publicity strategy for sustainable assessment surveys organizations that have
characterized by three rebuilding and insituting conducted in a variety of expertise,
critical elements: green practices, many communities across ranging from waste
! High Visibility New Orleanians do not New Orleans, and will management, to
! Practicality list environmental conduct its own focus Healthy Homes training,
! Public Appeal preservation among groups to ensure that to soil remediation.
their top priorities as each campaign will be
The overall strategy is they rebuild their lives effective. Environmentally
expected to include in the city. Conscious Education
publicity on completed Public Workshops in Schools
projects, the promotion In order to establish Residents who desire to Perhaps the most
of new and existing “green” as a priority, “go green” in post- important asset to
programs, and a the City seeks to Katrina New Orleans greening our City is our

40
Environmental Outreach and Justice
youth. Accordingly, a Over the next 3-5
vital aspect of the City’s years, the City of New
public outreach strategy Orleans seeks to
will be to encourage a develop a 10-year and
broad green curriculum 20-year Environmental
in schools across New Health and Justice Plan.
Orleans. The City will Long-term goals include
work towards the drafting and
encouraging schools promulgation of sound
throughout the parish environmental
to institute green legislation that will
practices in school promote and enable a
yards, in cafeterias, and sustainable, healthy
in classrooms. environment for all
residents of New
Lessons Learned Orleans.
-Successful campaigns
must include targeted To achieve this goal and
media that is highly to develop the plan,
visible, practical, and environmental
appealing to the programs and
audience. legislation throughout
the Gulf Coast region
-Educational outreach and in select “green”
for adults (community cities throughout the
programs) and youth country will be reviewed
(through schools) is and considered for City
critical for adoption.
institutionalizing eco-
friendly practices across
the City.

ENVIRONMENTAL
PLANNING

Environmental Outreach and Justice 41


Environmental Outreach and Justice
SHORT-TERM MEDIUM-TERM LONG-TERM
! Further develop ! Continued ! Reduce the incidence
community-focused implementation of of childhood blood Lead
Lead (Pb) remediation community-focused (Pb) poisoning.
and/or mitigation Lead (Pb) remediation ! Obtain long-term
program(s). /mitigation program(s). and/or permanent
! Strengthen ! Partner with City-wide funding for continued
collaboration between Lead (Pb) programs for Lead (Pb) remediation.
existing City-wide Lead grant applications and ! Promote and
(Pb) programs. other funding sources encourage educational
! Identify and evaluate when appropriate. and outreach programs
any additional pre- ! Revive the City’s pre- that broaden
Katrina City Katrina environmental environmental
environmental programs as awareness among all
programs for possible appropriate. citizens.
reimplementation. ! Launch a City-wide ! Draft and promote
! Create a City-wide public outreach and legislation that ensures
public outreach and media campaign. a Green NOLA for our
media campaign. ! Effectively engage the future.
! Green Project scoping City’s community ! Strive for
for City’s community volunteer base for environmental
volunteer base. scoped Green Projects. programs that facilitate
! Enhance the City’s Environmental Justice.
capacity to implement ! Draft a 10-year and
Environmental 20-year plan for the
Programs. Greening of NOLA.
! Visit and research
other Green cities to
develop NOLA’s long-
term environmental
goals and plan of
action.

42
Flood Risk Reduction
The primary mission of impact that wetland This created open water
Coastal the program is to
ensure that coastal
loss will have on the
commercial fishing
areas in places that
once contained

Restoration areas and habitat in


Orleans Parish are
industry in Orleans
Parish could be
wetlands. Areas of the
Orleans Land Bridge to
conserved for future catastrophic. It include Grand Coin
generations. employed about 300- Pocket were visibly
Introduction 400 people, many of decimated due to the
Restoring the Coastal The City of New Orleans which were independent storm surge.
areas of Orleans Parish will become a national businessmen who
is one of the key model for coastal multiplied the economic
components of the restoration practices impact of their
recovery efforts. It is and expand New revenues with supplies,
critical as recover that Orleans’ coastal repairs, fuel and
we effectively manage restoration economic personal consumption.
the existing coastal sector – create jobs in We will support the
wetlands areas and engineering, input from the
restore areas that horticulture, community regarding
provide habitat and environmental planning, the District 11 UNOP
infrastructure wetland science, plan. This plan will
protection. This will be manufacturing, maintain and enhance a
done through the dredging and project sustainable coastal
approved local coastal management. community. The Orleans Land
management program Bridge separates Lake
which has been and Coastal Contributions Lessons Learned Pontchartrain and Lake
continues to be The Orleans Parish Hurricane Katrina left Borgne in southeast
approved by the coast is a vital her mark on Louisiana. These
secretary of the contributor to the local Southeastern Louisiana wetlands form a land
Department of Natural economy and the by removing 47 square bridge that separates
Resources. A variety of state’s commercial miles of marsh Lake Borgne from Lake
techniques will be used fisheries. The economic throughout the Pontchartrain and
to protect, mitigate and impact of commercial Pontchartrain, Pearl maintains the physical
restore our coast. fishing in our area was River, Barataria, and integrity of these two
over $43,000,000. The Terrebonne basins. water bodies. If action

Flood Risk Reduction 43


Flood Risk Reduction
is not taken, the bridge traditional flood per square foot. This planting projects while
will disintegrate, protection and wetland results in a cost of the federal grants give
opening the wetlands to restoration into one $4,200 for each the parish the funding
even more high-energy program. This strategy household at risk.” needed to pay for large
winds and waves that was developed by scale projects.
would ultimately experts in the fields of Federal and state
advance wetland loss coastal restoration, grants will pay the The City of New Orleans
and increase flooding habitat protection, and majority of the cost for received a CWPPRA
problems. These engineering. restoring the coastal award in the amount of
wetlands are also areas of Orleans Parish. 19.6 million dollars to
important migration Costs and Benefits The parish conducts two restore marsh and
grounds for pelicans “…Louisiana's 3 million wetland plantings a stabilize shoreline
and ducks, and they acres of wetlands are year and manages the around Alligator Bend.
support fisheries, a lost at the rate about Christmas tree recycling The project will create
viable economic 75 square kilometers program. and or protect
resource for our city. annually, but reducing approximately 330
The area forms an these losses is proving The state funded acres of marsh over the
important “speed to be difficult and programs allow the life of the project. The
bump” and has been costly. “ “…For the local citizenry to city does not have to
identified as a critical typical residential participate in the provide a match and all
feature in terms of structure, an average of restoration process by work will be done by
wetlands and storm 1,000 square feet of volunteering for the federal partner.
protection. each inundated
residential structure The city will also
Best Practices was gutted following receive $15M over the
A variety of Hurricane Katrina. next four years through
technologies have been Based on interviews the Coastal Impact
used to combat loss of with contractors, the Assistance Program
barrier islands and cost of gutting a (CIAP). The money will
wetlands along the residential structure be used to restore
Louisiana coast. The ranged from $2.98 per marsh and stabilize the
Multiple Lines of square foot to $6.43 shoreline from Alligator
Defense (MLOD) per square foot with an Point to Bayou
Strategy combines average value of $4.20 Bienvenue. The state

44
Flood Risk Reduction
has agreed to partner state, and federal 2. Promote a
with the city and will stakeholders and with sustainable coastal
provide technical assistance from the ecosystem by
expertise (Engineering following state harnessing the
and Design) and $27.2 agencies: processes of the
million in financial natural system;
contributions. ! Department of
Natural Resources 3. Provide habitats
While there are many ! Department of suitable to support
direct benefits to Transportation and an array of
restoring wetlands and Development commercial and
stabilizing the coastline, ! Department of recreational
to include reduction in Wildlife and Fisheries activities coast-
storm surge, habitat ! Department of wide;
creation and job Environmental
creation; the indirect Quality 4. Sustain, to the
impacts are important ! Department of The plan was developed extent practicable,
too. Those impacts Economic around four objectives: the unique heritage
include eco-tourism Development of coastal Louisiana
industry, commercial ! Department of 1. Reduce economic by protecting
fishing and the potential Agriculture and losses from storm historic properties
development of a new Forestry based flooding to and traditional living
business sector. ! Louisiana Division of residential, public, cultures and their
Administration industrial, and ties and
State Master Plan ! Governor’s Office for commercial relationships to the
The State of Louisiana Homeland Security infrastructure, natural environment.
developed a Master and Emergency assuring that assets
Plan for Coastal Preparedness are protected, at a The City of New Orleans
Restoration and ! Department of minimum, from a is part of Planning Unit
Hurricane Protection at Insurance) storm surge that has 1 in the Plan. The plan
the request of Governor a 1% chance of had bi-partisan support
Blanco (through Act 8). occurring in any and was approved by
The plan was developed given year; the State legislature on
with input from local, May 30, 2007.

Flood Risk Reduction 45


Flood Risk Reduction
City Plans implemented through Wildlife Refuge and City location of the project is
Every Parish located in zoning regulations. Park. These community yet to be determined.
the Coastal Zone of outreach projects have
Louisiana should have a In order to protect been conducted in the Restoration
Master Plan that citizens from future past with the assistance A regional coastal
addresses coastal storm events, the City of Common Ground, restoration program
restoration. These of New Orleans should students from Booker T should be established in
plans should consider prepare an analysis of Washington High partnership with
land-use change environmental School, LSU Ag Center, neighboring parishes.
scenarios that are conditions in Orleans Fish and Wildlife Restoring the coastal
consistent with Parish and review the Service, Bayou Land areas of Orleans Parish
greenhouse gas actions being proposed RC&D and concerned is important to the
emissions and land to address these citizens. citizens of Orleans
subsidence. conditions. This analysis Parish, but to truly
Additionally these plans should utilize data from Prior to each planting protect the assets of
should summarize the CIAP-approved event, the city the Parish we must
status of environmental projects, and from purchases plants from begin to think
restoration and projects identified in the state approved vendors regionally.
protection projects State of Louisiana and outside of Orleans
relevant to each Parish, USACE coastal Parish. Given the New Orleans should be
including projects that restoration plans. The magnitude of the proactive and begin a
have been proposed, projects proposed in restoration efforts Post- dialogue with
approved and funded, these plans should be Katrina, the parish will neighboring parishes to
under construction compared to the work with various develop projects that
and/or implemented. proposed levee stakeholders to benefit several
The plans should alignments. establish a wetlands parishes. We can no
include an analysis of nursery in the parish. longer afford to take a
the environmental Wetlands Nursery myopic view of
setting, principal Through the state’s This nursery will restoration but must
resources, socio- wetlands restoration provide job understand the
economic factors, and program, Orleans parish opportunities and a importance of
environmental impacts. has restored several steady stream of plants rebuilding and
The plans should be acres of marsh in Bayou for future projects. The stabilizing areas closest
Sauvage National to the Gulf of Mexico.

46
Flood Risk Reduction
wetlands, and preserve EXISTING LOCAL LOCAL PARTNERS
Education the coast PROJECTS
A wetlands research ! U.S. Army Corps of
and education center is The parish will work ! Christmas Tree Engineers
being established. The with other stakeholders Recycling ! L.S.U. Agricultural
facility is located in to encourage CWPPRA ! UNO/PIES Center
Orleans Parish at Chef stakeholders to include ! Coastal Roots ! Natural Resources
Pass, and is being points for projects that ! Wetlands in the Conservation Service
remodeled and assist more than one Classroom ! University of New
upgraded for use by parish. ! Wetland Orleans (PIES)
students, faculty and Nurseries at local ! Coalition to Restore
local schools. The schools Coastal Louisiana
facility will have three INDICATORS ! Mississippi River
components: wetlands Indicators of progress Basin Alliance
and estuarine research, in coastal restoration ! Lake Catherine Civic
K-12 educational include: Association
programs and ! Sewerage and Water
vocational technology ! New miles of Board of New
components to support shoreline added Orleans
the commercial fishing ! New acres of ! Department of
industries. wetlands created Natural Resources
! Increase in wetland ! Lake Pontchartrain
Stewardship habitat Basin Foundation
Establish a coastal ! Reduction in rates of ! Coastal Environment
stewardship program erosion Incorporated
that consists of a
network of volunteers
and businesses who
work together to
improve the quality of
the coast through
service projects that
protect habitat, restore

Flood Risk Reduction 47


Flood Risk Reduction
SHORT TERM MEDIUM TERM LONG TERM
! Xmas Tree Recycling ! Work with local ! Work with PACE
Event stakeholders to members to develop
! Develop CWPPRA develop a wetland regional CWPRRA
projects that are nursery that will serve projects.
complimentary to as a training tool for ! Develop a Public
State’s Plan local entrepreneurs Awareness Campaign
! Council Resolution and provide plant around the importance
acknowledging the materials for Orleans of regional planning.
Orleans Parish Parish. ! Develop a carbon
Coastal Advisory mitigation bank in the
Board. ! Support the creation Parish.
! Conduct coastal use and development of a
permit workshop Wetlands Education
! Provide wetlands Center in Orleans
education Parish.
opportunities to
teachers, children ! Work with Ernest
and youth groups Just Academy at
! Conduct public Dartmouth College to
workshops to assist the department
educate citizens with developing an
about restoration implementation
efforts and strategy that
opportunities examines the
! Work with Ernest relationships between
Just Academy at the environment and
Dartmouth College economic
to assist the development.
department with a
No Wetlands/No
Seafood campaign.

48
Flood Risk Reduction
system of levees, Orleans. One of the program. This means
Hazard floodwalls, pumps, and
gates that allowed New
positive outcomes of
the catastrophic levee
an ongoing search for
mitigation resources,

Mitigation Orleans to grow to its


current extent within
failure in New Orleans is
that the stage was set
assessment of current
practices, definition of
the Mississippi River for strengthening these program objectives and
floodplain. A non- areas and for subject areas where
Introduction structural mitigation incorporating mitigation additional effort should
New Orleans faces a strategy would further into the city’s rebuilding be focused,
combination of factors reduce the risk of and recovery process. identification of global
that compound the flooding beyond the risk best practices
city’s overall flood risk, reduction provided by New Orleans is in a applicable to New
including land the levee system and unique position to serve Orleans, and
subsidence, coastal beyond the risk as a national model of implementation of
erosion, rising sea level, reduction provided by how to plan for both funded programs and
inadequate drainage enhanced coastal frequent hazards and projects.
capacity, potential levee protection. catastrophic disasters,
failure, and stronger and to demonstrate its Without a formal
and more frequent Urban planning ability to protect the mitigation unit, the City
storm activity involving decisions, building investments being would not be able to
intense rainfall and/or standards enforcement, made by taxpayers in seize the opportunities
storm surge. A flood plain management the recovery of New that are available for
comprehensive non- practices, and Orleans. After Katrina, minimizing flood risk to
structural hazard emergency the City established a the lowest extent
mitigation strategy is preparedness activities new Disaster Mitigation feasible. The City’s
needed to address this all have enormous Office. The role of the Disaster Mitigation
emerging risk profile. impacts on risk Mitigation Office is to Office is currently
The term “non- exposure and on actual provide technical administering a $60
structural” differentiates damages to life and expertise and million citywide
secondary flood property. These programmatic mitigation program.
mitigation measures decisions and actions leadership to encourage
from the primary are made directly by the development and
“structural” protection the officials, businesses, articulation of a
provided by the federal and citizens of New citywide mitigation

Flood Risk Reduction 49


Flood Risk Reduction
Existing Local Lessons Learned Master Plan, Zoning The City proposes to
Programs The City’s first Hazard Ordinance, and install a series of pilot
! Hazard Mitigation Mitigation Plan was Municipal Code; and to projects to demonstrate
Grant Program – prepared in December implement mitigation the available mitigation
elevation and/or 2005 and approved by projects that reflect the options that would be
reconstruction of FEMA in March 2006. risk reduction principles effective for New
damaged properties The plan allowed the and standards identified Orleans. These projects
and hardening of City to maintain its in the plan. are being proposed in
critical infrastructure eligibility for FEMA partnership with the US
! Severe Repetitive funding, and provided Best Practices Army Corps via the
Loss Program – guidance on the Even after the Corps Corps’ Louisiana Coastal
elevation and/or direction of priority achieves the 100-year Protection and
reconstruction of the mitigation projects. levee protection Restoration Study
most at-risk (estimated to be (LaCPR), the final draft
properties in the city The lessons learned completed in 2011), of which will be
! Pre-Disaster from the first plan are many areas of New presented to Congress
Mitigation Program – that the City needs to Orleans will continue to in December 2008.
updating of the better incorporate non- experience These projects will also
City’s Hazard structural mitigation unacceptable levels of be guided by the State
Mitigation Plan policy and practice into residual risk as of Louisiana Hazard
! Pilot Planning Grant its long term urban documented in the Mitigation Plan, which
Program – scoping development policy. Army Corps’ IPET Risk was finalized in April
and preliminary Mitigation programs and Reliability Study. 2008.
identification of must be integrated with Consequently, it is
mitigation projects flood plain management critical that the City In developing non-
! LRA Road Home and emergency take the lead in structural mitigation
Elevation Grant preparedness. The establishing a non- demonstration projects,
! LRA State Elevation steps for doing this are structural flood the City will prioritize
Grant to articulate the City’s mitigation policy and projects located in
! FEMA/NFIP mitigation policy in an identify funds to Target Recovery Areas
Increased Cost of update of the Hazard support mitigation identified in the City’s
Compliance Mitigation Plan; to link programs. recovery plan, projects
Elevation Grant and incorporate the located in areas with a
new plan into the City’s high or medium residual

50
Flood Risk Reduction
risk of flooding to redeveloped critical public facilities equipment above a
maximize the benefit of appropriately. or commercial structures flood zone;
investing in mitigation, facilities. moving operations
and projects that ! Elevation of above the first floor.
facilitate the creation of Structures in Place. ! Dry Flood Proofing
clustered communities Existing homes or of Commercial Indicators
and that keep commercial structures Facilities. In this Examples of indicators
neighborhoods intact. would be elevated on option waterproof are:
Five types of non- their existing site. To walls up to 4 feet in ! Increase in the
structural mitigation will qualify for this option height would be number of properties
be demonstrated: the site can be at installed on the mitigated
more than medium surface of the existing ! Reduction in the
! Voluntary Property risk, where relocation external walls of a number of repetitive
Buyouts and is not required but commercial structure. loss structures in the
Relocation to New mitigation is still To qualify for this City
Elevated Structures. achieved. Higher risk mitigation method the ! Increase in the
This option involves sites will require structure must be number of structures
buying out relocation because located in an area that covered by flood
homeowners located structures cannot be has not received more insurance coverage
in a low-lying, high elevated above the than 2-3 feet of ! Reductions in the
risk areas and offering maximum 12-15 feet. flooding. loss of life and
them new elevated For most structures, property damage
homes elsewhere in elevations of this ! Hardening of following severe
the same or adjacent height would be Critical Facilities. flood events
neighborhood. The undesirable for Critical facilities would ! Higher flood
cost of the buyout and functional reasons. be retrofitted to insurance discounts
the cost of providing increase their associated with the
mitigated housing ! Secondary operability during a City’s participation in
would be covered by Levees/Floodwalls. typical flood event. the Community
the project. For an This option involves Changes would Rating System
existing urban area the construction of include: elevating ! Higher levels of flood
like New Orleans, the small secondary pumps, generators, protection beyond
bought out property levees or floodwalls, electrical wiring, and the minimum 100-
must be able to be up to 6 feet around other critical year level

Flood Risk Reduction 51


Flood Risk Reduction
LOCAL PARTNERS

! U.S. Army Corps of


Engineers
! Federal Emergency
Management Agency
! Governor’s Office of
Homeland Security
and Emergency
Preparedness
! University of New
Orleans Hazards
Center (CHART)
! Louisiana State
University Hurricane
Center
! Sewerage and Water
Board of New
Orleans
! New Orleans
Redevelopment
Authority
! Department of Public
Works

52
Flood Risk Reduction
SHORT TERM MEDIUM TERM LONG TERM
! Maximize Existing ! Improve ! Achieve Legitimacy
Funding Sources – Government – A permanent
New program Performance – mitigation office with
expansion to include Better government adequate staff and
administration of performance resources, including
FEMA-funded through state-of- both disaster-based
programs (e.g., the-art contracts, and non-disaster
PDM, PPGP, SRL, better procurement based funding to
FMA, etc.). procedures, use of reduce flood risk
! Build Institutional construction permanently.
Capacity – Establish monitoring, ! Demonstrate
a Disaster Mitigation enhanced fiscal Effectiveness –
Unit with adequate monitoring, and Integrated structural
staff and resources formal records and non-structural
within the City’s management. mitigation practices,
Office of Homeland ! Formalize Mitigation coastal restoration,
Security and Policy – Formal floodplain
Emergency written policies and management, and
Preparedness. plans with the force emergency
! Integrate – Establish of law (through preparedness as the
effective working linkage to the City’s Citywide strategy for
relationships and Master Plan and hazard
partnerships with Zoning Ordinance) resilient.urban
the directors of that shift decision- development
emergency making to a risk- ! National Model –
preparedness, based development New Orleans as the
floodplain paradigm. national leader in
management, and ! Expand New Sources risk reduction.
neighborhood of Program Funding
drainage. – Engage the
philanthropic sector
in flood protection

Flood Risk Reduction 53