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MINISTERUL EDUCA IEI, CERCET RII I TINERETULUI

CENTRUL NA IONAL
PENTRU
CURRICULUM I EVALUARE
N
NV

MNTUL PREUNIVERSITAR

BACALAUREAT 2007
LIMBA ENGLEZ
PROBA ORAL

INSTRUC IUNI

L3 / Minorit i, L1 Normal i L2, L1 Intensiv, L1 Bilingv

OBIECTIVE DE EVALUARE
Pentru a evalua competen ele de comunicare oral , candida ii vor fi solicita i:
s fac dovada c n eleg un text necunoscut att n detaliu (pentru o anumit informa ie / un anumit am nunt),
ct i n ansamblu (con inut, tem , mesaj), prin rezolvarea unor sarcini de lucru, conform cerin elor date;
s exprime un punct de vedere i s emit judec i de valoare n leg tur cu ideile din textul respectiv, s
fac trimiteri, asocia ii sau compara ii cu aspecte din via a de fiecare zi;
s realizeze un monolog / o expunere oral (de tip narativ, descriptiv, argumentativ) pe baza unei teme date;
discursul trebuie s fie echilibrat, logic i coerent, interesant i conving tor prin relevan a argumentelor i a
exemplelor folosite;
s fac dovada capacit ii de a comunica eficient prin utilizarea n mod adecvat (stilistic i func ional) a
elementelor de construc ie a comunic rii i a func iilor specifice limbii engleze.

STRUCTURA PROBEI ORALE


Proba oral va avea urm toarea structur :

L3 / Minorit i

Subject 1 Reading Comprehension and Text-based Tasks va consta dintr-un text necunoscut, nestudiat
anterior, pe care candidatul l va citi n timpul alocat pentru elaborarea r spunsurilor, urmnd s rezolve
sarcinile de lucru men ionate n cerin , cum ar fi: formularea de r spunsuri la ntreb ri, recunoa terea
argumentelor i identificarea concluziilor textului, identificarea detaliilor specifice din textul dat, eviden ierea
ideii centrale i/sau a ideilor principale ale textului.

Subject 2 Speaking / Oral Discourse va consta din realizarea unui discurs oral pe o tem dat ,
conform domeniilor tematice din Programa colar n vigoare i din Programa de bacalaureat 2007, aprobat
i publicat pe site-ul MECT.
L1 Normal i L2 *

Subject 1 Reading Comprehension and Text-based Tasks va consta dintr-un text necunoscut, nestudiat
anterior, pe care candidatul l va citi n timpul alocat pentru elaborarea r spunsurilor, urmnd s rezolve
sarcinile de lucru men ionate n cerin , cum ar fi: formularea de r spunsuri la ntreb ri, redarea con inutului
textului cu propriile cuvinte, comentarea unei fraze din text / sus inerea unui punct de vedere legat de o
informa ie din text folosind cteva argumente / exemple, eviden ierea temei i/sau a ideilor principale ale
textului i comentarea lor.

Subject 2 Speaking / Oral Discourse va consta din realizarea unui discurs oral pe o tem dat ,
conform domeniilor tematice din Programa colar n vigoare i din Programa de bacalaureat 2007, aprobat
i publicat pe site-ul MECT.

* n acast categorie intr i clasele cu 3 ore/s: teoretic filologie, militar mate-info, militar t.soc,
teologic Baptist, mai pu in clasele cu program intensiv de predare.




L1 Intensiv
Subject 1 Reading Comprehension and Text-based Tasks va consta dintr-un text necunoscut,
nestudiat anterior, pe care candidatul l va citi n timpul alocat pentru elaborarea r spunsurilor, urmnd s
rezolve sarcinile de lucru men ionate n cerin , cum ar fi: rezumarea textului, eviden ierea temei i/sau a
ideilor principale ale textului i comentarea lor, eviden ierea mesajului textului, comentarea unei fraze din text /
sus inerea unui punct de vedere legat de o informa ie din text folosind cteva argumente i exemple relevante.

Subject 2 Speaking / Oral Discourse va consta din realizarea unui discurs oral pe o tem dat ,
conform domeniilor tematice din Programa colar n vigoare i din Programa de bacalaureat 2007, aprobat
i publicat pe site-ul MECT.
L1 Bilingv

Subject 1 Reading Comprehension and Text-based Tasks va consta dintr-un text necunoscut,
nestudiat anterior, pe care candidatul l va citi n timpul alocat pentru elaborarea r spunsurilor, urmnd s
rezolve sarcinile de lucru men ionate n cerin , cum ar fi: rezumarea textului, eviden ierea temei i/sau a
ideilor principale ale textului i comentarea lor, eviden ierea mesajului textului, exprimarea opiniei personale i
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Bacalaureat 2007, Limba englez , Instruc iuni pentru Proba oral

/ experien a altor

justificarea acesteia, realizarea unor compara ii ntre textul citit i experien a personal
persoane.

Subject 2 Speaking / Oral Discourse va consta din realizarea unui discurs oral pe o tem dat ,
conform domeniilor tematice din Programa colar n vigoare i din Programa de bacalaureat 2007, aprobat
i publicat pe site-ul MECT.

TIMPUL la dispozi ia candidatului: - pentru elaborarea r spunsurilor: 10 15 minute


- pentru prezentare: 10 15 min.
COMISIA / EXAMINATORII
Comisiei de examen i revine sarcina de a asambla biletele pentru proba oral . Acestea vor consta dintr-un
subiect de tip I (text la prima vedere) i un subiect de tip II (tema pentru monolog).
Se recomand comisiei de examen:
s fac copii xerox dup subiectele primite pentru proba oral nainte de a le decupa n vederea
asambl rii lor n bilete de examen i s p streze originalul pentru a prentmpina orice confuzie
ntre subiectele de acela i tip (ex. Subiectul I) ale diferitelor categorii (ex. L1 Normal i L2, L1
Intensiv, L1 Bilingv sau L3 / Minorit i);
s fac un set de bilete pentru candida i i cte un set pentru fiecare profesor examinator.
Fiecare profesor examinator trebuie:
s urm reasc expunerea fiec rui candidat venind cu ntreb ri ajut toare, numai dac este cazul;
s evite ntreb rile capcan ;
s aplice baremul de evaluare a r spunsurilor orale, respectnd preciz rile din Metodologia de
organizare i desf urare a examenului de bacalaureat 2007, Art. 46
s consemneze punctajul de evaluare n borderourile individuale, iar nota final n fi a individual a
candidatului.

BAREMUL DE EVALUARE
Fiecare din cele dou subiecte ale probei orale este notat cu cte 45 de puncte. Se acord 10 puncte din
oficiu. Nota final , pe scara de la 1 la 10, conform sistemului de notare romnesc, se ob ine prin mp r irea
la 10 a punctajului ob inut de c tre candidat. De exemplu: 83 puncte: 10 = 8,30. Aceast not se rotunje te
la cel mai apropiat ntreg, adic 8, iar dac nota astfel ob inut este 6,50, candidatul prime te nota 7
rotunjirea se face n favoarea elevului. Fiecare profesor examinator evalueaz r spunsul candidatului cu
note ntregi de la 1 la 10, dup care se stabile te nota final , f cndu-se media aritmetic a celor dou note.
Nota final astfel ob inut se trece n catalog i n fi a individual a candidatului.

MARKING SCHEME (FOR ALL SECTIONS)


SUBJECT 1 / 2
45 POINTS x 2 = 90 POINTS
1. TASK ACHIEVEMENT ..10 points
- 10 7 points: total partial relevance of ideas to topic /coverage of task points
6 4 points: some little relevance of ideas to topic / coverage of task points
3 0 points: very little no relevance of ideas to topic / coverage of task points
2. LANGUAGE ACCURACY .10 points
- 10 7 points: no / very few grammar errors, wide range of grammar structures few grammar errors,
good range of grammar structures
6 4 points: many grammar errors, limited range of grammar structures many grammar errors,
very limited range of grammar structures
3 0 points: grammar errors hinder communication
3. ORGANISATION .10 points
- 10 7 points: very clear organisation, many linking devices clear organisation, some linking dev.
6 4 points: somewhat clear organisation, few linking devices unclear organisation / mostly
inappropriate linking devices
3 0 points: total lack of organisation / linking devices
4. REGISTER AND VOCABULARY. 10 points
10 7 points: appropriate register, very varied and appropriate vocabulary appropriate register,
somewhat varied and appropriate vocabulary
6 4 points: mostly appropriate register, basic vocab. sometimes inappropriate register, basic vocab.
3 0 points: mostly inappropriate register, inappropriate vocabulary
5. DELIVERY: pronunciation, fluency, stress and intonation .....5 points
5 points: fluent presentation, good pronunciation, stress and intonation
3 points: somewhat fluent presentation, some pronunciation and intonation errors
0 points: no fluency; pronunciation and intonation errors hinder communication

Bacalaureat 2007, Limba englez , Instruc iuni pentru Proba oral

MODELE DE BILETE DE EXAMEN


MODEL de bilet de examen pentru L3 / Minorit i

SUBJECT 1 45 points
a. Read the text below and identify the conclusion of the text.

People want and have a right to know what they are eating. Food labelling rules recognize that right.
The fundamental principle of food labelling rules is that consumers should be given all essential information
on the composition of the product, the manufacturer, methods of storage and preparation. Producers and
manufacturers are free to provide additional information if they wish, but this must be accurate, not mislead
the consumer and not claim that any foodstuff can prevent, treat or cure illness.
The labelling requirements are regularly updated to reflect advances in science and changing
consumer expectations. Consumers want the fullest information about the meat they buy, for example. Meat
labels now have to show where the animal was born, grown, fattened, slaughtered and cut.
The challenge in designing modern food labelling rules is to strike a balance between giving
consumers as much information as possible and not overloading the label with information that makes it
difficult to read and understand.
b. Answer the following questions:
1. Why do you read food labels when you buy foodstuff?
2. What information do you find on food labels?
SUBJECT 2 45 points
Speak about your favourite holiday place and justify your choice.
MODEL de bilet de examen pentru L1 Normal i L2

SUBJECT 1 45 points
Read the text below in order to:
a. identify the main ideas of the text and briefly comment on them;
b. find three examples in the text to support the information in the underlined sentence.
It's about time somebody explored the old myth about childhood being the happiest period of your life.
Childhood may certainly be fairly happy, but its greatest moments can't be compared with the joy of being an
adult. Who ever asked a six-year-old for an opinion? Children don't have opinions, or if they do, nobody
notices. Adults choose the clothes their children will wear, the books they will read and the friends they will
play with. Mother and father are kind but absolute dictators. The essential difference between manhood and
childhood is the same as the difference between independence and subjection.
No matter how kind and loving adults may be, children often suffer from terrible, illogical fears which are
the result of ignorance and an inability to understand the world around them. But the most painful part of
childhood is the period when you begin to emerge from it: adolescence. Teenagers may rebel violently
against parental authority, but this causes them great unhappiness.
What a relief it is to grow up. Suddenly you regain your balance; the world opens up before you. You are
free to choose; you have your own place to live in and your own money to spend. You do not have to seek
constant approval for everything you do. You are no longer teased, punished or ridiculed by heartless adults
because you failed to come up to some theoretical standard. And if on occasion you are teased, you know
how to deal with it. You are one yourself.
SUBJECT 2 45 points
Describe your city / town / village.
MODEL de bilet de examen pentru L1 Intensiv
SUBJECT 1 45 points
Read the text below, summarize it, identify its theme and its main ideas and express your opinions
about them. Support your ideas with relevant arguments and examples.
In England, the notion of the honour of the family name is almost non-existent (though it exists to
some degree in the upper classes, in the other three British nations and among ethnic minorities). In fact, it is
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very easy to change your family name and you can choose any name you like. In the 1980s one person
changed his surname to Oddsocks Mc Weirdo El Tutti Frutti Hello Hippopotamus Bum.
There are no laws in Britain about what surname a wife or a child must have. Because of this
freedom, names can be useful pointers to social trends. The case of double-barrelled names is an example.
These are surnames with parts separated by a hyphen; for example, Barclay-Finch. For centuries they have
been a symbol of upper-class status (originating in the desire to preserve an aristocratic name when there
was no male heir). Until recently, most people in Britain have avoided giving themselves double-barrelled
names they would have been laughed at for their pretentions. In 1962, only one in every 300 surnames
was double-barrelled.
By 1992, however, one person in fifty had such a name. Why the change? One reason is feminism.
Although an increasing number of women now keep their maiden name when they marry, it is still normal to
take the husbands name. Independent-minded women are now finding a compromise by doing both at the
same time and then passing this new double-barrelled name onto their children. Another motive is the
desire of parents from different cultural and racial backgrounds for their children to have a sense of both of
their heritages.
The same lack of rigid tradition applies with regard to the first names that can be given to children.
This is usually simply a matter of taste. Moreover, the concept of celebrating name-days is virtually unknown.
SUBJECT 2 45 points
Some people say that school newspapers should be censored, others argue that they shouldnt.
What is your view on this matter? Bring arguments and examples to support your ideas.
MODEL de bilet de examen pentru L1 Bilingv
SUBJECT 1 45 points
Read the text below, summarize it, identify its theme and its main ideas and express your opinions
about them. Support your opinions with relevant arguments and examples. Make associations with
your own life experience, or other peoples life experience.
Over the past couple of years, new fault lines have opened up over different approaches to
parenting. There are so-called Chav mums (who proudly reject Jamie Oliver makeovers to their childrens
school dinners), Slummy Mummies (the more relaxed good-enough mother camp), Yummy Mummies (the
look-good, feel-good brigade) and Alpha Mums (perfectionist ambitious types). [...]
The Yummy Mummies, with their washboard stomachs, Topshop-vintage combinations and 4x4s,
now seem positively benign compared with the competitive Alpha Mums who stalk the playgrounds of both
state and private schools. These mothers are driven by the desire for their children to succeed. Everything
from exercise, food intake to extra-curricular activities (think of Suzuki violin and Kumon maths) is tightly
controlled with the ultimate aim of ensuring that their children do not fall through the cracks. It is an attempt
to inoculate their offspring against failure.
I know of mothers (and fathers) who control not just their childrens sugar intake but also their starch
intake; mothers studying GCSE maths and Latin to help with homework. I had the experience once of a
mother phoning up to arrange for my son to come and play and being given a date in two months time
because her four-year-old child was so busy with after-school activities, all aimed at promoting his intellectual
development. And the Alpha Mums dont just fall into the stay-at-home category.
But I dont hold it against these mothers because we are all to some degree victims of contemporary
parenting culture and it is difficult to resist the trend towards neurosis and over-parenting. [...] How much
better would it be if instead of passing judgement on each other we stood together and demanded better
education for our children, waged a campaign against child porn on the internet, pressured the Government
for tax breaks to help childcare?
We should embrace our inner Slummy Mummy, follow our instincts and follow the sound of advice of
the British paediatrician D. W. Winnicott and his theories of the good-enough mother. We might enjoy the
ride more than sacrificing ourselves on the altar of self-reproach and perfectionism, and our children might
be better equipped to face what life throws at them.
(Fiona Neill, Were all good enough mums, in The Times, Jan. 30, 2007)
SUBJECT 2 45 points
Home entertainment (TV programmes, movies, computer games, video games) seems to be leading
to a less active lifestyle. Is this good or bad? Bring arguments and examples to support your ideas.

Bacalaureat 2007, Limba englez , Instruc iuni pentru Proba oral

NDRUM RI PENTRU SUBIECTELE PROBEI ORALE

Guidelines for Subject 1 Reading Comprehension and Text-based Tasks


In order to understand what you read, you need to know that a writer puts sentences about the same idea together
in one paragraph. The author uses details to explain the idea or gives examples to make the idea clearer. Events
that happen in a story or an article take place in a sequence. You will find it easier to understand material that you
read if you remember the correct sequence of events.
The topic of a paragraph is the one thing that all or most of the sentences in the paragraph tell about.
The main idea of a paragraph is a sentence that sums up what the other sentences in the paragraph are telling
about the topic.
Sometimes the main idea is given in the paragraph. Look for a sentence that best sums up what all the sentences
say about the topic. This sentence can be anywhere in the paragraph.
If the main idea is not directly stated in the paragraph, make up one of your own. Decide what the topic is. Think
about what each of the sentences tells about the topic. Then make up a sentence that sums up what all the
sentences are telling about the topic.
Supporting details help to figure out the main idea.
A summary is a short retelling of a longer material. Making a summary, or summarizing, can help you understand
and remember what you read. It also helps you give other people information clearly.
Guidelines for Subject 2 Speaking / Oral Discourse
Planning your discourse / essay / monologue:
Step 1: list the specific topics mentioned in the instructions/ rubric.
Step 2: write down any ideas, words, phrases, etc. that are related to the specific topics of your essay.
Step 3: choose which of these you will use, group them into main topics, cross out any irrelevant ones, and put
them into a logical order.
Step 4: check that your ideas are relevant to the topic(s) in the rubric.
Step 5: use correct grammar, appropriate vocabulary; your monologue will be evaluated for the correct use
of grammar, correct expression of syntactical relationships, and use of appropriate rhetorical forms of
English; your monologue will also be evaluated for the use of appropriate vocabulary.
Step 6: a good essay follows a basic organisation that allows listeners to easily follow its development:
each main point is contained in a separate paragraph;
each paragraph contains a topic sentence which states the main point;
each paragraph contains supporting statements which add details and facts about the main point;
an essay contains a conclusion which may state your position on the issue/ draw a logical conclusion from
the discussion. The essay should end with a concluding statement.
Step 7: use vocabulary signals / linking devices / discourse markers to show organisation and to ensure that
your essay is coherent and cohesive. The main points of your essay should be logically connected to show
the organisation of the essay. A good essay contains certain words and phrases that: (1) introduce and / or
connect the main points of the essay and (2) signal supporting and concluding statements. Listeners rely on
these signals that make the essay easy to understand. Use words and phrases that clearly express your
purpose and your organisation.
Some examples of discourse markers are:
There are (three) main reasons for
In addition, Also, Another point is, A second point is
On the other hand, In contrast
Therefore, In conclusion, Thus, As a result
Personally I think that, My opinion is
Careful use of these words and phrases will result in a better essay and a higher score.
Step 8: Composition techniques to make the composition more interesting address the listener(s) directly,
use direct speech/ a quotation/ a proverb/ a saying/ a variety of adjectives, adverbs and verbs.
Tipuri de eseuri
Types of Essays/ Oral Discourses
First-person Narratives
First-person narratives are spoken in the first-person (I / we) about a series of events, real or imaginary,
which happened to us. A first-person narrative should consist of:
an introduction in which you set the scene (who was involved, time, place, etc) in an interesting way to
make the listener(s) want to continue listening;
a main body where you develop your story, presenting the events in the order they happened;
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a conclusion which includes what happened at the end of the story, as well as peoples feelings, final
comments or reactions. A surprising ending makes a long-lasting impression on the listener(s).
You should normally use past tenses in such compositions, as well as a variety of adjectives or adverbs
to make your story more attractive.
Describing People
A descriptive essay about a person should consist of:
an introduction in which you give general information about the person, saying when, where and how you first
met them;
a main body in which you describe their physical appearance, personal qualities and hobbies / interests;
a conclusion in which you include your comments and / or feelings about the person.
When describing someone you know well or see often (i.e. a friend, a neighbour, etc), you should use present
tenses. When describing someone who is no longer alive, or someone you knew a long time ago and you do not see
any more, you should use past tenses.
When you describe someones physical appearance, you start with the general features (i.e. height, built, age)
and move on to the more specific ones, such as hair, eyes, nose, etc. You can also add a description of the clothes
the person likes to wear.
When you describe someones personal qualities, you should support your description with examples and/or
justifications.
You can also describe someones personality through their mannerisms by referring to the way they speak,
describing the gestures they use, mentioning a particular habit they have.
When you mention someones negative qualities you should use mild language (seems to, can be rather, etc).
Describing Places
A descriptive essay about a place should consist of:
an introduction in which you give the name and location of the place and/or the reason for choosing it;
a main body in which you describe the main aspects of the place in detail for example, what you can see and
do there;
a conclusion which includes your comments/feelings and/or a recommendation.
To describe the location of a place, you can use the following phrases:
- is situated/is located
- in the south/east/west/south-east/ north-west/etc of
- in the centre/heart/middle of
To give the listener(s) a more vivid picture of the place you are describing, you can refer to the senses (i.e. sight,
smell, hearing, taste and touch).
Describing Buildings
When you talk about a building, the main body of the essay should include:
- a paragraph on historical facts about the building (when/why it was built, etc) using past tenses;
- a separate paragraph on the exterior (what it is made of, appearance, ground/gardens, etc) using present tenses;
- a paragraph on the interior (rooms, furniture, picture, etc) using present tenses;
To give factual and/or historical information about the exterior and interior of a building you can also use passive
or prepositional phrases.
Describing Objects
When you describe an object, you should give an accurate picture of it. Your description should include
information about size, weight (e.g. big, heavy, long, etc), shape (e.g. rectangular, circular, oval, etc), pattern or
decoration (e.g. plain, checked, etc), colour (e.g. white, multicoloured, etc), origin (e.g. Romanian, Japanese, etc),
material (e.g. leather, plastic, etc), purpose (garden chair), as well as any information concerning special features.
To describe objects you should use a variety of adjectives. Always list opinion adjectives (e.g. delightful, pleasant,
unpleasant, awful, beautiful, inexpensive, unusual, etc) first, followed by fact adjectives. These are normally listed in
the following order: size/weight, shape, age, pattern, colour, origin, material, purpose. Avoid using all of them one
after the other, as this will make your description sound unnatural.
Describing Situations / Events / Festivals / Celebrations
A descriptive composition about a festival, an event or a celebration should consist of:
an introduction in which you give the name, time, place and reason(s) for celebrating;
a main body in which you describe the preparations and the actual event in separate paragraphs, using
present tenses to describe annual festivals, or past tenses to describe a festival you attended some time in
the past;
a conclusion which includes peoples feelings, comments or final thoughts about the event.
You can use a variety of adjectives and adverbs to make your description more vivid.

Bacalaureat 2007, Limba englez , Instruc iuni pentru Proba oral

Argumentative Essays
Argumentative essays express different viewpoints on the topic under discussion, each supported by reasons and
examples; the opposing viewpoint with reasons and examples is also presented in a separate paragraph.
Types of argumentative essays:
1. Essays outlining advantages and disadvantages of the topic under discussion
2. Essays expressing opinions
3. Essays expressing arguments for and against a topic
1. Essays Outlining Advantages and Disadvantages of the Topic under Discussion
These essays consider the advantages and disadvantages of a specific topic; both sides are discussed in
a fair way with justifications and reasons in separate paragraphs. A balanced consideration of the topic is
given in a separate paragraph.
Introduction: state the topic
Body: - advantages sustained by arguments and examples
- disadvantages sustained by arguments and examples
Conclusion: balanced consideration
2. Essays Expressing Opinions
The opinion essay requires the candidates opinion on the topic under discussion.
Introduction: state the topic of discussion and introduce your opinion / the problem under discussion.
Body: present your viewpoints supported by reasons, and examples. There should be a paragraph that
presents the opposing point of view supported by arguments that demonstrate that that is an unconvincing
standpoint.
Conclusion: restate your opinion using different words.
3. Essays Expressing Arguments For and Against a Topic / For and Against Essays
Introduction: state the topic of discussion and introduce the two main sides with the respective views without giving
your opinion.
Body: present the points for and the points against, in separate paragraphs, supporting your arguments with
justifications/ examples; both sides should be presented without your commitment.
Conclusion: a balanced consideration of the topic; it may also include your opinion that can be given directly
(e.g. In my opinion / view, I believe / think, etc) or indirectly.
Recommendations
Argumentative essays should normally use a formal style; therefore candidates should avoid using strong
language (I know, I am sure, etc), short sentences, colloquial expressions or idioms.
rd
A for and against essay should be in the 3 person, except for the paragraph stating the personal view.
The opinion essay gains credibility if the arguments rely on personal knowledge and experience. Consequently,
the 1st person should be more frequently used, except for the paragraph that states the opposing view.
Useful Tips
Have a clear structure or sequence of points.
Speak from notes. Dont read aloud.
Have a clear voice.
Discourse Markers / Linking Words and Phrases
To state personal opinion:
In my opinion, / In my view, / To my mind, / (Personally) I believe that / I feel (very) strongly that / It seems to
me that / I think that.
To list advantages and disadvantages:
One advantage of / Another advantage of / One other advantage of / The main advantage of / The greatest
advantage of / The first advantage of.
One disadvantage of / Another disadvantage of / One other disadvantage of / The main disadvantage of /
The greatest disadvantage of / The first disadvantage.
To list points:
First(ly), / First of all, / In the first place, / To start with, / To begin with, / Secondly, / Thirdly, / Finally.

Bacalaureat 2007, Limba englez , Instruc iuni pentru Proba oral

To add more points on the same topic


What is more, / Furthermore, / Moreover, / Apart from this/that, / In addition (to this), / Beside (this), also, too.
Not only..., but also.
To show cause:
because / due to the fact that / since / as
To emphasize that something is definite:
beyond doubt / question, there can be no question that, undoubtedly / unquestionably
To say that something is likely or possible but not definite:
Probably, presumably, perhaps, maybe, possibly, it seems clear that, etc.
To say that something is true in most cases:
As a rule, by and large, generally speaking, in general, in most cases, on the whole
To show effect / result / consequences:
Therefore, / So / Consequently, / As a consequence, / As a result, / For this reason.
To show purpose:
so that, so as to / in order to
To give examples:
For instance, / For example, / such as
To show contrast:
Yet / However, / Nevertheless, / but / Nonetheless, / Although / Even though / In spite of the fact that /
Despite the fact that.
To show time:
When / Whenever / Before / As soon as / While.
To introduce a conclusion:
Finally, / Lastly, / All in all, / Taking everything into account, / On the whole, / All things considered, / In
conclusion, / To sum up, / To conclude.

Bacalaureat 2007, Limba englez , Instruc iuni pentru Proba oral