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Flow Assurance and Multiphase flow Flow Assurance and Multiphase flow

Multiphase flow
Offshore
Subsea
Deepwater
Long transportation
(Near) Arctic
P f R W Ti
Scandpower Petroleum Technology
Prof. Rune W. Time
Department of Petroleum Engineering p g g
University of Stavanger
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger May 31st, 2011
O li d i h d l Outline and time schedule
8.30 9.15 Flow regimes and impact on phase slippage,
fluid concentrations and pressure drop in
pipelines pipelines
9.25 10.15 Hydrates, wax and asphaltenes
10.25 -11.00 Multiphase flow influence from interfaces,
compression effects and waves compression effects and waves
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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Flow regimes and impact on phase slippage, fluid g p p pp g ,
concentrations and pressure drop in pipelines
Transparent pipe
Gas
Q
G
Transparent pipe
Liquid
Q
L
Stratified liquid and gas is there a flow? How to decide?
Some concepts are needed:
Flow speeds Flow speeds
Fluid fractions
Flow patterns ( regimes )
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
3
QUIZ:
A simple(st) case of two-phase flow
Horizontal pipeline
Equal inflow
Q
L
= Q
G
Gas
Liquid
Stabilized
interface ?
2
3
1
Liquid
How to decide?
2
How to decide?
Any guideline principles?
4
Basic quantities and definitions: q
- Superficial velocities and fluid fractions
U
A
L
u
G

q
G

A
U
GS
A
G
A
L
u
L

q
L

U
LS
A
q
U
L
LS
=
Superficial velocities :
Mixture velocity :
LS
A
q
U
G
GS
=
GS LS mix
U U U + =
Superficial velocities :
LS L
L
U q
= =
Apparent liquid
fraction (noslip):
L
L G LS GS
q q U U

+ +
fraction ( noslip ):
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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Basic quantities and definitions: q
- True velocities and Slip
A
L
u
G

q
G

A
A
G
A
L
u
L

q
L

L
L
L
q
A
q
u =
True (phase) velocities :
G
G
G
A
q
u =
u u u
Sli l it :
L G S
u u u =
G
u
S =
Slip velocity :
and
Slip ratio :
NOSLIP condition:
u
L
= u
G
= U
mix
S 1
L
u
S =
Slip ratio :
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
S=1
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Basic quantities and definitions: q
- True liquid fraction versus noslip fraction
U
A
L
u
G

q
G

A
U
GS
A
G
A
L
u
L

q
L

U
LS
True (real) volume fraction
LS
LS L
L
U A
1
A A
c =
+
( )
S = Slip ratio
L G
LS GS
1
A A
U U
S
+
+
LS L
U q
= =
Apparent
L
L G LS GS
q q U U
= =
+ +
pp
(noslip):
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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True fraction versus mixture velocity True fraction versus mixture velocity
True fraction noslip fraction (S = 1)
as mixture velocity increases
1
1
=
+
LS
L
LS GS
U
U U
c
Flow regime
dependence !
1 +
LS GS
U U
S
dependence !
a
c
t
i
o
n
( Keeping constant
ratio U
LS
/U
GS
)
L S
L
L S GS
U
U U
=
+
Segregated flows
Mixed flows
L
i
q
u
i
d
f
r
a
ratio U
LS
/U
GS
)
U
mix
0
g g
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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Flow regimes in horizontal pipes
Flow direction
Stratified smooth
flow (SS)
w

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
Stratified wavy
flow (SW)
L
o
w
t
y
s
p
e
e
d
Elongated bubble
flow (EB)
m
e
d
i
a
t
e

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
s
i
n
g
f
l
o
w
Slug flow (I)
I
n
t
e
r
m
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
Dispersed bubble
flow (DB)
A l ( )
i
g
h

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
Annular (wavy)
flow (A-AW)
H
i
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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Fl i h i l i Flow regime map horizontal pipes
10
Dispersed bubble (DB)
Taitel andDukler
1
Elongated
b bbl fl
Slug flow (I)
Taitel and Dukler
2.5 cm i.d. Pipe
air-water flow
at atmospheric
conditions
U
L
S

(
m
/
s
)
1
bubble flow
(EB/I)
Annular -
annular wavy -
Mandhane
Stratified smooth
flow (SS)
Flow direction
c
i
t
y
0.1
y
annular mist flow
Stratified smooth
flow (SS)
Stratified
wavy
flow
(SW)
Elongated bubble
flow (EB)
Slug flow (I)
Stratified wavy
flow (SW)
L
o
w

v
e
l
o
c
I
n
t
e
r
m
e
d
i
a
t
e

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
0.1 1 10 100
0.01
flow (SS)
(SW)
Dispersed bubble
flow (DB)
Annular (wavy)
flow (A-AW)
I
H
i
g
h

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
U
GS
(m/s)
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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Flow regimes and map vertical pipes
Flow regimes - types
Flow regime map
Dispersed bubbles
Annular
Dispersed bubbles
(small)
Annular
flow
Slug churn
fl flow
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
11
Snapshot of dispersed bubble flow
Gas concentration profiles
Snapshot of dispersed bubble flow
G
Gas fractionc
Pipe Up
Leads to vertical differences:
Gas- liquid wetting (evt. water)
Asymmetric corrosion (6oclock)
Shear stress & Erosion rates
Heat transfer rates
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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Particle slurries in multiphase flow
Large gas bubble Large gas bubble
D:\BACKUP 2009 - DET ASTRONOMISKE RET 2009\pent Hus 17mars09\Utvalgte high-
speed videoer\ Water speed 1 speed videoer\ Water speed 1
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
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Particle slurry regimes - dunes
Flow
Suspended particles in liqud
Dunes
Flow
Dunes
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
Rabenjafimantsoa and Time ( UIS) - project with Statoil 2000-2005
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Oil-water-gas flow regime map
REF: REF:
http://www.iceweb.com.au
/Flow/multiphase_1.htm
15
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
Importance of flow regimes
Much more than just flow appearance:
Field plan and development
Multiphase simulation, pressure and fluid fraction determination
Slip ratio and fluid transport rates in long pipelines
Multiphase pumping Multiphase pumping
Decisive for quality of multiphase metering
Flow assurance, safety
Process stability and control
Pipeline and equipment vibration and fatigue
Erosion
Corrosion Corrosion
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Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
The challenge of calculating
pressure drop in long traverses
h d l h The pressure gradient varies along the pipe
due to variation in pipe diameter, inclination
and mixture density (pressure dependent)
out
P
P
dl
t i
P P P = + A
Pressure at exit:
in
P
out in
P P P + A
Sum of pressure drop in all pipe segment
Challenge in multiphase flow:
The pressure profile depends on the pressure!
Requires iterative numerical solver
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
Requires iterative numerical solver
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Robust homogeneous pressure drop model
for two-phase flow
12000
Pressure gradient versus UGS for contant ULS U
GS
o
x
6000
8000
10000
a
d
i
e
n
t

(
P
a
/
m
)
Constant Uls=3m/s Constant Uls=3m/s
Total
U
LS
Friction factor
0
2000
4000
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

g
r
a
*
2
m mix
4 1
(Re) U
2
| |
=
|
\ .
f
dp
f
dx D
Friction :
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
Ugs (m/s)
m
h
dp
g sin
dx
| |
= o
|
\ .
Hydrostatic:
mix
mix
dU
U
dx
m
a
dp
dx

| |
=
|
\ .
Acceleration:
EXCEL
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
version
18
Two-phase pressure drop model Excel version
U
U
GS
o
Quanti ty Symbol Val ue Uni t
G d it 10 k / ^3 U
LS
Gas density rog 10 kg/m^3
Liquid density rol 1000 kg/m^3
Kinematisk gas viscosity nyg 1,50E-06 m^2/s
Dynamic gas viscosity myg 1,50E-05 Pa*s
Liquid viscosity myl 3,00E-03 Pa*s
Pipe diameter D 1,50E-01 m
Pipe inclination o 20,0 deg 3,49E-01 rad
Acceleration of gravity g 9,81E+00 m/s^2
Slipratio S 1,2


Superficial liquid velocity ULS 3 5 m/s Superficial liquid velocity ULS 3,5 m/s
Superficial gas velocity UGS 1,3 m/s
Mixture velocity Umix 4,8 m/s
Gas fraction epsg 0,236363636
Liquid fraction epsl 0,763636364
4 1 d | | Mixture density rom 766 kg/m^3
Mixture viscosity mym 2,29E-03 Pa*s
Reynolds number Re 2,40E+05
Friction factor f 3,86E-03
( )
2
m mix
4 1
Re U
2
n
m
f
dp
C
dx D

| |
=
|
\ .
m
h
dp
g sin
dx
| |
= o
|
\ .
Frictionpressuredrop dPdx_f 9,08E+02 Pa/m
Hydrostaticpressuredrop dPdx_h 2,57E+03 Pa/m
Accelerationalpressuredrop dPdx_a Pa/m
Totalpressuredrop dPdx 3,48E+03 Pa/m
h
dx
\ .
mix
mix
dU
U
dx
m
a
dp
dx

| |
=
|
\ .
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The World is Dynamic! need for Measurement
d C l and Control
- Even constant inflow of multiphase flow mixtures into pipeline - Even constant inflow of multiphase flow mixtures into pipeline
does not mean that the individual flowrates (G,L) are constant !
- Need for multiphase metering for survey and control !
Separation approach
Weatherford
Mixing approach
MPM
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