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CEB Design Manual on CRACKING AND DEFORMATIONS Prepared by Comité Euro-International du Béton (CEB) Task Group: R. Favre, Lausanne (Chairman) AM. Beeby , London H. Falkner, Stuttgart M.Koprna, Lausanne P.Schiessl , Munich Editorial Team: AM. Beeby , London R.Favre, M.Koprna, J.P. Jaccoud, Lausanne BIBLIOTECA DE ENGENHARIA CIVIL BBP rveritede te Ciéncies « Tecastegia FI Universidade de Coimbra jOUSe Printed and diffused by ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE SUISSE 1986 Although the Comité Euro-International du Béton has done its best to ensure that any information given is accurate, no liability or responsability of any Kind (including liability for negligence) is accepted in this respect by the Comité, its members, or its agents. Printed.and published by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH 1015 Lausanne © Comité Euro~International du Béton (CEB) 1983 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any weans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Comité Euro-International du Béton. English edition 1985 Page PREFACE 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 9 INTRODUCTION a REFERENCES 3 13 1, BASIC PRINCIPLES s 1.1 AVERAGE STRAIN INTHE REINFORCEMENT IL 1-2 CALCULATION MODELS } - 1.6 1 Elements subjected to pure tension 2 Elements eubjected to pure flexure 3 Elenents subjected to combined bending and axial force 4 Elements subjected to shear and torsion CRACKING 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.1 Scope of chapter 2 2.2 CAUSES OF CRACKING a2 Gracking caused by di Gracking resulting from imposed deformations Plastic shrinkage and slump cracking 2el ect actions 2.2 2.3 2.4 Cracking caused by corrosion eet 2.6 2.7 Cracking caused by chemical action Cracking caused by frost Summary 2.3 REASONS FOR CONTROLLING CRACKING 2.11 1 Appearance +2 Watertightness and gastightness 3 Corrosion protection 4 3 Other functional requirements Conclusion 23s 2.3. Beas: 2.36 2.3. 2.4°CRITERTA FOR CRACK CONTROL . 2.15 1 Definition of limit states 2 Definition of environments +3 Definition of levels of sensitivity of steel +4 Definition of loading conditions 5 Choice of cracking limit states to be checked ® 3 2.5 THE PREDICTION OF DECOMPRESSION AND CRACK DEFORMATION 2.20 The limit state of decompression 1 Stresses due to normal loading 2 Creep +3 Shrinkage 4 Temperature effects 5 Decompression in a cracked member The limit state of crack formation 2.6 CALCULATION OF CRACK WIDTHS - PRINCIPLES 2.28 2.6.1 Relationship between crack width, crack spacing and strain in the reinforcement 2.6.2 Calculation of the crack spacing 2.6.3 Calculation of strains 2.6.4 Maximum crack widths 2.6.5 Influence of long-term and repeated loading 2.6.6 Minimum reinforcement for the control of cracking 2.6.7 Use of different sizes or types of reinforcement in the section 2.6.8 Reinforcement not aligned in the direction of the principal tension 2.7 CHECKING CRACK WIDTHS - PRACTICAL APPLICATION 2.39 1 Scope and accuracy of calculations 2.7.2 Minimum areas of reinforcement to control cracking due to possible restraint 3 Control of cracking due to axial tension or bending 31 General +3.2 Crack control by limitation of bar diameter 4 Provision of reinforcement required only for crack control 2.7.5 Combination of strains due to external loading and restraint 7.6 Shear :7.7 Torsion 7.8 Summary 2.53 2.8 EXAMPLES 2.55 Members subjected to pure tension +1 Tension due to external load only 2 Axial tension due to restraint only Members subjected to pure bending 1 Beam subject to bending due to external loading 2 Slab subject to bending due to external loading +3 I section beam with untensioned reinforcement 4 Partially prestressed bean Wall subject to restraint 3, DEFORMATIONS 3.1 CURVATURE -1-1 Curvatures in States I and IL, +1,2 Average curvature - pure bending +163 3.2 CALCULATION OF DEFORMATIONS BY INTEGRATION - PRINCIPLES 3.3 CALCULATION OF DEFLECTION - BILINEAR METHOD 3.3.1 Bilinear method - pure bending 3.3.2 Bilinear method - combined flexure and axial load 3.3.3 Extension of the method to the calculation of the deflection of slabs 3.4 ESTIMATION OF DEFLECTIONS USING THE METHOD OF GLOBAL COBRFFICIENIS 3.4.1 Estimation of deflections due to loading 3.4.2 Estimation of deflections due to uniform shrinkage 3.5 DEFORMATIONS DUE TO SHEAR FORCES 1 General 2 Shear cracking force 3. Shear strain 4% Effect of creep 5 Shear curvature 6 Example 3.6 DEFORMATION DUE TO TORSIONAL MOMENT. 6.1 General 6.2 Kinematic conditions 6.3 Uncracked state 6.4 Fully cracked state 6.5 Additional remarks 6-6 Example calculations 3.7 REASONS FOR CONTROLLING DEFLECTIONS General Appearance 1 2 3 Damage to non-structural elenents 4 Loss of utility 5 Final comments 3.8 EXAMPLES AND PARAMETRIC STUDIES 3.8.1 Example 1: Simply supported reinforcement conerete beans 3.8.2 Example 2: Reinforced concrete beam built in at both ends 3.8.3 Example 3: Simply supported reinforced concrete beam subjected to combined bending and axial force 3.8.4 Example 4: Prestressed concrete beam 3.8.5 Example 5: T bean 3.8.6 Example 6: Flat slabs Average curvatures ~ combined bending and axial force Page 3.35 3.41 4, APPENDIX a 42 4.3 4 45 MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE 4.1.1 Tensile strength and Modulus of Deformation 4.1.2 Creep coefficient p, aging coefficient X BASIC DEFLECTION ac 4.2.1 Characteristics of T-sections 4.2.2 Basic deflection a of beams 4.2.3 Basic deflection and bending moments of plates K CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS K,s Kgs Kas 4.3.1 Derivation of the coefficients 3.2 Diagram of the coefficients Ks, Kgs Keg for rectangular sections GLOBAL CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS FOR RECTANGULAR SECTIONS DEFLECTIONS DUE TO UNIFORM SHRINKAGE Page 4.23 4.35 4,59 4.71 PREFACE The separate verification of strength and serviceability in structural conerete is becoming more and more important. ‘The CEB-FIP Model Code introduces the general concepts and theories related to serviceability, particularly those concerning cracking and deformability. The need for a Manuel allowing the practical application of these concepts has been strongly felt. The preparation of this Manual was assigned, first to « Task Group, and thereaf! er to a Drafting Croup, formed by well-known specialists. Professor Renaud Favre, from the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, chaired both these Groups. It is my pleasure to thank the Task and Drafting Groups, particularly Dr. Beeby and Professor Favre, responsible for the initial drafting of the chapters on cracking and deformability, respectively, for the successful and useful work accomplished. The fundamentals of the theories of cracking and deformation in structural concrete were established about 20 years ago. These theories involve a large number of parameters, most of them represented by randon variables with large coefficients of variation. Consequently, theoretical as well as experimental results show large dispersions. To obtain easy to use design aids, drastic simplifications have to be introduced in the theories. Often these simplifications have a limited range of validity. Consequently, it is to be expected that the accuracy of the solutions will diminish as the real conditions diverge from those assumed. These divergences may be particularly important e.g. in the case of members subjected to axial load combined with bending and in the superposition of permanent and transient loads. Even so, the guideliness presented in the Manual give useful information in a large range of situations. Senate ——= Julio Ferry Borges President of CEB Lisbon, June 1983 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This design manual “Cracking and Deformations” is a real improvement on Bulletin d'information N° 143 which was accepted at CEB's 22nd plenary assembly in Munich in April 1982. CEB's administrative council approved and accepted the final draft at its session in Lausanne on January 24 and 25, 1983. This manual is published in English and in French as CEB Bulletin d'information Nos 158-E and 158-F, respectively. It was realised by the following Task Group formed by Commission V of the CEB: R. Favre, Lausanne (Chairman) A.W. Beeby, London H. Falkner, Stuttgart M. Koprna, Lausanne P. Schiessl, Munich In their work the Task Group called on the services of such experts as Messrs. W. Moosecker (Pavia, Munich) for chap. 3 concerning deformations due to shear force, and P. Marti (Zurich) for chap. 3.6 concerning deformations due to a torsional moment. We are very grateful to them for their assistance and to the rapidity with which they assimilated their answers to the theoretical principles developped in chap. 1. The numerous meetings which the Task Group held were regularly attended by Messrs M. Wicke and A. Holmberg (Chairman and Vice-Chairman of Conmission ¥) as well as by G. Thfelen (CEB's Technical Director). We give them our grateful thanks for their immense contribution to the realisation of this manual and also to all the Members of Commission V, in particular to Messrs. T. Brondum-Nielsen and J. Schlaich for their constructive criticism. The final version of this Manual was the responsibility of the Edité Group which was formed at the General Assembly of April 30, 1982 in Munich and consisted of the following persons R. Favre, Lausanne, General coordinator M. Koprna, Lausanne, Responsible for chaps 1, 3 and 4 A.W. Beeby, London, Responsible for chap. 2. Mr. J-P. Jaccoud (Leusanne) joined the Group at a leter date and collaborated on the editing of chaps 1, 3 and 4 and the translation chap. 2 into French. Dr. A.W. Beeby was responsible for the English translation of chaps- 1 and 3. We must also mention that the realisation of this Manual become possible due to the important financial assistance of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and to the support of the Swiss foundation for research of the cement industry and the Cement and Concrete Association. Finally, the English and French editions of the manual were realised at the Institute de statique et structures - Beton Armé et Précontraint (IBAP) EPFL. I give my heartfelt thanks to all the collaborators ho made their realisation possible, in particular to Mr. J-P. Jaceoud who was responsible for the project; Mr. 3B.F. Gardel for prepering the figures end the graphics; and to Mrs. J. Suard for the typing of the text, the equations and the tables. Lausanne, April 15, 1985 Renaud Favre Chairman of the Task Group "Cracking and Deformations’ 10 INTRODUCTION The CEB-FIP Model Code for concrete structures, published in 1978, gives valuable information on the verification of serviceability limit states. Following the principles in chapter 6 (6.2.2 and 6.4.3) the Limit states of cracking and deformation are then considered more thoroughly in chapter 15 and 16 respectively. Although the Model Code gives the fundamental elements and definitions to resolve problems of serviceability, it is considered necessary to further expand these principles for practical application. It was similarly considered useful to provide practising engineers with simplified methods and tools based on the Model Code which, although easy and quick, permit accurate application of the principles (see chap. 2-7, 3.4). It is essential to remember that the required checks of serviceability are conventional and that limiting values are to be agreed with the client (see MC-15.1.1 and 16.1.1). In this way the calculations are not to be regarded, as in most situations, as precise statements of crack widths or deflection but as a rationalised conventional approach to the serviceability. As stated in the Model Code comments at clause 15.1.3: "The checking of the limit states of cracking should be remembered that a check of deformations is not always indispensable (see CEB-FIP M.C., chap. 16.2.4 and chap. 3.7 of this Manual). Whilst considering the precision of calculation it should be noted that this is primarily governed by the assumed properties of the materials to be used. In reality the values of concrete tensile, strength f,,, modulus of elasticity Eom, creep coefficient g, and aging coefficient X, (MC-appendix © part. 2.3.1, commentaries and Creep Manual) are frequently not accurately known at the design stage. In particular the value of the modulus Eqn, may vary considerably as it is not only dependent on the compressive strength of the conerete but also the type of aggregate, grading and water-cement ratio. The tensile strength of concrete in a veal structure is far more greatly influenced by the site conditions than suggested by values obtained from laboratory test pieces. The calculation of crack widths will be less reliable then the calculation of overall deformation, as they are concerned with local and very random conditions. The level of accuracy in calculation of deflection is relatively higher for long term deflection. In particular when the value of Eem has been assumed correctly, errors may not exceed 20 or 30%. an incorrect choice of tensile strength value is more significant in immediate deflection than in long term deflection where, in effect, the difference of mean curvatures of an element, whether cracked or not, are reduced by the effect of creep. This arises from the fect that the cracking, although it reduces the bending rigidity, also noticeably reduces the effect of creep since this effects only the concrete and not reinforcing. ‘The common structural element, the flat slab (eg. thick slabs, floor slabs, slabs with haunched supports) is discussed in part. 3.3.3. Although much work is still necessary in this field, the extension of methods given in the Manual for slab elements (3.3.3) gives results which are in good agreement with laboratory testing carried out at EPF - Lausanne. iL The manual considers the following simple load cases = instantaneous short term loading on a previously unloaded structure, = instantaneous short term loading on a structure already loaded, - long term loading on a previously unloaded structure. Successive loading and unlosding is beyond the scope of the manual. Nevertheless, concrete indications are given for an estimation of these cases of deformation in para 3.4+1 (see notes 4 and 5). The engineer has therefore to formulate his analysis so that it can be reduced to one of the mentioned load-cases. The participation of concrete in tension, which intervenes in the calculation of crack opening and deflection, is, amongst others, reflected by the coefficient Bp (see CEB-FIP M.C., chap. 15.2-3 and eq. 1.1.6 of this Manual. There it is said that 8, may be taken as equal tol only in the case of first loading. If the nature of the loading is long-term or repetitive then 82 should be tanken as 0.5. When, however, the loading is of medium-term or only repeated # few tines then clearly the true value of 62 will lie between 0.5 and 1 but should still be taken as 0.5. This will ensure that crack opening and deformation are not underestimated. In conclusion it can be said that the calculation of cracking and deformation may, in all cases, be carried out in accordance with the models given in chap. .1. However, scientific research must be turned to identizying end isolating a better value for the distribution coefficient ¢ which controls the assessment of behaviour in the phase between states I and TIg. With regards to the lead combinations to be considered the recommendations of CEB-FIP M.C. § will be observed and these have been repeated hereafter in para 2.4.4. This manual does not have the pretention of being a State-of-the-Art-Report on Cracking end Deformation. It only explains the definitions and principles given in the MC in order to allow the practical engineer to apply them in his daily work. For that reason, the list of references given hereafter is not at all exhaustive. It mentions only the work done within CEB and the publications which were referred to during the elaboration of this Manual. 12 REFERENCES References relative to chapter 2: Cracking [2.1] ceB - (2.2] cep - (2.3) = Bulletin d'information No 61, juin 1967. J. Ferry-Borges: Cracking and deformability of reinforced concrete beans. #.-Riisch: Projet d'uniformisation des méthodes expérimentales en vue de Liter l'exploitation des résultats des mesures de la fissuration dans les poutres en béton armé. ci H. Risch (président), J. Ferry-Borges (rapporteur): Compte rendu de la séance plénigre "Fissuration". J. Ferry-Borges (rapporteur): Principes et Recommandations "Fissuration". A. Brenneisen, G. Claude: Eesais comparatifs de fissuration et de rupture de poutres en béton armé, sans précontrainte, avec précontrainte partielle ou avec pré- contrainte intégrale. Bulletin d'information No 89, mars 1973. J.R. Robinson: Observations et propositions sur la vérification en classe IV des tats-limites d'ouverture des fissures. S. Soretz: Rissformeln fiir Stahlbeton. G. Rehm, R. Eligehausen: Begrenzung der Rissbreiten unter Gebrauchslast nach DIN 1045. (Commentaire & l'article du Dr Soretz). A.W. Beeby: Suggested Modifications to the Crack Prediction Formula in the 1970 CEB Recommendations. A. Holmberg: Cracks under imposed deformations. A. Brenneisen: Comparison of the Crack width given by the CEB Recommendations with those resulting from other Standards and Tests. G. Rehm, R. Eligehausen: Einfluss von Dauerlast und Ermidungsbeanspruchung auf das Rissver- halten von Stahlbetonbauteilen unter iiberwiegender Biegebeanspruchung. A, Brenneisen (coordinateur), J. Arga e Lima, A.W. Beeby, R. Eligehausen, 4. Falkner, V. Monteiro: Manual on Cracking (Preliminary Draft). Padilla J.D. and Robles F.: Human response to cracking in concrete slabs. ACI publication SP30, Cracking, deflection and Ultimate load of Concrete slab systems. American Concrete Institute, 1971. 13 [2.4] [2.6] (2.7) (2.101 [2.11] [2.12] (2.137 (2.141 Haldane D.i ‘The importance of cracking in reinforced concrete members. Proceedings of International Conference on the Performence of Building Structures. Glasgow University 1976. Houston, Atimtay and Ferguson: Corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in structural concrete, Center for Highway Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Research Report No 112-1-F. Sehiess1 ?. Admiseible crack width in reinforced concrete structures. Contribution IZ 3-17. Inter-Association Colloquium on the behavior in service of structures. Preliminary Reports, Vol. Il, Liege 1975. Kreitan, V.G.: Investigation of sound insolation proporties of Prefabricated structures of residential buildings with possible through cracks, slits and openings and development of calculation methods. Central Research and Design Institute for Dwellings, Moscow, 1982. Koch R, erformungsverhalten von Stahlbetonstiben under Biegung und Langszug im Zustand II auch bed Mitwirkung des Betons awischen den Rissen. Otto~ Graf-Institue, Stuttgart, Schrifteareihe Heft 69, 1976. Rao 8. Grundlagen cur Berechnung der bei statisch unbestinmten Stahlbetonkons~ truktionen im plastischen Bereich auftretenden Umlagerungen der Schnitt: krdfte. Deutscher Ausschuss flr Stahlbeton, Heft 177, Berlin 1966. Falkner H. Zur Frage der Rissbildung durch Eigen- und Zwéngspannungen infolge Ten~ peratur in Stahlbetonbauteilen (1969) Deutscher Ausschuss fiir Stahlbeton, Heft 208. Risch H. and Rehm G.i Versuche mit Betonformsthlen. Deutscher Ausschuss f 165, (Teil IIT), Berlin 1964, Stahlbeton, Heft Colonna~Cecealdi, Soretz S. Grosse Stablbetonbalken mit Hauptbewehrung aus 2 dicken Stiben. Beton~ stahl in Entwicklung, Heft 46, September 1971, Tor-Isteg Steel Corpora~ tion, Luxembourg. Ferry Borges Js, Arga e Lima J.: Crack and Deformation Similitude in reinforced Concrete. RILEM Bulletin, New Series No 7, pp. 79-90, Paris, June 1960. CEB, Bulletin d'information No 148, février 1982. S. Rostam (rapporteur), A.W. Beeby, G. Hartl, D. van Nieuwenburg, P. Schiess1, A.P. van Vugtt Durability of concrete structures (State-of-the-Art-Report). 14 Reference relative to chapter 3: Deformations RE eee {3.1] CEB - {3.2] CEB - Bulletin d'information No 81, mars 1972. M. Wicke, 0. Péeffermann, J, Mathez, avec 1a collaboration de J. Brakel, F. Riesauw: Calcul des flches ©. Pfeffermann, avec la collaboration de J. Mathez: Désordres pathologiques dus A un excés de déformations Bulletin d'information No 90, avril 1973. J. Brakel: Introduction, Survey of Proposals. Evaluation J. Arga e Lima, v. Monteiro: Practical Rules for the Computation of Deflections. AWW. Beeby: A Note on Studies of the Calculation and Limitation of Deflection carried out at the Cement and Concrete Association. ALK. Beeby: A Note on the Influence of Compression Steel on the Long-term Deformations of Flexural Members. J. Brakel: Is the Slope of the cracked Branch of the Moment-Curvature Diagram representative for the True Mean Stiffness of the cracked Section ? J. Brakel: Steifigkeit und Durchbiegung bei ungerissenen und gerissenen Quer- schnitten aus Kiesbeton und Leichtbeton, J. Brakel: The Moment of Inertia of the transformed reinforced concrete Cross~ section, when the neutral Axis is not coincident with the Centre of Gravity. F, Leonhardt, 8.0, Kayata: Vorschlag fiir die Berechnung der Durchbiegung von Stahlbetonbalken bei Biegung im Gebrauchzustand, B. Lewicki, J. Szymanski: Remarques sur la méthode CEB de Calcul des Flaches des Poutres en béton armé, H. Mayer? Waherungsberechnung der Durehbiegung von Stahlbetonbauteilen. Th. Monier: Proposal for the Caleulation of Deflections for the new Dutch Code of Practice for Concrete Structures. F.G. Riessaus Une contribution analytique L'appréciation du comportement en flexion des éléments en béton & armatures mixtes. H, Trost, B. Mainz: Zueckmissige Ermittlung der Durchbiegung von Stahlbetontriigern (tié de Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 6/1969, p. 142-146). 15 [3.3] CEB 13.4] CEB [3.5] CEB [3.6] CEB (3.7) [3.8] (3,9] (3.101 (3.111 [3.12] [3.13] Comparison of a small Number of Test Results with the Results of Galeulations according to the proposed Equations. Bulletin d'information No 91, mai 1973. 0. Pfeffermann, J. Mathez: Pachologie des excts de déformations Bulletin d'information No 124/125, avril 1978. Volume IT: Code modéle CEB-FIP pour les structures en béton, Bulletin d'information No 143, décembre 1961. R. Favre, A.W. Beeby, H. Falkner, M, Koprna, P. Schiessl: Manuel de calcul: Fissuration et déformations (Final Draft). Bulletin d'information No 153, avril 1982. Enlarged meeting of Commission IT "Structural Analysis". Pavia. Octobre 1981. G. Creazza, E. Siviero: Approximate cheory for the defornational study of reinforced concrete bidimensional continuous: Application to simply supported uniformely loaded square slab. Norme internationale 180 4356, 1977. Base du calcul des constructions - Déformstions des batiments & L'état-Limite d'utilisation. a. Mayer, #. Risch: Bauschaden als Folge der Durchbiegung von Stahlbetonbauteilen. Deutscher Ausschuss fiir Stahlbeton, Heft 193, 1967. 0. Péeffermann, J.-J. Patigny: Fiseuration des cloisons en magonnerie due a une déformation excessive du support. Centre seiencifique et Technique de 1a Construction, Bruxelles, Revue No 4, 1975. H, Trost, B. Maing: gweckmissige Ermittlung der Durchbiegungen von Stahibetont: Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 6/1969. U, Kraemer, G, Thielen, E. Grasse Berechnung der Durchbiegung von biegebeanspruchten Stahlberonbau~ teilen. Beton~ und Stahlbetonbau 4/1975. Grasser, G. Thielen: wilfsmiceel zur Berechnung der SchnittgrSssen und Forminderungen von Stahlbetontragwerken. Deutscher Ausschuss flir Stahlbeton, Heft 240, 1976. + Leonhard! Vorlesungen ber Massivbau, 4, Teil: Nachweie der Gebrauchsfihigheic. Springer-Verlag, 1976, 16 [3.24] [3.15] (3.16) (3.17] 3.18] [3,19] [3.20] (3.21) (3.22) H, Risch, D. Jungwirth: Stahlbeton-Spannbeton, Band 2. Werner-Verleg, 1976. D.E, Branson: Deformation of concrete structures. Me Graw-Hill, 1977. T. Brondum-Nielsen: Stress Analysis of Concrete Sections under Service Load. ACI Journal. Proc. Vol. 76, No 2, february, 1979. R. Favre, M. Koprna, A. Radojicic: Effets différés, fissuration et déformations des structures en béton. Editions Georgi, Suisse, 1980. R. Favre, M. Koprna, J.-C. Putallaz: Deformations of Concrete Structures: Theoretical Basis for the | Calculation. IABSE Periodica S-16/81, Zurich, 1981. R. Favri Verformungsberechnung von Tragwerken aus Stahl- und Spannbeton, Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, Zurich, Heft 43/1961. J.P. Jaccoud, .R. Favre: Flaches des structures en béton armé - vérification expérimentale d'une méthode de calcul, Annales de l'Institut Technique du Batiment et des Travaux Publics, Paris, Série Béton 208, 1982. D. Van Nieuwenburg: Rapport & L'intention de l'Institut belge de normalisation, Labora- toire Magnel, Gent, 1982. A.M, Neville, W.H. Dilger, J.J. Brooks: Creep of Plain and Structural Concrete. Longman, 4 paraitre en janvier 1984. 7 CHAPTER 1: BASIC PRINCIPLES 1.4. AVERAGE STRAIN IN THE REINFORCEMENT 1.2 CALCULATION MODELS 1, BASIC PRINCIPLES All the recommendations in this manual are based of the principles and gules of the CEB/FIP Model Code published in 1978 (abbreviated to MC) and dre limited to normel conditions of service. Reinforced and prestressed concrete structures tend to crack and are subjected to time dependent effects (creep, shrinkage, relaxation). This segults in discontinuous behaviour depending on whether cracked section seen meighbouring section is being considered. For this reason it is necessary to define: _ ‘the average strain in the tension reinforcement for calevlating the cracking; = the average curvature for a calculating deformations~ The values are: obtained fron limiting situations corresponding respectively to: - State 1 : Uneracked sections - behaviour is calculated assuming that both the concrete and the reinforcement are active poth in tension and in compression. = grate I1-Naked: Cracked sections - behaviour is calculated assuming che reinforcement. to be effective both in tension and in compression but that concrete is only effective in . compression- The average values are obtained from these two by using coefficients which define the relative contributions of State I and State II-naked- Expressions vill now be derived for the dverage strain in the reinforcenent and then these considerations “will be extended in order to establish eMicuiation models which will permit the definition of the average curvature for different types of loading- 1.1 AVERAGE STRAIN IN THE REINFORCEMENT The Principles of behaviour can most easily be understood by considering the mechanism of cracking by reference to the behaviour of a reinforced concrete member subjected to pure tension (Figure 1.1.1)- JE this member is subjected co an axial tensile force, N, the following con Te es rem ne first erack will form when the tensile stréngth of the oe nee. tg reached at any section (at the weakest section). At the pot concrete conerete cracks, the reinforcement will take up all the tension vreviously carried by the conerete. This will cause a sudden tnessdse vrevie dm the steel leading to differential movement between the stee? and che eSnerete which will manifest itself in an increase in crack width. The ‘onerete and the reinforcenent are completely separated at the cracked seetion, which therefore behaves according to State II-naked. Due to: the bond between the steel “and concrete, the concrete resists Shs extension of the reinforcement. Bond stresses, cp, are generated transfer tensile force from the steel to the concrete. In the zon crane ed close toa crack, the sections behave in a manner intermedsate fatween States I and II-naked. At @ certain distance $ from the fires Uh. crack, compatibility of strains between the steel and the concrete is re-established and the section will behave as a homogeneous section; that is to say in State I. Theoretically, it fs only beyond this distance 5 from the first crack, where the stresses again reach the tensile strength of the concrete, Eg, where a new crack can forme. Gs Tb Ge Figure 1.1.1 Cracking mechanisa in a reinforced concrete nenber subject to rension The strain in the reinforcement &s (see Figure 1.1.1) for a tensile force N, varies between that for State I (&g,) and that for State II (cg). We con now determine the average strain in the reinforcenent, Coq The average deformation of the reinforcenent for N > N may be given by: e, # 2.2) where At is che total extension of s reinforced conerete member of length t subjected to an axial tensile force N which is greater than the force Nr which produces the first crack (Figure 1.1.2). beg represents the contributions of the concrete in tension between the cracks (tension stiffening) which follows a hyperbolic relationship approaching the line fg) asymptotically for stresses in excess of cgr- It has been shown experimentally that de, can be represented by the relationship: de, 7 bea’ Og!) (1.1.2) 1.2 ‘smax fstr fsor Fig. 1.1.2 Strains in the reinforcement Substituting this value for Ac, into equation (1.1.1) gives: fom 7 g2 7 OC om ~ & * 2/650) sir . (5p! 0) Esar eng ° he Bag * Ser/%52)] + See * Cex/%52) eli 2 ‘ 2 ep + (1- G,/o,2)7] + €,1 + Oy /0,5) This last expression may be written in the form: = - . + . 1.1.3: Sym 7 (1-6). + 8, + Bs yy ‘ ) where ¢ is a distribution coefficient defined as follows: Tgp? z %s2 Gels (1.1.4) =o for a.) base or against a previous pour cast some considerable time before the wall cools, it is restrained by the base or by veinforcemes connecting adjacent pours of the wall and cracking can develo; cracking in a long, continuously cast, wall is illustrated 2.2.2. Such cracking can be controlled either by controlii: temperature rise due to hydration, or by only pouring relatively lengths of wall or by suitable arrangement of the reinforcement. large, widely spaced cracks base Figure 2.2.2 Cracking due to early thermal movements in @ wall Cracking can be caused in structures in service by gradients within members. A chimney, for exemple, which can = on the inside and relatively cool on the outside, can devei cracks on the outside. Sudden cooling, for example during the shutdown of a reactor pressure vessel, can also lead cracking. Another area which hes recently been recognised es Source of temperature cracking problems is in bridge stzuctures. D daily variations in the environment, markedly non-linsar teaper distributions can be set up within the deck structure of brid: can induce stresses sufficient to cause cracking which controlled ty the presence of adequate reinforcement or pres be unacceptable. settlement of foundations 3 = Crack tn general, it is partitions, infill panels, windows and doors, etc. which itefer most from this type of imposed deformation unless they are very subscantial. If this is the cause of significant cracking, it will normally be imaediately obvious that this is the case. 2.2.3 Plastic shrinkage and slump cracking | Plactis cracking occurs during the first few hours after placing of the { reaebete while it i@ still in a plastic state. There are two distinct types { se rtiastie cracking: plastic shrinkage cracking, which most commonly occurs | oe idee, and plastic settlement or slusp cracking which nay occur in deep cnsere. Boch ‘cypes of cracking are associated wlth bleeding of the wemcecte. This is the tendency of the solid particles to move downwards in the mix while the water migrates upwards. il ith slump cracking, this squeezing out of the water under the action of gravity causes a reduction in volume of the wet concrete which, in turn, leads to a downward movement of the concrete in the formwork. If this movement is restrained by either reinforcement or the formwork, cracking fan result. In many cases, the cracks will form along the line of top reinforcement (see Figure 2.2.3). Plastic shrinkage cracking can occur in drying conditions when water is | evaporated from the surface of plastic concrete fester than it can percolate to the surface due to bleeding. A typical form of plastic Shrinkage cracking is for cracks to form in @ series of parallel lines at Toughly 45° to the edge of a slab at spacings of the order of 1 m Alternatively, a random pattern may form, usually known as ‘map cracking’. Slestic shrinkage cracks can typically be 2-3 mm wide and can penetrate I through the whole depth of @ slab, though the width rapidly decreases away | from the surface- 2.6 ee settlement crack along bar 4 parallel cracking on slab homey —~ ~~ e wae wf AT ops Figure 2.2.3 Forms of plastic shrinkage cracking Plastic cracking can be avoided by attention to the mix design and by avoiding conditions which may lead to rapid drying during the first hour or so after placing. It should be clear that reinforcement does not help to control plastic cracking: indeed, it may be one of the cause. 2.2.4 Cracking caused by corrosion Rusting of steel is an expansive process: the corrosion products occupying, typically, 2 to 3 times the volume of the metal from which it is formed. The effect of this is to set up bursting forces within the concrete surrounding the bar. These forces may, eventually, exceed the strain capacity of the concrete and a crack will form along the line of the bar. This cracking is normally the first indication of corrosion problems in a member. Further corrosion will result in development of the cracks and, finally, spalling of the concrete. The general development of corrosion cracking ie illustrated in Figure 2.2.4. 2:7 rust causes |e expansion L crack develops along expansion due to rust causes Line of bar crack in plane of bars with eventual breaking off of bottom cover Figure 2.2.4 Cracking due to corrosion 2.2.5 Cracking caused by chemical action There are various reactions which can occur within concrete which can result in expansive products. Where such reactions occur on or close to the Surface of concrete, major cracking does not occur, merely sui disintegration of the concrete. Where ‘the reactions can occur within body of the concrete so that the interior expands relative to the suxtace, cracking can occur, One reaction which can cause major surface cracking in this way ie the alkali-aggregate reaction. This reaction can occur in vet Conditions between alkalis from the cement and certain varieties of silice Shieh can occur in some aggregates. The reaction deposits a hygroscopic ikali-eilicate gel within the matrix'of the concrete. As this gel takes In Sater, it expands, causing disruption of the concrete. The commonest form Si evacking resulting from this reaction is 'map' cracking similar to that Siiuscrated for plastic shrinkage in Figure 2.2.3. Another expansive effect which can, on occasion, cause cracking is sulphate attack, though thie more commonly. attacks the surface. the 2.2.6 Cracking caused by fro! Frost attack will normally result in spalling and disintegretion of the conerete surface rather than the formation of discrete cracks. There are, however, situations where frost may cause cracking. A particular situation whieh has led to cracking in practice is where water in ungrouted or Tacompletely grouted prestressing ducts has frozen. This can cause cracks to occur along the line of the duct. 2.2.7 Summary Table 2.1 attempts to summarise some of the types of cracking discussed in this chapter. It is intended to give an indication of when, in the 1ife of a structure, cracks can be expected to occur, what form they will take and their likely size. It is probable that the first six categories in the Table are the types of cracking which most commonly cause trouble in 2.8 lagu tne re eee *Buppoerd Jo sms0y snoyiea yo Aavummg p+z aTquy, sasuedsea Teanaonz3s 33 jo Burpuerszopansya e aqeoypuT Ap[RxsUas syoe19 a8iv] + speor 2332048 UPyy aERza0dWE zanqonz3s 50 soqazas 940m 948 speoy quouemaog T'0'Z aan8ry aag a8esn uo spuadop uy Buppeoy saqefex8%e yo sedéa upeaaa9 UoFrsNI}st09 woIy suoqqoear Yaya sanov0 AqTuo “Suppor dew se sivak ypsoa9s 2aefor88e are, aq ues sypeag Spquenbeay suoyizpucs Jam uy sano99 49138 TTT3 you -preaiy SUoLaTpucD eA UF aTqESEA aq (yt°z ean8zy 998) uoTionrysuos woay ken Bupurers ysna fomyy yaa Burppeds o3uy Sutdotoaop saeaf yexoaas Berseaasuy ‘ypews ye syoez9 ‘juowao10sufar Jo sauyy uoze syseay Supases seaze sanoy may 3Saqy Youmosun jou mw yz Burkap up ised sqeTs Jo voujans Buyaseo zaaye aequrzys 28eT aq uv syoes9 uo sysei9 Buoy 10 Bupyoez9 dem sanoy 893 48475 oraseta uorgnsexa Supanp uoq39e (g:@"z e4an8yq 298) uosivas (Bupyoe29 dunys) quem -eTiIes oFISsPTa sz emEy uorqeqsayyuey WoFIeusOs Jo amTy, asne 2.9 practice. Cracke resulting from usage of the structure are rarely a cause Of complaint, provided that the specified minimum areas of steel have been {ncluded. The engineer should be aware of the possible ways in which concrete can crack and should not believe that, because he has done sone calculations for the control of flexural cracks, he has ensured that cracking will not cause problens- 2.10 2.3 REASONS FOR CONTROLLING CRACKING Tais chapter will summarise the main reasons for controlling cracking in concrete structures and the factors involved in specifying acceptable crack widths in each case. 2.3.1 Appearance Cracks can be unsightly and upset the occupants or owers of buildings. Bogineers have tended to believe that appearance was of no great importance and that their function was merely to provide a safe and serviceable structure. Structurally unimporcant cracking could therefore be ignored. Nowadays, this view is seen to be wrong. A major feature by which the quality of life is judged is the quality of the buildings and structures within and around which we have to live. A most important factor in assessing quality is appearance and society and the clients for whom engineers for have a right to expect structures whose appearance are not marred by unsightly cracking (provided they are prepared to pay for this). Attempts should therefore be made to limit cracking to levels which will not be noticeable in those parts of structures which can be seen. Unfortunately, the question of what widths of cracks will be acceptable from the appearance point of view has not been adequately studied and no clear guidance can be offered. Surveys to assess public reaction to cracks have been carried out by Fadilla and Robles [2.3]* and by Haldane [2.4]. These suggest that cracks wider than about 0.25 - 0.3 mm can lead to public concern. Both these surveys dealt with cracks fairly closely. Clearly, the acceptable width of crack will very with varying surface texture of the concrete ané the distance of the cracks from possible observers. Another problem is that cracks on exposed surfaces can become picked out by streaks of dirt or by material leached out of the cracks. In this way, quite small cracks can become visually obtrusive. in the absence of any clear guidelines on permissible widths, the engineer must clearly decide what is seceptable and, if this is particularly onerous, discuss with his clients what widths will be acceptable and what their achievement will cost. 2.3.2 Watertightness and gastightness it must be clear that, in certain types of structures, the possibility jeakage of water, other stored liquids or gases through cracks will have to be considered. It also seems clear that rates of leakage will depend upton crack width. Unfortunately, as with appearance, little information appears to be available on suiteble limits in this situation. It seems probable that the crack width limit required to control leakage would depend upon the Pressure, the thickness of the concrete, the nature of the liquid or gas being retained and the nature of the crack (i.e. whether it penetrates the whole section or not). For structures retaining water, it is clear that even quite large cracks can often rapidly seal themselves when water flows through them. The ability of cracks to seal themselves in this way will, however, depend upon the nature of the water: acidic water could tend to enlarge the cracks. cree *see references page 13 of Introduction ga «3 Corrosion protection This is the most commonly quoted reason fer controlling cracking. ‘A substantial number of progranmes of exposure tests have been carried out oa cracked members to investigate the possibility of a relationship between crack width and corrosion. Commonly these tests consist of pairs of beans loaded back to back and exposed for period of years in various environments. Eventually, the beams are broken open the zeveal the corrosion on the bar. This is measured, either by measuring the depth of corrosion or the length of the bar corroded. These measurements are then realted to the crack widths. The results of these programmes have tended to be somewhat contradictory in some respects but the following summary gives a fair consensus view of the findings. In general, bars in beams with cracks will be more likely to suffer some rusting than bars in uncracked beams, though it is worth noting thet Houston, Atimtay and Ferguton [2.5], who used more realistic ratios o cover to bar diameter than most workers, did not find any difference between cracked and uncracked beans. When corrosion is studied at 2 relatively early age after the commencement of exposure, crack width appears to have a significant effect on the amount of corrosion, However, after longer periods of exposure, little, if any, influence of crack width on the amount of corrosion occurring near a crack is detectable. The theoretical work by Schiess1 (2.6) and a study of the results from exposure tests suggest the following general picture of the corrosion process which could form the basis of a more logical approach to design against corrosion. The development of corrosion in a reinforced concrete member may be considered to be in two phase a) An initiation phase Reinforcement surrounded by concrete will not corrode until its passivity has been destroyed either by carbonation of areas of concrete in contact with the bar or by penetration of chlorides to the bar surface. The time taken from construction untill depassivation will depend upon whether or not the concrete is cracked and if it is, the width of the cracks, the thickness and quality of the cover and the environment. b) An active phase Once corrosion has started, the rate of corrosion will depend upon the environnent and will be independent of crack width. Corrosion being an expansive process, will eventually lead to disruption of the concrete For reinforced conerete, the onset of this disruption may be considered to define the occurrence of unacceptable corrosion damage- The amount o rust required to disropt the concrete, and hence the time between the initiation of corrosion and the occurrence of unacceptable damage, will @epend upon the length of bar over which corrosion is occurring, the ratio of the cover to the bar diameter, and the general arrangement of the bars within the section. 2-12 If the length of the initiation phase, the time between construction and the commencement of corrosion is defined 26 ty and the length of tine between initiation and the onset of disruption of the concrete is defined as ty, then clearly to +t) £ design life of the structure. In cracked concrete it is clear that to is small relative to the design life of most structures and ty, which is independent of crack width, is the controlling factor. In uncracked concrete, to will be large, commonly is excess of the design life and hence ty becomes irrelevant. it can be seen that no basis exists for assuming a direct relationship between corrosion and crack width. In addition, the temptation to control cracking by the use of very many small bars should be resisted. Increasing the mmber of bara in cracked more oF Lec aay (incteases the risk of significant corrosion occurring fore or less in proportion to the increase in number of bars. If cracke have to be controlled to avoid corrosion damage, then the control will best be achieved by a reduction in the steel strese rather than the wee ct unrealistically small bars and spacing. 2.3.4 Other functional requirements it iS Possible that, in particular structures, there will be special considerations which will require the control of cracking. It is not possible to list what situations might. require such limitations but, Giearly, the engineer should be aware of the function of the struccare ne is designing and should consider whether the presence of cracks oe the widths of such cracks will adversely affect this functions The following are random examples to illustrate the type of problem. 1} Cracks can harbour pathogens and thus may cause difficulties in maintaining sterile conditions in operating theatres or similac environments. 2- Large cracks have been objected to in grain silos on the grounds that they can harbour weevils. 3- Sound insulation can be reduced by cracks through partition walls. There are cases where this could be critical. Tests have been carried out to study this problem and some empirical guidance can be obtained (e.g. see [2.7]). 2.13