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# PRODUCTION QUESTION AND ANSWER (CONVENTIONAL TYPE)

Question-1: Calculate the optimum cutting speed for the metal cutting operation Tool change time = 8 min Tool regring time = 5 min Machine running cost = Rs. 5.0 per hour Tool depreciation per regrind = 30 Paisa Tool constants are n = 0.25 and C = 150

[10]

Given: Tool changing time (Tc) = 8 min Tool regrind time = 5 min Machine running cost (Cm) = Rs. 5.0 /hour = Rs. 5.0 /60 per min Tool constants are n = 0.25 and C = 150 We know that Tooling cost (Ct) = tool regrind cost + tool depreciation per service/ replacement = tool regrind time x Machining cost + tool depreciation per regrind = 5 min X Rs. 5.0/60 per min + Rs. 0.30 per regrind = Rs. 0.71666 per regrind Now optimum tool life for minimum cost
C 1 n To = Tc + t Cm n 0.71666 1 0.25 =8 + 5.0 / 60 0.25 = 49.8min
Therefore optimum cutting speed 150 C Vo = n = = 56.47 m / min 49.80.25 To

Optimum cutting speed for the metal cutting operation is 56.47 m/min. (Ans.)

Question-2:

Explain the method of Abrasive Jet Machining? Write the advantages, disadvantages and application of AJM? [10] It is similar to sand blasting, except that a very narrow jet of gas and abrasive particles achieves localized cutting. It removes material through the eroding action of a high velocity stream of abrasive-laden gas. The gas is first compressed and mixed with the abrasive powder in a mixing chamber and passed through outlet nozzle. Computer is used to position the jet.

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Gas Pressure about 7 atm Velocity of Jet about 300 m/s Jet Diameter 0.12 mm to 1.25 mm Abrasive used: Al2O3 , SiC with particle size 10 to 50 m Tool (nozzle) material tungsten carbide or sapphire Tool (nozzle) Life about 30 hours

Advantages of AJM Can be used in any material, conductive, non-conductive, ductile or brittle Good dimensional accuracy (0.05 mm) Good Surface finish 0.25 to 1.25 m Due to cooling action of gas stream no thermal damage on the work surface Due to negligible force delicate workpiece can be machined.

Disadvantages of AJM Low MRR Possibility of stray cutting Embedding of abrasive particles in soft workpiece Dust control needed

Application of AJM Cutting and drilling on metal foils and thin sections of ceramics and glass Intricate holes in electronic components such as resistor paths in insulation Engraving of characters on toughened glass automobile windows Cleaning, polishing and deburring the surface

Question-3:

Explain what advantages does press forging have over drop forging? What are the advantages of poweder metallurgy? What are pre-sintering? [10] Advantages of press forging over drop forging

## Press forging is faster than drop forging

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Alignment of the two die halves can be more easily maintained than with hammering. Structural quality of the product is superior to drop forging. With ejectors in the top and bottom dies, it is possible to handle reduced die drafts.

Advantages of powder metallurgy y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Good tolerances and surface finish Highly complex shapes made quickly Can produce porous parts and hard to manufacture materials (e.g. cemented oxides) Pores in the metal can be filled with other materials/metals Surfaces can have high wear resistance Porosity can be controlled Low waste Automation is easy Physical properties can be controlled Variation from part to part is low Hard to machine metals can be used easily No molten metals No need for many/any finishing operations Allows non-traditional alloy combinations Good control of final density

Pre Sintering If a part made by PM needs some machining, it will be rather very difficult if the material is very hard and strong. These machining operations are made easier by the pre-sintering operation which is done before sintering operation.
Question 4 : During open die forging process using two flat and parallel dies, a solid circular steel disc of initial radius (R IN )200 mm and initial height (HIN )50mm attains a height (H FN ) of 30 mm and radius of R FN . Along the die-disc interfaces.
R IN i. the coefficient of friction ( ) is: = 0.35 1 + e RFN

## ii. in the region R ss r RFN ,sliding friction prevails, and p = 3 Ke H FN

( RFN r )

and = p,

where p and are the normal and shear stresses, respectively; K is the shear yield strength of steel (120 MPa ) and r is the radial distance of any point Calcutale the value of R SS (in mm) and pss ( in MPa ) where sticking condition changes to sliding friction. iii.In the region 0 r R SS ,sticking condition prevails

## Volume before forging = volume after forging

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2 2 RIN H IN = RFN H FN

or

## Shear stress in sticking K = shear stress in sliding ( Pss )

2 ( RFN Rss ) H FN

or K = 3Ke

1 2 or ln ( RFN Rss ) = 3 H FN 1 H or FN ln = RFN Rss 2 3 1 H or Rss = RFN FN ln 2 3 30 1 = 258.2 = 254.55 mm ln 2 0.51 3 0.51
And ( pss ) = 3Ke
2 ( RFN Rss ) H FN 20.51 ( 258.2 254.55) 30

## = 3 120 e = 235.3 MPa

Question-5:

What is the function of a core? What are core print? What is the purpose of a riser? What is the purpose of a vent? [10]

Function of a core
y y Core is used for making cavities and hollow projections in castings. All sides of core are surrounded by the molten metal and are therefore subjected to much more severe thermal and mechanical conditions and as a result the core sand should be of higher strength than the moulding sand.

Core print
A core print is that region added to the pattern, core, or mold that is used to locate and support the core within the mold. The mold material and the core then combine to form the mold cavity, the shaped hole into which the molten metal is poured and solidified to produce the desired casting.

Purpose of Riser
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It is a reservoir of molten metal provided in the casting so that hot metal can flow back into the mould cavity when there is a reduction in volume of metal due to solidification. Liquid shrinkage refers to the reduction in volume when the metal changes from liquid to solid state at the solidus temperature. To account for this, risers are provided in the moulds.

Purpose of vent
Vents, which are placed in molds to carry off gases produced when the molten metal comes into contact with the sand in the mold and core. They also exhaust air from the mold cavity as the molten metal flows into the mold.

Question-6: Calculate the size of a cylindrical riser (height and diameter equal) necessary to feed a steel slab casting 25 x 25 x 5 mm with a side riser, casting pouring horizontally into the mould. Solve by Caines Formula. (a = 0.12, b = 0.05 and c = 1.0 [10] Caines formula is

x=

a +c y b

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Volume of casting (Vc ) = 25 25 5 mm3 = 3125 mm3 Surfacearea of casting (A c ) = 2(25 25 + 5 25 + 5 25) mm2 = 1750 mm2 Let usassume that diameter of riser will be'd' mm Volume of the riser (Vr ) =

d2
4

d =

d3
4

mm3

## Surfacearea the riser (A r ) = d d +2 Now, x =

d2
4

( A / V )C ( A / V )R
d3

(1750 / 3125 )
3 2 d3 d / 4 2

3 2 d mm2 2

= 0.093333d

y=

Vr = 4 = 2.5133 10 4 d3 Vc 3125

ByCaine ' s formula 0.12 +1 2.5133 10 4 d3 0.05 by trial and error d = 13.17 mm 0.093333d =

Distinguish between welding, brazing and soldering processes. Discuss with figure the various steps required for friction welding? [10]

Welding
y Welding is a process by which two materials, usually metals, are permanently joined together by coalescence, which is induced by a combination of temperature, pressure, and metallurgical conditions. The particular combination of these variables can range from high temperature with no pressure to high pressure with no increase in temperature. Welding is a positive process

y y

Brazing
y Brazing is the joining of metals through the use of heat and a filler metal whose melting temperature is above 450C; but below the melting point of the metals being joined. Comparison with welding and the brazing process 1. The composition of the brazing alloy is significantly different from that of the base metal. 2. The strength of the brazing alloy is substantially lower than that of the base metal. 3. The melting point of the brazing alloy is lower than that of the base metal, so the base metal is not melted. 4. Capillary action or capillary attraction draws the molten filler metal into the joint, even against the flow of gravity.

Soldering
y By definition, soldering is a brazing type of operation where the filler metal has a melting temperature below 450C.

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y y y

Strength of the filler metal is low. Soldering is used for a neat leak-proof joint or a low resistance electrical joint. Not suitable for high-temp. application

## Steps required for Friction Welding process

y y Heat is obtained by the friction between the ends of the two parts to be joined. One part is rotated at a high speed and other part is axially aligned and pressed tightly against it. y y Friction raises the temperature of both the ends. Then rotation is stopped abruptly and the pressure is increased to join.

Question-8: What is the maximum output current that can be drawn at 100% duty cycle from a welding power source rated at 500 A at 60% duty cycle? What causes weldments to crack? Suggest the remedies. [10]

I Required duty cycle, Ta = T Ia Where , T = rated duty cycle I = rated current at the rated duty cycle I = Maximum current at the rated duty cycle
o

2

## Causes of weldment to crack

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Te emperature gradients that cause th hermal stresses in the wel ld zone Va ariations in the composi ition of the we eld zone. Em mbrittlement t of grain bou undaries In nability if the e weld metal l to contract du uring cooling Ch hange the jo oint design ,t to minimize str resses from the shrink kage during cooling Ch hange the pa arameters, procedures, th he sequence of o welding pro ocess Pr reheat the components to be welded Av void rapid cooling of the welded components

## Remedie es to preven nt crack

Q Question-9:

What is the t differen nce between n hole basi is system an nd shaft ba asis system? ? Why is hole basis system the t more extensive in n use? Wha at are the difference d b between interchan [12] ngeability and a selectiv ve assembly y?

## Hole Bas sis System

y In this s system, the e basic diame eter of the ho ole is constan nt while the shaft s size var ries accord ding to the ty ype of fit.

## Shaft Ba sis System

Here the t hole size is varied to produce p the required r clas ss of fit with a basic-size shaft. s

m is more exte ensive in use ed because in n the shaft ba asis system a series of dril lls and Hole basis system ed, therefore it tends to be b costly. reamers is require

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Interchangeability
y y Term employed for the mass production of identical items within the prescribed limits of sizes. If the variations of items are within certain limits, all parts of equivalent size will be equally fit for operating in machines and mechanisms and the mating parts will give the required fitting. This facilitates to select at random from a large number of parts for an assembly and results in a considerable saving in the cost of production.

Selective Assembly
y y All the parts (hole & shaft) produced are measured and graded into a range of dimensions within the tolerance groups. Reduces the cost of production

Question-10: Write a complete part program in APT for machining the product which is given in the diagram. Thickness of the workpiece is 6 mm. All dimensions are in mm. [15]