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BULETINUL TIINIFIC

AL UNIVERSITII TEHNICE DE CONSTRUCII BUCURETI

NR.1/2008

CUPRINS STUDII
Modelarea activitilor experimentale pentru caracterizarea termomecanic a aliajelor cu baza titan (II). Rezultate obinute la ncercri pe epruvete din aliajul Ti-5Al-2,5Sn ..................... 3 Indira Andreescu Alegerea personalizat a materialului la proiectarea construciilor metalice ................................. 8 Mariana Petrescu Performantele n regim dinamic de lucru a utilajelor de spat i transportat pentru construcii drumuri (I) .............................................................................................................................. 14 Srbu Laureniu Performantele n regim dinamic de lucru a utilajelor de spat i transportat pentru construcii drumuri (II) ............................................................................................................................ 25 Srbu Laureniu Caracterizarea termomecanic a aliajelor cu baza titan. Date experimentale obinute la ncercri pe epruvete din aliajul Ti-8Al-V-Mo ..................................................................................... 36 Indira Andreescu Aspecte privind stabilitatea dimensional a rezistenei mecanice ale betonului cu adaos de deeuri de sticl E....................................................................................................................................... 40 Maria Gheorghe, Lidia Radu, Nastasia Saca Influena forei reactive la eava de refulare asupra reaciunilor din cuplele cinematice ............. 54 Nicolae tefan Trache Modelarea desfurrii unui proces tehnologic de montaj prin utilizarea reelelor Petri i a teoriei ateptrii.......................................................................................................................................... 62 tefan Rusu, Marian Unguroiu Analiza stabilitii unor stlpi cu seciune variabil n trepte ............................................................ 80 Valeriu Bnu, Mircea Eugen Teodorescu Construcii rezideniale cu structura metalic ..................................................................................... 92 Monica Gheorghiu Principiile de baza ale redactarii tehnicecompetente ............................................................. 102 Zoia Manolescu

Modelarea activitilor experimentale pentru caracterizarea termomecanic a aliajelor cu baza titan (II). Rezultate obinute la ncercri pe epruvete din aliajul Ti-5Al-2,5Sn.

Experimental activities modeling for the thermo-mechanical characterization of the titanium alloys (II). Data obtained for the Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy sample testing.

Indira Andreescu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest e-mail: indira_utcb@yahoo.com

O util adiionare la examinarea comparativ a aliajului Ti-6Al-4V a constituit-o activitatea investigational a aliajului Ti-5Al-2,5Sn. Asupra acestuia s-au comunicat n ultimii ani (2002-2005), la mai multe prestigioase manifestri tiinifice din omeniu, date sugernd atenia special acordat materialului respectiv de firme germane i franceze de renume, constructoare de aeronave. In baza acestor consideraii, s-au efectuat ncercri termomecanice detaliate. S-au ncercat, astfel, apruvete din aliajul Ti-5Al2,5Sn la ntindere, n mai multe paliere termice, ntre 1000C i 5000C, cu meninerea epruvetelor n palier un timp diferit. Rezultatele corespunztoare obinute la asemenea ncercri la care timpul de meninere n palier a fost de 100 ore sunt grafiate i tabelate n Fig.1.

A useful addition for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy comparative examination was represented by the investigational activity over the Ti-5Al2,5Sn alloy.There were several dissertations at prestigious reunions in the field in the last few years (2002-2005) about this alloy, the data suggesting the special attention given to that matter by French and German well known aircraft building companies. Under these considerations detailed thermomechanical tests were made. Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy samples were tested in tensile action at different thermal levels between 1000C and 5000C, maintaining the samples on the level for a different time. The corresponding results obtained at such tests for which the maintaining time on a level was of 100 hours are plotted in Fig.1.

Fig. 1 Variaia cu temperatura a rezistenei la ntindere, ultime i de curgere, a epruvetelor din aliaj Ti-5Al-2,5Sn. The ultimate and yield tensile strength variation with temperature of the Ti-5Al-2,5 Sn alloy samples. Percentage of Rctr and Rutr at 200C (left). Time of maintaining on each thermal level 100 h (right) Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008 3

Curbele variaiei rezistenelor Rutr i Rctr pe diverse trepte de nclzire prezint o alur inversativ: pn la 250OC curba Rctr se situeaz deasupra curbei Rutr, pentru ca mai departe, pe intervalul termic examinat, de la 350OC la 500OC, cele dou curbe s-i inverseze poziionarea. S-a evideniat o pant mai pronunat a curbei Rctr i aproape o linearitate a acesteia, fa de curba conjugat, Rutr ,care are o descretere n pant mai puin pronunat, mai ales de la 150OC pn la 400OC. In fig.2 sunt grafiate datele privitoare la efectele nclzirii epruvetelor din aliajul Ti5Al-2,5Sn, simultan cu solicitarea la compresiune, n fiecare palier termic timp de 100 de ore.

The Rutr and Rctr strength variation curves for different heating levels have a reverse rate: up to 2500C the Rctr curve is placed above Rutr curve but further away for the 3500C to 5000C thermal interval the two curves reverse their positioning. A stronger slope and almost a linearity for Rctr curve is pointed out in comparison with the Rutr conjugated curve, which has a less strong decreasing slope, especially between 1500C and 4000C. In Fig.2 data are plotted concerning the heating effects for the Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy samples, simultaneously with the compressive action for each thermal level during 100 h.

Fig.2 - Curba variaiei cu temperatura a rezistenei de curgere la compresiune a epruvetelor din aliaj Ti-5Al-2,5Sn. The yield compression strength variation with temperature of the Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy samples. Percentage of Rcc at 200C (right). Time of maintaining on each thermal level 100 h. (left)

Alura curbei variatiei cu temperatura a rezistenei de curgere la compresiune, Rcc, n condiii de nclzire n mai multe paliere, de la 1000C la 5000C, prezint o scdere abrupt pn ctre T = 2000C, urmat de o coborre n pant mult mai mic pn spre T = 3500C. In aceste ultime dou paliere termice Rcc a sczut respectiv la 69% i 57% din valoarea sa la rece.
4

The yield compression strength variation with temperature Rcc shape between 1000C and 5000C on several levels heating conditions shows a sudden decrease up to T = 2000C, followed by a lower slope descent up to T = 3500C. In these two last thermal levels Rcc decreased from its in cold value to 69% and 57% respectively.

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n aceeai schem de analiz au fost interpretate rezultatele de la ncercrile mecanice de forfecare la cald ale epruvetelor din aliajul TI-5Al-2,5Sn, oglindite de graficul din fig.3.

In the same analysis set-up the heat shear mechanical tests results were explained for the Ti-5Al-2,Sn alloy samples showed in fig.3.

Fig. 3 - Curba Ruf = f(T) a variaiei, sub solicitare termic ( nclzire progresiv) a rezistenei ultime la forfecare a epruvetelor din aliajul Ti-5Al-2,5Sn The ultimate shear stress variation with temperature of the Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy samples. Percentage of Ruf at 200C (left); Time of maintaining on each level: 100 h (right)

Sinteza grafic-tabelar din fig.3 arat o coborre abrupt important a curbei caracteristice Ruf, ntre 1000C si ~3000C. Aceasta semnific o reducere a rezistenei de la 49 daN/mm2 la 34 daN/mm2, adic o micorare cu 32,5%fa de ct msura Ruf la temperatura ambiant. Mai departe scderea lui Ruf este tot mai lin, nct la 5000C epruvetele probeaz o rezisten rmas Ruf valornd nc 61% din Ruf la T ambiant. Ultimul test din setul de determinri la cald ale rezistenei mecanice a epruvetelor din aliajul Ti-5Al-2,5Sn l-a constituit rezistena la presiunea de contact, Rpc, de curgere i ultim. Curbele reprezentnd variaia cu temperatura a acestei caracteristici, pentru mai multe trepte semnificative de nclzire, sunt trasate n fig.4. De observat linearitatea n pant abrupt a lui Rcpe la nclziri de pn la cca.2000C i ntr-o pant mai mic a lui Rupc pn la cca.2500C.

The graphic-table in Fig.3 shows an important sudden descent of the characteristic curve Ruf between 1000C and ~3000C. This means a decrease of the strength from 49 daN/mm2 to 34 daN/mm2, in other words a decreasing by 32,5% in comparison to the Ruf value at 200C. Further on the decrease of Ruf is slower, so that at 5000C the samples have a Ruf strength still evaluated at 61% of Ruf at 200C. The last test from the heat determinations of the Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy samples mechanical strength was represented by the yield and ultimate bearing stress Rpc. The curves showing the temperature variation of this characteristic for several significant levels are plotted in Fig.4. The linearity in abrupt slope of Rcpc must be noted for heating up to 2000C and in a smaller slope for Rupe up to 2500C.

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Fig.4. Variaia cu temperatura a rezistenei la presiunea de contact ultime i de curgere, a epruvetelor din aliaj Ti-5Al-2,5Sn The ultimate and yield bearing stress variation with temperature of the Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy samples Percentage of Rupc and Rcpc at 200C (left). Time of maintaining on each level 100 h (right)

Concluzii Aliajul Ti-5Al-2,5Sn este bine apreciat n industria constructoare de avioane pentru comportamentul su n timpul solicitrilor termomecanice n comparaie cu aliajul Ti6Al-4V . Rezistenele ultim i de curgere au valori mai mici n timpul nclzirii.

Conclusions The Ti-5Al-2,5Sn alloy is well appreciated in aircraft manufacturing for its behavior during important thermo-mechanical actions. In comparison to Ti-6Al-4V its ultimate and yield strength have smaller values during heating.

Modelage des activits exprimentales afin de characterizer les aliages base de titan du point de vue thermomcanique (II). Donnes obtenues suite aux essais sur les prouvettes-tmoin en alliage Ti-5Al-2,5Sn Resum On prsente des rsultats suite aux mesures de la rsistance de rupture et de la limite dcoulement en fonction de temprature aux sollicitations axiales, aux sollicitations de cisaillement, et aux pressions de contact, effectues sur des prouvettes-tmoin en alliage Ti-5Al-2,5Sn.

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Bibliografie [1] I. ANDREESCU, T.A. MUTIU, Concepte i evaluri privind metodologia caracterizrii aliajelor Al-Ti(Concepts and assessments regarding Al-Ti alloy characterization methodologies), research project, EI/2002, Activity report, Contract INCAS/ Societatea Academic Romn (SAR) <Synergie> - MEC/ASR [2] COOMBE, T.W. et HURLEY, J.H.R., Quelques utilisations et perspectives davenir du titane dans les cellules davions, The Aeronautical Journal, novembre, 1971. [3] DEMCHENKOV, G.G.,Production of PM Titanium Alloy Blises for the Aerospace Industry, Ti-2003 10th World Conference on Titanium, Hamburg Germany, 2003. [4] K. FARMANESH, A. NAJAFI-ZADEH,A. Thermomecanical Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy, <Ti-2003> 10th World Conference on Titanium, Hamburg Germany, 2003. [5] GIRAUD,R., Alliages base de titane en construction arospatiale. LAronautique et lAstronautique, No.42 1973. [6] [5] GIRAUD,R., Alliages base de titane.Traitements thermiques. Vieillissement. Soudabilit. LAronautique et lAstronautique, No.42 1973. [7] MOTYKA,M., KUBIAK, K.,SIENIAWSKI, J., FILIP, R. Effect of Heat Treatment on Superplasticity of Forged Ti6Al-4V Alloy, Ti-2003 10th World Conference on Titanium, Hamburg Germany, 2003. [8] MULLER, W., BUBEK, E., GEROLD, V. Procedings of the Third International Al-Li Conference, Oxford 1985, Institut of Metals, vol.III, London, p.435. [9] PEEL, C..J. The development of Al-Li alloys: An overview-Materials and structure, Department of Royal Aerospace, Famborough Hants UKGU 14-6TD, 1990. [10] STERE, M., ANDREESCU I., Studii i cercetri pentru noi tipuri de aliaje rezistente uoare Al-Li si Al-Li-Ti (Studies and Research for new types of light bearing stress alloys), Research report, INCAS/ASR SAR , Bucharest, 2003. [11] VASILESCU, M., DOBRESCU, M., VASILESCU I., The Influence of Heat Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys Previous Treated by Shot-Peening Ti-2003 10th World Conference on Titanium, Hamburg Germany, 2003. [12] *** Catalog preliminar pentru avionul IAR-S (Preliminary catalogue for aircraft IAR-S), Institutul Naional pentru Creaie Stiinific i Tehnic, 1983. [13] *** MIL-HDBK-5 (Military Handbook), Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1988.

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

Alegerea personalizat a materialului la proiectarea construciilor metalice

The Personalized Choice of Materials in Metallic Structure Design

Mariana Petrescu, Conf. dr. ing., Facultatea de Utilaj tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest The study has a documentary profile with applications on a wide range of steel utilization. Modern concepts in metallic structure design, the evolution of the stress state of the cracking edge, as well as the factors that influence the materials response in the limit state, during the cracking process, are, in turn, presented.

1. INTRODUCERE i atunci cnd sunt luate toate msurile pentru realizarea unei construcii metalice n condiii de proiectare i execuie controlate riguros, exist posibilitatea ca dup montajul general, nainte de intrarea structurii metalice n exploatare, n zonele cele mai solicitate ale elementelor metalice fabricate s fie prezente defecte, care la solocitri variabile s genereze fisurile. Nu trebuie neglijate nici defectele interne, goluri sau incluziuni aprute la elaborare sau n fabricaie. Acestor defecte li se adaug i cele care pot aprea n exploatare datorit incidenei unor factori mecanici sau de mediu. Toi aceti factori influeneaz tenacitatea la rupere a materialului 2. CONCEPTE PRIVIND PROIECTAREA STRUCTURILOR 2.1. SOLICITRILE I CALCULUL DE REZISTEN Pentru a efectua un calcul ale crui rezultate s fie acceptate cu ncredere este necesar compararea solicitrii elementului proiectat cu rezistena pe care o confer materialul i forma alese, precum i prelucrrile la care este supus pn la forma final stabilite de proiectant. 2.2. ALEGEREA MATERIALULUI Odat tensiunile determinate, sunt necesare informaii ct mai ample privind proprietile materialelor. n present au fost elaborate programe de optimizare a alegerii materialului metalic bazate pe conceptele mecanicii ruperii.

1. INTRODUCTION Even when all measures are taken for developing a metal structure in thoroughly controlled design and execution conditions, there is the possibility that (after the general assembly and before the proper exploitation of the metallic structure, in the most stressed areas of the metallic elements) faults may occur. At various stresses, such faults could cause fractures. Nor the internal faults, i.e. the cavities or the air pockets generated during the fabrication or the elaboration process, are to be neglected. Due to the action of mechanical or environmental factors, to these faults those that may occur in exploitation can frequently add. All these factors influence the material tenacity on fracture. 2. CONCEPTS REGARDING STRUCTURE DESIGN 2.1. STRAIN AND STRENGTH CALCULATION To perform a calculation with reliable results, it is necessary to make a comparison between the stress of the designed element and the strength that the material displays, the chosen form, as well as the processing stages the material is subjected to until it reaches the final form desired by the designer. 2.2. THE CHOICE IN MATERIAL Once the tensions defined, complete information on the properties of the material is required. Presently, optimization programs in material choice have been developed, based on the mechanics of fracture concept.

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Pentru calculele de propagare a fisurii, elemental esenial este factorul de intensitate a tensiunii K. Chiar i n cazul unei solicitri compuse modul de fisurare predominant este modul I de deschidere a fisurii. Determinarea valorii factorului KI pentru componentele care conin fisuri se pot folosi expresiile din literatura de specialitate, fie cutnd soluii analitice, numerice (prin metoda elementului finit) sau experimentale. Iniierea fisurii este determinat de amplitudinea sau variaia tensiunii, n timp ce propagarea se produce datorit tensiunilor maxime Studiul care se realizeaz la proiectare este de a gsi asocierea cea mai convenabil ntre solicitare i durata de via a elementului sau sistemului. Aceasta presupune cunoatrea durabilitii materialului n funcie de tensiuni sau deformaii specifice. n cazul n care durata de via obinut prin calcul nu este satisfctoare, inginerul proiectant are posibilitatea de a interveni acionnd asupra a trei factori: Solicitarea, n sensul reducerii ei; Materialul, n sensul schimbrii sau mbuntirii materialului ales; Modificarea formei constructive. Tendina actual este de a analiza n faza de proiectare toate modurile posibile de rupere i de a ntocmi pe aceast baz un program de control al ruperii aferent elementului proiectat. Sub aceast denumire n literatura de specialitate ntlnim un ansamblu de activiti care cuprinde I identificarea factorilor care pot contribui la rupere i definirea condiiilor de serviciu; II stabilirea contribuiei fiecrui factor la posibila rupere; III alegerea criteriului de proiectare n msur s reduc la minim probabilitatea apariiei fiecrui mod de rupere; IV recomandarea datelor de proiectare ca: alegerea materialului, valorile tensiunilor admisibile, msuri de fabricaie i control pentru realizarea siguranei i fiabilitii scontate.

For crack propagation calculations, the essential element is the intensity factor of stress: K. Even in the situation of a composed stress, the dominant cracking module is the I one. For the determination of the value of the KI factor for the elements that contain cracks, either the expressions from the specialist literature can be used or the search for analytical numerical or experimental solutions, (through the method of the finite product). The crack initiations are determined by the strain amplitude or variation, while propagation occurs due to maximal strains. The study developed during the design period aims at finding the most convenient association between the strain and the "life" of the element or that of the system. This implies an accurate knowledge of the material durability in relation with strains or specific deformations. In case the "life time " of the material obtained through calculations is not satisfactory, the design engineer has the possibility to intervene on the following factors: Strain, by reducing it; Material, by changing or improving it; Construction form, by modifying it. During the design stage, the present trend is to analyze all possible cracking ways and, on this basis, to generate a cracking control program related to the designed element. In the literature, under this name, one can find an assembly of activities that contains: I identifications of factors that can contribute to fractures and defining the service conditions. II determination of the contribution of each factor on the possible fracture. III choice of the design criterion so that the occurrence of each fracture type could be reduced to a minimum. IV design data recommendation such as: the material selection, the tolerated strain values, production measures and control in order to achieve the desired safety and indurance level.

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2.3. ALEGEREA CRITERIULUI DE PROIECTARE La alegerea criteriului de proiectare trebuie luate n consideraie interaciunile dintre factorii care controleaz diferite moduri de rupere precum sunt: - tensiunile de ntindere care au influen major asupra duratei de via. Astfel viteza de cretere a fisurilor scade semnificativ atunci cnd amplitudinea tensiunii de ntindere se reduce; - dimensiunile de defect au influen asupra duratei de via. Astfel viteza de cretere a fisurilor de oboseal este foarte mic la dimensiuni de defect mici; - tenacitatea materialului, atunci cnd solicitarea materialului se face n domeniul de comportare elastic sau elasto-plastic, infleneaz mrimea defectului critic. Valorile mari ale tenacitii specifice domeniului de comportare plastic a materialului, contribuie semnificativ la mrimea durabilitii. 3. COMPORTAREA MATERIALELOR LA NTINDERE Metoda de ncercare cu cea mai larg utilizare este ncercarea la traciune i caracterizeaz proprietile mecanice ale metalelor. Rspunsul acestora la solicitare este diferit n termini de tensiune i deformaie specific i anume:

2.3. CHOICE OF THE DESIGN CRITERION On choosing the design criterion, the interactions among the factors that control different types of fractures need to be taken into consideration; these are: - elongation strains that have a major influence on the "life" of the material. So, the propagation speed of the cracks is significantly decreasing when the amplitude of the elongation strain is reduced; - the fault dimension also influences the "life" of the material. So, the growing speed in fatigue crack is very low with reduced fault dimensions; - the material tenacity - when the material strain is applied in the elastic or the elastoplastic behaviour domain - influences the size of the critical fault. The big tenacity values, specific to the plastic behaviour domain, significantly contributes to the increase of the material durability. 3. MATERIALS TENSILE STRESS BEHAVIOUR AT

The most widely spread testing method is the tensile test and it characterizes the mechanical properties of metals. Their response to strain is different in terms of strain and specific deformation as in: (3.1)

=
unde:

l l0 F , respectiv, = A0 l0

A0

l0 l

- tensiunea convenional; - fora aplicat; - aria iniial; - deformaia specific convenioanal; - distana iniial ntre repere; - distana ntre repere la fora F. De asemenea se folosesc i definiiile:

where: - conventional strain; F - applied force; A0 - initial area;

- conventional specific deformation; the initial distance between points; l0 l - the distance between points under force F. The following definitions are also used: (3.2)

* =

F l , respectiv (respectively) = ln A l0

10

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unde:

where:
- tensiunea real; - aria seciunii transversale la F; - deformaia specific real.

*
A

- real strain; - the transversal section area under F; - the real specific deformation.

Necesitatea utilizrii tensiunii i deformaiei specifice reale rezult din: - exprimarea mai fidel a creterii capacitii de ncrcare pe msura solicitrii materialului; - exprimarea creterii de lungime sub aciunea solicitrii printr-o mrime care s nu depind de faptul c deformaia s-a produs ntrun pas sau mai muli pai; - satisfacerea ipotezei volumului constant n cazul deformaiei plastice x + y + z = 0 spre deosebire de relaia (1 + x )(1 + y )(1 + z ) = 1 n cazul deformaiei specifice convenionale

The necessity of the use of strain and the real specific deformation results from: - a more realistic representation of the increase in loading capacity, as the material is strained; - the representation of length growth under strain action through a value that is not dependable on the fact that the deformation was induced in one or several steps; - the attainment of the constant volume hypothesis in the case of plastic deformation x + y + z = 0 as different from the relation

(1 + x )(1 + y )(1 + z ) = 1 in the case of conventional specific deformation. n l l (3.3) i = ln l1 + ln l2 + ... = 0 1 i =1 Legtura ntre caracteristicile la traciune reale The relation between the real traction i cele convenionale este dat de relaiile: characteristics and the conventional ones is given by: * = (1 + ) (3.4) (3.5) = ln(1 + ) Rspunsul metalelor la solicitarea de ntindere The metals response under tensile strains may poate corespunde uneia dintre tipurile de curbe: correspond to one of the curve types: Tipul I comportare elastic exprimat prin Type I elastic behaviour expressed legea lui Hooke specific strii liniare de through the Hooke Law specific to the linear solicitare: stress state (3.6) = E sau (or) * = E - modulul de elasticitate longitudinal - the longitudinal elasticity module. E E Valoarea lui E depinde de natura legturilor The E value depends on inter-atomic relations. interatomice. Type II elastic behaviour uniformly Tipul II comportare elastic omogen plastic, empirically expressed through the linear plastic exprimat empiric prin starea liniar de stress state through a parabolic relation: solicitare printr-o relaie de form parabolic (3.7) * = C n
n care: n - este coeficient de ecruisare; C - constanta de material definit ca tensiune real corespunztoare unei deformaii specifice reale de valoare unitar. where: n - the cold-hardening coefficient; C - the material constant defined as the real strain, corresponding to a real specific deformation of unitary value.

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11

Dup unii autori, oelurile pentru construcii metalice de rezisten joas pot prezenta dou stadii n procesul de ecruisare prin deformare plastic, astfel nct ecuaia devine:

According to other opinions, the steel used for low resistance metallic constructions could exhibit two stages in the cold-hardening process through plastic deformation, so that the equation becomes: (3.8.a) (3.8.b)

log * = n1 log + log C1 pentru c

log = n2 log + log C 2 pentru >c


*

unde: c reprezint deformaia criric la care au loc tranziia procesului de ecruisare de la stadiul 1 (rel. 3.8.a) la stadiul 2 (rel. 3.8.b). Departajarea n ceea ce privete comportarea unui oel dup o relaie de tip (3.7) sau (3.8) se propune a se efectua n funcie de compoziia chimic i microstructura oelului.
Tipul III comportare plastic eterogen plastic n care zona de deformare plastic eterogen corespunde unor valori 1...3% , dup care comportarea materialului este de tip omogen (tipul II). 4. STUDIU DE CAZ 4.1. STUDIUL EVOLUIEI RUPERII LA MATERIALE DUCTILE

where: c represents the critical deformation on which the transition in the cold-hardening process takes place from stage 1 (3.8.a.) to stage 2 (3.8.b). The difference in the matter of steel behaviour after a type (3.7) or (3.8) relation comes from the chemical composition and the steel microstructure. Type III plastic behaviour, heterogeneously plastic, in which the heterogeneous plastic deformation area coresponds to some values 1...3% after the behaviour of the material becomes uniformly plastic of Type II.
4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 4.1. STUDY OF FRACTURE EVOLUTION IN DUCTILE MATERIALS

Pentru studiul fenomenului de rupere s-au fcut ncercri de traciune pentru dou oeluri, ale cror caracteristici sunt date (n tabelul 1). Nr. crt. 1. 2.

For the study of fracture phenomenon some traction essays where made for two steel types with the characteristics written in table 1. TABELUL 1 KIc [MPa/mm3/2] 2025 2120

Materialul OL 44.4 EN 10027-2 OL 52.4 EN100027-2

%C 0,22 0,2

% Mn 1,16 1,65

%P 0,045 0,045

%S 0,045 0,045

Rm [MPa]

Rp0,2 [MPa]

KV [J]

430 510

280 350

27 27

Rezultatele ncercrilor sunt prezentate n tabelul 2.

The results of the essays are presented in Table 2.

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TABELUL 2 Msurtori 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 F [N] 1200 3000 3500 4000 4500 2500 5000 5400 d0 [mm] 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

S0 =

2 d 0

[mm2] 28,26 28,26 28,26 28,26 28,26 28,26 28,26 28,26

du [mm] 5 4,6 4,2 3,9 3,8 5,2 5,0 4,8

Su

d 2 f
4

Z=

S0 Su 100 S0
[%] 31 43 52 59 61 26 31 37

[MPa] 42 106 124 141,5 159,5 88 180 191

*
[MPa] 61 182,5 253 353 379 188 255 299

[mm2] 19,625 16,48 13,85 11,85 11,33 21,19 19,62 18,05

5. CONCLUZII
Din examinarea rezultatelor experimentale obinute se constat urmtoarele: materialul 2 are o comportare elastic de tip I ( * < R p 0, 2 ); materialul 1 are o comportare elastic de tip I ( * < R p 0, 2 ) pentru valori ale forei de traciune F 3500 N i o comportare elastoplastic de tip II ( * > R p 0, 2 ) pentru fore de traciune F 4000 N . Rezult c materialul 1 are o capacitate de deformare superioar la tensiuni mari i deci o capacitate mare de redistribuire a tensiunii la vrful fisurii. Aceasta favorizeaz ntrzierea procesului de rupere i deci creterea duratei de via a elmentului proiectat. Un astfel de material rezist mai bine la suprasolicitri. n condiiile realizrii unor construcii metalice de nalt performan, mecanica ruperii constituie n present un instrument verificat pentru aprecierea cantitativ i calitativ a duratei de via a construciei printr-o alegere personalizat a materialului.

Materialul 2

Materialul 1

CONCLUSIONS
Further to the examination of the experimental results, we can assess the following: material 2 features a type I elastic behaviour ( * < R p 0, 2 ); material 1 features a type I elastic bahaviour ( * < R p 0, 2 ) for values of the traction force F 3500 N and an elasto-plastic behaviour of type II ( * > R p 0, 2 ) for values of the traction force F 4000 N . Hence, material 1 exhibits a superior deformation capacity under high strains and, therefore, a higher capacity in redistributing strain at the top of the crack. This favours the delay of the facture process and, consequently, the increase of the "life time " of the designed element. Such a material endures better in overstress conditions. For obtaining high performance metallic structures, the mechanics of fracture is a most secure and well verified tool both for quantitative and qualitative assessment of the respective construction "life time", through a "personalized choice of materials".

Bibliografie: References: [1] Petrescu M. The Mechanics of Fracture, CONSPRESS Publishing House, Bucharest, 1999. [2] Teodorescu M. Metal Testing, Technical Publishing House, Bucharest, 1982. Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008 13

Performantele in regim dinamic de lucru a utilajelor de sapat si transportat pentru constructii drumuri (I)

Performance of digging and transporting machines in a dynamic working regime for road-construction (I)

Sarbu Lurentiu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti Sarbu Lurentiu, Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest e-mail: laurentiusarbu_utcb@yahoo.com

1. Introducere Articolul ii propune analiza modelului dinamic alctuit din: motor diesel transmisie hidromecanic THM - sol pentru utilajele de spat i transportat la funcionarea lor pe elementele componente ale ciclului tehnologic de lucru n regim real. 2. Calitile de traciune ale utilajului de spat i transportat
n cazul unui utilaj pentru construcii , care se realizeaz prin folosirea unui autoasiu (tractor) existent este necesar studiul performanelor autoasiului i al capacitii sale portante pentru echipament (buldozer, buldozer cu scarificator, screper, sau ncrctor etc.) . Astfel, trebuiesc cunoscui parametrii principali ai autoasiului: greutatea proprie, capacitatea de ncrcare, viteza maxim de drum n priz direct, valoarea pantei maxime pe care o poate invinge n priz direct i n treapta I de viteze, caracteristicile motorului cu care este echipat, tipul transmisiei (mecanic sau hidromecanic, etc.) i repartiia greutii pe puni [3]. De exemplu, n calculul de traciune al autoscreperului, se folosesc urmtoarele ipoteze de calcul [3] : -se neglijeaz forele de rezisten la rulare Fri i momentele de inerie ale roilor Mrj ; - = Rs/Rt reprezint raportul dintre rezistena la spare Rs i reaciunea solului Rt asupra organului de lucru . Coeficientul este funcie de tipul echipamentului care afecteaz caracteristica de traciune . -calculul reaciunilor dinamice se face pentru o patinare maxim de 20% , respectiv considernd valoarea maxim pe care o poate lua fora de traciune calculat din condiia de aderen :
14

1. Introduction This article is aimed at analyzing the dynamic pattern including: the diesel engine hydromechanics transmission (THM) earth, for earth removing and conveyor units when operating in real life, on the components of the dynamic technological cycle. 2. Traction features of the earth removal and transport equipments
For public works equipment using the existing car frame it is necessary to study the features of its frame and the supporting power of the equipment (bulldozers, scarifiers, scrapers, loading units, etc). Thus the main parameters of the car frame have to be known: its weight, loading capacity, maximum direct speed, the value of the maximum slope conquered both in direct speed and in the first velocity stage, the engine characteristics, the type of transmission (mechanics or hydromechanics, etc), as well as the weight distribution on axles [3]. For instance, we use the following calculation hypotheses to determine the traction value for the car scraper [3]: -road resistance forces Fri and the inertia movement of wheels Mri are left aside; -p= Rs/Rt represents the ratio between the soil resistance (Rs) and ground reaction (Rt) onto the working equipment. The coefficient depends on the equipment type, and it influences the drive specificity; -the dynamic reaction calculation is made for a maximum slide of 20%, taking into account the maximum value of the driving force computed according to the adherence condition:

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

(2.1) care este condiia de deplasare n regim stabilizat pe teren cu nclinare longitudinal . Pentru deplasarea la sfrit de spare : (2.2) Ft Z m Fir care este condiia pentru regimul de transport al utilajului . Se utilizeaz relaiile :

Ft X max Wir + Fir

X max = Z m

(2.1) which is the movement condition in stable operation, on a longitudinal slope. For the movement at the end of the digging process: (2.2) Ft Z m Fir representing the condition for the equipment transport regime. We use:

Ft X max Wir + Fir

n care : Xmax - fora de aderen maxim; Zm - reaciunea dinamic normal a roilor motoare ; Wir rezistena total la spare a solului ; coeficientul rezistenei drumului la deplasarea utilajului , Fir = Ga ; Ga greutatea total a utilajului de spat i transportat ; Ft fora de traciune la roile motoare Fir Ff rezistena global la rulare . Posibilitatea de deplasare a utilajului cu cupa plin pe terenuri moi sau accidentate depinde de raportul dintre coeficientul de aderen () i coeficientul rezistenei totale a drumului , notat cu CT : (2.3) CT = D / D = / unde : CT factorul capacitii de trecere ; D factorul dinamic n priz direct ( sau pentru o anumit treapt din cutia de viteze ) ; D factorul dinamic la limita de aderen , care limiteaz caracteristica dinamic de traciune D = f(v) n funcie de ncrcarea mainii . daca: CT / deplasarea utilajului este posibil ; CT / - deplasarea utilajului nu este posibil Pentru tractorul industrial, care lucreaz cu anumite echipamente (buldozer , buldozer cu scarificator, screper sau ncrctor, etc.) nu se iau n considerare forele de inerie ale maselor aflate n micare de translaie where:

X max = Z m

Xmax maximum adherence force Zm normal dynamic reaction of the drivers; Wir total soil resistance road resistance coefficient during equipment movement, Fir = Ga Ga total weight of the digging and transport equipment Ft traction force at drivers level Fir Fj global resistance against rolling The possibility of moving the equipment with full buckets on soft or bumpy ground depends on the ratio of the adherence coefficient () and the total resistance coefficient of the road , noted as CT:

CT = D / D = /

(2.3)

where: CT travel capacity factor D dynamic factor in direct speed (or for a certain gear box step): D dynamic factor at the adherence limit, restricting the dynamic thrust characteristic D=f(v) depending on the car load; if: / equipment movement is possible CT CT/ equipment movement is not possible For the car frame (industrial tractors) working with certain equipment (bulldozer, scarifiers, scraper, dumper, etc) the mass inertia forces during the translation movement are not taken into account.

3. Indicii de performan n regim dinamic a mainilor de spat i transportat[1].


n exploatarea mainilor de spat i transportat, comportarea dinamic a utilajului se bazeaz pe

3. Performance parameters of digging and transport machines in a dynamic regime [1]


During the operation of digging and transport machines, the dynamic behavior of the machine
15

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

fundamentarea criteriilor i indicilor de performant n regim real de funcionare pe ciclul tehnologic de lucru. Bilanul energetic al mainii se analizeaz pentru (fig.1): -tractor + echipament care lucreaz n regim staionar cu THM sau TM pentru ncrcare cup; -tractor + echipament n regim dinamic cu THM sau TM i mecanism hidraulic de incrcare (basculare). Patinarea este dat n funcie de timpul de ncrcare: -pentru 20% timp de ncarcare cup, patinarea este cuprins ntre 12-60% ; -pentru 20-30 % timp de ncrcare, patinarea atinge 60%. Pentru regimul tehnologic pe faze patinarea se ia 10-30%. Caracteristica de functionare a motorului n regim dinamic, corespunde pentru puterile consumate de tractor + echipament: la patinare Pp = f( Fcr), la nvingerea rezistenei globale Pf= ( Fcr, Vt) i mecanismul hidraulic de ncrcare Pmh= f ( Pe). Caracteristica de funcionare a motorului n regim staionar se ia pentru o patinare de 1030%, un coeficient de aderen maxim de 0,81,1 i un coeficient de aderen pentru lucrul n agregat tractor + echipament de 0,5-0,7.

is based on the real-time assessment of criteria and performance parameters of the technological working cycle. The energetic balance of the machine is analyzed for (fig.1): -tractor + stationary equipment with THM or TM for bucket loading; -tractor + dynamic equipment with THM or TM, and a hydraulic loading mechanism (dumping) The slide value is given function of the loading time: - for 20% bucket loading time, the resulting slide is between 12-60%; -for 20-30 % bucket loading time, the slide reaches 60%; For the phase routine the slide takes values between 10-30%. The engine operation features in a dynamic regime, for the effort of the tractor + equipment system is as follows: - during the slide Pp = f( Fcr) when overcoming global resistance Pf= ( Fcr, Vt) and the hydraulic loading equipment Pmh= f ( Pe). The engine operation characteristic in a stationary regime is taken for a slide between 10-30%, a maximum adherence coefficient between 0,8-1,1 and an adherence coefficient for functioning in the tractor +equipment aggregate of 0,5-0,7.

Fig. 1. Caracteristica potential de lucru ( Pcr) i bilanul energetic al tractorului etalon (P = 60 kW) dup[ 2] : a)- pentru ncrcare staionar; b)- pentru regim dinamic; I, II- tractor cu THM i TM; Pmh - puterea la mecanismul hidraulic; PHT, PM- puterea la HT (hidrotransformator) i puterea mecanic. The potential working characteristic (Pcr) and the energetic balance of the standard tractor (P = 60 kW) after [ 2] a) for stationary loading; for a dynamic regime; I, II- tractor with THM and TM; Phm - hydraulic mechanism power; PHT, PM- HT (hydro- transformer) power and mechanical power

Alte notaii : Pm putere motor (la pomp) ; Pcr puterea critic; Pp puterea la patinare; p16

coeficientul de patinare; Pf- puterea rezistenei global la naintare; Ff rezistena global.

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

La ncrctoarele frontale, analizate n [1], fundamentarea criteriilor i indicilor de performan n regim real de funcionare are la baz evaluarea i analiza evoluiei valorilor parametrilor statistici ai unei mrimi fizice, care "cuprinde" influenele datorate tuturor perturbaiilor interne i externe ale sistemului considerat, bazate att pe traciunea utilajului n procesul de spare dar i pe manipularea echipamentului de ncrcare n procesul tehnologic. innd cont de structura constructiv i funcional a ncrctoarelor frontale, precum i de condiiile de lucru specifice acestui tip de utilaj, n lucrarea [1] a fost adoptat ca parametru ce trebuie "monitorizat", puterea necesar sistemului de acionare a mainii. Aciunea are ca rezultat producerea efectelor dinamice diferite ca intensitate, de la o faz de lucru la alta. Aceste efecte dinamice se pot evalua cu ajutorul indicilor de performan n regim dinamic real de lucru al utilajulului: - indicele mediu de utilizare static a puterii, i1 - definit ca raportul dintre componena static a puterii medii necesar pe o faz de lucru i puterea maxim instalat a utilajului; -indicele mediu de utilizare dinamic a puterii, i2 - definit ca raportul dintre componena dinamic a puterii medii necesar pe o faz de lucru i puterea maxim instalat a utilajului ; Other notations: Pm-engine power (at pump level); Pcr- critical power; Pp- sliding power; p -

The action has as a result the production of dynamic effects with a different intensity level for each phase. These dynamic effects can be assessed with the help of performance parameters in the real time working regime of the machine [1] . -the average parameter of static usage of power i1 - defined as a ratio between the static

sliding coefficient; Pf power of global resistance to movement; Ff global resistance. In the case of frontal loaders, analyzed in [1], the appraisal of criteria and performance parameters in a real time operation regime is based on the assessment and analysis of the development of statistical parameters values for a physical unit, which covers the effects caused by all internal and external perturbations of the considered system, based both on the traction of the machine during the digging process, and on the loading equipment handling during the technological process. Taking into account the functional and constructive structure of the frontal loaders, as well as the working conditions specific for this type of machine, paper [1] chose the power required for operating the machine drive, as a parameter to be monitored.

-the average parameter of dynamic usage of power i2 - defined as a ratio between the dynamic

component of the average power needed during a working phase and the maximum installed power of the machine;

component of the average power needed during a working phase and the maximum installed power of the machine;

putere totala instantanee


30 25 20 Putere, [kW] 15 10 5 0 0.0 3.5 6.6 9.7 12.7 15.7 18.8 22.0 27.8 31.7 34.5 38.5 Timp, [s]

putere totala medie

Fig. 2. Necesarul de putere pentru un ciclu standard de lucru la un ncrcator frontal rapid ( tip MMT 45 - Promex S.A.) dup [ 1 ]. The necessary power for a standard working cycle of a fast-frontal-loader (MMT 45 type - Promex S.A.) after[ 1]

- indicele mediu real de utilizare a puterii, i3 - definit ca raportul dintre valoarea total a

puterii medii necesar pe o faz de lucru i puterea maxim instalat a utilajului;


17

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

-indicele mediu de multiplicare dinamic a puterii, i4 - definit ca raportul dintre valoarea total a puterii medii i componenta static a acesteia, necesare pe o faz de lucru.
Valoarea indicilor de performan ai ncarcatoarelor frontale rapide se analizeaz pentru fiecare faz a procesului tehnologic de lucru ( fig.3).

-the average real usage parameter of power i3 defined as a ratio between the final value of the average power needed for a working phase and the maximum installed power of the machine; -the average dynamic multiplication power parameter i4 - defined as a ratio between the final value of the average power and its static component, necessary in one working phase. The value of the performance parameters of the fast-frontal-loaders is analyzed for each phase of the technological working process (fig.3).

4.Dinamica funcionarii utilajului de spat i transportat n funcie de regimul tehnologic de lucru efectuat
Pentru stabilirea modelului matematic de lucru al tractorului industrial ( cu THM ) cu echipamente de construcii drumuri, n [2] se pornete considernd regimul dinamic de traciune al tractorului n agregat cu echipamentul buldozer scarificator . Se consider funcionarea acestuia pe elementele ciclului tehnologic de exploatare . Pentru a nvinge rezistena totala la naintare , fora de traciune pe elementele ciclului este asigurat cu ajutorul rapoartelor de transmitere . n [2] se folosete noiunea de factor de transmitere ( iM ) pentru treptele de viteze deoarece la proiectarea unui utilaj nou nu se tie nc raza roii motoare ( iM = it / rR ), cu ajutorul cruia se obine fora de tractiune necesar pentru spare transport a materialului i se determin potenialul energetic pe ciclul tehnologic de lucru . Potenialul energetic specific mediu pe treptele de lucru este o funcie care ine seama de: factorii de transmitere ai tractorului, de aderen maxim la roat pe treptele de viteze folosite. El este apreciat cu ajutorul schemei dinamica de lucru a transmisiei, i respectiv, de distana de spare [2] . Potenialul energetic specific mediu este egal cu suma potenialelor energetice pe treptele de viteze care depind de distribuia aderenei i a distanei de spare n funcie de tipul de agregare al tractorului cu echipamentul.

4. Dynamics of the digging and transporting equipment operation according to the technological working regime
To set the mathematical working pattern for the industrial tractor (with THM) using road building equipment, paper [2] uses the dynamic regime of the tractor in an aggregate with a bulldozer scarifier equipment. Take its operation on the components of the technological cycle being used. To overcome the total resistance to advance, the traction force on cycle components is reached with the help of transmission ratios. In paper [2] the transmission factor (iM) is used for speed stages, because when designing a new machine the driver radius (iM = it / rR) is not known yet; this is used to reach the traction force required for the digging and transport of the building material, and to set the power potential of the technological working cycle. The specific average power potential on working stages is a function of the tractor transmission factors, of the maximum wheel adherence for each speed stage, and of the digging distance, respectively. The specific average power potential equals the sum of the power potential levels for the speed stages depending on the adherence distribution and on the digging distance, depending on tractor equipment aggregate type.

18

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

P spn ( iMI , iMII , iM ,LiMn , iM , S p , 1 , y2 ,L, yn 1 ) =

Rmax S pi 1

Pspn ( iM n , R max , S p ) F ( R max ) F ( S p ) d R max dS p +


S pv

S pv

+ Pspn 1 ( iM , R max , S p ) F ( R max ) F ( S p ) d R max dS p L


Rmax S pi

(4.1)

RmaxV S pv n 1
S pi

PspI ( iMI , R max , S p ) F ( Rmax ) F ( S p ) d R max dS p


The integration limits of the adherence function are divided from Rmaxi (on lower speed stages at sliding operation) to Rmaxi (corresponding to the technological transport speed). The integration limits of the function represented by the digging distance vary between the sliding advance (depending on the transmitting factor iM) and the advance with a transport technological speed corresponding to TH operation. 1 , 2 , . , n-1 working intervals of the adhesion function corresponding to the transmission ratios (from 1 to n) for transport on the technological cycle F(Rmax) , F(Sp) - likely distributions of the adherence function and digging distance, respectively The application of the working technology is achieved with Rmax and STp = constant. Then, the transmission acceleration jTP and speed Tp are characteristic for the working process. The mean acceleration and speed jTH and TH for THM operation (for digging - transport) depend on: car power, transport speed and adherence distribution laws over the digging distance. These are expressed as follows [2]:

Limitele de integrare ale funciei de aderen sunt mprite de la Rmaxi ( pe treptele inferioare cu patinare) la RmaxV ( corespunztoare vitezei de transport) . Limitele de integrare ale functiei reprezentate de distana de spare , variaz ntre cea parcurs ( funcie de factorul de transmitere iM ) cu patinare i cea parcurs cu viteza tehnologic de transport corespunztoare funcionrii TH 1 , 2 , . , n-1 intervalele de lucru ale funciei de aderen corespunztoare rapoartelor de transmitere ( de la 1 la n) pentru transport pe ciclul tehnologic. F(Rmax) , F(Sp) distribuiile probabilistice ale funciei de aderen i respectiv a distanei de spare. Se consider c tehnologia de lucru a utilajului se execut cu Rmax i STp = const . Atunci acceleraia jTP i viteza Tp caracterizeaz procesul de lucru al utilajului. Acceleraia i viteza medie jTH i TH la funcionarea THM ( pentru. spare transport ) sunt exprimate n funcie de: puterea mainii , viteza de transport i legile de distribuie ale aderenei pe distana de spare. Acestea sunt exprimate prin relaii de forma [2] :

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

19

j TH

I N cr ,S ,T ( R ,TH ) f ( R ,TH ) d R ,TH L + 0 II S = + N cr , S ,T ( R ,TH ) f ( R ,TH ) d R ,TH L + TH I TH + N cr , S ,T ( R ,TH ) f ( R ,TH ) d R ,TH


p n p n 1 Rmax p I n 1

(4.2)

TH = VTH ,T ( R ,TH ) f ( R ,TH ) d R ,TH +


L+

I
0

II
0

VTHI ( R ,TH ) f ( R ,TH ) d R ,TH

II
0

VTH ,T ( R ,TH ) f ( R ,TH ) d R ,TH +


n

(4.3)

unde:I , II , .. , n-1 reprezint intervalele de lucru a TH n funcie de aderen R pe treptele de viteze pentru spare transport . Dac aderena critic cr este considerat i ea variabil n procesul de lucru datorit modificrii ncrcrilor dinamice pe punti, se poate exprima acceleraia i viteza medie pe treptele de viteze innd seama de timpii de funcionare ai TH pe treptele respective (funcie de turaie) :

intervals of TH depending on the adherence function R over speed stages for digging and transport using THM. If the critical adherence cr is also considered as a variable in the working process, due the changes of the dynamic loads on bridges, the average acceleration and speed of the hydro-mechanical transmission can be rendered over the working stages, taking into account the working periods of TH on the corresponding stages (depending on the rotation speed );
TH ,TII

where: I, II, ., n-1 represent the working

j TH

T T cr ,TH ( tTH ) VTH ,n cr ,TH ( tTH ) VTH ,n 1 cr ,TH ( tTH ) dt + cr ,TH ( tTH ) dt TH TH T TTH ,T TTH ,T 0 = T cr ,TH ( tTH ) VTH ,TI cr ,TH ( tTH ) dt TH T TTH ,TI
TH ,TI n TH ,TI n 1 TH ,Tn TH ,Tn 1

TH

STH
(4.4)
TTH ,TI T VTH ,T VTH ,n1 cr ,TH ( tTH ) dt + cr ,TH ( tTH ) dt + L TH TH TTH ,T TTH ,T T
TH ,TII n n TH ,TI n 1

TH =
0

(4.5)

+
20

TTH ,Tn

VTH ,TI cr ,TH ( tTH ) TTH ,TI

dtTH

TTH ,Tn 1

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

unde: TTH,TI , TTH,TII , .. , TTH,Tn timpii de lucru corespunztori treptelor de viteze a THM pentru transportul materialului . Diapazonul de exploatare al mainii se face la Rmax i STp ( adic distana de transport a pmntului ). Potenialul energetic specific mediu pe treptele inferioare de lucru la spare (cu raportul iMP) este funcie de aderena roilor pe aceste intervale de spare, la funcionarea utilajului pe caracteristica de lucru a motorului [2] .

where: TTH,TI, TTH,TII,.TTH,Tn working periods corresponding to speed stages of hydromechanical transmission operation for the transport of the building material. The machine operation range is calculated for Rmax and STp (that is, the distance to which bulldozers are taking the soil load). The specific mean power potential on lower speed stages during digging (using the iMP ratio) depends on the wheel adherence over these intervals, and on the digging distance according to specific engine working characteristics [2].

Psp ,nc iMPI , iMPII ,L, iMP , iMTI , iMTII , R , ST , I , II ,L, n 1 , 1 , 2 ,L, n 1 =
n max p

Rmax STHI

PSP ,Pn ( iMPn , iMTI , iMTII ,L, iMTn , R , STH ) F ( R


max

STHV

max

) F ( S ) d
TH TH Rmax

Rmax

dSTH + L

(4.6)

Rmax STHV n 1 STHI

PSP ,PI ( iMPI , iMTII , iMTn , R , STH ) F ( R


max

max

) F ( S ) d

dSTH

unde: iMP, iMT sunt factorii de transmitere pe treptele inferioare de spare, respective pe cele superioare de transport a materialului. F(Rmax ) , F( STH ) distribuiile probabilistice ale aderenei roilor i distanei de spare a pmantului la funcionarea THM a tractorului n agregat cu buldozer scarificator sau screper . Ecuaiile ( 4.1 4.6 ) reprezint modelul matematic al funcionrii tractorului cu THM n agregat cu echipamente de spat i transportat pentru un ciclu tehnologic de lucru . Pe componentele ciclului tehnologic utilajul poate funciona n regim staionar sau n regim dinamic . Potenialul energetic specific mediu corelat pe ciclul de lucru este egal cu suma potenialelor specifice medii realizate n cazul agregrii tractorului (cu buldozer, buldozer - scarificator sau screper), dat de relaia :

where: iMP, iMT the transmission factors of lower digging stages, and upper material transport stages respectively. F(Rmax), F(STH) are the likely distribution values of wheel adherence and ground digging distance for THM tractor operation with scarified or scraper. The equations (4.1-4.6) represent the mathematical pattern of a THM tractor, operating together with digging and transport equipment for a technological working cycle. On the technological cycle components, the equipment may run steadily or dynamically. The specific mean power potential correlated on the working cycle is equal to the sum of the specific mean potentials for the tractor aggregation (with bulldozer, scarifier or scraper) given in the equation:

P0,sp = Psp i
i =1

(4.7)

P0,sp = Psp i
i =1

(4.7)

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

21

unde: i este funcia de corelaie , corespunztoare agregrii tractorului n procesul de spare Greutate medie a pmntului spat raportat la putere [2] :
g p = G Tr / Ga Psp

(4.8)

where: i is the correlation function corresponding to the tractor aggregation during the digging process. The ration of the medium dug soil weight and the power [2]:
g p = G Tr / G a Psp

unde : GTr , Ga este media matematic a greutii pmntului transportat pe ciclul tehnologic , respectiv greutatea agregatului tractor echipament ( care este determinata de masa aparenta corespunzatoare regimului dinamic al utilajului ). Media factorului de greutate al pmantului spat , va depinde la rndul ei de aderen , distana de spare prin funciile de distribuie la categoria respectiv de utilaje :
gp =
Rmax S pv Rmax S pi

(4.8)

where: GTr, Ga the mathematical average of the soil weight transported on the technological cycle, and the tractor-equipment weight, respectively (determined by the apparent mass corresponding to the dynamic regime of the equipment). The average weight factor of the sunken soil also depends on the adherence and digging distance, by means of the distribution functions of the respective equipment category:
gp =
Rmax S pv Rmax S pi

g p F R

max

)F ( S ) d
p

Rmax

d R dS p
max

(4.9)

g p F R

max

)F ( S ) d
p

Rmax

d R dS p (4.9
max

unde: funciile F(Rmax ) i F( Sp) respect distribuia Waibull specific proceselor de lucru la utilajele de spat i transportat , determinat experimental n [2] .

where: functions F(Rmax) and F(Sp) keep the Waibull distribution of the working process of the digging and transport equipment, experimentally determined in [2].

5. Comentarii
1.THM la utilajele de spat i transportat lucreaz pe toate treptele de viteze ale transmisiei. Pentru buldozer cu scarificator, iTH ia valori apropiate [2] ntre 0.76 0.79. 2. Utilajele de spat i transportat execut sparea pmntului cu patinarea roilor motoare. Pentru calculul forei de traciune n funcie de aderen se ia n considerare patinarea roilor n regim de 20, 30, 70 sau 100% . 3. Fora de rezisten global la rulare Ff i fora critic dezvoltat la spare Fcr pentru transmisiile hidromecanice sunt funcie de viteza de transport VT . Fora de rezisten global la rulare n regim de transport depinde de : (5.1) Ff = Ff [VT(T)] = Ff(VT) 4. Aciunea forelor de rezistent n procesul de ncrcare a cupei este un proces aleator. Aceasta faz de lucru ( la fel ca i la screper), este cea mai solicitant din punct de vedere dinamic pentru sistemul de acionare a mainii (fig.3).

5. Comments
1. For the digging and transport machines equipped with THM, working on all operating stages (scarified) iTH has close values between 0.76 0.74 according to [2]. 2. The digging and transport units sink the soil by driver sliding. To estimate the drive force depending on the adherence, the wheel sliding in a 20, 30, 70 or 400% regime is in use. 3. The digging global resistance force for tractors (Ff) and the critical sinking force (Fcr) for hydromechanics transmission depend on the transport speed VT. (5.1) Ff = Ff [VT(T)] = Ff(VT) 4. The action of resistance forces in the bucket loading process is a random process. This working phase (as in the case of scrapers) is the toughest from a dynamic point of view for the control drive system of the machine (fig.3).

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Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

Fig.3. Diagrama indicatorilor de calitate pe regimul de lucru real bazat pe evaluarea i analiza statistic a valorilor parametrilor consumului de putere pentru incrctorul frontal (la nisip i pamnt) ; pe fiecare regim tranzitoriu de lucru real : deplasare cu cupa goal, ncrcare cup i retragere cu cupa plin [1]. Diagram of the quality indices on the real working state based on the assessment and analysis of the power consumption for the frontal loader (for sand and soil) ; on each transient working state : movement with the empty bucket, loaded bucket and retreat with a full bucket [1].

5.Unele rezultate obinute din studiile efectuate n [2], asupra performanelor de lucru a utilajelor de spat i transportat , care folosesc motoare Diesel i THM cu diferite caracteristici [i variaia parametrilor (Psp , gp , Cs) = f(iM) ] sunt prezentate n figura 4. Coeficientul solicitarii transmisiei hidrtomecanice THM comparativ cu cea mecanica TM este dat de relaia (5.2). Variaia sa fiind prezentat n fig.4 [2]:mecanica TM este dat de relaia (5.2). Variaia sa fiind prezentat n fig.4,c [2]:

5. Some of the results of the studies made in [2] about the operating performances of the digging and transport units using Diesel engines and THM with different characteristics [and the parameters variation (Psp , gp , Cs) = f(iM) ] are shown in fig. 4 The coefficient of the THM hydromechanics transmission stress compared to the mechanic TM is given by the relation (5.2). Its variation is shown in Fig.4,c [2]:

P Cs = 100 1 spTM P spTHM

(5.2)

P Cs = 100 1 spTM P spTHM

(5.2)

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23

Fig 4. Variaia parametrilor Psp,gp,Cs n funcie de iM : a) un singur raport de transmisie ; b) mai multe rapoarte de transmisie ; c) numai unul (curba 1) , dou rapoarte (curba 2,I TM ; curba 2,II THM)[2] Psp puterea specific medie la TM; Psp,t puterea specific medie la THM; gp factorul de greutate medie al pmantului spat ; Cs coeficientul de solicitare a transmisiei TM-THM. Variation of parameters Psp,gp,Cs depending on iM: a single transmission ratio; b) several transmission ratios; c) only one ratio (curve 1), two ratios (curve 2, I TM/3, curve 2, II THM); Psp mean specific power for TM; Psp,t mean specific power for THM; gp mean weight factor of sunk soil; Cs coefficient of transmission stress TM-THM

Les performances en rgime dynamique de travail des utillages ncessaires au piochage et au transport pour la construction des chemins (I) Rsum L article propose lanalyse du modle dynamique de moteur diesel-transmission hydrodynamique (THM)-sol, pour des outillages de piochage et de transport (UST). Lanalyse du fonctionnement des machines est fonde sur les elements du cycle technologique de travail en rgime rel. On port du potentiel et du bilan nergetique du tracteur en agrgat avec des quipments diffrents. On dtermine ensuite la consolidation des critrions de performance en rgime rel de fonctionnement. Bibliografie:

[1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7].

DEBELEAC,C. - O metod nou de analiz a performanei n regim dinamic a ncrctoarelor frontale, SINUC 2006, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, Facultatea Utilaj Tehnologic, dec.2006. GHINZBURG, IU,V. s.a.- Promisiennie Tractor, Moscova, Masinostroenie, 1986. SARBU, L. Maini de traciune i transport pentru construcii, Vol. 1+2, Editura Ion Creanga, Bucureti, 2002. *** - CASE Construction Equipment, Professional Partner, Printed, in Italy, 2006. *** - Komatsu Krauler Dozer D 65 Ex-15/D65 Px-15, 16p. *** - D3G, D4G, D5G, Trak-Type Tractors, Gros power 57,65,74 kw, Caterpillar, 2003. *** - 950H wheel loader caterpillar, C7 Diesel Engine with ACERT Technology, Bucket capacities 1,7 to, 4,6 cm, Caterpillar, 2006.

[8].

*** - Wheel loader WA 700-3 Komatsu, Flywheel Horse-power 478 kw (641 CP), Bucket capacities 8,7 to, 9,4 mc, Komatsu Europe International, Printed in Belgium, 2001.

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Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

Performanele n regim dinamic de lucru a utilajelor de spat i transportat pentru construcii drumuri (II)

Performance of digging and transporting machines in a dynamic working regime for road - construction (II)

Sarbu Lurentiu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, e-mail: laurentiusarbu_utcb@yahoo.com

1.Introducere
Una din problemele fundamentale ale calculului de traciune la utilajele de spat i transportat este determinarea puterii motorului, stabilirea caracteristicilor sale exterioare, i a rapoartelor de transmitere ale transmisiei, care asigur mainii calitile de traciune necesare. Se analizeaz modelul dinamic alctuit din: motor termic- transmisie hidromecanic THM sol pentru utilajele de spat i transportat la funcionarea lor pe elementele componente ale ciclului tehnologic de lucru n regim real.

1. Introduction
One of the basic problems of traction calculation is to set the engine power and establish its external characteristics, as well as the rates of transmission convection that give the car the required drive features. This article is aimed at to analyzing the dynamic pattern of the diesel engine- hydromechanics transmission (THM) soil, for the soil-digging and transport machines operating on the components of the dynamic technological cycle in a real life regime.

2. Tractiunea screperului cu transmisie hidromecanic (THM)


Pentru tractorul industrial, care lucreaz cu anumite echipamente (buldozer, buldozer cu scarificator, screper sau ncrctor, etc.) nu se iau n considerare forele de inerie ale maselor aflate n micare de translaie . Calitile de traciune i de vitez ale tractorului cuplat cu screperul sunt determinate de [4]: -caracteristica de regulator a motorului, Fm* ; -caracteristica exterioar a convertizorului hidraulic ( CH) ; -raportul de transmitere al prii mecanice a transmisiei hidromecanice ; -caracteristica forelor motoare . Pentru calculul de traciune al utilajului se folosete metoda grafo analitic indicat n [4].

2. Scraper Traction Power with Hydromechanics Transmission (THM)


For the car frame (industrial tractors) working with certain equipment (bulldozer, scarifiers, scrapers, dumpers, etc) the inertia forces of the masses in translation movement are not taken into account. The drive and speed characteristics of the tractor connected with the scraper are determined by [4]: -engine regulating characteristic, Fm*; -external characteristic of the hydraulic converter (CH) -transmission ratio of the mechanical part of hydromechanics transmission - driving force characteristic To calculate the equipment traction the graphanalytical method in [4] is used.

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25

Fig 1. Metoda grafic pentru calculul raportului de transmitere pe treapta I de viteze a screperului cu THM [4] Graphic method to calculate the transmission ratio on the first speed stage of the scraper with THM [4]

Parametrul principal iniial este caracteristica de ieire a cuplului motor convertizor ( cadranul II , fig. 1) , unde n loc de t se introduce t c , n care : c randamentul maxim al convertizorului ; t randamentul prii mecanice din THM . Particularitile calculului de traciune (la asiul cu THM indicat n [4]), const n determinarea raportului de transmitere al prii mecanice din THM pe prima treapt de lucru. n cadranul II se reprezint caracteristica de ieire a grupului M C n funcie de momentul obinut la roata turbinei Mmt ; Mmp momentul motor la pompa TH ; Pmp este puterea la pompa TH . n cadranul I se traseaz curba coeficientului de patinare a roilor motoare . Se determin 001 = Fr fora de rezisten la rulare . Pe vertical se traseaz valoarea coeficientului de patinare a roilor motoare p = 100% , care trebuie s corespund lui c , Mmsup , Mminf - sunt valorile momentului motor superior i inferior pe caracteristica de funcionare comun a motorului cu THM , ( fig. 1 , cadranul II ) .

The main initial parameter is the output characteristic of the engine-converter (quadrant II V, Fig.) where t c take the place of t, where: c converter maximum output t mechanical part output from THM Traction computation features (for the car frame with THM shown in [4]), consists in determining the ratio of transmitting the mechanical part from THM on the first working stage. Quadrant II shows the output characteristic for the M-C group depending on the moment obtained at the turbine wheel Mmt; Mmp = driving moment at pump TH Pmp = power at pump TH In quadrant I the curve of the drivers sliding coefficient is drawn. The run resistance force 001 = Fr is calculated. The value of the drivers sliding coefficient is vertically drawn, p = 100%, notably corresponding to c; Mmsup, Mminf - are the upper and lower values of the driving moment on the common working characteristic of the engine with THM (Fig. 1, quadrant II).

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Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

Din a1 se duce orizontala care intersecteaz p n a2, se coboar apoi pe vertical i se obine Ft , adic fora de traciune determinat din condiia de aderen . Valoarea forei nominale de traciune Ftn = ( 0.7 0.73 ) Ft corespunde unei patinri p = 20% . Se stabilesc n cadranul II , valorile : Pmmax puterea caracteristicii motor convertizor i randamentul cmax , prin punctele a4 i a5 . Calculul raportului general de transmitere a prii mecanice a THM , i1 , se face punnd condiia ca pentru Ftn , regimul de lucru al roilor motoare s coincid cu regimul de lucru M C. n acest scop , prin a3 se duce o vertical i prin a4 o orizontal care se ntlnesc n a. Pentru a obine coincidena regimurilor de lucru, trebuie ca dreapta FR s treac prin O1 i a. Deci, raportul general de transmitere al prii mecanice va fi: a) Ft < Ftn , i1= [(Ftn + Fr) r] / ( Mmt t ) b) Ft > Ftn , i1= [(Ft + Fr) r] / ( Mmax t ), (2.1) unde: Mmt este momentul motor la arborele turbinei corespunztor puterii maxime pe caracteristica M C . Mmax - este momentul maxim al motorului.

From a1 the horizontal which crosses p in a2 is drawn; it descends on the vertical axis and we get Ft, i.e. the traction force stated from the adherence condition. The nominal traction force value Ftn = (0.7-0.73) Ft corresponds to a sliding movement of p = 20%. In quadrant II the following values are set: Pmmax the power of engine-converter characteristic, along with output cmax, through points a4 and a5. The general transmission computation ratio for the mechanical part of THM, i1 is done provided that for Ftn , the M-C working regime stays the same. For this, a vertical axis is drawn through a3 and a horizontal through a4 that meet in a. To gain a coincidence of the working regimes, the straight line FR must pass through O1 and a. So, the general transmission ratio of the mechanical part is: a) Ft < Ftn , i1= [(Ftn + Fr) r] / ( Mmt t ) b) Ft > Ftn , i1= [(Ft + Fr) r] / ( Mmax t ), (2.1) where: Mmt is the driving moment at the level of the turbine shaft corresponding to a maximum power with M-C characteristic. Mmax - engine maximum moment

3. Performana n regim dinamic a mainilor de spat i transportat n funcie de ciclul tehnologic efectuat[1,2].
Pentru regimul tehnologic pe faze patinarea se ia 10-30%. Caracteristica de funcionare a motorului n regim dinamic, corespunde pentru puterile consumate de tractor + echipament: la patinare Pp = f (Fcr), la nvingerea rezistenei globale Pf = (Fcr,Vt) i pentru mecanismul hidraulic de ncrcare Pmh = f ( Pe). Caracteristica de funcionare a motorului n regim staionar se ia pentru o patinare de 10-30%, un coeficient maxim de aderen de 0,8-1,1 i un coeficient de aderen pentru lucrul n agregat tractor + echipament de 0,5-0,7. La ncrctoarele frontale, fundamentarea criteriilor i indicilor de performan n regim real de funcionare are la baz evaluarea i analiza evoluiei valorilor parametrilor statistici pentru puterea necesar sistemului de acionare al mainii, care cuprinde influenele datorate tuturor perturbaiilor interne i externe ale sistemului considerat, bazate att pe traciunea utilajului n procesul de spare dar i pe manipularea

3. Performance of digging and transporting machines in a dynamic regime according to the technological working cycle [1,2].
For the technological regime on phases the sliding takes values between 10-30%. The working characteristics of the engine in a real time regime correspond for the consumed power values of the tractor + equipment aggregate: -in sliding mode Pp = f (Fcr), exceeding global resistance Pf = (Fcr,Vt) and for the hydraulic loading equipment Pmh = f ( Pe). The operational characteristic of the engine in real time regime is taken for a slide between 1030%, an adherence coefficient of maximum value between 0,8-1,1 and an adherence coefficient for functioning in the tractor + equipment unit of 0,5-0,7. At frontal loaders, the appraisal of criteria and performance parameters in real time operational regime is based on the assessment and analysis of the statistic parameters values, which includes the influences caused by all internal and external perturbations
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Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

echipamentului de ncrcare n procesul tehnologic. Aciunea forelor de rezisten n procesul de ncrcare a cupei este un proces aleator. Aceast faz de lucru (la fel ca i la screper), este cea mai solicitant din punct de vedere dinamic pentru sistemul de actionare a mainii. Aciunea are ca rezultat producerea efectelor dinamice diferite ca intensitate, de la o faz de lucru la alta. Aceste efecte dinamice se pot evalua cu ajutorul indicilor de performan n regim dinamic real de lucru al utilajulului [1]: - indicele mediu de utilizare static a puterii, i1 ; - indicele mediu de utilizare dinamic a puterii, i2 ; - indicele mediu real de utilizare a puterii, i3; - indicele mediu de multiplicare dinamic a puterii, i4 . Valoarea indicilor de performan a incrctoarelor frontale rapide se analizeaz pentru fiecare faz a procesului tehnologic de lucru (v. graficul din fig.3, Partea I). Pentru stabilirea modelului matematic de lucru al tractorului industrial (cu THM) cu echipamente de construcii drumuri , n lucrarea [2] se pornete considernd regimul dinamic de traciune al tractorului n agregat cu echipamentul buldozer scarificator . Se consider funcionarea acestuia pe elementele ciclului tehnologic de exploatare. Pentru a nvinge rezistena total la naintare, fora de traciune pe elementele ciclului este asigurat cu ajutorul rapoartelor de transmitere. n [2] se folosete noiunea de factor de transmitere iM pentru treptele de viteze, deoarece la proiectarea unui utilaj nou nu se tie nc raza roii motoare ( iM = it / rR ), cu ajutorul cruia se obine fora de traciune necesar pentru spare transport a materialului i se determin potenialul energetic pe ciclul tehnologic de lucru . Potenialul energetic specific mediu pe treptele de lucru este o funcie care ine seama de: factorii de transmitere ai tractorului, de aderena maxim la roat pe treptele de viteze folosite. El este apreciat cu ajutorul schemei de lucru a transmisiei indicat in figura 2: a) TM i b) THM], i distana de spare [2]. Potenialul energetic specific mediu este egal cu suma potenialelor energetice pe treptele de viteze care depind de distribuia aderenei
28

of the considered system, based on the machine traction during the digging process and on the handling of the loading equipment during the technological process. This work phase (the same as for scrapers) is the toughest, from a dynamic point of view, for the control drive system of the machine. The action has as a result the production of dynamic effects with different intensity from one phase to another. These dynamic effects can be assessed with help of performance parameters in the real time working regime of the machine [1] . -the average parameter of static usage of power i1; -the mean parameter of dynamic usage of power i2; -the mean real usage parameter of power i3; -the average dynamic multiplication power parameter i4 The value of performance parameters of fastfrontal-loaders is analyzed for each phase of the technological working process (fig.3, Part I). To set the mathematical working pattern for the industrial tractor (with THM) with roadbuilding equipment, in paper [2] the dynamic regime of the tractor with bulldozer scarifier is taken into account. Its operation is set on the components of the technological cycle in use. To overcome the total road resistance the traction force on the cycle components is ensured with the help of transmission ratios. Paper [2] uses the term of transmission factor (iM) for speed stages, because when designing a new machine tool the driver radius is not known yet (iM = it/tR); this is used to set the traction force necessary for digging and transport, and to determine the power potential on the technological cycle. The specific average power potential on working stages is a function of the tractor transmitting factors, of the wheel maximum adherence on the used speed stages: see Fig 2: a) TM and b) THM, and the digging distance, respectively [2]. The specific average power potential is equal with the sum of the power potentials on the speed stages depending on the adherence

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

i a distanei de spare n funcie de tipul de agregare al tractorului cu echipamentul (relatia 4.1, partea I) Limitele de integrare ale funciei de aderen sunt mprite de la Rmaxi ( pe treptele de viteze inferioare cu patinare ) la RmaxV ( corespunztoare vitezei de transport) . n cazul screperului sau buldozerului cu scarificator, ciclul de lucru const n sparea pmntului (sau scarificare) urmat de transportul acestuia i apoi deplasarea n gol pentru reluarea ciclului tehnologic. THM poate funciona pe toate treptele de transmitere. Raportul de transmitere iTH al prii hidraulice a transmisiei se schimb n procesul de spare transport n funcie de caracteristica de lucru a TH Acceleraia i viteza medie jTH i TH la funcionarea THM ( pentru. spare transport ) sunt exprimate n funcie de: puterea mainii , viteza de transport i legile de distribuie ale aderenei pe distana de spare (v. relatiile 4.2-4.3, ParteaI). Calitile de traciune vitez ale tractorului (cu THM) cu echipamente de spat i transportat , specifice analizei regimurilor dinamice de lucru , sunt determinate de caracteristicile medii de funcionare ale ansamblului motor transmisie , exprimate n funcie de aderena roilor i legea de distribuie a acesteia ; ele fiind indicate n [2] sub forma : -Momentul motor mediu dezvoltat din condiia de aderen a utilajului( pct.1)

distribution and digging distance, according to the type of equipment connected to the tractor (4.1, part I). The integration limits of the adherence function are from Rmaxi (on lower speed stages for sliding operation) to RmaxV (corresponding to the technological transport speed). For scrapers and scarifiers, the working cycle means the earth digging (or scarifying), its transportation and idle movement to restart the technological cycle. THM may work on all drive stages. The transmission ratio iTH of the hydraulic part is changed during the diggingtransport process according to the working characteristic of TH. The mean acceleration and speed,

jTH and

TH at THM operation (for digging-transport)


depend on: car power, transport speed and distribution laws of the adherence function along the digging distance. (These are done 4.24.3, Part I [2]). The traction-speed tractor features (with THM) with digging and transport units specific for the analysis of working dynamic regimes, are determined by the mean operating characteristics of the engine-transmission assembly, depending on the wheel adherence as well as on its distribution law; they are shown in [2] as follows: -The necessary mean motor moment expanded from the implement adherence condition (pt. 1):

M m = M m ( R ) f ( R ) d R
0

Rmax

(3.1)

-Puterea medie dezvoltat la turbina TH din condiia de aderen a utilajului :

M m = M m ( R ) f ( R ) d R
0

Rmax

(3.1)

N T = N T ( R ) f ( R ) d R
0

Rmax

-The mean power expanded at the TH turbine derived from the adherence condition:

(3.2)

-Turaia medie la arbore a turbinei TH din condiia de aderen a utilajului :

NT =

Rmax
0

N T ( R ) f ( R ) d R

(3.2)

n = nT ( R ) f ( R )d R
T

Rmax
0

-Mean rotation speed of TH turbine shaft derived from the adherence condition:

(3.3)

-Raportul de transmitere mediu al TH din condiia de aderen a utilajului (pct.1) :

n T = nT ( R ) f ( R )d R
0

Rmax

(3.3)

-Mean transmission ratio of TH hydraulic part derived from the adherence condition (point 1):

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29

i TH = iTH ( R ) f ( R ) d R
0

Rmax

(3.4)

i TH = iTH ( R ) f ( R ) d R
0

Rmax

(3.4)

-Viteza de deplasare medie a tractorului cu TH din condiia de aderen (reg. tehnologic) :

-TH-tractor average moving speed from adherence condition (technological regime):

Vd = Vd ( R ) f ( R ) d R
0

Rmax

(3.5)

Vd = Vd ( R ) f ( R ) d R
0

Rmax

(3.5)

-Puterea critic medie de traciune din ecuaia bilanului de traciune la funcionarea n regim dinamic ( regim tehnologic de spare):

-Men critical traction power from traction balance equation when operating in a dynamic transient regime (technological digging regime):

N cr =

Rmax
0

N cr ( R ) f ( R ) d R

(3.6)

N cr =

Rmax
0

N cr ( R ) f ( R ) d R

(3.6)

4. Modelul dinamic al transmisiei


Schemele dinamice ale transmisiilor pentru autoasiuri echipate cu TM sau THM sunt prezentate n figura 2 [2,3] Ecuaia diferenial a funcionrii tractorului cu TM redus la arborele motorului este o funcie de vitez unghiular a motorului M . Aceasta are expresia : . MM(M) Ms(t) = ( JM + Jd1 + Jd2 ) M , (4.1) Unde : MM , Ms este momentul motorului respectiv momentul static redus . M , M viteza unghiular a motorului i respectiv acceleraia JM momentul de inerie al maselor motorului n micare de rotaie Jd1 momentul de inerie al agregatului ( tractor + echipament), n regim de patinare, redus la arborele motorului

4 Dynamic Transmission Pattern


The dynamic transmission forms for car frames with TM or THM are shown in Fig. 2 [2, 3]. The differential equation of TM-tractor operation, reduced to the engine shaft is a function of the M angular engine speed. This is as follows: MM(M) Ms(t) = ( JM + Jd1 + Jd2 ) M , (4.1) Where: Mm, Ms are the engine moment and reduced static moment, respectively . M , M angular engine speed and acceleration, respectively JM inertia moment of engine masses in rotation Jd1 aggregate inertia moment (tractor + equipment) in a sliding regime, reduced to engine shaft

Fig 2. Schema dinamic de lucru a transmisiei tractorului : a) mecanic , b) hidromecanic [2] : C cuplajul cu friciune ;CHT cuplajul hidrotransformatorului ; MM momentul motorului diesel ; MS momentul static dat de rezistenele la rulare, respectiv rezistena critic la spare (Ff + Fcr). Dynamic work diagram of tractor transmission a) mechanical; b) hydro mechanical [2]: C friction clutch; CHT hydraulic transformer clutch; Mm Diesel engine moment; Ms static moment of run resistance, and of digging critical resistance (Ff + Fer) respectively. 30 Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

Ecuaiile difereniale pentru funcionarea tractorului cu THM , sunt exprimate n funcie de viteza unghiular a motorului M , respectiv cea a turbinei TH , T . Ele definesc procesul de lucru al utilajului cu astfel de transmisii : MM(H) MH = JH M (4.2) MT ( Fcr + Ff ) 1/ ( iM t ) = ( JT + Jd1 + Jd2 ) . T (4.3) Unde: MM momentul de rsucire al motorului ; M viteza unghiular nominal a motorului ; MH , MT momentul de torsiune la arborele pompei , respectiv la turbina TH ; JH , JT momentul de inerie al maselor la arborele pompei , respectiv la arborele turbinei TH ; H , T viteza unghiular la pomp , respectiv la turbina TH ; Jd1 - momentul de inerie al agregatului , n regim de patinare redus la arborele turbinei ; Jd2 momentul de inerie al masei pmntului spat i transportat n regim de patinare al utilajului , redus la arborele turbinei ; iM factorul de transmitere (iM = iT / rR) ; t randamentul transmisiei ; Ff , Fcr fora de rezisten global la rulare , respective fora critic dezvoltat la spare de organul de lucru . Utilizarea ambreiajului mecanic montat in schema din fig. 2,b, la THM, are drept scop schimbarea treptelor n cutia de viteze fr ocuri. Pentru calculul procesului de ambreiere al THM se folosete schema din fig. 2,b [3].

The differential equations for a THM-tractor operation depend on the M angular engine speed and TH turbine t respectively. They show the operating process of the implement with such transmission: MM(H) MH = JH M (4.2) MT ( Fcr + Ff ) 1/ ( iM t) = (JT + Jd1 + Jd2) . T (4.3) Where: MM engine twisting moment M engine nominal angular speed; MH. MT torsion moment at pump shaft and TH turbine, respectively; JH, JT mass inertia moment at pump shaft and TH turbine shaft, respectively; H, T angular speed at pump and TH turbine, respectively; Jd1 aggregate inertia moment, in reduced sliding at turbine shaft; Jd2 mass inertia moment of the soil dug and transported in a machine sliding regime, reduced at the level of the turbine shaft: iM transmission factor (iM = iT/rR); t transmission output Ff, Fcr = global resistance force at running and critical force expanded at digging, respectively. The use of the mechanical clutch (see diagram in fig 2,b) for THM is meant to assist the gear stage change. To calculate the THM clutch process the dynamic scheme in Fig 2,.b [3] is used.

5. Observaii asupra modelelor prezentate 1.THM la utilajele de spat i transportat lucreaz pe toate treptele de viteze. Pentru buldozer cu scarificator, iTH ia valori apropiate [2] ntre 0.76 0.79. 2. La schimbarea treptelor de viteze pentru eliminarea ocurilor n transmisie se monteaz n schema cinematic un ambreiaj mecanic dup TH, care decupleaza motorul de restul transmisiei . Caracteristica de patinare a ambreiajului mecanic la schimbarea vitezelor este dat sub diferite forme[2]:
= [vT , T] = (T) ; = [T , T]
. . .

5. Observation about the present patterns. 1. For the digging and transport implements equipped with THM, working on all operating stages (scarifier) iTH has close values between 0.76 0.74 according to [2]. 2. When changing the speed stages to avoid the transmission shocks a mechanic clutch is mounted in the kinematical diagram after the TM, which releases the engine from the drive. The sliding characteristic of the mechanical clutch at speed change is done under different forms [2]:
= [vT,T] = (T) ; = [T, T]
. . .

(5.1.)

(5.1.)
31

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

3. Fora de rezisten global la rulare Ff i fora critic dezvoltat la spare Fcr pentru transmisiile hidromecanice sunt funcie de viteza de transport VT . Fora de rezisten global la rulare n regim de transport depinde de : (5.2) Ff = Ff [VT(T)] = Ff(VT) 4. Pentru tractoarele cu THM care lucreaz n agregat cu echipamente de spat i transportat, ecuaiile integro diferenial ale transmisiei (THM) au urmtoarea forma [2] . . . . .
1[H , T , H , T ,(T , T),Ff(T , T),JH(T , T)] = 0 1[H , T , H , T ,(T , T),Ff(T , T),JH(T , T)] = 0 (5.3)
. . . . .

3. The running global resistance force for tractors (Ff) and the critical digging force (Fcr) for hydromechanics transmissions depend on the transport speed VT. The running global resistance force in a transport regime depends on: 4. For THM tractors digging and transport differential equations are as follows [2]: . .
. .

Ff = Ff [VT(T)] = Ff(VT)

(5.2)

operating together with implements the integralof transmission (THM) . .


.

.
.

1[H ,T ,H , T ,(T ,T),Ff(T ,T),JH(T ,T)]=0 1[H ,T ,H ,T ,(T ,T),Ff(T ,T),JH(T ,T)]=0 (5.3)
.

Relaiile (4.3.) reprezint un sistem de ecuaii neliniare care se rezolv prin metodele cunoscute. La rezolvarea sistemului de ecuaii pasul timpilor de integrare se ia t = 0.01s . Intervalele de variaie pentru patinarea a ambreiajului mecanic i a rezistenei la rulare se pot lua ntre 0.005 0.01s .

The relations in (4.3) show a non-linear equation system that can be solved by usual means. To solve the equation system the integration time stage t = 0.01s is used. The variation intervals for sliding of the mechanical clutch and running resistance may be between 0.005 and 0.01s.

5. Unele rezultate obinute asupra performanelor de lucru a utilajelor de spat i transportat, care folosesc motoare Diesel i TM sau THM (cu diferite caracteristici), i variaia parametrilor (Psp, gp , Ca) = f(iM) sunt prezentate n figurile 3 si 4.

5. Some of the research results in [2] about the operating performances of the digging and transport implements using Diesel engines and THM with different characteristics, and the parameters variation (Psp, gp, Ca) = f(iM) are show in Fig. 3 and 4.

Fig 3. Variaia parametrilor Psp,gp funcie de iM , Rmax = 0.95 i coeficientul de adaptabilitate al motorului Ca la tractor cu TM : curba(1) Ca = 1.17 ;curba(2)-Ca= 1.3 ; curba(3) Ca = 1.5 [2]. Variation of parameters Psp, g, dependent on iM, Rmax = 0.95,and coefficient of adjusting Ca engine to a tractor with TM curve (1) Ca = 1.17; curve (2) Ca = 1.3, curve (3) Ca = 1.5 [2] 32

Fig 4. Variaia parametrilor Psp, gp funcie de iM , Rmax = Var , diametrul active (Da) al THM : curba(1) Da = 0.31m; curba(2) Da = 0.33m ; curba(3) Da = 0.35m [2]. Variation of parameters Psp, gp dependent on iM, Rmax = Var, active diameter (Da) of THM; Curve (1) Da = 0.31m; curve (2) Da = 0.33m; curve (3) Da = 0.35m [2].

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

6. Concluzii
n faza de ncrcare a cupei [1], efectele dinamice sunt diferite n funcie de materialul ncrcat, pentru pmnt se consum suplimentar 15% din putere; iar pentru lucrul cu nisip se consum suplimentar 24% din puterea instalat a ncrctorului. Fiecare material influenteaz n felul su rspunsul mainii n timpul procesului de ncrcare datorit forelor rezistente care sunt diferite de la un material la altul. Indicele mediu de utilizare dinamic a puterii, i2, definit ca raportul dintre componenta dinamic a puterii medii necesar pe o faz de lucru i puterea maxim instalat a utilajului, ia urmtoarele valori [1]: la deplasare pe nisip sau pamnt i2 = 0,01; ncrcare nisip i2 = 0,06 ( la pmnt 0,02) la retragere cu cupa plin cu nisip i2 = 0,02 (cu pmnt 0,05). Acceleraia i viteza medie de lucru pot fi analizate cu relaia (4.4, partea I) n care este evident indicarea treptelor de transmitere, aderena roilor cu solul i timpii de lucru pe treptele respective. Indicele mediu real de utilizare a puterii, i3 este definit ca raportul dintre valoarea total a puterii medii necesar pe o faz de lucru i puterea maxim instalat a utilajului. El ofer informaii calitative i cantitative cu privire la rezerva de putere i utilizarea ei judicioas de ctre utilaj n vederea mbuntirii productivitii mainii prin scurtarea timpului pe ciclul tehnologic de lucru. La deplasarea cu cupa goal la nisip i3 = 0,075 (la pmnt 0,08), la ncrcare nisip i3 = 0,98 ( sau pmnt 0,76), iar la retragere cu cupa plin cu nisip, i3 = 0,08 ( sau pmnt 0,13). Potenialul energetic specific mediu poate fi analizat cu relaia (4.1, partea I) n funcie de: vitezele de lucru, aderena i spaiul de spare. Cea de-a treia faza analizat, respectiv deplasarea ncrctorului cu cupa plin, nglobeaz n ea efectul dinamic cumulativ al mai multor aciuni, ca de exemplu: frnarea n aliniament, frnarea coborrii braului, deplasarea pe teren neamenajat.

6. Conclusions
In the bucket loading phase [1], the dynamic effects are different for each type of material loaded. For earth it takes an additional 15% of the installed power and for sand it takes an additional 24% of the installed machine power. Each material influences in is own way the response of the machine in the loading process due to the resistant forces which are different from a type of material to another. The medium index of dynamic power i2, defined as the ratio between the dynamic component of medium power mandatory on a work phase and the total machine power, takes the following values [1]: for movement on sand and ground i2 = 0,01: loading sand i2= 0,06: loading earth i2= 0,02: while retracting the full bucket with sand i2= 0,02: (for earth 0,02) while retracting the full bucket with sand i2 = 0,02 ( or earth 0,05). The average acceleration and velocity of work can be analyzed with relation (4.4, part I), in which transmission steps, the wheel adherence onto the soil and the working times on the respectively steps are clearly shown. The real average index of power use i3 is defined as the ratio between the total value of the necessary average power on a working phase and the maximum installed power of the machine. It offers qualitative and quantitative information about the reserve of power and judicious use of equipment, aimed at a better machine productivity through a shortening of the technological working cycle. For the movement with an empty bucket on sand i3= 0,075 (or earth 0,08), and when retracted with sand i3= 0,03 (or earth 0,13). The specific average energetic potential may be analyzed with relation 4.1, part I, function of: the working speed, the adherence and the digging distance. The third phase under analysis, the displacement of the loader with a full bucket, cumulates the dynamic effects of many actions, such as: braking an alignment, arm lowering braking, displacement of the rough soil.
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Indicele mediu de multiplicare dinamic a puterii, i4, ia urmtoarele valori: la deplasarea cu cupa goal pe nisip i4 = 1,19 (pmnt 1,13), la ncrcare nisip i4 = 1,06 (sau pmnt 1,03), iar la retragere cu cupa plin cu nisip i4 = 1,41(sau pamnt 1,63) [1]. Pentru deplasarea mainii cu cupa plin i4 = 1,41 (1,63), aceste valori statistice sunt apropiate de coeficienii dinamici de amplificare ai sarcinii transportate n cup pe un teren neted, 1,25 (care corespunde pentru basculare ncrctura 80%) sau cu denivelri 1,67 (basculare ncrctur 60%), indicai n calculul de stabilitate al ncrctorului pe roi n [10]. Graficele puterii specifice, a greutii medii a pmntului raportat la putere, i coeficientul de solicitare a transmisiei (menionate n fig.4, Partea I), funcie de factorul de transmitere, au un maxim i un minim, cuprins ntre iM= (140-180) 1/m. Valorile maxim i minim la TM, corespund la un factor de transmitere mai mare iM = (250-320) 1/m ( v. fig.3), fa de cel pentru THM din figura 4. Dac se mrete diametrul activ al rotorului la convertizorul hidrodinamic, se modific curba puterii specifice (curba 3, fig. 4), care conduce la viteze de transport i productiviti mai mari fa de TM, unde rapoartele de transmitere sunt mai mari (fore de traciune mai mari), i vitezele de lucru sunt mai mici. Indicii prezentai, sunt utili atunci cnd modelul de calcul folosit scoate n eviden analiza regimului de traciune, ncrcare, aderen, viteza i durata de lucru pe fazele ciclului tehnologic. Moduri de lucru [ 6] : Puterea hidraulic este controlat de un sistem electronic care asigur o verig de legtur continu ntre hidraulica mainii i motor. Operatorul poate s aleag trei moduri tradiionale de lucru + un mod automat. a)Modul H (greu ) de lucru, asigur o eficien optim, o vitez mare de lucru i fora maxim; b)Modul S (standard) este modul de lucru tradiional, dac se acord un nalt nivel de performan concomitent cu reducerea consumului de combustibil;
34

The average dynamic power multiplying parameter , i4 , takes the following values: for movement with empty bucket on sand i4=1,19 (or earth 1,13), for load of sand i4= 1,06 ( or earth 1,03), and for retraction with full bucket of sand i4=1,41( or earth1,63) [1]. For a machine running with a full bucket i4=1.41(1.63) this statistic values are close to the amplifying dynamic coefficients of the load carried in the bucket on smooth soil (which corresponds to an 80% load weight) or for 1.67 rough earth (for a 60% load weight) shown by the stability calculation of the wheeled loader, in [10]. Graphics for the specific power, the average dug soil weight function of the power value, and the coefficient of transmission strain (fig.4,part.I), function of the transmission factor, have a maximum and a minimum value between iM= (140-180) 1/m. The maximum and minimum value at the TM correspond to a higher transmission factor IM = (250-320) 1/m (see Fig.3), as compared to THM in fig.4. If the active diameter of the rotor is increased at the level of the hydrodynamic converter the curve of specific power changes (curve 3, fig. 4), leading to higher transport speeds and higher productivity levels than TM, where transmission ratios are higher (higher traction forces) and working speeds are lower. The above shown parameters are useful when the computation model used emphasizes the analysis of the traction regime, the loading and adherence regimes, the speed and working period for each phase of the technological cycle. Work modes [6] The hydraulic power is digitally controlled, thus providing a continuous link between the machine hydraulics and the engine. The operator may choose one of 3 traditional modes, plus one automatic mode: a) H mode (Heavy) for tough jobs provides an optimal efficiency, high working speed and maximum force; b) S mode (Standard) is the traditional working mode. It grants high level performance while reducing fuel consumption;

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

c)Modul L ( usor) este folosit cnd precizia de lucru este o necesitate. Acest mod se foloseste cnd se manipuleaz sau se transport sarcini, cnd se reduce debitul i are posibilitatea de aplicare continuu a Puterii Mrite (presiune maxim aplicat continuu). d)Pentru o eficien mare i o utilizare maxim a resursei mainii, condiiile de operare ale mainii sunt simplificate pentru operator . Acesta este cazul Modului Automat de lucru.

c) L mode (Light) is the mode to be used for finishing work, where accuracy is required. It is also the mode used when handling loads or transporting loads, due to the reduced flow and continuous availability of Power Boost (maximum pressure applied continuously). d) For higher efficiency and maximum use of the machine resources, certain functions have been simplified for the operator. This is the case for the Automatic Mode.

Les performances en rgime dynamique de travail des utillages ncessaires au piochage et au transport pour la construction des chemins (II) Resum Pour les utillages de piochage et de transport on estime : la dtermination de la force du moteur, ltablissement des traits carctristiques pour la transmission hydromcanique (THM) sont trs importants, de mme que le calcul des rapports de transmission ncessaires et qui rsultent de la condition de pouvoir surmonter les forces rsistentes au piochage et transport. On analyse les machines les plus solicites : les scrapeurs, les bulldozers - scarificateurs ou de chargement. On nonce les traites caracteristiques moyens , dexploration moteur-transmission en function dadrance, ncessaires pour les schmas de calcul qui permettent lamlioration des performances du travail en rgime rel de fonctionnement. References: [1]. [2]. [3]. Debeleac,C. - O metod nou de analiz a performanei n regim dinamic a ncrctoarelor frontale, SINUC 2006, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti. Ghinzburg, Iu,V. s.a.- Promisiennie Tractor, Moscova, Masinostroenie, 1986. Sarbu, L.- The Tehnological Resource of Digging and Transport Heavy Equipments used in Road Constructions, Ministry of Education and Research, The Annals of Dunarera de Jos University of Galati, Fascicle XIV, Mechanical Engineering, 2004 , pag. 21-26. Sarbu, l. Maini de traciune i transport pentru construcii, Vol. 1+2, Editura Ion Creanga, Bucureti, 2002. x x x CASE Construction Equipment, Professional Partner,Printed in Italy, 2006. x x x Komatsu Krawler Dozer D 65EX-15 / D 65 PX 15, 16 p. x x x D3G,D4G,D5G, Trak-Type Tractors, Gros power 57, 65, 74 kW, Catepillar, 2003 x x x 950H Wheell Loader Caterpillar, C7 Diesel Engine with ACERT Technology,Bucket capacities 2,7to 4,6 mc, Catepillar, 2006 x x x- Wheell Loader WA 700-3 Komatsu, Flywheel Horsepower: 478 kW( 641CP) 2000rpm, Bucket capacities 8,7to 9,4 mc, Komatsu Europe International, Printed in Belgium,2001. x x x - Stability Certification Gehlmax Articulated Loaders, Gehl, 2005, 14p.

[4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10].

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35

Caracterizarea termomecanic a aliajelor cu baza titan. Date experimentale obinute la ncercri pe epruvete din aliajul Ti-8Al-V-Mo

Thermo-mechanical characterization of titanium based alloys. Experimental data obtained for Ti8Al-V-Mo alloy samples testing

Indira Andreescu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest e-mail: indira_utcb@yahoo.com

Aliajul Ti-8Al-V-Mo a fost selecionat ca material susceptibil de recomandri prin caracteristicile sale fizico-mecanice. Sursele consultate indic faptul c tot mai multe firme din SUA utilizau n anul 2005 acest aliaj, sub form de table de diferite grosimi, la confecionarea nveliului unor avioane de transport supersonice. Rezistena sa mecanic la cald este punctat n tabelul nr.1 prin valori corespunztoare temperaturilor de 400, 500 i 5500C.

The Ti-8Al-V-Mo alloy was selected for use in the manufacturing of aircraft structures. The consulted sources show that more and more USA firms were using this alloy in 2005 in plates with different thicknesses for manufacturing the cover of supersonic aircraft. Its heat strength is pointed out in table 1 with values corresponding to 400, 500, 5500C temperatures. Tabelul nr.1/ Table no.1

Caracteristici la cald ale aliajului Ti-8Al-V-Mo Heat characteristics for the Ti-8Al-V-Mo alloy Temperature T (OC) 400 500 550 Rezistena la rupere Ultimate strength (daN/mm2) 70 63 56 Rezistena la fluaj Creep (daN/mm2) 48 25 20

Au fost examinate, n consens cu date recente communicate de specialiti la reuniuni tiinifice reprezentative, transformrile de faz ce se produc la aliajul menionat cnd i se aplic tratamente termice cu specific industrial, respectiv o recoacere mill (nclzite la 7000C timp de 8 ore, urmat de rcire n cuptor) i o recoacere duplex (renclzirea materialului recopt mill la 7900C timp de 15 min., urmat de rcire n aer). Cu observaia c proprietile mecanice n intervalul de la 4500C la 5000C ale materialului recopt duplex, prin mbtrnire tind ctre cele ale materialului recopt mill. In fig. 1 este grafiat variaia cu temperatura a raportului rezisten/densitate pentru aliajul considerat, Ti-8Al-V-Mo, comparativ cu alte materiale utilizate n structuri

In agreement with recent data presented by specialists during representative scientific meetings, the phase transformations were examined, as taking place in the alloy when thermal treatments are applied that is, a mill annealing (heating at 7000C for 8 hours and then furnace cooling) and a duplex annealing (reheating of the mill annealed material at 7900C for 15 min and then air cooling). Note that the mechanical properties between 4500 and 5000C of the duplex annealed material through ageing tend to be similar to those of the mill annealed material. Figure1 shows the temperature variation for the density/strength ratio for the considered Ti8Al-V-Mo alloy by comparison

36

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

de aeronave, la solicitri corespunztoare vitezei de zbor de Mach 3. Graficul evideniaz superioritatea aliajului, respectiv mbtrnit, la acest important indicator de calitate a materialelor convenabile pentru utilizare n construcii aerospaiale.
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Al7075-T6
Rezisten\[/Densitate, kg/mm Rezisten\[ / densitate Raportul rezisten\[ / densitate
2

with other materials used in aircraft structures, for actions corresponding to the Mach 3 flight speed. The diagram points out the aged alloy superiority, for that important quality indicator of materials which are appropriate for use in aircraft constructions.

Ti-8Al-V-Mo OL-15Ph-7Mo Inconel X

100

200

300

400

Temperatura, O C Fig.1. Variaia cu temperatura a raportului/densitate pentru aliajul Ti-8Al-V-Mo, comparativ cu alte aliaje utilizate la realizarea de structuri aeronautice The density/strength ratio temperature variation for Ti-8Al-V-Mo alloy by comparison with other alloys used for aircraft structure

In fig.2 este reprezentat variaia cu temperatura de clire izoterm, timp de o or, a principalelor caracteristici mecanice ale aliajului Ti-8Al-V-Mo. Potrivit acestor date, la creterea temperaturii ntre 8000C i 11000C valorile rezistenei la traciune, Rtr i ale contraciei scad foarte puin pe ntreg acest domeniu de nclzire: alungirea, ns, se diminueaz brusc la T=9500C, pn ce probele ating temperatura de 10000C.

Figure 2 shows the isothermal hardening temperature variation, during an hour of the principal mechanical characteristics of the Ti8Al-V-Mo alloy. According to these data, for an temperature increment between 8000C and 11000C the tensile strength Rtr and the contraction decrease very little on the entire heating field; all the same, the elongation suddenly decreases at T = 9500 C until the specimens reach the 10000C temperature.
R

80

60

40 A 20 800 900 1000 1100 1200 O Temperatura de c[ lire izoterm[ (1h),C 0

Fig.2. Variaia cu temperatura de clire izoterm a principalelor caracteristici mecanice ale aliajului Ti-8Al-V-Mo mbtrnit timp de 8 ore la 5500C The isothermal hardening temperature variation of the principal mechanicalcharacteristics: tensile strength Rtr daN/mm 2 (left); failure elongation A and contraction % (right) of the Ti-8Al-V-Mo alloy aged during 8 hours at 5500C

Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008

A lu n g ir e alaru p e r eA= i \iu n e a % A lu n g ir e alaru p er e , A= istric stric\iu n ea , , 3 ,%

100

a N /m m R ezisten \ala] n tin d er e, R ,d kg /m m

37

In fig.3 sunt prezentate curbe de fluaj la 5000C sub tensiunea de 30 daN/mm2 ridicate la ncercri pe epruvete din aliaj Ti-8Al-VMo, n patru condiii de rcire: 1. rcire n aer de la 9000C pn la 6500C; 2. rcire n aer de la 10000C pn la 5500C; 3. rcire n aer de la 10500C pn la 5500C; i 4. rcire n cuptor de la 10500C pn la 5500C. In fiecare palier termic limit de rcire probele au fost meninute timp de 8 ore.
10 5 2 1 0,5 0,2
1

Fig.3 shows the creep curves at 5000C for a stress of 30 daN/mm2 plotted during experiments on Ti-8Al-V-Mo alloy samples in four cooling conditions: 1. air cooling from 9000C to 6500C; 2. air cooling from 10000C to 5500C; 3. air cooling from 10500C to 5500C; 4. furnace cooling from 10500C to 5500C. The samples were maintained for 8 hours on each cooling thermal level.

2 3 4

10

20

50 100 200

500 1000

Fig.3. Curbe de fluaj ridicate la ncercri pe epruvete din aliaj Ti-8Al-V-Mo la T=5500C Sub tensiunea de 30 daN/mm2, ridicate corespunztor mai multor condiii de rcire Creep curves plotted at experiments on Ti-8Al-V-Mo alloy samples at T=5500C for a stress of 30 daN/mm2 in four cooling conditions- permanent elongation % (right)- length of time, h (down)

n condiiile menionate, de tensiune (sub 30 daN/mm2) i temperatur (T=5000C), la timpul t=50 ore, cele patru modaliti de rcire au departajat efectul exprimat prin alungirea epruvetelor, dup cum urmeaz: 0,5% epruvete rcite n modalitatea 1; ~ 0,3% epruvetele rcite n modalitatea 2; i 0,15 epruvetele rcite n celelalte dou modaliti, 3 i 4. Dup 200 de ore timp de fluaj, alungirea msurat n aceeai ordine (1,2,3 i 4) a crescut, corespunztor, la 1%; 0,7%; ~0,3% i ~ 0,2%, pentru ca duratei de fluaj de 1000 ore s-i corespund, n cele patru modaliti de rcire, valorile (alungirii); 5%; ~2%; 0,5% i ~0,4%. Concluzii Aliajul Ti-8Al-V-Mo este recomandat spre a fi folosit la construcia structurilor aeronautice, fiind apreciat pentru comportarea sa pe timpul solicitrilor termo-mecanice importante.

In the above mentioned conditions of stress (under 30 daN/mm2) and temperature (T=5000C) during t = 50 hours, the four cooling methods have differentiated the results of the sample elongations as follows:~ 0,5% cooled samples in the first (1) method: ~0,3% cooled samples in the second (2) method; ~ 0,15 cooled samples in the (3) and (4) method. After 200 hours the elongation measured in the same order (1,2,3,4) increased at 1%, 0,7%, ~ 0,3% and ~ 0,2%. For 1000 hours of the creep duration the elongation values were 5%, ~2%, 0,5% and 0,4%. Conclusions The Ti-8Al-V-Mo alloy is recommended to be used for the manufacturing of the aircraft structures, being well appreciated for its behaviour during important thermomechanical actions.

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Caractrisation thermomcanique des alliages base de titan. Donnes obtenues suite aux essais sur les prouvettes en alliage Ti-8Al-V-Mo Resum La recherche examine les mesures du rapport densit/rsistence, rsistence aux elicitation axiales en fonction de la temprature pour lalliage Ti-8Al-V-Mo. Bibliografie I. ANDREESCU, T.A. MUTIU, Concepte si evaluari privind metodologia caracterizarii aliajelor Al-Ti, Proiect de cercetare, EI/2002, Raport de activitate, contract INCAS/ Societatea Academica Romana (SAR) <Synergie> MEC/ASR COOMBE, T.W. et HURLEY, J.H.R., Quelques utilisations et perspectives davenir du titane dans les cellules davions, The Aeronautical Journal, novembre, 1971. K. FARMANESH, A. NAJAFI-ZADEH,A. Thermomecanical Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy, <Ti-2003> 10th World Conference on Titanium, Hamburg Germany, 2003. GIRAUD,R., Alliages base de titane en construction arospatiale. LAronautique et lAstronautique, No.42 1973. GIRAUD,R., Alliages base de titane.Traitements thermiques. Vieillissement. Soudabilit. LAronautique et lAstronautique, No.42 1973. MOTYKA,M., KUBIAK, K.,SIENIAWSKI, J., FILIP, R. Effect of Heat Treatment on Superplasticity of Forged Ti6Al-4V Alloy, Ti-2003 10th World Conference on Titanium, Hamburg Germany, 2003. MULLER, W., BUBEK, E., GEROLD, V. Proceedings of the Third International Al-Li Conference, Oxford 1985, Institute of Metals, vol.III, London, p.435. PEEL, C..J. The development of Al-Li alloys: An overview-Materials and structure, Department of Royal Aerospace, Farmborough Hants UKGU 14-6TD, 1990. STERE, M., ANDREESCU I., Studii si cercetari pentru noi tipuri de aliaje rezistente usoare Al-Li si Al-Li-Ti, Raport de cercetare, INCAS/ASR SAR , Bucuresti, 2003. VASILESCU, M., DOBRESCU, M., VASILESCU I., The Influence of Heat Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys Previous Treated by Shot-Peening Ti-2003 10th World Conference on Titanium, Hamburg Germany, 2003. [11] *** Catalog preliminar pentru avionul IAR-S, Institutul National pentru Creatie Stiintifica si Tehnica, 1983. [12] *** MIL-HDBK-5 (Military Handbook), Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1988.

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39

Aspecte privind stabilitatea dimensional a rezistenei mecanice ale betonului cu adaos de deeuri de sticl E

Aspects on dimensional stability and mechanical strength of E waste glass addition concrete

Maria Gheorghe, prof.dr.ing. Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, UTCB, (Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, TUCEB), Catedra de Chimie i Materiale de Construcie (Chemistry and Building Materials Department), e-mail:maria_gh2001@yahoo.com Lidia Radu, asist.drd.chim. Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest), Catedra de Chimie i Materiale de Construcie (Chemistry and Building Materials Department), e-mail:lradu31@yahoo.com Nastasia Saca, asist.drd.ing. Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest), Catedra de Chimie i Materiale de Construcie (Chemistry and Building Materials Department), e-mail:n_panait@yahoo.com

Rezumat
Valorificarea n beton, ca materie prim secundar, MPS, a deeului de fibre de sticl E ca substiuent parial al agregatului i cimentului, este descris pe baza rezultatelor experimentale referitoare la : -betoane cu 50 i 100% substituie a agregatului natural total cu deeu de sticl E ; -betoane cu 7,5%, 20% i 35 % substituie a agregatului fin sub 1 mm cu deeu de sticl E S-a studiat evoluia expansiunii datorate reaciei alcalii agregate a probei de referin i a probelor cu deeuri de fibre din sticl tip E i deeu de sticl de ambalaje, particule sub 0,5mm, prin metoda barelor de mortar. Pn la 6 luni, expansiunea medie a probelor cu deeu de sticla E este de 0,24 mm/m, sub cea a probei de referin. Creterea de volum a prismelor de beton cu o substituie a agregatului natural n proporie de 50% cu deeu de fibr E, este mult mai redus, aproape de 2 ori dect a betonului cu 100% agregat substituit cu sticla E. Substituirea filerului (particule sub 0,125mm) de calcar cu filer de sticl E are rol benefic asupra evoluiei rezistenelor la compresiune i ncovoiere, n raport cu proba de referin, cauza o poate constitui caracterul hidraulic activ al filerului de sticla cu rol de substituent parial a cimentului.

Summary
The concrete exploitation, as a secondary raw matter, MPS, of the E waste glass as a partial substitute of the aggregate and of cement, is described relying on the experimental results referring to: -concretes with 50 and 100% substitution of the total natural aggregate with E waste glass; -concretes with 7,5%, 20% and 35 % substitution of the fine aggregate under 1 mm with E waste glass. The expansion evolution due to the aggregate alkali reaction of the reference sample and of those with E waste glass as well as with glass wrapper waste, particles under 0.5mm, through the mortar bars method has been studied. Up to 6 months, the medium expansion of the E waste glass samples is 0,24 mm/m, below the one of the reference sample. The growth in volume of the concrete prisms with a 50% substitution of the natural aggregate with E waste glass is much more reduced, almost twice, than the one of concrete, having 100% aggregate substituted with E glass. The limestone filler substitution (particles under 0.125mm) with E glass filler has a benefic role on the resistances evolution tocompression and bending strength, versus the reference sample, and this may be due to the active hydraulic character of the glass filler, having the role of a partial substitute of cement.

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Introducere
Deeurile de sticl constituie o component major a deeurilor solide inerte, cu perspective certe de valorificare ca materie prim secundar, MPS, n produse pentru construcii. Cele mai multe aplicaii se refer la valorificarea sticlei macinate ca substituent partial al agregatului i al cimentului n materiale compozite cu matrice liant, n special, de ciment/beton (glascrete) [1 5 ], ipsos (prefabricate) [6] i bitum/asfalt (glasfalt) [7 - 9]. Utilizarea sticlei ca deeu granular, substituent al agregatului natural n beton, este problematic datorit potenialului ridicat al producerii reaciei alcalii-silica, RAS, ntre alcaliile din ciment i silicea reactiva coninut de particulele de sticl. Se formeaz silicai alcalini, cu structura de gel, care, prin capacitatea mare de absorbie a apei se umfl i produc tensiuni interne suficient de mari pentru iniierea i propagarea fisurilor n beton. Reacia alcalii-silica se desfoar n timp ndelungat i n betonul cu agregate naturale, care conin faze reactive de silice [10-15]. Prin urmare, obiectivul major al cercetarii n domeniul valorificrii deeurilor granulare de sticl n beton, l constituie gsirea metodelor de reducere a pericolului de fisurare - pe termen lung a betonului ca urmare a creterii de volum (expansiunii) ca efect al RAS. Diminuarea/eliminarea expansiunii produse de reacia alcalii-silice, n betonul cu agregat din sticl, se bazeaz pe cunoaterea influenei factorilor referitori la dimensiunea/geometria i compoziia particulelor rezultate din mrunirea deeului de sticl [1, 12,13]. Cercetarile efectuate pn n prezent sugereaz c evoluia deformaiilor i rezistenelor mecanice ale betonului cu deeu din sticl este, preponderent, nepredictibil. De aceea, n general, nu se recomand folosirea agregatelor de sticl n beton structural. Sunt recomandate aplicaii pentru blocuri uoare de zidrie, elemente de pavaj pentru trafic pietonal, elemente prefabricate pentru aplicaii arhitecturale i decorative [4].

Introduction
Glass wastes represent a major component of inert solid wastes, having real perspectives of exploitationexploitation as a secondary raw material, SRM, in constructionsupplies . Most applications refer to the exploitationexploitation of waste ground glass as a partial substitute of the aggregate and of cement in composite materials with binding matrix, especially of cement/concrete (glasscrete) [1 - 5], plaster (prefabs) [6] and asphalt (glassphalt) [7 - 9]. The waste use as a granular waste, substitute of the natural aggregate in concrete, is problematic, due to the high potential to produce an alkali-silica reaction, ASR, between the cement alkali and the reactive silica from the glass particles. Alkali silicates are created, with a gel structure, which, due to their high water absorption capacity bloat and produce internal tensions big enough to initiate and convey cracks in the concrete. The alkalisilica reaction takes place in a long period of time in the natural concrete aggregates, too, which contain silica reactive phases [10-16]. Therefore, the major objective of the research for the exploitation of glass granular wastes in concrete is to find out methods to reduce the danger of cracking for a long period of timeas a result of the growth in volume, a ASR effect. The diminution/elimination of the expansion produced by the alkali-silica reaction, in the glass waste concrete, is based on knowing the influence of the factors which refer to the dimension/geometry and composition of waste glass particles. [1, 12,13]. The researches made so far suggest that the evolution of glass waste concrete deformations and mechanical strengths are, most of all, impossible to predict. Thus, in general, it is not recommended to use glass aggregates in structural concrete. It is recommended to use applications for light masonry blocks, pavement elements for pedestrian traffic and prefabricated elements for architectural and decorative applications [4].
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Lucrarea trateaz posibilitile tehnice i logistice de valorificare a deeurilor de fibre din sticl E ca adaos in beton cu diferite aplicaii. Datele experimentale sunt incluse n Raportul tehnic UTCB, ca partener n Proiectul AMCSIT Materiale noi pentru construcii cu performante prestabilite prin utilizarea fibrelor oxidice vitroase [16]. Necesitatea valorificarii deeurilor de sticla Epicaturi i fibre, a fost determinat de cantitatea mare de deeuri, aproximativ, 60 tone/lun, din care cca 50% se valorific intern, iar restul de aproximativ 30 de tone/lun se evacueaza la hald, cu cheltuieli de 2 Euro/ton pentru transport i depozitare. Dei FIROS lucreaz mai putin, aceste deeuri exist la hald i este necesar efortul de valorificare n beton, mai ales, ca adaos hidraulic (puzzolanic), datorit reactivitii mari fa de hidroxidul de calciu. n plus, deeul de fibre de sticla favorizeaz rezistena la oc mecanic a betonului. Prin mcinare crete preul acestui deeu, dar n mod similar cu cel necesar pentru mcinarea altor adaosuri hidraulice folosite curent n ciment i beton, cum ar fi zgura de furnal sau puzzolane naturale (tuful vulcanic) ori artificiale (metacaolinul). Alt beneficiu rezultat din cercetarea efectuat la UTCB const n ctigarea de experien asupra realizrii de noi materiale - betoane cu adaos de deeuri vitroase- glasscrete, respectiv, deeuri din sticl, (nereciclabile din motive tehnice i de excedent n fabricile de sticl). Acest mod de valorificare a deeurilor din sticl este semnalat n literatura de specialitate din ultimii ani [14-16].

This work deals with the technical and logistic possibilities to exploit E glass wastes as an addition in concrete with different applications. The experimental data are included in the Technical Report of TUCEB, as a partner in the AMCSIT Project, New Materials in Constructions with Performances Pre-established by the Use of Glassy Oxide Fibers [17]. The necessity to exploit E glass wastes, drops and fibers, was determined by the big quantity of wastes without binder, 60 tons/month, from which almost 50% is internally recycled, and the rest of almost 30 tons/month is evacuated at the dump, with 2 Euro/ton expenses for transportation and storage. Although FIROS works less, these wastes exist at the dump and the effort to exploit it in concrete is useful, especially as a hydraulic addition (pozzolanic), due to the high reactivity with calcium hydroxide. Besides, the E glass fiber waste favours the mechanical shock resistance of concrete. By grinding this waste price rises, but similarly to the one needed to grind other hydraulic additions, currently used in concrete and cement, such as blast furnace slag or natural (volcanic tuff) or artificial (the metakaolin) Pozzolana. Another benefit resulted from the research made at TUCEB consists in the gain of experience in realizing new materials concrete with addition of glassy wastes glasscrete, respectively, glass waste, (nonrecyclable in the glass factories due to technical and excess reasons). This method of the glass waste exploitation has been showed in the technical literature of the past years [14-16] .

Partea experimental Materiale i metode


Betoanele cu deeu de sticl au fost obinute cu cimenturi cu adaos de zgur de furnal, CEM II/A-S 32.5R i CEM III/A 52.5R, conform SR EN 197-1 [17], cu un coninut mai redus de alcalii, pentru diminuarea potenialului de producere a RAS.
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The Experimental Part Materials and Methods


The glass waste concrete was obtained with cement having granulated blast slag addition, producere a RAS. CEM II/A-S 32.5R and CEM III/A 52.5R, according to SR EN 197-1 [17] with a more reduced alkali content, to diminish the production potential of ASR.

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S-a utilizat agregat silicios, cu Dmax = 8 mm, care a fost total sau parial substituit cu deseu de sticla E macinata. Filerul de calcar, cu 68% particule sub 0,125mm a constituit materialul de referin pentru filerul de sticl E. Betoanele au fost realizate cu aditiv superplastifiant, puternic reductor de ap pe baz de polieteri carboxilai. Caracteristicile deeului de sticl E. Procesarea pentru valorificare ca MPS. n tabelul 1 este dat compoziia oxidic a sticlei (E i a sticlei silico-calco-sodice) i, pentru comparaie, cea a cenuii volante i a zgurii de furnal, adaosuri hidraulice folosite n betoane. Structura vitroas i coninutul ridicat de silice i alumina, reactive fa de hidroxidul de calciu n prezena apei, argumenteaz compatibilitatea deeurilor de sticl cu matricea de ciment Portland. Astfel, deeurile din sticla pot fi considerate materii prime secundare, MPS, pentru beton.

Siliceous aggregate of gravel pit and of Dmax = 8 mm, totally or partially substituted with grounded E glass waste, was used. The calcareous filler, hydraulically inert, with 68% particles under 0.125mm, was the reference material for the E glass filler. The concrete was made with high range water reducer - HRWR admixture, based on carboxylated polyether . E glass waste characteristics. Processing for exploitation as SRM In table 1 the glass oxide composition (E and soda-lime-silicate of packaging) is given, the one of fly ash and of granulated blast furnace slag, hydraulic additions used in concrete. The vitreous structure and the high content of SiO2 and alumina, reactive towards the calcium hydroxide in the presence of water, argue the compatibility of glass wastes with the Portland cement matrix. Thus, glass wastes can be considered secondary raw matters, SRM, for concrete.

Tab.1. Compozitia oxidica unor materiale vitroase hidraulic active The oxide composition of some vitreous materials hydraulically active SiO2 Al2O3 54,5 14,5 74 1 51 24,2 32 5 B2O3 8,5 Fe2O3 0,2 7,7 10* CaO 17 9 8,3 40 MgO 4,5 0,7 2,3 6 Na2O+K2O 0,6 14,5 2,8 -

E glass Soda-lime-silicate glass Fly ash Granulated blast slag

Deeul de sticl E are un coninut mai mare de CaO dect cenua de termocentral (de lignit), iar coninutul de SiO2 de 54,5% este mai mare dect cel din zgura granulat de furnal, dar apropiat de cel coninut de cenua volant. Deeul de sticla E (fibre i picaturi), furnizat FIROS Bucureti, a fost mcinat i separat pe fraciile granulare, 0/0,125 mm, 0,125/0,25mm, 0,25/0,5mm, 0,5/1mm, 1/2mm, i 2/4mm. Testul de determinare a reaciei alcalii-silice RAS Msurarea expansiunii, asociat RAS, s-a efectuat pe bare de mortar, cu dimensiunile 25.5x25,5x285 mm confecionate din mortar

The E glass waste has a higher CaO content than fly ash (lignite), and the 54.5% SiO2 content is bigger than the one from the blast furnace slag, but close to the one in the fly ash. The E glass waste (fibers and drops), from FIROS Bucuresti,was ground and separated on granular fractions, 0/0.125 mm, 0.125/0.25mm, 0.25/0.5mm, 0.5/1mm, 1/2mm, and 2/4mm.

Test of alkali-silica reaction( ASR) determination The expansion measurement, associated to ASR, was carried out on mortar bars, having the dimensions 25.5x25.5x285 mm, made of mortar from cement and the aggregate studied

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din cimentul i agregatul de cercetat (raport masic 1:2,25), meninute n condiii controlate de temperatura i umiditate, n conformitate cu procedura descris n STAS 5440 [18]. Mortarele pentru ncercarea la expansiune s-au realizat cu ciment tip CEM II A-S 42,5R, i agregat cu D<2mm - nisip de ru splat. Fracia de nisip cu D<0,5mm, n proporie de 65% din proba de control, M, a fost substituit cu deeu de fire sticl E sau deeu de sticl silico-calco-sodic. Mortarele pentru bare au compozitiile (rapoarte masice): - Mortarul M, de control Ciment: Nisip 0/5 = 1:2,25 - Mortarul ME05 cu deseu de sticl fibre E Ciment: Nisip :Sticl E= 1.0,79:1,46 -Mortarul MG05 cu deseu de sticl de ambalaje Ciment: nisip: sticl G= 1:0,79:0,46 S-a determinat expansiunea mortarului prin msurarea lungimii efective a barelor de mortar la termenele de 1, 2, 3 i 6 luni. S-a calculat deformaia de expansiune prin compararea cu lungimea iniial. ncercri asupra betoanelor cu adaos de deeu de fibre de sticl E Lucrabilitatea s-a determinat prin metoda tasrii, conform SR EN 12350-2:2003 [19] . Pentru determinarea caracteristicilor betonului ntrit s-au turnat prisme de 4x4x16 cm care sau decofrat dup 24 ore i s-au meninut n ap timp de 28 de zile, apoi n atmosfera de laborator. Rezistena la compresiune i rezistena la ncovoiere s-au determinat la termene de 2, 7, 28, 90, 180, 360 (i 450 zile pentru seria de probe GR). Deformaiile s-au determinat pe prisme de 40x40x160mm, prevzute cu reper, avnd la baz procedura descris n STAS 2833, metoda cu aparat tip Graf [20] . Compoziii de betoane cu deeu de fibre de sticl E Coninutul de deeu de fibre de sticl n betoane s-a calculat n procente masice din catitatea total de agregat a compoziiei de referina. S-au realizat dou compoziii de betoane de referin i, corespunzator, s-au

(weight ratio 1:2.25), cured in controlled conditions of temperature and humidity, according to the procedure described in STAS 5440 [18]. The mortar used in the expansion test wasmade with CEM II A-S 42.5R cement and D<2mm aggregate washed out river sand. The D<0.5mm sand fraction, in a 65% proportion of the control sample, M, was substituted with E glass waste or silicacalcium-sodium waste. The mortars composition for bars (weight ratios): - Control mortar M Cement: sand 0/5 = 1:2.25 - The ME05 mortar with E fibers glass waste cement: E glass = 1.0.79:1.46 - The MG05 mortar with packing waste glass Cement: sand: G glass= 1:0.79:0.46 The mortar expansion was determined by measuring the effective length of the mortar bars at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months. The expansion deformation was calculated by comparing it to the initial length. Tests on concrete with E glass fiber waste addition The workability was determined by the compaction method, according to SR EN 12350-2:2003 [19]. In order to determine the hardened concrete characteristics, 4x4x16 cm prisms were cast, which dismantled after 24 h and cured in water for 28 days, then in the lab atmosphere. The compression and bending strengths were determined at 2, 7, 28, 90, 180, and 360 (and 450 days for the GR sample series). The deformations were determined on 40x40x160mm prisms, furnished with a marker, reckoning on the procedure described in STAS 2833, the Graf type method [ 20 ].

Concrete compositions with E glass fiber waste The glass fiber waste content in concrete was calculated in masic percents from the total quantity of aggregate of the reference compositions. Two reference concrete compositions were made and, accordingly, two E glass concrete groups.

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realizat dou grupe de beton cu sticl E. Prima grup, cu dou compoziii de beton, n care agregatul natural din proba de referin, R, este substituit cu deeu de fibre din sticl E n proporie de 50 %, particule cu Dmax =2mm (G50) i n proporie de 100%, particule cu D= 8mm (G100). Betoanele au fost realizate cu ciment CEM II/A-S 32,5R. A doua grup, de trei betoane a fost realizat cu adaos de deseu sticl E, cu particule avnd Dmax = 1mm, n proporie de 8%, 21% i 37%, din totalul componentelor solide ale betonului de referina, A. Pulberile de sticla E sub 0,25 mm conin 54% particule cu D<0,125mm. S-a calculat cantitatea total de particule sub 0,125mm pentru fiecare compoziie de beton i s-a considerat c aceasta poate fi asimilat cu un adaos hidraulic activ, de substituie a cimentului. Proba de referin, A, conine o cantitate egal de filer de calcar cu fracia granular de sticl sub 0,25mm, din compoziia GA. Liantul a fost considerat cimentul + pulberea de sticl sub 0,125mm. Betoanele au fost realizate cu ciment CEM III/A 32,5. Compoziiile de beton sunt date n tabelul 2a i 2b.

The first group was made with two concrete compositions, where the natural aggregate from the reference, R, is substituted with E glass fiber waste in a 50% proportion, Dmax =2mm particles (G 50) and in a 100% proportion, D= 8mm (G 100). The concretes were made with CEM II/A-S 32.5R. The second group of three concretes was made with E glass addition in 8%, 21% and 37% proportion, particle waste with Dmax = 1mm, from the total solid components of the A, reference concrete. The E glass powders under 0.25 mm contain 54% particles with D<0,125mm. The total quantity of particles under 0.125mm for each concrete composition was calculated and it was considered that it could be assimilated to a hydraulic active addition, a substitution for cement. The A reference contains an equal quantity of limestone filler with the glass granular fraction under 0.25mm, from the GA composition. The binder was considered to be cement and the glass powder under 0.125mm. The concretes were made with CEM III/A 32.5 cement. The concrete mixes are given in labels 2a and 2b.

Table 2a. Compoziii de beton cu deeu granular de sticla E (rapoarte masice) / Concrete mixes with E glass grounded waste (weight-ratios) Admixture Concrete CEM II/A-S Natural aggregate E glass fibers grounded W/C ratio code 32,5R waste 0/1 1/2 2/8 0/1 1/2 2/8 HRWR Air mm mm mm mm mm mm ,% entrainment, % R 1 1,43 1,29 2,23 0 0 0 0,49 1 0,1 G5 1 0 0 2,23 1,43 1,29 0 0,56 1 0,1 G10 1 0 0 0 1,43 1,29 2,23 0,67 1 0,1 Table. 2b. Compoziii de beton cu deeu de fibre de sticl E (D = 1mm) / Concrete mixes with E fiber glass waste (D = 1mm) Concrete code A Cement CEM III/A 32,5, kg/m3 480 E glass from the total aggregate, % *The quantity of E glass with D<0,125 mm, kg/m3 0 69 92 92 W/C ratios 0,4 0,40 0,35 0,41 W/B ratios 0,28 0,30 0,35

GA 480 8 GA2 480 21 GA1 480 37 *it is considered addition with hydraulic activity

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Rezultate i discuii Expansiunea asociat RAS determinat pe bare de mortar


Rezultatele obinute la ncercarea de expansiune (fig. 1) arat c barele de mortar cu deeu de fibre de sticl au cea mai redus expansiune, de 0,24mm/m dup 6 luni, sub cea a mortarului de referin. Barele din mortar cu deeu de sticl de ambalaje prezint cea mai mare expansiune, de 0,48 mm/m la 6 luni. n consecin, - compozitia chimica i geometria particulelor deseului de sticla influeneaz expansiunea asociat RAS a barelor de mortar; - particulele de sticl E, fr oxid de sodiu, cu form fibroas, micoreaz expansiunea ca efect al suprafeei mai mari de desfurare a reaciei ntre silicea reactiv i ionii de calciu rezultai la hidratarea cimentului; - viteza reaciei ntre ionii de calciu i silicea din sticla E poate depi viteza reaciei ntre ionii de sodiu i silicea reactiv din sticla E. Este posibil ca microfibrele de sticla E, sub 0,125m, sa contribuie la micorarea expansiunii asociate RAS. Rezultatele obinute sunt n concordan cu cele ale lui Chen i colab. [1], care nu semnaleaz expansiune asociat cu RAS n beton cu deeu de fibre E cu dimensiunea sub 0,4 mm.
0,6 Expansiunea, mm/m 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 28 56

Results and Discussions Expansion Associated to ASR, Determined on Mortar Bars


The results obtained at the expansion test (fig. 1) show that mortar bars with E glass fiber waste have the most reduced expansion, of 024mm/m after 6 months, less the one of the reference mortar. The mortar bars with packing glass waste present the largest expansion, of 0.48 mm/m at 6 months. Therefore, - the chemical composition and the particle geometry of glass waste influence the expansion associated ASR; - the E glass particles without sodium oxide, with a fibrous shape, diminish the expansion, as an effect of a larger development surface of the reaction between the reactive silica and the calcium ions resulted from the hydration of cement; - the rate of the pozzolanic reaction between the calcium ions and the E glass silica may be greater than the reaction rate between the sodium ions and the E glass reactive silica. Consequently, E glass microfibres, under 0.125m, can contribute to the expansion diminution associated ASR. The results are in accordance with those obtained by Chen et al [1], who does not signal the ASR associated expansion in concrete with E fiber waste under 0.4 mm.

Expansiunea barelor de mortar

M M05E M05G 90 180

Varsta, zile/Age, days

Fig. 1 Influena tipului de agregat fin, D<0,5mm, asupra expansiunii barelor de mortar, asociate RAS The influence of the fine aggregate type, D<0.5mm, on the mortar bars expansion, associated ASR.

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Caracteristicile betoanelor cu deeu de fibre de sticl E

The characteristics of concretes with E fiber glass waste addition

Lucrabilitatea Adaosul de sticl E mcinat micoreaz tasarea; mrete necesarul de ap fa de proba de referin, aa cum se observ n fig 2. Creterea coninutului de deeu de fibre de sticla n amestec, a determinat micorarea tasrii de la 180-190 mm (pentru proba de referin) la valori de 60-70 mm, n proba cu 37% sticl E din total agregat. Acest aspect se datoreaz absorbiei mari a apei i influenei negative a geometriei fibroase a deeului de sticl, asupra mobilitii betonului proaspt. Betonul cu 100% sustituie a agregatului natural cu sticl E este greu lucrabil, are coeziune mai slab dect cel de referin, i necesit o cantitate mai mare de ap. Aceasta a determinat creterea tendinei de segregare i
de separare a apei.
190 170 Tasarea/Slump, mm 150 130 110 90 70 50 0 8

The workability The E ground glass addition diminishes the slump; it increases the water need towards the reference batch, as seen in fig. 2. The growth of the glass fiber waste content in the mixture determined the slump reduction from 180-190 mm (of the reference) to 60-70 mm, in the case of the 37% E glass waste from the total aggregate sample. This aspect is due to the higher absorption of water and of the negative influence of the fibrous geometry of glass waste on fresh concrete mobility. The concrete with 100% substitution of the E glass natural aggregate shows a poor workability, has a weaker cohesion than the reference one and requires a bigger quantity of water. This determined the growth of segregation and of bleeding.

Betoane grupa A

21

37

Agregat substituit cu sticla E /E-glass content of aggregate, %

Fig. 2. Influena adaosului de deeu de sticl E (% din total agregat), asupra tasarii betonului proaspat / The influence of E glass waste addition (% from the total aggregate) on fresh concrete slump

Stabilitatea dimensional Variaia lungimii epruvetelor prismatice de beton (40x40x160mm), pstrate la umiditatea relativ de 65%, 420 de zile, este prezentat grafic n fig. 3. Din examinarea rezultatelor obinute se constat c prismele cu agregat 0/8 numai din sticl E (G100), prezint o cretere important de volum, cu un maxim la aproximativ, 45 de zile

The dimensional stability The length variation of concrete prismatic test specimens (40x40x160mm), kept at a relative humidity of 65%, 420 days, is described graphical in fig. 3. The examination of the results obtained shows that the 0/8 aggregate prisms only of E glass (G100), present an important volume growth, with a maximum at around 45 days.

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n timp fenomenul de umflare al betonului se diminueaz, dar cu vitez destul de mic, astfel c la 420 de zile expansiunea remanent este de 2,81 mm/m.

In time the concrete swelling diminishes, but at a very little rate, so that at 420 days the final expansion is 2.81 mm/m.

Umid. relativa, 65%


12 10 8 l, mm/m 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 0 100 200 300 400 500 Varsta beton, zile/concrete age, days R ref G10 G5

Fig. 3 Variaia liniar a prismelor de beton cu deeu de fibre din sticl E, particule cu D < 2mm (proba G5 cu 50 % substituie nisip) i particule cu D< 8 mm (proba G10 cu 100% substituie agregat) n raport cu proba de referin, R / The linear variation of concrete prisms with the E glass particles with D< 2mm (G5 with 50 % sand substitution) and particles with D< 8 mm (G10 with 100% aggregate substitution ) versus R, the reference sample.

Creterea de volum a betonului cu o substituie a agregatului n proporie de 50% deeu de fibr E, cu Dmax = 2 mm, este mult mai redus dect a betonului cu 100% agregat substituit cu sticla E cu Dmax = 8 mm. Dup 180 de zile contracia devine mai mare dect expansiunea. Contracia are tendina cresctoare, dar n mod asemntor (i cu acelai ordin de mrime) cu cea a probei de referin. Micorarea diametrului particulelor de sticl determin creterea contraciei ca efect advers al expansiunii i de limitare a acesteia (fig. 4). Prismele de beton GA1 cu 37% particule de sticl E sub 1 mm, din total agregat au contracie mai redus dect prismele de beton GA2 care conin 21% particule de sticla E sub 0,5mm, din total agregat. Fluctuaiile dimensionale devin mult mai reduse n timp pentru toate probele de beton. Proba GA2 conine 21 % sticl E, clasele granulare, <0,2 i 02/05 mm, iar GA1 conine 37 % fibre E clasele granulare <0,2, 02/05 i 05/1mm, diferena ntre ele fiind dat de diametrul mai mare al particulei i de creterea cu 16 % a proporiei de sticl E.
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The concrete growth in volume with a substitution of the aggregate in a 50% proportion of E fiber waste, with Dmax = 2 mm, is more reduced than the one of a concrete with 100% aggregate substituted with E glass. After 180 days, shrinkage is greater than expansion. Shrinkage has an increasing tendency, but similarly (and with the same order of magnitude) to the one of the reference. The reduction of the glass particle diameter determines the shrinkage growth, as an opposite effect of the expansion and with a view to limit it, too. (fig.4). The GA1 sample with 37% E glass particles under 1 mm from the total aggregate have a more reduced shrinkage than the GA2 which contains 21% E glass particles under 0.5 mm from the total aggregate. The dimensional fluctuations become much more reduced in time for all concrete samples. The GA2 contains 21% E fiber glass, the granular classes <0.2 and 02/05 mm, and GA1 contains 37% E fibers glass granular classes <0.2, 02/05 and 05/1mm, the difference between them being given by the larger diameter of the particle and by the 16% growth of the E glass proportion.

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umid relativa, 65%


6 4 l, mm/m 2 0 -2 -4 -6 7 14 28 45 55 65 75 90 180 360 Varsta beton, zile/Concrete age, days R GA1 GA2

Fig. 4. Influena adaosului de deeu de sticl E cu D< 1mm asupra deformaiei liniare a betonului / The influence of the E glass waste addition with D< 1mm on the concrete linear deformation

Dei conine o cantitate mai mare de sticl, proba GA2 o stabilitate dimensional mai bun dect proba GA1. Se observ tendina de diminuare a contraciei n timp, i de variaie asemanatoare cu cea a probei de referin.

Although it contains a bigger quantity of glass, the GA2 sample has a better dimensional stability than the GA1. The reduction tendency of concrete shrinkage can be seen in time, as well as its variation tendency similar to the one of the reference.

Rezistenele mecanice

Mechanical Strengths

Betoane cu 50 si 100% agregat substituit cu sticl E


Evoluia rezistenelor mecanice ale betoanelor este diferit, n funcie de cantitatea i dimensiunea maxim a particulei de sticl E, de vrsta betonului i de tipul de solicitare compresiune sau ncovoiere ( fig. 5 a. i b). Betoanele cu 50 si 100% agregat substituit cu sticl E prezint o evoluie continuu pozitiv a rezistenei la compresiune pe durata ncercrilor (420 zile). Rezistena la compresiune scade cu adaosul de sticl E, n mod semnificativ (la 50% din cea a probei de control) pentru betonul cu 100% agregat substituit cu particule de sticl. Structura de ntrire a betonului cu 50% sticl E din agregat evolueaz favorabil, astfel c dup 90 de zile reprezint 90% din rezistena la compresiune a betonului de referin.

Concrete with 50% and 100% aggregate substituted with E glass


The evolution of the mechanical strengths of concrete is different, according to the quantity and the dimension of the E glass particle, to concrete age and strength type compression or bending ( fig. 5 a. and b). The concretes with 50% and 100% aggregate substituted with E glass present a continuous positive evolution of the compression strength during tests (420 days). Compression strength decreases significantly with the E glass addition (to 50% from the one of the control sample) for concrete with 100% aggregate substituted with glass particles. Concrete reinforcement with 50% E glass from the aggregate has a favourable evolution, so that, after 90 days, it represents 90% of the reference concrete compression strength.

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betoane GR
C o m p ressio n stren g th , M P a 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7 28 90 180 360 450 Varsta, zile/Age, days R G10 G5

16 B e n d in g s tre n g th , M P a 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 7 28 90 180 360 420 Varsta, zile/Age, days R G10 G5

a) b) Fig. 5 Influena adaosului de deeu de sticl E ca substituent al agregatului asupra evoluiei rezistenei la compresiune-a) i asupra rezistenei la ncovoiere b). a prismelor de beton, n raport cu proba de referin, R / The influence of glass addition as a substitute of the aggregate on compression strength evolution a) and on bending strength evolutionb), of the concrete prisms versus the reference, R

Rezistena la ncovoiere a betonului cu sticla E 50% din agregat este mai mare dect a betonului de referin dup 90 de zile, dar n timp se plafoneaz. Indicele de rezisten atinge 87% i respectiv, 113% din rezistena la ncovoiere a probei de control, la vrsta de 28 i respectiv, 420 de zile. Adaosul de microfibre E are rol de puzzolan cu formare de hidrosilicai care contribuie la micorarea volumului fisurilor critice formate n zona de tranziie matrice agregat, aspect care poate explica creterea nsemnat a rezistenelor la termene mai mari. Prin urmare, adaosul de deeu de fibre de sticl E, particule fine, contribuie la dezvoltarea structurii de rezisten, prin caracterul hidraulic activ, si poate fi considerat un potenial substituent al cimentului.

The bending strength of the concrete with 50% E glass of the aggregate is bigger than the one of the reference concrete after 90 days, but it becomes restricted in time. The resistance index reaches 87% and respectively, 113% from the bending strength of the control sample at the age of 28 and 420 days, respectively The E micro-fiber waste addition has the role of a pozzolana, forming hydro-silicates which contribute to the volume reduction of the critical fissures formed in the matrix-aggregate transition zone, aspect which can explain the important growth of the strength at bigger time intervals. Therefore, the fine particles of E fiber glass waste contribute to the development of the resistance structure, by their active hydraulic character, and this waste may be considered a potential substitute of cement.

Betoane cu agregat i ciment parial substituite cu sticl E Pulberile de sticl E sub 0,25 mm conin 54%, particule cu D<0,125mm. S-a calculat cantitatea total de particule sub 0,125mm i s-a considerat c aceasta poate fi asimilat cu un adaos hidraulic activ, de substituie a cimentului. Proba de referin A conine o cantitate egal de filer de calcar cu fracia granular de sticl sub 0,25mm, din compoziia GA.

Concretes with aggregate and cement partially substituted by E glass waste The E glass powders under 0.25 mm contain 54% particles with D<0.125mm. The total quantity of particles under 0.125mm was calculated and it was considered that this can be assimilated with a hydraulic active addition, a substitution of cement. The A control sample contains an equal quantity of limestone filler with a glass granular fraction under 025mm, from the GA mix.

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Evoluia rezistenei la compresiune i a rezistenei la ncovoiere este prezentat grafic n fig. 6 i 7. Adaosul de filer de sticl E modific favorabil evoluia rezistenelor mecanice ale betonului. La 28 de zile, cele mai mari rezistene la compresiune, le au probele GA2 i GA1 cu 20 i 35 % deeu de sticl E (de 72 i respectiv 59 MPa), iar proba GA cu numai 7,5% fibre E are o rezisten mai mic, (52 MPa), fa de proba de referin, A, (55 MPa). Rezistena la compresiune depete valorile de referin la vrste ale betonului mai mari de 90 de zile,
100 Compression strength, MPa 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 7

The evolution of the compression and bending strength is showed in fig. 6 and 7. The E glass filler addition favourably modifies the evolution of the mechanical strength of concrete. The 28-day compression strengths of the GA2 and GA1 samples with 20 and 35 % E glass waste are the biggest (72 and 59 MPa respectively), the GA with only 7,5% E fibers has a smaller strength, (52 MPa), while the reference samples, A, compression strength of 55 MPa. The compression strength surpasses the reference values when the concrete is older than 90 days,

A referinta cu filer de calcar GA GA1 GA2 28 varsta, zile/Age, days 90 360

Fig. 6 Evoluia rezistenei la compresiune a betoanelor cu filer de sticl E comparativ cu cea a betonului cu filer de calcar (de referinta) / The evolution of the compression strength of the E glass filler concretes in comparison to the one of the limestone filler concrete (as reference)
18 bending strength, MPa 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 7 28 varsta, zile/Age, days 90 360 A referina cu filer de clacar GA GA1 GA2

Fig. 7 Evoluia rezistenei la ncovoiere a betonului cu filer de sticl E comparativ cu cea a betonului cu filer de calcar (proba de referin) /The evolution of the bending strength of the E glass filler concrete in comparison to the one of the limestone filler concrete (as reference sample)

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aspect care argumenteaz cu claritate rolul hidraulic activ al microfilerului de sticl E. Rezistena la ncovoiere a probelor cu filer de sticl E crete mai repede dect cea a probei de referin, cu filer de calcar. n concluzie, deeul din microfibre de sticl E are un rol benefic, multifuncional concretizat de: contribuia la dezvoltarea structurii de ntrire, prin caracterul puzzolanic i diminueaz tendina de segregare, mrete coeziunea betonului proaspt prin dispersia avansat. Aplicaie: S-au obinut betoane pentru elemente de pavaj, cu un dozaj rezonabil de ciment, 480 kg/m3 i un adaos de 110 kg/m3 filer de sticl E. Rezistenele la compresiune fcm2 = 34,8 MPa i fcm28 = 64 MPa, le ncadreaz n clasa de rezisten C40/50. Dozajul de ciment poate fi micorat la 350-400kg /m3 pentru clasa C25/30, acoperitoare pentru cerinele de trafic uor i mediu.

aspect which clearly argues the active hydraulic role of the E glass filler. The bending strengths of the concrete with E glass filler grows faster than the one of the reference with limestone filler. In conclusion, the E glass micro-fiber waste has a beneficial influence on concrete strengths, materialized in its contribution to the development of the reinforcement structure , due to its pozzolanic character, diminishes the segregation tendency, and increases the fresh concrete cohesion, through advanced dispersion. Application: pavement concretes were obtained, with a reasonable cement dosage, 480 k/m3 and an addition to 110 kg/m3 E glass filler. The compression strengths of fcm2 = 34.8 MPa and fcm28 = 64 MPa are according to C40/50 concrete class. The cement dosage can be reduced at 350400kg /m3 for the C25/30 class, enough for light and medium traffic demands.

Concluzii
Lucrarea prezint date experimentale referitoare la valorificarea n beton a deeurilor de fibre sticl E, ca materie prima secundara, MPS. S-a studiat evoluia expansiunii datorate RAS a betonului de referin i a probelor de beton cu deeu de fibre de sticl E i de sticl de ambalaje, particule sub 0,5mm, prin metoda barelor de mortar. Pn la 6 luni, exapansiunea medie a barelor cu deeu de sticl E este de 0,24 mm, (sub limita normat, de 0,6mm/m). Deeul de fibre de sticl E de la FIROS Bucureti, poate fi considerat o materie prim secundar, MPS, de substituie parial al nisipului, fracia granular 0/0,5mm. Filerul obinut din deeul de fibre de sticl E poate fi un substituent parial al cimentului dac ponderea particulelor cu D< 0,125mm n fracia granular 0/0.5 mm, este de minimum 60%. Factorii principali de influen ai dezvoltrii structurii de ntrire sunt raportul A/L (ap /liant) ; proporia i dimensiunea particulelor de deeu de sticl.

Conclusions
This work presents experimental data referring to glass waste exploitation in concrete, as secondary raw material, SRM. The expansion evolution due to the ASR of the reference concrete was studied as well as of those with E waste glass and with packing glass waste, particles under 0.5mm, through the mortar bars method. Up to 6 months, the medium expansion of the E waste glass bars is 0.24 mm/m, (under the limit admitted of 0.6mm/m). The E fibers glass waste from FIROS can be considered a secondary raw matter, SRM, a partial substitution for sand, 0/0.5mm granular fraction. The filler obtained from E fiber glass waste may be a partial substitute of cement if the D< 0,125mm particle weight in the 0/0.5mm granular fraction is at least 60%. The main factors which influence the development of mechanical strengths of concrete are the W/B (water/binder) ratio, the proportion and the particle size of E fiber glass waste.

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Proporia optim de adaos microfibre E n condiiile de cercetare prezentate - este n jur de 20%, cu un coninut de minimum 50-60% particule sub 0,125mm ca pulbere hidraulicactiv, substituent potenial al cimentului. Ca aplicaie, este interesant obinerea de betoane pentru elemente de pavaj clasa C40/50, cu un dozaj rezonabil de ciment, 480 kg/m3 i un adaos de 110 kg/m3 filer hidraulic activ din deeu de sticl E.
Bibliografie References [1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. [13]. [14]. [15]. [16]. [17]. [18]. [19]. [20]. [21].

The best proportion of E micro-fibers addition considering the present research--- is about 20%, with minimum 50-60% particles under 0.125mm particle size, as an active-hydraulic powder, a potential substitute of cement. As an application, it is relevant to obtain concretes for C40/50 class pavement elements, with a reasonable dosage of cement, 480 kg/m3 and a 110 kg/m3 of E glass waste as hydraulic active filler.

CHEN, C.H., WU, J.K. AND YANG C.C., Waste E particles used in cementitious mixtures, Cement Concrete Research, vol. 36, nr. 3, 2006, p. 449-456. JIN, W., MEYER, C., AND BAXTER , S., Glascrete concrete with glass aggregate , ACI Materials Journal, 97 (2), 2000, p. 208-213 XI, Y., LI, Y., XIE, Z. ,LEE, J.S., Utilisation of solid waste (waste glass and rubber particles) as aggregates in concrete, ACI Materials Journal sau Materials Journal, 1996 . CWC Best Practices in Glass Recycling End-use Applications /Portland Cement , page 1-2, BP GL405-01. Recicled glass tile -Spartan porous concrete promenade tiles U.S. Gypsum Corporation Choosing green raw materials for building materials manufacturing Copyright 1996, USG Corporation FF961A HUGHES, C.S., Feasibility of Using Recycled Glass in Asphalt, Report VTRC 90-R3 Virginia Transportation Research Council, 1990 Shin, C.J. and Sonntag V., Using recovered glass as construction Aggregate Feedstock, Transportation research record 1437, 1994, p. 8-18 COLLINS, R.J. AND CIESIELSKI, S., Recycling and Use of Waste Materials and Byproducts in Highway Construction, Synthesis of Highway Practice, 199, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Washington D.C., 1994. DIAMOND. S., THAULOW , N., A study of expansion due to alkali-silica reaction as conditioned by the grain size of the reactive aggregate, Cement Concrete Research, vol 4, nr. 4, 1974, p. 591-607 POTERA, G., The binding matrixaggregate compatibility from the point of view of the alkaliaggregate reactions in hydrotechnical concretes, Teza de doctorat ,UPB, 2005 XIE, Z. H., WEN, X., and XI, Y. , ASR Potentials of Glass Aggregates in water glass Activated fly Ash and Portland Cement Mortars, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 2003, 67-74 NYSERDA (New York State Energy research and Development Authorita), Use of recycled glass for concrete Masonry blocks, Report 97-15, nov. 1997 (cit. in 3) SHAYAN, A. , XU, A, Performance of glass powder as a pozzolanic material in concrete: A field trial on concrete slabs, Cement Concrete Research, vol. 36, nr. 3, 2006, p. 457-468 SHAO, Y, LEFORT, T., MORAS, S., RODRIGUEZ, D., Studies on concrete containing ground waste glass, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 30, nr . 1, 2000, p. 91. BAZANT, Z.P., STEFFENS, A., Mathematical model for kinetics of alkali-silica reaction in concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 30, nr. 3 , 2000, p. 419 UTCB- Techincal report New materials for constructions with performances pre-established by the use of glassy oxide fibres, Contract AMCSIT nr. 19 /2005, Subcontract UTCB nr. 209 / 2005 SR EN 197-1: 2002 Ciment Partea 1: Compoziie, specificaii i criterii de conformitate ale cimenturilor uzuale STAS 5440-1970, Betoane de ciment. Verificarea reaciei alcalii-agregate SR EN 12350-2: 2003 ncercare pe beton proaspt. Partea 2: ncercare de tasare STAS 2833-1980 ncercari pe betoane. Determinarea contraciei axiale a betonului ntrit.

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Influena forei reactive la eava de refulare asupra reaciunilor din cuplele cinematice

Influence of Reactive Force in the Repression Pipe on cinematic couple reactions

Nicolae tefan Trache, lect.drd.ing., Facultatea de Pompieri, Academia de Poliie Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Firemen Officers Faculty, Police Academy Alexandru Ioan Cuza)

1.Introducere Ritmul rapid de dezvoltare a tehnologiei i progresele nregistrate n domeniul ingineriei mecanice permit astzi realizarea unor echipamente deosebit de performante i cu un nalt grad de inteligen ncorporat. Performanele deosebite (n special cele geometrice) obinute de actualele autospeciale cu mecanisme articulate (pot atinge nlimi de lucru de pn la 90 m) nu ar fi fost posibile fr abordri teoretice temeinice, care s ptrund n intimitatea proceselor cinematice i dinamice i fr desfurarea unor cercetri experimentale de finee care s permit investigarea fenomenelor din ce n ce mai complexe care nsoesc funcionarea acestora. Asemenea autospeciale (platforme de lucru la nlimi, pompe de beton) au fost utilizate iniial n domeniul construciilor (finisaje exterioare, pomparea betonului la nlime etc.). Plecnd de la aceste idei firme ca Pierce, Schwing au realizat autospeciale cu mecanisme articulate ce sunt utilizate cu succes de ctre pompieri n lupta acerb cu focul. Una din cerinele de baz impuse astzi autospecialelor de pompieri cu mecanisme articulate o constituie obinerea unor performane de intervenie tot mai ridicate (atingerea unor nlimi de intervenie tot mai mari, stabilitate atunci cnd se utilizeaz debite i presiuni mari cnd efectorul se afl la nlimea maxim, minimizarea timpului de intervenie prin desfurarea rapid a braelor i detectarea imediat a focarului cu ajutorul camerelor de luat vederi, etc.), n condiiile unor gabarite, mase i costuri minime.

1.Introduction

The rapid growth in technology and the progress made in mechanic engineering, allow nowadays the design of high-performance equipment with a high degree of incorporated intelligence. The distinctive results (especially geometric) obtained by the current articulated mechanisms mounted on fire trucks (they can reach a height of up to 90m) could not have been obtained without a thorough theoretical approach with an insight on the details regarding cinematic and dynamic processes and without carrying out detailed experimental research to allow the investigation of the increasingly complex phenomena that accompany their operation. Such trucks (height operating platforms, concrete pumps) have initially been used for construction purposes (exterior finishing, pumping concrete at heights). Using these ideas, companies such as Pierce and Schwing designed fire trucks mounted with articulated mechanisms, which are successfully used by firemen to extinguish fires. One of the basic requirements an articulated mechanism fire truck must meet today is obtaining higher intervention performances (reaching higher, greater stability when using high pressure and large output when the equipment is at the peak height, shortening the intervention time by quickly extending the equipment and detecting the source of the fire using video cameras), while maintaining low weight, size and costs.

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Satisfacerea unor cerine din ce n ce mai restrictive i condiiile permanent variabile n care se exploateaz autospecialele de pompieri (spaii nguste ntre cldiri, nlime mare de lucru, ocolirea unor obstacole, imposibilitatea refulrii de la nlime etc.) sunt principalii Satisfacerea unor cerine din ce n ce mai restrictive i condiiile permanent variabile n factori care au impus studierea unor mecanisme articulate n vederea [1], [2]: modernizrii acestora prin propunerea unui model de autospecial cu brae articulate care s utilizeze jeturile de substane de stingere la distane ct mai mari asigurndu-se o protecie suficient a echipamentelor; reducerii consumului de substane de stingere i combustibil prin minimizarea timpului de intervenie; diminurii riscurilor de accidente prin faptul c la eava de refulare nu se mai afl servani sau mrind distana dintre operator i focar;

Satisfying more and more restrictive demands and the diverse conditions under which fire trucks must function (narrow spaces between buildings, avoiding obstacles, the impossibility of repression when working at heights) are the main factors that have imposed studying articulated mechanisms with the view to [1], [2]: -modernizing these mechanisms by proposing a type of fire truck with articulated arms that can use the extinguishing substance stream to reach farther and ensure sufficient protection for the equipment; -reducing the extinguishing substance consumption and fuel consumption by reducing the intervention time; -reducing the risk of accidents by having an unmanned repression pipe or by increasing the distance between the operator and the fire;

2.Determinarea forei reactive la eava de refulare 2.1.Determinarea teoretic a forei reactive la eava de refulare n prima etap, cu ajutorul unui program elaborat de firma suedez CONJET, s-a determinat teoretic fora reactiv la eava de refulare dotat cu ajutaj de 1. Rezultatele sunt prezentate n tabelul 1[3], [4].

2.Determining the Reactive Force in the Repression Pipe 2.1. Theoretically determining the reactive force in the repression pipe In the first stage, using a program from the Swedish company CONJET, a theoretical determination of the reactive force in the repression pipe with a 1 jet was made. The results are shown in table 1 [3],[4].

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Calculate nozzle size and reaction force Flow (l/min.) No. of nozzles Pressure (bar) Nozzle type
1018 1 6 Round-JET Clear form

Results Nozzle diameter Reaction force


25 mm 582 N

Tabelul 1- Fora reactiv la eava de refulare cu ajutaj de 1 determinat cu ajutorul programului elaborat de Conjet The reactive force in the repression pipe with a 1 jet determined using Conjet Presiunea de refulare Diametru ajutaj Forta reactiva Nr. Exit pressure Nozzle diameter Reaction force p d0 FR crt. [bar] [mm] [N] 1 1 6 582 1 2 7 679 1 3 8 778 1 4 8,5 826 1 5 9 875 1 6 9,5 922 1 7 10 977 1 8 10,5 1024 1 9 11 1074 1 10 11,5 1123 1 11 12 171 1 12 12,5 1212 1 13 13 1261 1 14 13,5 1315 1 15 14 1357 1 16 14,5 1406 1 17 15 1454

2.2 Determinarea experimental a forei reactive utiliznd apa neaditivat ca agent de refulare Msurtorile s-au efectuat utiliznd apa neaditivat ca agent de refulare, variind presiunea de lucru ntre 6-15 bari. Cu un anumit grad de eroare s-a variat presiunea de lucru cu un pas de 0,5 bar. Prin msurare direct la dinamometru s-au obinut urmtoarele valori pentru fora reactiv, valori prezentate n tabelul 2.

2.2 Experimentally determining the reactive force

using unadditived water as a repression agent The measurements were made using unadditived water as a repression agent, varying the work pressure between 6-15 bar. With a certain degree of error the pressure was varied using a 0.5 bar pace. By directly measuring the pressure with a dynamometer the following values were obtained for the reactive force, values presented in table 2.

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Tabelul 2 - Fora reactiv la eava de refulare cu ajutaj de 1 determinat experimental utiliznd apa ca agent de stingere The reactive force in a repression pipe with a 1 jet determined using water as an extinguishing agent Diametru ajutaj Presiunea de refulare Nr. Forta reactiva Nozzle diameter Exit pressure crt. Reaction force d0 p FR [bar] [mm] [N] 1 1 6 262,7125 1 2 7 369,8052 1 3 8 478,2242 1 4 8,5 534,5285 1 5 9 590,7404 1 6 9,5 651,0495 1 7 10 711,1218 1 8 10,5 778,8818 1 9 11 852,1596 1 10 11,5 924,1019 1 11 12 993,6081 1 12 12,5 1069,076 1 13 13 1141,312 1 14 13,5 1213,075 1 15 14 1286,644 1 16 14,5 1354,041 1 17 15 1418,538

Graficul variaiei forei reactive determinat experimental, n cazul refulrii apei neaditivate, comparativ cu cel al forei reactive determinat teoretic este prezentat n figura 1.

The graph showing the variation of the reactive force using experimental data versus the theoretically determined values for the repression force is presented in figure 1.

Fig. 1 - Reprezentarea grafica a variaiei forei reactive la eava de refulare n funcie de presiune Graph representing the variation with pressure of the reactive force in the repression pipe

3.Determinarea reaciunilor din cuplele cinematice Mecanismul modelului de autospecial propus pentru studiu este de tipul 4R. Pentru studiul cinetostatic vor fi luate n considerare numai forele de greutate i fora reactiv la eava de refulare (Fr) (figura 2). Aceste fore vor fi reduse la articulaia din punctul D. Ecuaiile de reducere sunt redate n relaia 1.

3. Determining the Cinematic Couples

Reactions

in

the

The mechanism proposed for study is mounted on a 4R type fire truck. For the cinetostatic study only the gravity force and the reactive force in the repression pipe (Fr) (figure 2) will be taken into account. These forces will be reduced to the articulation in point D. The reduction equations are shown in 1.

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Fig.2 - Schema autospecialei cu figurarea forelor Fire truck sketch depicting forces

G = G 2 + G 3 + G 4 + G cil.2 + G cil.3 + G cil.4 L4 L3 L2 + M D = G 4 L 2 + L 3 + + G 3 L 2 + + G 2 2 2 2 + G cil.4 (L 2 + L3 ) + G cil.3 L 2 + Fr (L 2 + L3 + L 4 ) sin


Forele de inerie s-au neglijat fiind foarte mici n raport cu celelalte fore date de greutile braelor i ale cilindrilor de acionare. Schema cinematic necesar calculului este prezentat n figura 3, pe care sunt reprezentate forele de greutate i torsorul de reducere. n schema cinematic, braul O1D are o micare de rotaie n jurul axei orizontale ce trece prin O1, cu viteza unghiular 1. Corpul cilindrului hidraulic 1 are o micare de rotaie absolut n jurul unei axe orizontale ce trece prin B cu viteza unghiular 2, iar tija acestuia are o micare de rotaie relativ fa de braul O1D, n jurul unei axe orizontale ce trece prin A, cu viteza unghiular 3.[5]

(1)

The inertial forces were neglected being very small with relation to the other forces created by the weight of the arms and the acting cylinders. The cinematic sketch necessary to make the calculations is presented in figure 3, in which the gravity forces are also shown. In the cinematic sketch, the O1D arm has a rotation movement around the horizontal axis passing through O1 with an angular speed of 1. The hydraulic cylinder 1s body has an absolute rotation movement around a horizontal axis passing through B with an angular speed of 2, and its shaft has a rotation movement relative to the O1D arm, around a horizontal axis passing through A, with an angular speed of 3. [5]

Fig.3-Schema cinematic - Cinematic sketch

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Pentru calcule vom considera poziia imediat urmtoare nceperii acionrii cilindrului hidraulic (poziia O1D), poziie ce face unghiul 1 cu poziia iniial (orizontal). Considernd 1 constant i cunoscut, putem impune pentru elementul O1D o lege de micare. n calculele urmtoare am considerat o lege de micare de forma

For the calculus we will consider the position immediately following the start of the hydraulic cylinder (position O1D), position that makes an angle of 1 with the initial position (horizontal). Considering 1 as constant and known, we can impose a movement rule for the O1D element. In the next calculations we have considered a movement rule such as

= 0 + 1 t

(2)

= + t 0 1

(2)

unde: 0 unghiul fcut de elementul O1D0 aflat n poziie iniial cu elemental O1B considerat fix; se consider cunoscut. Dup izolarea elementelor i figurarea tuturor forelor i momentelor ce acioneaz asupra acestora, prin scrierea ecuaiilor de echilibru se determin reaciunile din cuplele cinematice, dup cum urmeaz:

where: 0 the angle made by the O1D0 element in the initial position and the O1B element, considered fixed; it is considered known.

After isolating all the elements and drawing all the forces that influence them, by writing the equilibrium equations we can determine the reactions in the cinematic couples as follows: M + G1 O1C cos 1 + G O1D cos 1 + Fr O1D sin X A = O1A (cos 1 tg sin 1 ) YA = X A tg (3) X O1 = X A Fr cos(1 + ) Y = Y G G F cos( + ) A 1 r 1 O1 X A = X B YA = YB

n care unghiul este cunoscut (unghiul fcut in which the angle is known (the angle made de baza fix O1B cu orizontala). n acest caz by the fixed base O1B and the horizontal). In avem: this case, we find : 2 O1A 2 + O1B2 2 O1A O1B cos (O1A sin ) cos = cos + O1A 2 + O1B2 2 O1A O1B cos sin O1A sin + 2 2 O1A + O1B 2 O1A O1B cos (4) 2 2 2 ( ) O A O B 2 O A O B cos O A sin + 1 1 1 1 1 + sin = sin 2 2 O A O B 2 O A O B cos + 1 1 1 1 cos O1A sin 2 2 O1A + O1B 2 O1A O1 B cos

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Se pot propune urmtoarele valori pentru diferii parametrii ce intervin n relaiile de mai sus, valori apropiate de cele ale pompei de beton Z36 produs de firma Putzmeister: O1A=1,9m O1B=0,7m O1C=L1/2=4,37m AD=6,84m L1=8,74m element(bra)

The following values can be proposed for the parameters that intervene in the above equations, values close to the ones the concrete pump Z36 by Putzmeister has: O1A=1,9m O1B=0,7m O1C=L1/2=4,37m AD=6,84m L1=8,74m the length of the first element (arm) L2=7,70m the length of the second element; L3=7,71m the length of the third element; L4=7,54m the length of the fourth element; m1=1815kg the weight of the first; m2=1600kg the weight of the second element; m3=1395kg the weight of the third element; m2=1125kg the weight of the fourth element; mcil.2=360kg the weight of the acting cylinder 2; mcil.3=219kg the weight of the acting cylinder 3; mcil.4=180kg the weight of the acting cylinder 4; 3 rad ; = rad ; 4 4 Imposing: =30 - repression angle close to Freemans repression angle; 2 rad 1 = = ct. 3 min For the reactive force we choose a value of Fr=1418,538N experimentally determined in the case of unadditived water at a pressure of 15 bars. Replacing these values in (3) the values for the variation of the reactions in the cinematic couples are obtained and graphically shown in figure 4. 0 =

lungimea

primului

L2=7,70m lungimea elementului doi; L3=7,71m lungimea elementului trei; L4=7,54m lungimea elementului patru; m1=1815kg masa primului element; m2=1600kg masa elementului doi; m3=1395kg masa elementului trei; m2=1125kg masa elementului patru; mcil.2=360kg masa cilindrului doi de acionare; mcil.3=219kg masa cilindrului trei de acionare; mcil.4=180kg masa cilindrului patru de acionare;

0 = rad ; 4

3 = rad ; 4

Impun: =30 - unghi de refulare apropiat de cel al lui Freeman; 2 rad 1 = = ct. 3 min

Pentru fora reactiv am ales valoarea Fr=1418,538N determinat experimental n cazul refulrii apei neaditivate la presiunea de 15 bari. nlocuind aceste valori n relaia 3 se obin pentru variaia reaciunilor din cuplele cinematice valorile prezentate grafic n figura 4.

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Fig.4-Variaia reaciunilor Variation of reactions

Utiliznd un soft (de exemplu Working Model 2D) elaborat de Working Model, Inc. care este liderul mondial n programele pentru simularea micrii se pot obin valori pentru variaia reaciunilor.

By using a special software (such as Working Model 2D by Working Model inc. world leader in motion simulation software) we can obtain values for the reaction variation.

The influence of the reactive force in the repression pipe on the reactions in the cinematic couples Rsum Cet article prsente des considerations toretiques et experimentaux concernant la force ractive es tuyaux de refoulement et aussi influence de celle-c sur les reactions ds couples cinematiques

Bibliografie References [1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. FIRE AND RESCUE Fire and Rescue,pg. 43, May 1999; FIRE ENGINEERING Fire Engineering, Pg. 21, Apr. 2002; FIREFFIGHTING IN CANADA - Fireffighting in Canada, Pg. 35, Sept. 2003; THOT-TACU M. Elemente de inginerie mecanic. Introducere n cinematica i dinamoca roboilor, vol. I, II, DRGULESCU D. Timioara, 1993.

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Modelarea desfurrii unui proces tehnologic de montaj prin utilizarea reelelor Petri i a teoriei ateptrii

Modelling the Carrying out of a Technological Mounting Process by Using Petri Nets and the Queuing Theory

tefan Rusu, Prof. univ. Dr.-Ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Tehnologie Mecanic i Organe de Maini (Chair of Mechanical Technology and Machine Tools), e-mail: strusu.@utcb.ro Marian Unguroiu, ing., CNCF CFR SA Bucureti (Railway National Company Bucharest), e-mail: marian_unguroiu.@hotmail.com

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Modelarea desfurrii procesului tehnologic de montaj n condiiile aplicrii strategiei Just-inTime Machining cu ajutorul reelelor Petri i a fenomenelor/modelelor de ateptare permite definirea condiiilor optime de atingere a unui proces performant. n lucrare se prezint o astfel de modelare realizat pentru unitatea de asamblare aparat de rulare, parte component a boghiului de vagon Y25 Cs, format din corpul aparat de rulare, dou roi, dou cutii de osii complet echipate cu rulmeni tip WJ/WJP 120x240x80.
2. Fluxul tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare

Modelling the carrying out of the technological mounting by using the Just-in-Time Machining strategy by means of Petri nets and the queuing phenomena / models allows the definition of the optimal conditions for achieving a performing process. Such a modelling is set forth in the paper, executed for the assembling facility undercarriage, a component of the Y25 Cs wagon bogie, consisting of the undercarriage body, two wheels, two undercarriage boxes, fully provided with bearings type WJ/WJP 120x240x80.
2. Tehnological Mounting Flow of the Undercarriage

Logistica atelierului de montaj conine strungurile de copiere MU1, MU2, presa hidraulic PH, bufferele B1,..., B12, bufferul de piese de completare BAPM, conveioarele C1,..., C7 i locul de montaj final al componentelor unitii de asamblare MF. Echipamentele notate cu C care se regsesc pe conveioare reprezint echipamente automatizate de control interfazic. CGOM reprezint punctul de control general al osiei montate. CGFOE reprezint punctul de control general final al aparatului de rulare. Se admite c manipularea pieselor la preluarea din buffere, aezarea i fixarea lor pe mainile unelte, coborrea acestora de pe mainile unelte dup prelucrare i depozitarea lor din nou n buffere se face automatizat.

The logistics of the mounting workshop contains copying lathes MU1, MU2, hydraulic press PH, buffers B1, ..., B12, buffer for additional parts BAPM, conveyors C1, ..., C7 and the final mounting location MF of the assembling facility components. The equipment marked C that is located on the conveyors represents automatic inter-phase control equipment. CGOM represents the general control point of the mounted axle. CGFOE represents the final general control point of the undercarriage. It is admitted that handling of the parts upon taking them over from the buffers, setting and fixing such parts on the machine tools, taking them down off the machine tools after processing and storage of such parts back in the buffers is done automatically.

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Fig. 1. Fluxul tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare Technological mounting flow of the undercarriage

Fluxul tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare (Fig. 1.) include i operaii de prelucrare pe linia de montaj (de exemplu, profilarea pe strungurile de copiere a suprafeelor de rulare ale roilor etc.) i conine elementele de logistic tehnologic menionate anterior. Iniial, axa osiei i roile sunt preluate din bufferul B1, care este buffer de intrare pentru PH i fixate n aceast pres. Dup presare i realizarea osiei montate aceasta este depus n bufferul B2, de unde este preluat de sistemul de conveioare C1 i C2 i depus n bufferul B3 (sau B5 - n funcie de disponibilitate) care reprezint buffere de intrare pentru MU1 sau MU2. Pe aceste maini-unelte se realizeaz profilarea amintit a suprafeelor de rulare ale osiei. Apoi, osia montat este depus n bufferul B4 (sau B6 - n funcie de MU pe care a fost prelucrat), care reprezint buffere de ieire pentru MU1 sau MU2, de unde este preluat de conveiorul C3 sau C4 i depus n bufferul B7. De aici, osia montat este preluat n CGOM unde se execut un control general al acesteia (verificarea paralelismului dintre planele nfurtoare ale feelor roilor, curbarea axei, control ultrasonic etc.). Dup efectuarea acestui control osia montat este depus n bufferul B8, de unde este preluat de ctre conveiorul C5 i depus n bufferul B9, care este buffer de intrare pentru MF. Aici, pe osia montat, se asambleaz rulmenii WJ/WJP 120x240x80, siguranele i piuliele din capetele acesteia, etc. precum i cutiile de osie aduse de conveiorul C6 din magazia atelierului de prelucrri mecanice BAPM, rezultnd osia echipat. Dup obinerea

The technological mounting flow of the undercarriage (Fig. 1.) also includes processing operations on the mounting line (e.g., profiling the rolling surfaces of the wheels on the copying lathes, etc.) and contains the technological logistic elements specified previously. Originally, the axle axis and the wheels are taken over from buffer B1, which is input buffer for PH and fixes this press. After pressing and execution of the mounted axle, such axle is stored in buffer B2, from where it is taken over by conveyor system C1 and C2 and stored in buffer B3 (or B5 depending on availability), which represents input buffers for MU1 or MU2. The above-specified profiling of the axle rolling surfaces is executed on these machine tools. Then, the mounted axle is stored in buffer B4 (or B6 depending on the MU it was processed on), which represents output buffers for MU1 or MU2, from where it is taken over by conveyor C3 or C4 and stored in buffer B7. From here, the mounted axle is taken over in the CGOM where a general control of the axle is carried out (checking the parallelism between the envelope curve planes of the wheel fronts, the curving of the axis, ultrasound control, etc.). After carrying out such control, the mounted axle is stored in buffer B8, from where it is taken over by conveyor C5 and stored in buffer B9, which is input buffer for MF. Here, on the mounted axle, bearings WJ/WJP 120x240x80, the interlocking and the nuts at its ends, etc. and the axle cases - brought by conveyor C6 from the mechanical processing workshop warehouse BAPM - are assembled, thus

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aparatului de rulare, aceasta este depus n bufferul B10, de unde este preluat de ctre conveiorul C7 i depus n bufferul B11, care reprezint buffer de intrare pentru CGFOE. Aici se realizeaz controlul final pentru osia echipat, dup care, aceasta este depus n bufferul B12, care reprezint magazia de ieire din atelier.
3. Parametrii fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare

resulting the equipped axle. After obtaining the undercarriage, the axle is stored in buffer B10, from where it is taken over by conveyor C7 and stored in buffer B11, which represents input buffer for CGFOE. The final control of the equipped axle is carried out here, after which the axle is stored in buffer B12, which represents the output warehouse from the workshop.
3. Technological Mounting Flow Parameters of the Undercarriage

Parametrii sistemului tehnologic de montaj, n cadrul problemei aici expuse, sunt, n principal, timpii tehnologici pentru diferitele operaii sau etape ale procesului de montaj, capacitatea bufferelor i legile de distribuie a timpilor de transport, cu valoarea medie i abaterea standard aferent. Pentru cazul analizat, aceti parametri sunt: timpii necesari realizrii operaiilor specifice n punctele de lucru PH, MU1, MU2, CGOM, MF, CGFOE (Tab.1 i Tab.2); capacitatea bufferelor: B1 - 20 piese, B2 10 piese, B3, B4, B5, B6 i B8 5 piese, B7 7 piese, B9 25 piese, B10, B11 i B12 16 piese i BAPM 20 piese; timpul necesar pentru transportul pieselor la fiecare conveior C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 este de 2 min 1 min.

Within the matter set forth herein, the parameters of the technological mounting system are mainly the technological times for the various operations or stages of the mounting process, the capacity of the buffers and the distribution laws of the transport times, with the average value and adherent deviation. For the analyzed case, such parameters are: the times necessary for executing the specific operations in work points PH, MU1, MU2, CGOM, MF, CGFOE (Table 1 and Table 2); the capacity of the buffers: B1 - 20 parts, B2 10 parts, B3, B4, B5, B6 and B8 - 5 parts, B7 7 parts, B9 25 parts, B10, B11 and B12 16 parts and BAPM 20 parts; the time necessary for conveyance of the parts to each conveyor C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 is 2 min 1 min.
Tabelul 1 (Table 1)

Nr. crt. Item No) 1 2 3 4

Tip operaie (Type of operation) Presare roi pe ax (Pressing the wheels on the axis) Control general osie montat (General control of mounted axle) Montare rulmeni i cutie de osie (Mounting bearings and axle case) Control general final aparat de rulare (Final general control of the undercarriage)

Maina-unealt (Machine tool) Pres hidraulic (Hydraulic press)

Timp operaie (Operating time) 48 min. 2,4 min. 20 min. 1 min. 40 min. 2 min. 10 min. 0,5 min.

Simbol (Symbol) PH CGOM MF CGFOE Tabelul 2 (Table 2)

Nr. crt. Item No) 1

Tip operaie (Type of operation) Profilare suprafa de rulare (Profiling the rolling surface)

Maina-unealt (Machine tool) Strung RAFAMET prin copiere (RAFAMET lathe by copying)

Timp operaie (Operating time) 103 min 5,15 min

Observaii (Remark)s MU1 MU2

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4. Construirea reelei Petri asociat fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare

4. Building the Petri Net Related to the Technological Mounting Flow of the Undercarriage

n construcia unei reele Petri aferente unui PTF este important a se meniona momentul t la care se realizeaz aceasta, avnd n vedere c PTF-ul respectiv este ntr-o continu evoluie i i modific starea permanent. Prin urmare, anumite analize care se fac pe baza respectivei reele Petri se raporteaz numai la momentul t cnd aceasta a fost construit.
Momentul t pentru care este dezvoltat reeaua Petri pentru fluxul tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare n situaia analizat n figura 1 este 0+944 min, unde 0 repre-zint momentul de nceput a activitii procesului tehnologic de fabricare/montaj al aparatului de rulare.

In building a Petri net adherent to a PTF it is important to specify moment t when it is executed, taking into account that such PTF is in continuous evolution and permanently changes its condition. Therefore, certain analyses that are carried out on the grounds of such Petri net are subject only to moment t, when such net was built.
The moment t for the Petri net developed for the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage in the case analyzed in figure 1 is 0+944 min, where 0 represents the moment for commencing the activity of the manufacturing/mounting technological process of the undercarriage.

Fig. 2 Reea Petri aferent fluxului de montaj al aparatului de rulare din fig. 1 construit pentru momentul t= 0+944 min Petri net adherent to the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage in fig. 1 built for moment t = 0+944 min

Reeaua Petri a fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare este reprezentat n fig. 2. Procesul tehnologic de fabricare/montaj al aparatului de rulare a fost astfel conceput nct n orice moment, pe orice main-unealt

The Petri net of the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage is represented in fig. 2. The technological manufacturing/ mounting process of the undercarriage was conceived so that one single part is subject to
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sau conveyor s se afle o singur pies la prelucrat sau transport. n aceast situaie valoarea arcelor care fac legtura ntre un loc i o tranziie, sau ntre o tranziie i un loc este unitar pentru tot procesul tehnologic. n cadrul reelei Petri aferent fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare tranziiile T1-R i T2-AX reprezint activitile de sosire a loturilor de semifabricate pentru piesele de tip axul osiei n bufferul B1. Arcele T1-SAX-B31 i T2-AX indic apariia piesei n bufferul B1 (locul P1), care reprezint unul dintre bufferele de intrare n atelierul de montaj. Odat cu apariia pieselor n bufferul B1, reprezentat n reeaua Petri aferent prin locul P1, apar i primele jetoane n acest loc (un jeton n locul P1 reprezint o pies n ateptare). Tranziia T3 reprezint operaia de presare a roilor pe axul osiei pe presa hidraulic PH a unor piese de tip roat i axul osiei formnd piesa osie montat. Existena unui jeton n locul P2 indic faptul c, la momentul respectiv, presa hidraulic PH este ocupat. Tranziia T4 reprezint trecerea presei hidraulice PH n starea "liber". Durata de activare a tranziiei T4 este nul, deoarece se consider c trecerea n starea "liber" are loc imediat ce s-a ncheiat prelucrarea unei piese. Existena unui jeton n locul P3 indic faptul c, la momentul respectiv, presa hidraulic PH este liber, piesa realizat tip osie montat fiind deja depus n bufferul acesteia de ieire B2, reprezentat n reeaua Petri prin locul P4 (un jeton n locul P4 reprezint o pies n ateptare). Operaia de profilare a osiei montate se execut simultan pe dou maini-unelte MU1 i MU2 conform tehnologiei de lucru. Sistemul de conveioare C1 preia piesa tip osie montat, dup realizarea acesteia pe presa hidraulic PH, pentru a o transporta de la bufferul B2 ctre bufferul de intrare B3, reprezentat prin locul P7, al mainii-unelte de profilat MU1 unde se realizeaz operaia de profilare a osiilor montate. Astfel tranziiile T5 i T6 reprezint deplasrile sistemului de conveioare C1 de la bufferul de ieire B2 al presei hidraulice PH la bufferul B3 i napoi. Un jeton n unul din locurile P5 sau P6 reprezint faptul c sistemul de conveioare C1 a ajuns la bufferul B2, respectiv la bufferul B3. Dac jetonul se

processing or conveyance on any machine tool or conveyor at any one time. In such case, the value of the arches which connect a location and a transition or a transition and a location is unitary for the overall technological process. Within the Petri net adherent to the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage, transitions T1-R and T2-AX represent the batch arrival activities of semifinished products for the parts axle axis in buffer B1. Arches T1-SAX-B31 and T2-AX indicate the occurrence of the parts in buffer B1 (location P1), which represents one of the input buffers in the mounting workshop. Together with the occurrence of the parts in buffer B1, represented in the Petri net adherent to location P1, the first slots also occur in this location (a slot in location P1 represents a part in queuing). Transition T3 represents the operation of pressing the wheels on the axle axis on hydraulic press PH of parts of the type wheel and axle axis forming the part mounted axle. The existence of a slot in location P2 indicates the fact that, at such moment, hydraulic press PH is busy. Transition T4 represents the changing of hydraulic press PH into "vacated" condition. The activation period of transition T4 is null because it is considered that the changing into "vacated" condition takes place as soon as the processing of a part has been completed. The existence of a slot in location P3 indicates the fact that, at such moment, hydraulic press PH is vacant, the executed mounted axle part having already been stored in its output buffer B2, represented in the Petri net by location P4 (a slot in location P4 represents a part in queuing). The operation of profiling the mounted axle is executed simultaneously on two machine tools MU1 and MU2, according to the processing technology. The conveyor system C1 takes over the mounted axle part, after such part has been executed on the hydraulic press PH, in order to convey it from buffer B2 to input buffer B3 of profiling ma-chine tool MU1, represented by location P7, where the operation of profiling the mounted axles is executed. Thus, transitions T5 and T6 represent the movements of conveyor system C1 from the output buffer B2 of hydraulic press PH to buffer B3 and back. A slot in one of the

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afl n locul P5 conveiorul este ocupat, iar dac jetonul se afl n locul P6 conveiorul sa eliberat. Tranziia T7 reprezint operaia profilare a osiei montate de ctre maina unealt (strung) MU1. Existena unui jeton n locul P8 indic faptul c, la momentul respectiv, maina-unealt este ocupat. Tranziia T8 reprezint trecerea mainiiunelte MU1 n starea "liber". Existena unui jeton n locul P9 indic faptul c, la momentul respectiv, maina-unealt MU1 este liber, osia prelucrat fiind deja depus n bufferul acesteia de ieire B4, reprezentat n reeaua Petri prin locul P10 (un jeton n locul P10 reprezint o pies n ateptare). Sistemul de conveioare C3 preia piesa tip osie montat, dup profilarea acesteia pe maina-unealt MU1, pentru a o transporta de la bufferul B4 ctre bufferul de intrare B7, reprezentat prin locul P21, al punctului de control CGOM unde se realizeaz controlul general al osiilor montate. Astfel tranziiile T9 i T10 reprezint deplasrile sistemului de conveioare C3 de la bufferul de ieire B4 al mainii-unelte MU1 la bufferul B7 i napoi. Un jeton n unul din locurile P11 sau P12 reprezint faptul c sistemul de conveioare C3 a ajuns la bufferul B4, respectiv la bufferul B7. Dac jetonul se afl n locul P11 conveyorul este ocupat iar dac jetonul se afl n locul P12, conveyorul s-a eliberat. Sistemul de conveioare C2 preia piesa tip osie montat, dup realizarea acesteia pe presa hidraulic PH, pentru a o transporta de la bufferul B2 ctre bufferul de intrare B5, reprezentat prin locul P15, al mainii-unelte de profilat MU2 unde se realizeaz operaia de profilare a osiilor montate. Astfel tranziiile T11 i T12 reprezint deplasrile conveiorul C2 de la bufferul de ieire B2 al presei hidraulice PH la bufferul B5 i napoi. Un jeton n unul din locurile P13 sau P14 reprezint faptul c sistemul de conveioare C2 a ajuns la bufferul B2, respectiv la bufferul B5. Dac jetonul se afl n locul P13 conveiorul este ocupat iar dac jetonul se afl n locul P14 conveiorul s-a eliberat. Tranziia T13 reprezint operaia profilare a osiei

locations P5 or P6 represents the fact that conveyor system C1 reached buffer B2 and buffer B3, respectively. If the slot is in location P5, the conveyor is busy, and if the slot is in location P6, the conveyor has been vacated. Transition T7 represents the profiling operation of the axle by the machine tool (lathe) MU1. The existence of a slot in location P8 indicates that, at such moment, the machine tool is busy. Transition T8 represents the changing of machine tool MU1 into "vacated" condition. The existence of a slot in location P9 indicates the fact that, at such moment, machine tool MU1 is vacant, the processed axle having already been stored in its output buffer B4, represented in the Petri net by location P10 (a slot in location P10 represents a part in queuing). Conveyor system C3 takes over the mounted axle part, after its having been profiled on machine tool MU1, in order to convey it from buffer B4 to input buffer B7, represented by location P21, of control point CGOM where the general control of the mounted axles is carried out. Thus, transitions T9 and T10 represent the movements of conveyor system C3 from the output buffer B4 of machine tool MU1 to buffer B7 and back. A slot in one of locations P11 or P12 represents the fact that conveyor system C3 reached buffer B4 and buffer B7, respectively. If the slot is in location P11, the conveyor is busy and if the slot is in location P12, the conveyor has been vacated. Conveyor system C2 takes over the mounted axle part, after it is having been executed on hydraulic press PH, in order to convey it from buffer B2 to input buffer B5, represented by location P15, of profiling machine tool MU2 where the profiling operation of the mounted axles is executed. Thus, transitions T11 and T12 represent the movements of conveyor C2 from output buffer B2 of hydraulic press PH to buffer B5 and back. A slot in one of locations P13 or P14 represents the fact that conveyor system C2 reached buffer B2 and buffer B5, respectively. If the slot is in location P13, the conveyor is busy and if the slot is in location P14, the conveyor has been vacated. Transition T13 represents the profiling operation of the mounted axle by machine tool MU2. The

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montate de ctre maina-unealt MU2. Existena unui jeton n locul P16 indic faptul c, la momentul respectiv, maina-unealt este ocupat. Tranziia T14 reprezint trecerea mainii unelte MU2 n starea "liber". Durata de activare a tranziiei T14 este nul, deoarece se consider c trecerea n starea "liber" are loc imediat ce s-a ncheiat prelucrarea unei piese. n final, analog fluxului de la MU1, osia prelucrat este depus n bufferul de ieire B6, reprezentat n reeaua Petri prin locul P18. Sistemul de conveioare C4 preia piesa tip osie montat, pentru a o transporta de la bufferul B6 ctre bufferul de intrare B7, reprezentat prin locul P21 al punctului de control CGOM unde se realizeaz controlul general al osiilor montate. Astfel tranziiile T15 i T16 reprezint deplasrile sistemului de conveioare C4 de la bufferul de ieire B6 al mainii-unelte MU2 la bufferul B7 i napoi. Un jeton n unul din locurile P19 sau P20 reprezint faptul c sistemul de conveioare C4 a ajuns la bufferul B6, respectiv la bufferul B7. Dac jetonul se afl n locul P19 conveiorul este ocupat iar dac jetonul se afl n locul P20 conveiorul s-a eliberat. Tranziia T17 reprezint operaia de control general al osiei montate n punctul de lucru CGOM. Existena unui jeton n locul P22 indic c, la momentul respectiv, punctul de lucru respectiv este ocupat. Tranziia T18 reprezint trecerea punctului de lucru CGOM n starea "liber". Existena unui jeton n locul P23 indic, din nou, faptul c, la momentul respectiv, punctul de lucru CGOM este liber, osia fiind deja depus n bufferul acestuia de ieire B8, reprezentat n reeaua Petri prin locul P24 (un jeton n locul P24 reprezint o pies n ateptare). Conveiorul C5 preia piesa tip osie montat, dup controlul acesteia n punctul de lucru CGOM, pentru a o transporta de la bufferul B8 ctre bufferul de intrare B9, reprezentat prin locul P27, al punctului de lucru montaj final MF unde se realizeaz montajul pe osia montat a rulmenilor, piulielor, siguranelor, cutiilor de osie etc. Astfel tranziiile T19 i T20 reprezint deplasrile conveiorului C5 de la bufferul de ieire B8 al punctului de lucru CGOM la bufferul B9 i napoi. Un jeton n unul din

existence of a slot in location P16 indicates the fact that, at such moment, the machine tool is busy. Transition T14 represents the changing of machine tool MU2 in "vacated" condition. The activation period of transition T14 is null, because it is considered that the changing into "vacated" condition takes place as soon as the processing of a part has been completed. Finally, similar to the flow in MU1, the processed axle is stored in output buffer B6, represented in the Petri net by location P18. Conveyor system C4 takes over the mounted axle part, in order to convey it from buffer B6 to input buffer B7, represented by location P21, of control point CGOM where the general control of the mounted axles is executed. Thus, transitions T15 and T16 represent the movements of conveyor C4 from output buffer B6 of machine tool MU2 to buffer B7 and back. A slot in one of locations P19 or P20 represents the fact that conveyor system C4 reached buffer B6 and buffer B7, respectively. If the slot is in location P19, the conveyor is busy and if the slot is in location P20, the conveyor has been vacated. Transition T17 represents the general control of the mounted axle in work point CGOM. The existence of a slot in location P22 indicates that, at such moment, such work point is busy. Transition T18 represents the changing of work point CGOM in "vacated" condition. The existence of a slot in location P23 indicates again the fact that, at such moment, work point CGOM is vacant, the axle having already been stored in its output buffer B8, represented in the Petri net by location P24 (a slot in location P24 represents a part in queuing). Conveyor C5 takes over the mounted axle part, after its having been controlled in work point CGOM, in order to convey it from B8 to input buffer B9, represented by location P27 of final mounting work location MF where the mounting of the bearings, nuts, interlocking, axle cases, etc. on the mounted axle is executed. Thus, transitions T19 and T20 represent the movements of conveyor C5 from output buffer B8 of work point CGOM to buffer B9 and back. A slot in one of locations P25 or P26 represents the fact that conveyor C5 reached buffer B8 and buffer B9,

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locurile P25 sau P26 reprezint faptul c conveiorul C5 a ajuns la bufferul B8, respectiv la bufferul B9. Bufferul B9 este alimentat cu piese care se monteaz pe osia montat din bufferul de ieire al atelierului prelucrri mecanice prin intermediul conveiorului C6. Astfel tranziia T23-BAPM indic apariia n bufferul BAPM (locul P30BAPM) a componentelor care se monteaz pe osia montat formnd osia echipat. Odat cu apariia pieselor n bufferul BAPM, reprezentat n reeaua Petri aferent prin locul P30-BAPM, apar i primele jetoane n acest loc (un jeton n locul P30-BAPM reprezint o pies n ateptare). Conveiorul C6 preia piesele componente care se monteaz pe osia montat pentru a le transporta de la buffe-rul BAPM ctre bufferul de intrare B9, reprezentat prin locul P27, al punctului de lucru montaj final MF. Astfel tranziiile T21 i T22 reprezint deplasrile conveiorului C6 de la bufferul BAPM la bufferul B9 i napoi. Un je-ton n unul din locurile P28 sau P29 reprezint faptul c C6 a ajuns la bufferul BAPM, res-pectiv la bufferul B9. Dac jetonul se afl n locul P28, conveiorul este ocupat, iar dac jeto-nul se afl n locul P29 conveiorul s-a eliberat. Similar, se descrie modelarea desfurrii eta-pelor procesului de montaj pentru locurile P30,..,P33, tranziiile T24 i T25, bufferele B9 i B10 la punctul de lucru MF. Apoi, conveiorul C7 preia piesa tip aparat de rulare, pentru a o transporta la bufferul de intrare B11, reprezentat prin locul P36 al punctului de lucru control general final al aparatului de rulare CGFOE. Astfel tranziiile T26 i T27 reprezint deplasrile conveiorului C7 de la bufferul de ieire B10 al punctului de lucru MF la bufferul B11 i napoi. Un jeton n unul din locurile P34 sau P35 reprezint faptul c C7 a ajuns la bufferul B10, respectiv la bufferul B11. Dac jetonul se afl n locul P34 conveiorul este ocupat, iar dac jetonul se afl n locul P35 conveiorul s-a eliberat. Tranziia T28 reprezint operaia de control general final al aparatului de rulare n punctul de lucru CGFOE. Existena unui jeton n locul P37 indic faptul c, la momentul respectiv, punc-tul de lucru

respectively. Buffer B9 is supplied with parts that are mounted on the mounted axle in the output buffer of the mechanical processing workshop by means of conveyor C6. Thus, transition T23-BAPM indicates the occurrence of the components to be mounted on the mounted axle, forming the equipped axle, in buffer BAPM (location P30-BAPM). Together with the occurrence of the parts in buffer BAPM, represented in the adherent Petri net by location P30-BAPM, the first slots also occur in this location (a slot in location P30-BAPM represents a part in queuing). Conveyor C6 takes over the components to be mounted on the mounted axle in order to convey them from buffer BAPM to input buffer B9, represented by location P27, of final mounting work point MF. Thus, transitions T21 and T22 represent the movements of conveyor C6 from buffer BAPM to buffer B9 and back. A slot in one of locations P28 or P29 represents the fact that C6 reached buffer BAPM and buffer B9, respectively. If the slot is in location P28, the conveyor is busy, and if the slot is in location P29, the conveyor has been vacated. The modelling of the mounting process stages for locations P30, ..., P33, transitions T24 and T25, buffers B9 and B10 to work point MF, is described in a similar way. Then, conveyor C7 takes over the undercarriage part in order to convey it to input buffer B11, represented by location P36 of the final general control work point of the undercarriage CGFOE. Thus, transitions T26 and T27 represent the movements of conveyor C7 from output buffer B10 of work point MF to buffer B11 and back. A slot in one of locations P34 or P35 represents the fact that C7 reached buffer B10 and buffer B11, respectively. If the slot is in location P34, the conveyor is busy, and if the slot is in location P35, the conveyor has been vacated. Transition T28 represents the final general control operation of the undercarriage in work point CGFOE. The existence of a slot in location P37 indicates the fact that, at such moment, such work point is busy. The existence of a slot in location P38 shows that, at such moment,

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respectiv este ocupat. Existena unui jeton n locul P38 arat c, la momentul respectiv, punctul de lucru CGFOE este liber, osia echipat fiind deja depus n bufferul acesteia de ieire B12, reprezentat n reeaua Petri prin locul P39-OE, care reprezint i bufferul de ieire al atelierului. Tranziia T30-OE indic faptul c osia echipat va fi supus altor procese tehnologice n alte ateliere.
5. Marcajul i construirea matricei de inciden a reelei Petri aferent fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare

work point CGFOE is vacant, the equipped axle having already been stored in its output buffer B12, represented in the Petri net by location P39-OE, which also represents the output buffer of the workshop. Transition T30-OE indicates the fact that the equipped axle shall be subject to other technological processes in other workshops.
5. Marking and Building the Incidence Matrix of the Petri Net Adherent to the Technological Mounting Flow of the Undercarriage

Marcajul reelei Petri al fluxului de montaj al aparatului de rulare din figura 2 (la momentul t = 0+944 min) este:

The marking of the Petri net of the mounting flow of the undercarriage in figure 2. (at moment t = 0+944 min) is:

MFMAR = (0;1;0;0;0;1;0;1;0;0;0;1;0;1;0;1;0;0;0;1;0;1;0;0;0;1;0;0;1;1;1;0;0;0;1;0;0;1;1)
Fluxul tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare a fost astfel conceput nct n orice moment, pe orice main-unealt, punct de lucru sau conveyor, s se afle o singur pies. n aceast situaie, valoarea arcelor care fac legtura ntre un loc i o tranziie, sau ntre o tranziie i un loc, este unitar pentru tot procesul tehnologic. Matricea de inciden a fluxului tehnologic de montaj este format din 39 de linii i 30 de coloane i este de forma: The technological mounting flow of the undercarriage was conceived so that one single part may be found on any machine tool, work point or conveyor at any one time. In such case, the value of the arches which connect a location and a transition, or a transition and a location, is unitary for the overall technological process. The incidence matrix of the technological mounting flow consists of 39 rows and 30 columns and has the form: I

MI = J
unde: - I reprezint componenta matricei de inciden MI format din liniile 1-20 i coloanele 1-30; - J reprezint componenta matricei de inciden MI format din liniile 21-39 i coloanele 1-30. Componenta I a matricei de inciden MI este: where: - I represents the component of incidence matrix MI consisting of rows 1-20 and columns 1-30; - J represents the component of incidence matrix MI consisting of rows 21-39 and columns 1-30. The I component of incidence matrix MI is:

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L/C 1 L L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 10 L 11 L 12 L 13 L 14 L 15 L 16 L 17 L L 18 L 19 L20

1 C 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C4 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C5 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C6 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C7 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

8 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

10 C 11 C 12 C 13 C 14 C 15 C 16 C 17 C 18 C 19 C20 C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 C26 C27 C28 C29 C30 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

iar componenta J a aceleiai matrice de inciden va fi:

and the J component of the same incidence matrix will be:

1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C 10 C 11 C 12 C 13 C 14 C 15 C 16 C 17 C 18 C 19 C20 C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 C26 C27 C28 C29 C30 L/C C L21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0

1 0

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1

1 0 0 0 0 0

1 1

1 0 1 1 0

1 0

Analiznd reeaua Petri aferent fluxului tehnologic de montaj a aparatului de rulare din fig. 2, marcajele, precum i matricele de inciden ale acestora, se observ c toate tranziiile, chiar dac la momentul t = 0+ +944 min nu sunt activabile, devin activabile din aproape n aproape, la alte momente t de-a lungul desfurrii procesului tehnologic, deci, respectivele fluxuri sunt funcionale. Matricea de inciden MI coroborat cu marcajele reelelor Petri din care aceasta provine, ne permite s urmrim att parcursul pieselor, al mainilor-unelte libere sau ocupate de-a lungul liniei de producie, dar ne d i posibilitatea s construim ecuaia de stare a reelei Petri. Nu vom apela la construcia ecuaiei de stare a reelei Petri att timp ct

Analyzing the Petri net adherent to the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage in fig. 2, the markings as well as their incidence matrixes, one can notice that all transitions, even if at moment t = 0+944 min cannot be activated, can be activated at other moments t during the carrying out of the technological process, therefore such flows are operational. Incidence matrix MI, corroborated with the markings of the Petri nets it comes from, allows us to follow the route of the parts, the vacant or busy machine tools along the manufacturing line. Moreover, it gives us the possibility to build the status equation of the Petri net. We will not approach the development of the status equation of the Petri
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analiza PTF-ului se face din aproape n aproape, lundu-se n calcul i elementele de analiz ale modelelor de ateptare care caracterizeaz respectivul PTF. Un alt motiv pentru care nu voi construi ecuaia de stare l constituie i complexitatea matricelor de inciden (din punct de vedere al mulimii elementelor acestora). Din analiza care se va realiza ulterior i care va lua n calcul toi parametrii (de ateptare, intrri, ieiri, etc), se va observa ct de important a fost modelarea funcionrii procesului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare cu ajutorul reelelor Petri i a fenomenelor de ateptare avnd n final i confirmarea dac acesta este funcional i rspunde cerinelor JIT.
6. Analiza i dimensionarea optimal a componentelor fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare (capacitate depozite de piese, timpi de ateptare) n contextul respectrii cerinelor JIT

net as long as the analysis of the PTF is done gradually, also taking into consideration the analysis elements of the queuing models characterizing such PTF. Another reason for not developing the status equation is also the complexity of the incidence matrixes (regarding the multitude of elements they contain). From the analysis that will be carried out subsequently and which will take into consideration all parameters (queuing, inputs, outputs, etc.), the importance of modelling the technological mounting process operation of the undercarriage, with the aid of Petri nets and queuing phenomena, and the confirmation if such process is operational and if it answers to the requirements of JIT will be noticed.
6. Analysis and Optimum Dimensioning of Technological Mounting Flow Components of the Undercarriage (storing capacity for parts, queuing times) with Observance to the JIT Requirements

Analiza fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare se va face att global, ct i la momentul t = 0+944 min pe cele trei fluxuri tehnologice.
Fluxul tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare este caracterizat de urmtorii factori i parametri: se utilizeaz dou modele de ateptare conform i anume: a. modelul de ateptare M/D/1 : (/FIFO) pentru presa hidraulic PH i punctele de lucru/control CGOM, MF, CGFOE i pentru conveioarele C3, C4, C5, C6, C7; b. modelul de ateptare M/D/c : (/FIFO) n cazul nostru c = 2, utilizat numai n cazul mainilorunelte MU1 i MU2 i pentru sistemele de conveioare (C1;C2); Parametrii care caracterizeaz ambele sisteme de ateptare sunt calculai cu ajutorul formulelor:

The analysis of the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage will be executed both globally as well as at moment t = 0+ 944 min for the three technological flows.
The technological mounting flow of the undercarriage is characterized by the following factors and parameters: two conforming queuing models are used, namely:

a. queuing model M/D/1: (/FIFO) for hydraulic press PH and work / control points CGOM, MF, CGFOE and for conveyors C3, C4, C5, C6, C7; b. queuing model M/D/c: (/FIFO) in our case c = 2, used only in the case of machine tools MU1 and MU2 and for conveyor systems (C1;C2); The parameters that characterize both queuing systems are calculated with the aid of the following formulas:
nmpp 1min

(1)

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este numrul mediu de piese prelucrate/transportate n unitatea de timp, sau altfel spus,
b=

is the average number of processed / conveyed parts in a time unit or, in other words, 1

(2) is the average process / conveyance time of a part;

este timpul mediu de prelucrare/transport al unei piese;

=
este intensitatea traficului. Dac valorile rezultate din calcul pentru intensitatea traficului sunt unitare, adic = 1, ncrcarea sistemului este de 100%. De asemenea, dac < 1 ncrcarea pentru respectivul sistem este sub 100%, iar dac > 1 ncrcarea pentru respectivul sistem este de peste 100%;

(3) is the traffic intensity. If the values resulted by calculation for increasing the traffic intensity are equal to one, i.e. = 1, the system charge is 100%. Moreover, if < 1, the charge for such system is below 100%, and if > 1, the charge for such system is above 100%;
n ps

1 min reprezint media sosirilor n unitatea de timp. represents the average arrivals in a time unit. Analiza acestor modelele de ateptare aplicate reelei Petri aferent fluxului tehnologic de montaj, se realizeaz cu ajutorul metodei grafice, la care se adaug interpretarea rezultatelor obinute la calculul parametrilor care caracterizeaz fenomenul de ateptare:

(4)

tranziiile care nu sunt activabile la momentul t = 0+944 min ales pentru construirea reelei Petri devin activabile la diferite momente ulterioare fa de momentul la care se realizeaz analiza; calcul parametrilor care caracterizeaz fenomenul de ateptare se realizeaz pentru toate componentele fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare. La calculul acestor parametri se iau n considerare parametrii fluxului i abaterile acestora, prezentai n tabelele 1 i 2. n realizarea tuturor graficelor aferente fluxului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare timpii necesari transportului pieselor cu conveioarele sau sistemele de conveioarele componente nu se iau n calcul, deoarece acestea nu influeneaz n niciun mod procesul tehnologic analizat, ncrcarea lor fiind cu mult sub capacitate i ar ncrca inutil respectivele grafice. Prin urmare, timpii de transport al

The analysis of such queuing systems applied to the Petri net adherent to the technological mounting flow are executed with the aid of the graphical method, to which the construal of the results obtained in calculating the parameters that characterize the queuing phenomenon is added: the transitions that cannot be activated at moment t = 0+944 min chosen for developing the Petri net can be activated at various moments subsequent to the moment when the analysis is executed; the parameters that characterize the queuing phenomenon are calculated for all the components of the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage. The flow parameters and their deviations presented in Tables 1 and 2 are taken into consideration in calculating such parameters. in drawing all the graphics adherent to the technological mounting flow of the undercarriage, the time necessary for the conveyance of the parts by means of conveyors or conveyor systems are not taken into consideration because it influences in no way the analyzed technological process, their charge being way below capacity and would overload such graphics uselessly. Therefore, the conveyance time of the parts on the

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pieselor/ reperelor pe conveioare sau sisteme de conveioare, dup cum am precizat n acest subcapitol, se consider nglobai n timpii de ateptare ale respectivelor piese/repere n depozitele de piese sau n timpii de prelucrare/lucru ai mainii-unelte sau ai postului de lucru din amonte de conveyor i nu le voi analiza (nu se calculeaz niciun parametru de ateptare); la calculul parametrilor care caracterizeaz fenomenele de ateptare n cazul mainilor-unelte, acestea se consider un tot unitar cu depozitele de piese de intrare i de ieire aferente acestora.

conveyors of conveyor systems, as specified in this sub-chapter, are deemed incorporated in the queuing time of such parts in the part warehouses or in the processing / work time of the machine tool or work location upstream the conveyor and shall not be analyzed (no queuing parameter is calculated);

in calculating the parameters which characterize the queuing phenomena in the case of machine tools, such parameters are deemed as a whole with the warehouses of input and output parts adherent to them.

Media sosirilor pentru fiecare punct de lucru/main-unealt component() a fluxului de montaj al aparatului de rulare calculat conform relaiei 4:

The average arrivals for each work point / machine tool component of the mounting flow of the undercarriage calculated according to equation 4:

31R = 10 piese-roat/410 min. = 0,0243 roi/min (excepie fcnd primul set de roi de la nceperea funcionrii fluxului tehnologic); 31Ax = 1 pies-ax /50 min. = 0,02 ax/min.; PH = 1 pies/50 min. = 0,02 piese/min: Acesta este i parametrul reper dup care este calculat/analizat ntregul flux tehnologic de montaj aparat rulare, deoarece dintre cele dou intrri pe flux, respectiv roat i ax, la acesta din urm media sosirilor este mai mic, deci intrrile se realizeaz mai rar dect fa de roat - osie; MU1 = MU2 = 1 pies/98 min. = 0,0102 piese/min. pe aceste maini-unelte se profileaz osia montat cu o decalare de aproximativ 30 min. a unei maini-unelte fa de cealalt pentru buna desfurare a fluxului tehnologic; CGOM =1pies/51min = 0,0196 piese/min; MF = 1pies/51 min. = 0,0196 piese/min. (excepie fcnd prima pies); CGFAR =1pies/51 min. = 0,0196 piese /min (excepie fcnd prima pies); 42 = 1piese/51 min. = 0,0196 piese/min. (excepie fcnd prima pies);

31R = 10 parts wheel/410min = 0.0243 wheels/min (except the first set of wheels from the commencing of the technological flow operation); 31Ax = 1 part-axis/50min = 0.02 axis/min; PH = 1 part/50min = 0.02 parts/min: This is also the reference parameter according to which the overall technological mounting flow undercarriage is calculated / analyzed because between the two inputs on the flow, i.e. wheel and axis, the average arrivals are smaller for the latter, therefore the inputs are more rare as opposed to axle - wheel; MU1 = MU2 = 1 part/98min = 0.0102 parts/min on these machine tools the mounted axle is profiled approximately 30 minutes one machine tool from the other for the good execution of the technological flow; CGOM = 1 part/51min = 0.0196 parts/min; MF = 1 part/51min = 0.0196 parts/min (except for the first part); CGFAR = 1 part/51min = 0.0196 parts/min (except for the first part); 42 = 1 part/51min. = 0.0196 parts/min. (except for the first part);

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Continuare in fig. 4.

CGFAR AR4 10min MF AR4 41min CGOM OM4 20min


685 726 736

MU2 OM4 105min


665

CGFAR AR3 10min


695

PH OM4 40min
520 560

MF AR3 40min CGOM OM3 20min


685 645 625

MU1 OM3 105min PH OM3 41min


479 520 630

CGFAR AR2 10min MF AR2 40min


620

CGOM OM2 20min MU2 OM2 100min


560 580

PH OM2 42min
418 460

CGFAR AR1 10min


580 570

MF AR1 40min CGOM OM1 20min


530

MU1 OM1 100min


510

PH OM1 43min
367 410

360

420

480

540

600

660

Desfasurarea timpilor de prelucrare si de asteptare (min)

720

Fig. 3. Analiza grafic global a timpilor de prelucrare/ montaj/verificare i ateptare a ansamblurilor tip aparat de rulare n cazul fluxului tehnologic de montaj aparat de rulare Overall graphical analysis of the processing / mounting / control and queuing times of the undercarriage assemblies in the case of technological mounting flow undercarriage)
Continuare in fig. 5.

CGFAR AR8 10min MF AR8 40min CGOM OM8 21min MU2 OM8 99min
864 885 925 935

PH OM8 40min
720 760

CGFAR AR3 10min


895

MF AR7 40min CGOM OM7 20min


885 845 825

MU1 OM7 99min PH OM7 42min


673 715 825 835

CGFAR AR6 10min MF AR6 40min CGOM OM6 20min


785

MU2 OM6 102min


665 765

CGFAR AR5 10min


795 785

PH OM6 39min
621 660

MF AR5 40min CGOM OM5 19min


745

MU1 OM5 101min PH OM5 42min


573 615 625 726

540

600

660

720

780

840

Desfasurarea timpilor de prelucrare si de asteptare (min)

920

Fig. 4. Analiza grafic global a timpilor de prelucrare/ montaj/verificare i ateptare a ansamblurilor tip aparat de rulare n cazul fluxului tehnologic de montaj aparat de rulare continuare la fig. 3. Overall graphical analysis of the processing / mounting / control and queuing times of the undercarriage assemblies i the case of technological mounting flow undercarriage continued from fig. 3

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STOP

CGFAR AR12 10min


1145

MF AR12 40min CGOM OM12 20min 1090 MU2 OM12 100min


1070 1135

PH OM12 39min
931 970

CGFAR AR11 10min


1105

MF AR11 41min CGOM OM11 21min MU1 OM11 103min


1033 1054 1095

PH OM11 42min
888 930

CGFAR AR10 10min


1037

MF AR10 42min
1027

CGOM OM10 20min


985

MU2 OM10 101min


864 965

CGFAR AR9 10min


995 985

PH OM10 41min
820 861

MF AR9 40min

CGOM OM9 20min 945 MU1 OM9 100min PH OM9 42min


775 817 825 925

780

840

900

944 960

1020

1080

Desfasurarea timpilor de prelucrare si de asteptare (m

1140

Fig. 5. Analiza grafic global a timpilor de prelucrare/ montaj/verificare i ateptare a ansamblurilor tip aparat de rulare n cazul fluxului tehnologic de montaj aparat de rulare continuare la fig. 3 i 4. Overall graphical analysis of the processing / mounting / control and queuing times of the undercarriage assemblies in the case of technological mounting flow undercarriage continued from fig. 3 and 4 Legend: (Map): MUX maina-unealt pe care se execut operaia; (MUX machine tool on which the operation is executed); Pyy tipul piesei care se prelucreaz pe maina-unealt MUX i numrul acesteia; (Pyy type of part to be processed on machine tool MUX and its number); Zmin timpul efectiv de prelucrare al piesei P pe maina-unealt MUX; (Zmin actual processing time of part P on machine tool MUX); xxx timpul la care s-a nceput operaia tehnologic a unei piese pe un post de lucru din cadrul fluxului tehnologic de montaj de unde face parte respectivul post de lucru; (xxx commencement time of the technological operation of a part on a work location within the technological mounting flow which such work location is part of); yyy timpul la care s-a finalizat operaia tehnologic a unei piese pe un post de lucru din cadrul fluxului tehnologic de montaj de unde face parte respectivul post de lucru; (yyy completion time of the technological operation of a part on a work location within the technological mounting flow which such work location is part of);

Numrul mediu de piese prelucrate/montate/verificate n unitatea de timp pentru fiecare post de lucru/main component() a fluxului tehnologic de montaj aparat rulare conform relaiei (1.) este de: PH = 1 pies/44 min. = 0,0227 piese/min; MU1 = MU2 = 1 pies/103 min. = 0,0097 piese/min.; CGOM = 1pies/20 min. = 0,05 piese/min.;

The average number of processed / mounted / controlled parts in a time unit for each component work location / machine of the technological mounting flow undercarriage is, according to equation (1.): PH = 1 part/44min. = 0.0227 parts/min.; MU1 = MU2 = 1 part/103 min. = 0.0097 parts/min; CGOM = 1 part/20min. = 0.05 parts/min.;

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MF = 1 pies/40 min. = 0,025 piese/min.; CGFAR = 1 pies/10 min. = 0,1 piese/min.; Intensitatea traficului calculat pentru fiecare component a fluxului tehnologic de montaj aparat rulare este conform relaiei (3): PH = 0,02/0,0227= 0,88; MU1 = MU2 = 0,0102/0,0097 = 1,05; CGOM = 0,0196/0,05 = 0,39; MF = 0,0196/0,025 = 0,78; CGFAR = 0,0196/0,1 = 0,19
Analiz grafic a fenomenelor de ateptare a fluxului tehnologic de montaj aparat rulare se realizeaz att global, ct i la momentul t = 0+944 min. Graficele rezultate n urma utilizrii metodei grafice, la care se adaug interpretarea rezultatelor obinute la calculul parametrilor care caracterizeaz fenomenul de ateptare, se regsesc n fig. 3, 4 i 5. Din studierea graficelor din figurile 3, 4 i 5 i a rezultatelor obinute pentru parametrii fenomenelor de ateptare (intensitatea traficului, media sosirilor i numrul de piese prelucrate/montate/verificate) n cazul fluxului tehnologic montaj UA2, se constat c nu toate posturile de lucru/control au acoperire de 100%. Astfel, pentru presa hidraulic PH, pentru punctul de control general al osiei montate GCOM, pentru punctul de montaj final MF i pentru punctul de control general final al apara-tului de rulare CGFOE, este necesar a se lua msuri la nivel de coordonator flux tehnologic, pentru ncrcarea la capacitate a acestora i pentru a se putea satisface condiiile JIT. Toi timpii de ateptare ai pieselor sau ai mainilor-unelte pot fi dedui cu uurin, dup cum se observ, din construcia graficelor ajuttoare (vezi toate figurile ncepnd cu fig. 3). Avnd n vedere faptul c respectivele puncte de lucru de tipul control sau montaj (excepie presa hidraulic care este o main-unealt particular cu utilizri pentru un singur tip de operaie) sunt caracterizate de flexibilitate, acestea pot fi ncrcate cu piese din colaborare din cadrul altor ateliere din ntreprindere. Situa-ia ncrcrii presei hidraulice trebuie

MF = 1 part/40min = 0.025 parts/min; CGFAR = 1 part/10min = 0.1 parts/min;

The traffic intensity calculated for each component of the technological mounting flow undercarriage is according to equation (3): PH = 0.02/0.0227= 0.88; MU1 = MU2 = 0.0102/0.0097 = 1.05; CGOM = 0.0196/0.05 = 0.39; MF = 0.0196/0.025 = 0.78; CGFAR = 0.0196/0.1 = 0.19 The graphical analysis of the queuing phenomena of the technological mounting flow undercarriage is done both globally and at moment t = 0+944 min. The graphics resulted following the use of the graphical method, to which the construal of the results obtained in the calculation of the parameters that characterize the queuing phenomenon is added, are set forth in fig. 3, 4 and 5. From studying the graphics in figures 3, 4 and 5 and the results obtained for the queuing phenomena parameters (traffic intensity, average arrivals and number of processed / mounted / controlled parts) in the case of technological mounting flow UA2, it is assessed that not all work / control locations have 100% coverage. Thus, in the case of hydraulic press PH, general control point of the mounted axle GCOM, final mounting point MF and final general control point of the undercarriage CGFOE, it is necessary to take measures on technological flow coordinator level in order to load them up to their capacity to be able to meet JIT requirements. All queuing times of the parts or the machine tools can easily be deducted, as noticed, from the construction of the additional graphics (see all figures beginning with fig. 3). Taking into account the fact that such work points control or mounting (except for the hydraulic press which is a particular machine tool with uses for a single type of operation) are characterized by flexibility, they can be loaded with parts from other workshops within the facility. The case of the hydraulic press supply must be solved by cooperation with
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rezolvat prin colaborri cu alte uniti cu acelai speci-fic, care nu dein un astfel de main-unealt sau cu alte ntreprinderi. Analiznd sistemul tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare prin modelarea cu ajutorul reelelor Petri, devine posibil dimensionarea optimal a tuturor componentelor sistemului de montaj (capacitate buffere, timpi de tranziie i de ateptare, timpi tehnologici pentru fiecare punct de lucru, etc). Aceast dimensionare opti-mal constituie subiectul unor studii viitoare.
7. Concluzii

other facilities operating in the same field which do not possess such a machine tool or with other facilities altogether. Analyzing the technological mounting system of the undercarriage by modelling with the aid of Petri nets, the optimum dimensioning of all mounting system components becomes possible (buffer capacity, transition and queuing times, technological times for each work point, etc.). Such optimum dimensioning constitutes the subject of future studies.
7. Conclusions

Pentru analiza funcionrii procesului tehnologic de montaj al aparatului de rulare n condiiile respectrii cerinelor JIT, aplicarea combinaiei reele Petri fenomene/modele de ateptare s-a dovedit benefic, avnd n vedere faptul c rezultatele obinute sunt conforme cu realitatea i ne permit urmrirea i luarea unor decizii pertinente, astfel nct stocurile de materiale i piese s fie minime, iar ncrcarea mainilorunelte, a punctelor de lucru sau de control s fie ct mai aproape de 100%. Prin urmare, pentru ca fluxul pe care l-am analizat s se ncadreze n cerinele strategiei JIT, este necesar totui a se asigura un stoc minim de siguran (chiar n situaia n care aceasta contravine cerinelor JIT), pentru a putea prelua fr ocuri unele perturbaii ce pot aprea n timpul funcionrii acestui flux tehnologic, avnd n vedere c din aceast analiz reiese c la nicio main-unealt sau punct de lucru nu exist piese n ateptare (vezi i valorile traficului sau a ncrcrilor mainilor-unelte sau a punctelor de lucru). De asemenea, se observ c este necesar a se acoperi posturile de lucru a cror ncrcare este cu mult mai mic de 100%.

For the analysis of the operation of the technological mounting process of the undercarriage subject to the observance of the JIT requirements, the use of the combination of Petri nets queuing phenomena / models proved to be beneficial, taking into account the fact that the results obtained correspond to reality and allow us to follow up and take pertinent decisions so that the stocks of materials and parts are minimal and the loading of the machine tools, work or control points is as close to 100% as possible.

Therefore, for the analyzed flow to meet the requirements of the JIT strategy, it is nevertheless necessary to provide a minimum safety stock (even if such stock breaches the JIT requirements) to be able to take over free of any shock certain deviations that may occur during the operation of such technological flow, taking into account that this analysis proves that there are no queuing parts before any machine tool or work point (also refer to the traffic values or the machine tool or work point loads). Moreover, one can notice that it is necessary to cover the work locations the load of which is much below 100%.

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Modlisation du droulement dun processus technologique de montage par lutilisation des rseaux Petri et de la thorie dattente Rsum Cet article prsente une approche de la modlisation du processus technologique de montage de lappareil de roulage dun wagon, dans les conditions de lapplication de la stratgie Just-in-Time Machining. Cette modlisation est ralise laide de lassemblage des phnomnes / modles dattente avec la capacit danalyse des rseaux Petri. A cet effet, on a construit le rseau Petri affrent au processus technologique de montage de lappareil de roulage et on a tabli les modles dattente qui sont utiliss en vue de la ralisation de cette modlisation. Ces modles dattente sont: M/D/1 : (/FIFO) et M/D/c : (/FIFO). En mme temps, avec ces modles dattente, on a calcul les valeurs des paramtres dattente et ensemble avec les graphiques affrents (figures 4, 5, 6) on a analys globalement le processus technologique de montage de lappareil de roulage dun wagon. Tous les rsultats obtenus sont analyss et les conclusions obtenues conduisent lide que ledit processus technologique correspond aux exigences de la stratgie Just-in-Time Machining, condition que certaines exigences supplmentaires soient satisfaites. Bibliografie References [1] [2] ASKIN R., STANDRIDGE C., Modeling and Simulation of Manufacturing Systems, John Wiley & Sons Inc., S.U.A., 1993. BAUSE F., BUCHHOLZ P., Product From Queueing Petri Nets: A combination of product from queueing networks and product from stochastic Petri nets, Technical report 529, Fachbereich Informatic der Universitt Dortmund, 1994. CLUGRESCU I., PETROIAN E., ILEA O., LANGA I., OPRIENESCU E., RDOI M., Maini i Utilaje VAGOANE (Machines and Equipment - CARRIAGES), Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic Bucureti, 1980. COOPER R.: Introduction to Queueing Theory, North Holland, New York, 1981. FALKO BAUSE, PIETER S. KRITZINGER, Stochastic Petri Nets, Vieweg, Germany, 1999. LEE ALEC M.: Applied Queueing Theory, The Macmillan Press Limited, London 1966 (traducere n limba romn (translation in the Romanian language) dr . VICENIU DUMITRU, ANDREI ALEXIU, TIBERIU SPIRCU, Ed. Tehnic Bucureti, 1976. RUSU TEFAN, Management tehnologic (Technological Management), Ed. Matrix Rom, Bucureti, 2002. RUSU T., UNGUROIU M.: Utilizarea reelelor Petri pentru modelarea unui proces tehnologic de montaj al unui sistem mecanic (Use of Petri Nets for Modelling a Technological Mounting Process of a Mechanical System), Comunicare la al X-lea Simpozion Naional pentru Utilaje pentru Construcii, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic (Communication at the 10th National Symposium for Construction Equipment, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Faculty of Technological Equipment), publicat n volumul Simpozionului (published in the volume of the Symposium) (poz. S-1-15, pag. 1-7), ISDN 973-7797-35-3, 2004. UNGUROIU M.: Contribuii privind aplicarea strategiei tehnologice Just-in-Time Machining la fabricarea produselor/sistemelor mecanice (Contributions regarding the Applying of the Just-in-Time Machining Technological Strategy in Manufacturing Mechanical Products / Systems), Tez de Doctorat (Doctoral Thesis) Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest), Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic (Faculty of Technological Equipment), Catedra de Tehnologie Mecanic i Organe de Maini (Chair of Mechanical Technology and Machine Tools), , Conductor tiinific (Scientific Coordinator): Prof. univ. Dr.-ing. TEFAN RUSU, 2008.

[3]

[4] [5] [6]

[7] [8]

[9]

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Analiza Stabilitii unor Stlpi cu Seciune Variabil n Trepte

Stability Analysis for Columns with Stepped Variable Cross Section

Valeriu Bnu, prof.dr.ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Catedra de Mecanic, Statica i Dinamica Construciilor (Departement of Mechanics, Static and Dynamic of Structures) , e-mail: banutv@mail.utcb.ro Mircea Eugen Teodorescu, conf.dr.ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Catedra de Mecanic, Statica i Dinamica Construciilor (Departement of Mechanics, Static and Dynamic of Structures) , e-mail: mirceat@mail.utcb.ro

1. Introducere.

1. Introduction.

Proiectarea structurii de rezisten a unei hale parter avnd stlpii cu seciunea transversal variabil n trepte, impus de existena unui pod rulant, necesit analiza unui mare numr de ipoteze de calcul. Dac pentru calculul de ordinul I, analiza este bine cunoscut i destul de facil de realizat, ipotezele corespunztoare analizei stabilitii echilibrului conduc la situaii dificil de abordat, care de multe ori sunt tratate aproximativ. Or, n problema stabilitii echilibrului nu se poate aprecia totdeauna corect efectele unei anumite aproximaii. Pornind de la aceast constatare, n prezenta lucrare se prezint studiul stabilitii unor stlpi cu seciunea transversal variabil n trepte, ncastrai la partea inferioar i avnd legturi diferite la captul superior sau simple rezemri la nivelul podului rulant (Fig.1.1).

The design of the structure of a ground-storey building having columns with stepped variable cross section imposed by the existence of a runway girder requires the analysis of many load cases. The analysis is well-known and easy to accomplish for the first order calculus, but the corresponding hypotheses for the equilibrium stability analysis lead to situations that are difficult to be handled and that are mostly approximated. However, for the equilibrium stability problem the effects of an approximation cannot always be correctly estimated. Starting with this remark, a stability study will be presented for columns with stepped variable section, fixed at the lower end and having different connections at the upper end or simple supports at the level of the runway girder (Fig 1.1).

b c d Fig.1.1 Stalpi cu sectiunea transversala variabila in trepte Columns with stepped variable cross sections

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Considerarea de legturi n aceste seciuni este justificat prin existena cilor de rulare sau a portalelor pentru contravntuirea n sens longitudinal a halelor. Rezolvarea ecuaiilor de stabilitate permite determinarea exact a forelor critice i a lungimilor de flambaj, eliminnd astfel efectul aproximaiilor, mai ales n momentul de fa cnd exist tendena realizrii de structuri zvelte, prin exploatarea la maximum a capacitii de rezisten a materialelor. Ecuaia de stabilitate a fost rezolvat pentru o serie de valori ale elementelor ce intervin n calcul, iar parametrii de ncrcare axial rezultai au fost nscrii n tabele. n acest mod calculul de stabilitate devine uor abordabil i permite analiza mai multor variante, n special n faza de predimensionare. Ecuaiile de stabilitate obinute aici, pentru deformarea n plan transversal, pot fi utilizate i pentru cazul n care este analizat pierderea de stabilitate n sens longitudinal construciei, cu condiia introducerii momentelor de inerie corespunztoare. Pentru cazurile n care translaia la nivelul podului rulant sau la extremitatea superioar nu este mpiedicat, n lucrarea [1] sunt prezentate grafice de variaie a parametrilor critici de ncrcare axial.
2. Determinarea ecuaiilor de stabilitate 2.1 Cazul a (fig.2.1)

The connections at these sections are justified by the existence of the runway girders or the longitudinal bracing systems of the buildings. Solving the stability equations allows the exact determination of the critical forces and the buckling lengths, thus eliminating the effect of approximations, especially nowadays, when there is the tendency of building slender structures by using the materials bearing strength to the limit. In the first part of the article the stability equation has been solved for a series of values of the elements that are taken into consideration in the calculation, and the axial loading parameters that result have been placed in tables. In this way, the stability calculation becomes easier and allows the analysis of more cases, especially in the predimensioning phase. The stability equations that are obtained here for the deformation in the transversal plane can also be used for the case where the loss of stability in longitudinal direction is analyzed, given that the corresponding inertia moments are used. For the cases where the translation at the running girder level or at the upper extremity is not suppressed, graphs for the variation of the critical axial loading parameters are presented in article [1].
2. Determination of Stability Equations 2.1 Case a (fig.2.1) I l = 2 ; = 2 I1 l1 P +P P 1 = 1 2 ; 2 = 1 P2 P2
k1 = P1 + P2 ; EI1

l2

l1

k2 =

P2 ; EI 2

v2 = l 2 k 2 ; v1 = l 1k1 ;

v1 = v2
Fig.2.1

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Pentru determinarea ecuaiei de stabilitate se va utiliza ecuaia fibrei medii deformate. -zona superioar ( 0 x2 l 2 ) Momentul ncovoietor n seciunea curent este M x = P2 y2 , iar ecuaia diferenial are forma
2 + k 2 y2 y2 = 0

The equation of the deformation of the centroid of the beam will be used for determining the stability equation - the superior zone ( 0 x2 l 2 ) The bending moment in the current section is M x = P2 y2 , and the differential equation has the form:
(1) The solution of equation (1) is

Soluia ecuaiei (1) este:

y2 = C1 sin k 2 x2 + C2 cos k 2 x2

(2)

iar rotirea are forma

and the rotation has the form:


= k 2C1 cos k 2 x2 k 2C2 sin k 2 x2 y2

(3)

zona inferioar ( l 2 x1 l ) Momentul ncovoietor n seciunea curent este M x = P2 y1 + P1 ( y1 ) H (x1 l 2 ) , iar ecuaia diferenial are forma + k12 y1 = y1 Soluia ecuaiei difereniale (4) este

- the inferior zone ( l 2 x1 l ) The bending moment in the current section is M x = P2 y1 + P1 ( y1 ) H (x1 l 2 ) , and the differential equation has the form (4)

P1 H ( x1 l 2 ) + EI1 EI1

The solution of the differential equation (4) is P1 H (x1 l 2 ) + P1 + P2 P1 + P2

y1 = C3 sin k1 x1 + C4 cos k1 x1 + i rotirea are forma

(5)

and the rotation has the form = k1C3 cos k1 x1 k1C4 sin k1 x1 + y1 H P 1 + P 2
(6)

Constantele de integrare C1, C2, C3, C4 precum i H i se determin din condiiile: - pentru x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 - pentru x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y2 = i = y1 y2 - pentru x1 = l 1 + l 2 , y1 = i y '1 = 0

The integration constants C1, C2, C3, C4 as well as H and D are determined from the conditions: - for x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 - for x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y2 = and = y1 y2 - for x1 = l 1 + l 2 , y1 = and y '1 = 0

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Utiliznd aceste condiii, se obine un sistem de trei ecuaii omogene cu necunoscutele C3, C4 i , a crei soluie rezult din condiia ca determinantul coeficienilor necunoscutelor s fie egal cu zero:
1 sin k1l 2

Using these conditions, one obtains a system of three homogeneous equations having the unknowns C3, C4 and , whose solution results from the condition that the determinant of the unknown coefficients is zero:
cos k1l 2 (7) cos k1l + v1 cos k1l

D = k 2 cot v2 1

k1 cos k1l 2 k1 cos k1l k1 sin k1l 2 + k1 sin k1l = 0 sin k1l v1 cos k1l obine

Dezvoltnd determinantul se urmtoarea ecuaie de stabilitate:

Expanding the determinant one obtains the following stability equation:

cos v1 v1 1 cot v2 2 sin v1

cot v2 + v1 + 2 = 0

(8)

Rezolvnd prin ncercri ecuaia de stabilitate pentru diferite valori ale coeficienilor 1, i se obin valorile parametrului critic de ncrcare axial v2 (Tabelul 1).

Solving by trials the stability equation for different values of the coefficients 1, and , one obtains the values of the critical parameter of axial loading v2 (Table 1).
Tabel 1 / Table 1

= I 2 I1
0.05

= l 2 l1
0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 1,00 1,470 1,506 1,521 1,368 1,441 1,474 1,273 1,379 1,428 1,050 1,216 1,302

1 =
2,00 1,458 1,502 1,520 1,326 1,429 1,469 1,198 1,355 1,418 1,157 1,273

P1 + P2 P2
4,00 1,424 1,495 1,518 1,200 1,398 1,458 1,290 1,393 1,198 5,00 1,398 1,490 1,516 1,128 1,377 1,451 1,247 1,377 1,154

0,10 0,15 0,30

3,00 1,443 1,499 1,520 1,269 1,415 1,464 1,109 1,326 1,407 1,089 1,238

Lungimile de flambaj ale celor dou tronsoane ale stlpului se calculeaz cu relaia l fi = i l i
. vcr ,i Condiia limit din STAS 10108-0/78 cu 2 3 este respectat pentru toate cazurile analizate

unde i =

The buckling lengths of the two parts of the column are computed with the formula: l fi = i l i where i = . vcr ,i The STAS 10108-0/78 limit condition with 2 3 is respected for all analyzed cases

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= 1,047 se 3 obine pentru varianta = 0,20 i = 0,30 pentru care v2 = 1,05 . Pentru valori > 0,30 rezult 2 > 3 . Situaia apropiat de limit v2 =

= 1,047 3 is obtained for = 0,20 and = 0,30 for which v2 = 1,05 . For values > 0,30 it results 2 > 3 . The situation close to the limit v2 = n Table 1, the cases for which the condition 2 < 3 is not realized, are not marked. Also, from the analysis of the axial loading parameters values from table 1, it results that the more the ratio increases, the more parameter v2 of the superior zone decreases. All these observations are useful for adopting I an adequate section (the ratio = 2 ) when I1 the lengths of sections l 2 and l 1 are imposed by technological conditions.

n tabelul 1, cazurile, pentru care nu este 2 < 3 , nu sunt ndeplinit condiia completate. De asemenea, din analiza valorilor parametrilor de ncrcare axial din tabelul 1 rezult c pe msur ce raportul crete, parametrul v2 (al zonei superioare) scade. Toate acestea observaii servesc la adoptarea I unor seciuni adecvate (raportul = 2 ) n I1 condiiile n care lungimile tronsoanelor l 2 i l 1 sunt impuse de condiii tehnologice
2.2 Cazul b (fig.2.2)

2.2 Case b (fig.2.2)

l2

l1

Fig.2.2

Notaiile sunt identice cu cele de la cazul a. - zona superioar ( 0 x2 l 2 ) Momentul ncovoietor n seciunea curent este M x = Hx2 P2 y 2 , iar ecuaia diferenial are forma Hx 2 + k 2 y2 y2 = 2 EI 2

The notations are identical as for case a. - the superior zone ( 0 x2 l 2 ) The bending moment in the current section is M x = Hx2 P2 y 2 , and the differential equation has the form (9)

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Soluia ecuaiei (9) este:

The solution of the equation (9) is: y 2 = C1 sin k 2 x2 + C 2 cos k 2 x2 Hx2 P2 and the rotation has the form: H P2 (10)

iar rotirea are forma

y 2 = k 2 C1 cos k 2 x2 k 2 C 2 sin k 2 x2 zona inferioar ( l 2 x1 l ) Momentul ncovoietor n seciunea curent este M x = P2 y1 Hx1 + P1 ( y1 ) , iar ecuaia diferenial are forma + k12 y1 = y1 Soluia ecuaiei difereniale (12) este

(11)

- the inferior zone ( l 2 x1 l ) The bending moment in the current section is M x = P2 y1 Hx1 + P1 ( y1 ) , and the differential equation has the form:

P1 Hx1 (12) EI1 EI1 The solution of the differential equation (12) is P1 Hx1 P1 + P2 P1 + P 2 and the rotation has the form: H P1 + P2 (13)

y1 = C3 sin k1 x1 + C 4 cos k1 x1 + i rotirea are forma

= k1C3 cos k1 x1 k1C 4 sin k1 x1 y1 Condiiile pentru determinarea constantelor de integrare sunt: - pentru x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 - pentru x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y 2 = i = y1 y2 - pentru x1 = l , y1 = 0 i y '1 = 0 Utiliznd aceste condiii se obine urmtoarea form a ecuaiei de stabilitate: 1 sin k1l 2 k1l 2 cos k1l D = k 2 cot v2

(14)

The conditions for determining the integration constants are: - for x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 - for x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y 2 = and = y1 y2 - for x1 = l , y1 = 0 and y '1 = 0 Using these conditions the following form of the equation of stability results. cos k1l 2 + k1l 2 cos k1l (15) cos k1l + k1l cos k1l where B =

2 1

k1 cos k1l 2 + B1k1 cos k1l k1 sin k1l 2 B1k1 sin k1l = 0 sin k1l k1l cos k1l

unde B =

2 v2 cot v2 1

2 v2 cot v2 1

Din dezvoltarea determinantului se obine forma final a ecuaiei de stabilitate i anume:

After expanding the determinant, the final form of the stability equation is obtained:
(16)

1 1 2 ( ) + + + cos v1 1v2 cot v 1 sin v cot v v 1 2 2 = 0 1 2 2 1 2 1 1

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Rezolvnd ecuaia de stabilitate (16), pentru aceleai valori ale parametrilor ca n cazul precedent, au rezultat valorile parametrului critic de ncrcare axial v2, prezentate n tabelul 2

Solving the equation of stability (16) for the same values of the parameters, like in the previous case, the values of the critical axial loading parameter v2, given in table 2 are determined
Tabel 2 / Table 2

= I 2 I1
0.05

= l 2 l1
0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 1,00 1,778 2,038 2,327 1,644 1,879 2,099 1,532 1,786 1,992 1,256 1,574 1,797

1 =
2,00 1,659 1,866 2,106 1,514 1,715 1,892 1,374 1,621 1,789 1,053 1,388 1,592

P 1 + P 2 P2
4,00 1,476 1,620 1,798 1,303 1,481 1,608 1,118 1,387 1,515 1,132 1,324 5,00 1,404 1,527 1,686 1,314 1,395 1,506 1,023 1,301 1,417 1,042 1,230

0,10 0,15 0,30

3,00 1,560 1,731 1,934 1,402 1,586 1,734 1,234 1,491 1,635 1,244 1,441

2.3 Cazul c (fig.2.3)

2.3 Case c (fig.2.3)

Fig.2.3

- zona superioar ( 0 x2 l 2 ) Momentul ncovoietor n seciunea curent este M x = P2 y 2 M s , iar ecuaia diferenial a fibrei medii deformate are forma Ms EI 2

- the superior zone ( 0 x2 l 2 ) The bending moment in the current section is M x = P2 y 2 M s , and the differential equation of the deformation of the centroid of the beam has the form (17)

2 + k 2 y2 y2 =

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Soluia ecuaiei difereniale este:

The solution of the differential equation is: Ms P2 and the rotation becomes: (18)

y2 = C1 sin k 2 x2 + C2 cos k 2 x2 + iar rotirea devine

= k 2C1 cos k 2 x2 k 2C2 sin k 2 x2 y2 (19) zona inferioar ( l 2 x1 l ) the inferior zone ( l 2 x1 l ) The bending Momentul ncovoietor este moment is

M x = P2 y1 M s H ( x1 l 2 ) + P1 ( y1 ) , iar ecuaia diferenial a fibrei medii deformate are forma + k12 y1 = y1

M x = P2 y1 M s H ( x1 l 2 ) + P1 ( y1 ) , and the differential equation of the deformation of the centroid of the beam has the form

M s + P1 + H ( x1 l 2 ) (20) EI1 Soluia ecuaiei difereniale (20) este The solution of the differential equation (20) is M + P1 + H ( x1 l 2 ) y1 = C3 sin k1 x1 + C 4 cos k1 x1 + s (21) P 1 +P2 i rotirea este and the rotation is = k1C3 cos k1 x1 k1C 4 sin k1 x1 + y1 Condiiile pentru determinarea constantelor sunt: - pentru x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 i y' 2 = 0 = y2 - pentru x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y 2 = i y1 - pentru x1 = l , y1 = i y '1 = 0 Utiliznd aceste condiii rezult urmtoarea form a ecuaiei de stabilitate:
cos v2 D = 1k 2 sin v2 cos v2 sin k1l 2

H P1 + P2

(22)

The conditions for determining the integration constants are: - for x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 and y' 2 = 0 = y2 - for x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y 2 = and y1 - for x1 = l , y1 = and y '1 = 0 Using these conditions the following form of the stability equation results:
cos k1l 2

k1 cos k1l 2 + k1 cos k1l k1 sin k1l 2 k1 sin k1l = 0 sin k1l v1 cos k1l cos k1l + v1 sin k1l

(23)

Dezvoltnd determinantul (23) se obine forma uzual a ecuaiei de stabilitate

Expanding the determinant (23) the usual form of the stability equation results

cos v1 v1 1 tan v2 + 2 sin v1 1 tan v2 v1 2 = 0 (24 Rezolvnd ecuaia de stabilitate (24) pentru Solving the stability equation (24) for the valorile coeficienilor 1, i utilizate i n values of the coefficients 1, and , used in cazurile precedente rezult valorile the previous cases one obtains the values of parametrului critic de ncrcare axial v2 the critical parameter of axial loading v2 (Tabelul 3). (Table 3).

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Tabel 3 / Table 3

= I 2 I1
0.05

= l 2 l1
0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 1,00 2,853 2,991 3,036 2,439 2,804 2,919 2,117 2,605 2,795 1,624 2,137 2,448

1 =
2,00 2,577 2,948 3,023 1,946 2,599 2,853 1,631 2,257 2,644 1,214 1,707 2,117

P 1 + P 2 P2
4,00 1,975 2,728 2,976 1,431 2,066 2,577 1,190 1,722 2,201 1,266 1,631 5,00 1,783 2,550 2,935 1,388 1,876 2,399 1,070 1,557 2,014 1,141 1,478

0,10 0,15 0,30

3,00 2,236 2,867 3,004 1,634 2,311 2,741 1,361 1,946 2,424 1,440 1,836

2.4 Cazul d (fig.2.4)

2.4 Case d (fig.2.4)

l2

l1

Fig.2.4

- zona superioar ( 0 x2 l 2 ) Momentul ncovoietor n aceast zon este M x = P2 y 2 Hx2 M s , iar ecuaia diferenial a fibrei mediii deformate are forma

- the superior zone ( 0 x2 l 2 ) The bending moment in this zone is M x = P2 y 2 Hx2 M s , and the equation of the deformation of the centroid of the beam has the form Hx2 M s 2 + k 2 + (25) y2 y2 = EI 2 EI 2

Soluia ecuaiei difereniale (25) este:

The solution of the differential equation (25) is: Hx M (26) y2 = C1 sin k 2 x2 + C2 cos k 2 x2 + 2 + s P2 P2
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iar rotirea devine

and the rotation becomes = k 2C1 cos k 2 x2 k 2C2 sin k 2 x2 + y2 H P2 (27)

zona inferioar ( l 2 x1 l ) Momentul ncovoietor este M x = P2 y1 Hx1 M s P1 ( y1 ) ,

- the inferior zone ( l 2 x1 l ) The bending moment is M x = P2 y1 Hx1 M s P1 ( y1 ) , and the differential equation of the deformation of the centroid of the beam has the form (28)

iar ecuaia diferenial a fibrei medii deformate are forma

+ k12 y1 = y1 Soluia ecuaiei difereniale (28) este

Hx1 M s P + + 1 EI1 EI1 EI1

The solution of the differential equation (28) is Ms Hx1 P + + 1 P P1 + P 2 P 1 +P2 1 +P2 and the rotation is H P1 + P2 (29)

y1 = C3 sin k1 x1 + C 4 cos k1 x1 + i rotirea este

= k1C3 cos k1 x1 k1C 4 sin k1 x1 + y1 Condiiile pentru determinarea constantelor sunt: - pentru x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 i y' 2 = 0 = y2 - pentru x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y 2 = i y1 - pentru x1 = l , y1 = 0 i y '1 = 0 Utiliznd aceste condiii rezult urmtoarea form a ecuaiei de stabilitate: sin k1l 2 0 D = k1l 2 cos k1l 2 sin k1l k1l 2 cos k1l cos k1l 2 0 k1l 2 sin k1l 2 cos k1l k1l 2 sin k1l

(30)

The conditions for determining the constants are: - for x2 = 0 , y2 = 0 and y' 2 = 0 = y2 - for x1 = x2 = l 2 , y1 = y 2 = and y1 - for x1 = l , y1 = 0 and y '1 = 0 Using these conditions the following form of the stability equation results 1 1 1

sin v2 1 v2 cos v2 1 +

1
1 cos v2 1

1 0 =0 (31)

1 1 1 + 1 1

v2 sin v2 1

1
0

1 1 1
0

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Rezolvnd ecuaia de stabilitate (31) pentru valorile coeficienilor 1, i utilizate i n cazurile precedente rezult valorile parametrului critic de ncrcare axial v2 (Tabelul 4).

Solving the stability equation (31) for the values of the coefficients 1, and , used in the previous cases one obtains the values of the critical parameter of axial loading v2 (Table 4).
Tabel 4 / Table 4

= I 2 I1
0.05

= l 2 l1
0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 0,20 030 0,40 1,00 3,073 3,313 3,542 2,629 3,101 3,318 2,248 2,887 3,169 1,684 2,313 2,756

1 =
2,00 2,747 3,011 3,165 2,042 2,757 2,953 1,696 2,416 2,791 1,245 1,790 2,264

P 1 + P 2 P2
4,00 2,068 2,587 2.666 1,484 2,181 2,474 1,227 1,806 2,278 1,310 1,703 5,00 1,859 2,431 2,490 1,333 1,973 2,306 1,102 1,628 2,092 1,178 1,538

0,10 0,15 0,30

3,00 2,360 2,776 2,885 1,700 2.447 2,683 1,407 2,055 2,505 1,497 1,931

3. Concluzii.

3. Conclusions

Ecuaiile de stabilitate obinute n aceste cazuri pentru deformarea prin ncovoiere n planul transversal al halei, pot fi utilizate i pentru situaia pierderii stabilitii n plan longitudinal, cu condiia introducerii momentelor de inerie corespunztoare. Tabelele cu valorile parametrilor critici de ncrcare axial permit analiza facil mai ales n faza de predimensionare a mai multor variante de seciuni transversale pentru a obine soluii economice, concomitent cu asigurarea condiiilor de rezisten i stabilitate. Utilizarea calculului exact n probleme de pierdere a stabilitii elimin adoptarea unor valori aproximative pentru lungimile de flambaj al cror efect este greu de controlat.

The stability equations obtained in these cases for the bending in the transversal plane of the building can be used also for the situation of loss of stability in the longitudinal plane, with the condition that the corresponding inertia moments are used. The tables with the critical axial loading parameters allow an easy analysis, especially in the pre-dimensioning phase, of various transversal sections, in order to obtain economical solutions at the same time with ensuring the compliance with the strength and stability conditions. Adopting an exact calculation in problems of loss of stability eliminates the usage of approximate values for the buckling lengths whose effects are difficult to control

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Lanalyse de la stabilit pour quelques colonnes section variable Rsum Dans cet ouvrage on analyse la stabilit des quellques colonnes section variable. On presente pour chaque type de colonne lquation de stabilit et un tableu avec les valeurs critiques des forces axiale. Avec ces valeurs on peut determiner facillement, dans la phase initiale, de different types de sections pour obtenir la solution optime dans point de vue conomique et pour assurer la condition de resistance et des stabilit. Bibliografie References [1] BAZANT,P.Z., CEDOLIN, L. Stability of Structures. Oxford University Press, 1991 [2] BNU, V. Calculul neliniar al structurilor. Editura Tehnic, 1981 [3] BANUT, V. Calculul de ordinul II i de stabilitate al elementelor i structurilor de rezisten. Editura Conspres, 2005 [4] BNU, V., Popescu, H. Stabilitatea structurilor elastice. Editura Academiei RSR, 1975 [5] BNU, V., TEODORESCU, M.E. Same aspects regarding the stability of frames. The XXXth National Conference of Solid Mechanics MECSOL2006, pag. 223-228, Constanta, 15-16 septembrie 2006, [6] TIMOSHENKO, P.S., GERE, M.J. Teoria stabilitii elastice. Editura Tehnic, 1967

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Construcii rezideniale cu structura metalic

Residential Steel Constructions

Monica Gheorghiu, l.drd.ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, (Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest), Catedra de Geometrie Descriptiv si Desen Tehnic (Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics Department), e-mail:monicasilviagheorghiu@yahoo.com

Dei utilizarea oelului ca material pentru structurile construciilor rezideniale este considerat ca fiind de dat recent, datele istorice concrete relev faptul ca primele produse metalice, destinate cldirilor de locuit, au fost realizate acum mai bine de 100 de ani. In 1849, in California, USA, n timpul aa numitei Goane dup aur, un constructor de acoperiuri din New-York, pe nume Peter Naylor, fcea publicitate unor locuine creeate de el, pe care le numea case portabile din metal, pentru California. n reclam, se afirma c metalul a fost n asa fel debitat, ncat toate parile componente se puteau mbina prin alunecarea unora de-a lungul celorlalte, cu ajutorul canelurilor de pe suprafaa lor. Coform anunului, casele, cu dimensiunile de 6x4,5m, puteau fi ridicate n mai puin de o zi, erau mai ieftine dect cele din lemn, rezistente la foc si mai confortabile dect un cort [1]. Ideea lui Naylor a fost, se pare, una de succes, el reuind sa vnda intre 500-600 de unitai.[2] Casele portabile construite de Peter Naylor sunt considerate o prim atestare a utilizarii oelului format la rece n construciile de locuit. Prima cladire rezideniala avnd ca structur un sistem alcatuit exclusiv din elemente metalice, a fost Casa Lovell. Creaie timpurie a arhitectului american Richard Neutra, unul dintre fondatorii stilului arhitectonic denumit Internaional si colaborator al celebrului Frank Lloyd Wright, cladirea a fost ridicata n 1929, n Los Angeles, structura fiind montat in doar 40 de ore.[3], [4], [5], [6]

Although the use of the steel, as the material for the structures of residential constructions, is considered to be recent, the historical data show that the first steel products for houses were made more than 100 years ago. In 1849, in California, USA, during the Gold Rush Peter Naylor, a roofer from New-York, advertised the portable iron houses for California, created by him. The advertisement stated that the iron was cut out so that all shares joined each other and could slide due to the grooves made along their surfaces. According to this publicity, the 20x15 (foot) houses could be built in less than a day, and were cheaper than wood, fireproof, and more comfortable than a tent. Naylors idea seems to be a successful one and he succeeded to sell about 500-600 units. Peter Naylors portable houses are considered as the first use certification of the cold-formed steel for residential constructions. The first residential building which used a system based exclusively on steel for the structural members was the Lovell House. An early creation of the American architect Richard Neutra, one of the founders of the International architectural style, working for a certain time together with the famous Frank Lloyd Wright, the building, was erected in 1929, in Los Angeles, the structure being set up in just 40 hours.

Fig.1. Lovell House: vedere de ansamblu

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Lovell House: the assembly

Fig.2. Lovell House: structura de rezistenta in timpul constructiei Lovell House: the skeleton structure of the building during the set up

O ncercare notabil de a face cunoscut i chiar de a impune produsele din oel format la rece pe piaa dinamic a locuinelor, a fost Tirgul Internaional de la Chicago, din 1933, denumit Expoztia Secolul Progresului. n cadrul Targului, multe companii au ridicat case de locuit pe o arie ce le era special destinat, pentru a-i promova ultimele inovaii n materie de noi materiale de construcie si de tehnologii moderne, menite s conving publicul c folosirea lor va asigura locuinelor pentru care ar opta, un grad sporit de confort, o ntreinerea uoara, o durata de via mai mare i un cost redus. Se ncerca, simultan, alinierea gustului publicului la un stil arhitectonic nou, menit s pun n valoare noile tehnologii. [7] Dintre locuintele cu structur metalic expuse la Trgul de la Chicago Good Housekeeping Stran - Steel House, Armco Ferro Enamel Frameless Steel House i House of Tomorrow au fost cele mai intens mediatizate i s-au dovedit, ulterior a fi i cele mai longevive.

A remarkable trial to make steel products known and even to impose them on the dynamic market of residential buildings was the Worlds Fair of Chicago in 1933, named Century of Progress Exposition. During the fair, many construction companies set up houses on an area especially designated for this goal, in order to promote their latest innovations in construction materials and technologies and to convince the public that their use would provide a higher level of comfort, an easier maintenance, a longer life and a lower cost for the houses they could choose. It was also tried, at the same time, to bring the publics taste towards the new architectural style which emphasized the new technologies. [7] Among the houses featured at the Chicago Worlds Fair the Good Housekeeping Stran -Steel House, Armco Ferro Enamel Frameless Steel House and House of Tomorrow were the most intensely promoted and besides, they turned out to be the most resistant in time.

Fig.3. Good Housekeeping Stran - Steel House, Armco Ferro Enamel Frameless Steel House, House of Tomorrow

Urmare a colaborarii dintre revista Good Housekeeping i compania Stran - Steel

As a consequence of the Good Housekeeping magazine and Stran - Steel

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locuina avea o suprafaa de 120,8m2 i era diponibil la preul de 7500$. [8] n ceea ce privete structura metalic a cladirii, aceasta era alcatui dintr-o reea de grinzi de greutate redus, din profile cu perei subtiri, produse la aceea dat de compania Stran-Steel, considerate mai flexibile dect grinzile din lemn, mai uoare, i de dou ori mai rezistente.[9] Alcatuite din cte doua profile [ aezate spate in spate (][), elementele structurii permiteau ptrunderea, printre cele doua componente, a unor cuie special gndite pentru a facilita ataarea panourilor de perete, cu precadere a celor izolatoare, dar i a celor de finisaj, dnd astfel natere sistemului din oel care permite folosirea cuielor.

company common effort, the dwelling was 1300 square feet and was available for 7500$. Regarding the steel structure of the building this was composed of a network of lightweight steel beams, manufactured at that time by Stran-Steel Corporation and considered more flexible than wood, lighter and twice as strong. The members of the structure were composed of two [ profile, back to back (][), which allowed the penetration between them of some nails especially created to facilitate the attachment of the panels to the wall, the insulation and finishing ones in particular, thus creating the nailable steel system.

Fig.4. Grind din profil ][ cu perei subiri cu rigidizri; instalarea unui stlp cu zbrele din oel; clema pentru ataarea panourilor de perete The beam by][ thin wall profile with stiffeners; the assembly of a truss shaped steel column; resilient clip used to connect the wall panel to the stud [7]

Fig.5. Structura cladirii Good Housekeeping Stran-Steel: ansamblu i detalii de planeu The structure of the Good Housekeeping Stran-Steel: assembly and floor slab details

n timpul celui de al Doilea Rzboi Mondial, necesitaile armatei americane de amenajare a unor spaii temporare uor i rapid de montat i transportat, a dus la apariia unor construcii prefabricate, cu forme deosebite, din profile de oel de greutate mic. Utilizate mai ntai de Britanici, n timpul primului Rzboi Mondial, structurile metalice semicirculare au fost folosite de armata american pentru a servi celor mai diferite scopuri, de la birouri i adposturi temporare ale combatanilor, la cabinete medicale sau
94

During the World War II, the necessities of the American army required temporary shelters, that could be easily and quickly assembled and transported, which led to design prefabricated lightweight steel constructions, distinctively shaped. Developed, for the first time, by the British during the World War I, steel semicircular structures were used by the American army to fulfill many different functions, as offices, temporary military shelters, medical consulting rooms, kitchens,

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buctrii, find identificate mai bine de 96 de utilizari diferite. [10] ncepand cu 1941, cnd,n baza militar din localitatea Quonset Point, Rhod Island, a fost ridicat prima structur de acest fel, de compania inginerului George A. Fuller, mai mult de 160.000 de astfel de structuri Quonset Hutsau fost construite pentru necesitai de razboi. Dup razboi, armata american a vndut surplusul de structuri de acest tip, i, multe dintre ele sunt i astazi Funcionale.

more than 96 various purposes being identified. Toward 1941, when the first structure was set up at the military base Quonset Point, Rhode Island, by the engineer George A. Fullers company, more than 160.000 similar Quonset Huts were erected for the necessities of the war. After the WWII, the U.S. military sold off the surplus Huts and many of them are in function even today.

Fig.4. Montarea unei structuri Quonset Hut, transportul unei unitti montate, afi publicitar de promovare a locuinelor tip Quonset Hut [11] The set up of a Quonset Hutstructure; the sheep of a ready assembled unit, promotion advertisement for theQuonset Hut residential units

n anii de dupa rzboi , un alt tip de cladiri s-au impus pe piaa locuinelor i, au continuat s intereseze publicul pna in anii 50, cnd, din cauza dificultailor de ordin financiar, compania constructoare a dat faliment. Restriciile privind consumul de oel impuse n timpul razboiului l-au determinat pe Carl Strandlund, fondatorul companiei Lustron, s se ndrepte ctre o anume direcie de utilizare a produselor din oel. Avnd in vedere preocuparea guvernului de a rezolva uriaa cerere de locuine cu cost redus, destinate n special celor ce se ntorceau de pe front, compania Lustron a nceput, in 1948, producerea caselor din panouri metalice.

After the war, another type of buildings was imposed on the residential market and continuously attracted the public until the fifties, when, due of the difficulties of finances, the construction company went bankrupt. The restrictions concerning the use of steel imposed in the years of the war, determined Carl Strandlund, the founder of Lustron company, to develop a specific use direction of steel products. Taking into account the governments interest to solve the huge shortage of law cost houses, especially for the retired combatants coming back from war, the Lustron company started to produce steel panel houses in 1948.

Fig.5. Locuine Lustron: Carl Strundlund inugurnd prima locuina, o locuina contemporana, transportul unei unitai prefabricate Lustron house: the inauguration of the first house by Carl Strundlund, a contemporary house, track shipping

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n ntregime prefabricate, casele Lustron aveau structur metalica uoar, erau alcatuite din panouri de oel i utilizau acest material att pentru pereii interiori cat i pentru cei exteriori, inclusiv ca material pentru acoperi i, chiar pentru elemente de mobilier. Uor de transportat, casele puteu fi montate n timp scurt, pe o platform anterior amenajat. Dup mai bine de 50 de ani de la data construirii lor, locuinele produse de Strandlund sunt ntr-o perfect stare de funcionare fra s necesite reparaii, iar panourile metalice emailate nu au suferit deformaii, deteriorri sau exfolieri ale suprafeei.[12],[1], [13] Casele Lustron nu au fost singura ncercare de a oferi publicului noi soluii pentru cladirile de locuit dupa finalul rzboiului. ncepand cu 1945 i continund paa n 1966, un program sponsorizat de revista Art & Architecture magazine, condus de publicistul John Estenza, a mandatat civa arhiteci cunoscui, printre care Charles Eames, Eerno Saarinen i Richard Neutra, s proiecteze i s construiasc locuine accesibile ca pre i atractive, menite a fi modelele unor cladiri viitoare de locuit, individualizate in funcie de cerinele unui client ipotetic. Programul avea un triplu scop, anume de a convinge publicul de avantajele unor locuine cu structura prefabricat, care s nglobeze noi tehnologii derivate din experiena de razboi, de a promova noile tendine n arhitectur, menite s valorifice ct mai bine posibilitaile tehnice i, de a impune un nou stil de viaa, adaptat unor astfel de locuine. Casa propus de cuplul de arhiteci Charles i Ray Eames, ce se adresa unor intelectuali tineri, care urmau s lucreze utiliznd un spaiu special amenajat n propria locuint, a cror activitate s-ar fi desfsurat, de preferint n domeniul artistic, a devenit, n final, cminul creatorilor si pe durata ntregii lor vieti. Imobilul are o structur semi-prefabricat, din elemente alcatuite din profile uoare, cu grinzi si contravntuirile laterale ale pereilor exteriori vizibile pe faada cladirii , cu perei din panouri metalice , cu ui i ferestre din producia industriala de serie, si pereti

Entirely prefabricated, Lustron steel framed houses were made by steel panels either for the interior or the exterior walls, also as the roofing material and even for the furniture. Easy to transport, the houses could be assembled in a short time, on a previously fitted slab. After more than 50 years from their assemblage Strandlunds houses are in a perfect condition and still perform without the need of any replacements and, the enamel steel panels did not suffer any damages, deformations or peeling of their surface. .[12],[1], [13] Lustron houses were not the single attempt to offer new solutions for residential buildings to the public, after WWII . Starting from 1945 up to 1966, a program sponsored by John Estenza and his Art & Architecture magazine commissioned some famous architects of the day, like Charles Eames, Eerno Saarinen and Richard Neutra, to design and build attractive inexpensive residential houses as models for future homes, personalized due to the requests of a potential client. The program fulfilled a triple goal: to convince the public about the advantages of the steel prefabricated dwelling, which used new technologies as a result of the war experience, to promote the new architectural tendencies which better emphasize technical possibilities and to impose a new life style, suitable for this kind of houses. The house designed by Charles and Ray Eames for a virtual couple of young intellectuals, which would work in a special area in their own house and whose activities would preferably be artistic, finally went to its authors to be their house for their entire life. The building has a semi-prefabricated structure made by lightweight steel profiles, with beams and lateral braces visible on the front walls, steel panels for walls, factory produced windows and door frames, available in standardized industrial

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exteriori placai cu sticl transparent translucid sau opac, divers colorat. Locuina proiectat si construit de Charles i Ray Eames, azi muzeu, este considerat cel mai de succes experiment privind utilizarea unor componente metalice industriale standardizate ca structur de rezistent si nchideri nestructurale n construcia de locuinte.[14],[15],[16]

production, and exterior walls covered with transparent, translucent or opaque glass panels differently colored. The house designed by Charles and Ray Eames, a museum today, is considered the most successful experiment concerning the use of industrial standardized steel members as structure and unstructural exterior walls in residential constructions.

Fig.6. Eames House (1945), faada si structura Eames House (1945), the front and the structure

Cladirea numit i Studiul de caz nr.8 , ca o consecint a faptului c fiecare cas era deosebit de celelalte n functie de cerinele impuse, a fost asamblat prin munc manuala , n aproximativ trei zile.[17] Dificultaile de organizare a produciei, care au cauzat ntarzieri n onorarea comenzilor, disfunciile de livrare a produselor ctre clieni, problemele financiare ale companiilor constructoare, au ntarziat ascensiunea locuintelor cu structur metalic pe piat. Printre cauzele majore ale declinului acestui tip de imobile se numra nsa preul materialelor folosite. n timp ce costul metalului a rmas ridicat, materialul lemnos, folosit tradiional pentru construcii, a nregistrat de-a lungul timpului un pre constant sczut o buna perioad de timp i, numai fluctuaiile imprevizibile din ultimii ani au determinat companiile implicate s gseasca alternative de nlocuire a materialelor tradiionale, aducnd din nou in discuie oelul ca material optim pentru structuri de cladiri. n ultimii ani ai deceniului 50 i mai apoi n anii 60, proiectanii de locuine cu structur metalic s-au ndepartat din ce n ce mai mult de dezideratul iniial i anume, acela de a produce case ieftine pentru familiile cu nivel mediu i submediu i de a oferi tuturor un adpost convenabil, pe care s i-l poat permite folosind mijloace de plat pe termen lung. Structurile metalice au continuat s fie

The building named Case Study no.8, as a consequence of the fact that each house was particular and different from the others because of the imposed requirements, was assembled manually, approximately in three days. The difficulties in organizing the production, which caused delays inhonoring the orders, the defective delivery of the products to customers, the financial problems of the construction companies, slowed down the progress of steel structure houses on the market. However, among the reasons of the decline of those buildings, the major one is the price of the materials used. While the cost of the steel remained high, wood, traditionally used for constructions, kept a constant law price for quite a long time and only its unpredictable fluctuations in the last years have determined the companies involved to find alternatives in the replacement of the traditional materials and to take again into account steel as the best material for the building structures. During the fifties and then the sixties, the steel structure designers went farther and farther from their initial purpose, which was to produce law cost houses for the middle class families and even below, and to offer a suitable shelter for everyone, which they could afford due to the long term means of payment.

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folosite, dar n direcia unor experimente arhitecturale, cei drept devenite celebre, i a caselor de lux. Un exemplu n acest sens este cladirea Farnsworth House a arhitectului Mies van der Rohe. [18], [19]

Steel structure use continuously developed as architecture experiments, some \becoming famous, and also as luxury residences. Such an example is the Mies van der Rohes Farnsworth House.

Fig.7. Farnsworth House structura (stnga); vedere a cladirii cu planeul plutitor (dreapta) Farnsworth House the structure (left); sight of the building, the flooting floor slab (right)

Comandat n 1945 de dr. Edith Farnsworth, cu destinaia de cas de vacan, expus i apreciat elogios la o expoziie de profil de la Muzeul de Art Modern din New-York n 1947, cladirea cu un singur nivel, a fost ridicat abia in 1950. Aflat n mijlocul unei proprietai ntinse, pe malul unui ru, imobilul cu o singur ncpere, are faadele din perei din sticl i, valorific pe deplin mediul natural nconjurator. Avnd imense suprafee vitrate, structura metalic nu permitea existena contravntuirilor, ceea ce a dus la utilizarea unor elemente de dimensiuni mari, din profile laminate la cald care alctuiesc un ansamblu cu o geometrie simpl, rectangular. Originalitatea construciei consta, n special n planeul plutitor, ridicat la 1.5m de la pamnt, i agat de stlpi. n anii care au urmat constructorii de cldiri rezideniale au continuat s experimenteze mijloace de exprimare estetic din ce in ce mai sofisticate, pentru care structurile metalice, sunt, mai mult ca sigur, soluia cea mai potrivia. Astfel, in 1980, arhitectul englez Ian Ritchie, concepe cladirea denumit Vulturul de Stnca aezat ntrun cadru natural deosebit, n Crowborough, Sussex. [20]. Cerina clientului, aceea de a realiza o cas de forma unei psri cu aripile ntinse i-a oferit prilejul arhitectuilui de a creea o lucrare original, bazat mai ales pe un sistem structural cu totul neobinuit.

Ordered by Dr. Edith Farnsworth in 1945, as a holiday house , featured at a specific exhibition at Modern Art Museum in New York in 1947 and favorably appreciated, the one- story building was built only in 1950. Being placed on the riverside in the middle of a vast propriety the one- room house has glass panel walls and deeply emphasizes the landscape. As the steel structure did not allow the bracing of the members because of the huge floor-to-ceiling glass walls, large hot-rolling profiles were used in an assembly with a clear rectangular geometry. The originality of the building consists mainly in the floating floor, raised at 5 feet above the ground and hung from the columns. The manufacturers of residential buildings continued to test more and more sophisticated esthetic expressions during the next years, for which the steel structures are, definitely, the best solution. In 1980, the British architect Ian Ritchie created the Eagle Rock House, placed in a remarkable landscape, in Crowborough, Sussex. The clients request for a house shaped as a bird with stretched wings gave the architect the opportunity to create an original piece of work, particular based on a completely unusual structural system.

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Reducerea adncimii de fundare ca urmare a solului mlatinos ct i peisajul generos a impus o minim intervenie n configuraia natural a terenului i a determinat alegerea unei structuri ct mai uoare, alcatuit n principal din grinzi de oel de form A din profile cu perei subtiri. Proiectul a primit, n 1983, medalia de argint la concursul Iritecna Architectural Award for Europe.

The reduction of the foundation depth due to the swampy soil and to the exceptional landscape imposed a minimum action to the natural condition of the ground and determined the use of an as light as possible structure, mainly made by light-weight steel A beams. The project was awarded the silver medal at Iritecna Architectural Award for Europe competition in 1983.

Fig. 8. Eagle Rock House, desen de ansamblu, structura n timpul construciei Eagle Rock House, a drawing of the assembly, the structure during the set up

Un caz deosebit n utilizarea structurilor metalice n constructiile rezideniale l constituie, fr ndoiala, Japonia, unde utilizarea oelului ca material de baz pentru locuine a nceput n anii de dup rzboi, cnd cererea a fost estimat la nu mai puin de 4 milioane de case, ce ar fi trebuit s fie ridicate ntr-un timp foarte scurt. Cldirile de locuit, din materiale tradiionale, n principal din lemn, fuseser grav afectate de rzboi i, n cea mai mare parte distruse de incendii. ncercarea de a le nlocui cu altele noi, folosind aceleasi materiale de construcie, ar fi necesitat o durat de timp de 150 de ani, necesari n principal pentru producerea de cherestea dar i o imens cantitate de material lemnos. n ideea de a proteja resursele naturale i de a promova folosirea unor materiale neinflamabile, statul a restricionat utilizarea lemnului n construcii. Ca urmare, companiile de profil au nceput producerea produselor metalice att a celor obinuite ct i a profilelor cu perei sutiri, s-au dezvoltat mai multe sisteme constructive eficiente, ce au fost utilizate n ridicarea locuinelor, dar i pentru alte tipuri de cladiri, au fost lansate multe proiecte standardizate, disponibile pentru

A particular case of using steel structures for residential constructions is, undoubtedly, Japan, where steel has started to be the main material for dwellings after WWII, when the demand was estimated as being higher than 4 million units which should have been erected in a very short time. Traditional dwellings, particularly wooden ones, were seriously affected by the war and most of them damaged by the fires. For their replacement with other new ones, made by the same construction materials, 150 years would have been necessary, mainly to produce timber but also to supply such an enormous quantity of wood. In order to protect the natural resources and to promote the use of fireproof materials, the state has restricted the use of wood in the construction field. Consequently, the companies have started to manufacture steel products, either common, or thin walled, some efficient systems have been developed for residential constructions and for others type of buildings, many standardized projects have been launched and became available for the public.

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public. De atunci cotele produselor din oel destinate construciilor de locuine au fost, fie constante pe pia, fie au cunoscut o dezvoltare ascendenta. [41] Utilizarea structurilor metalice dincolo de domeniile tradiionale a constituit i n trecut i asazi, n unele ri, obiectul unor programe de nivel naional, de rezolvare a diverselor probleme cu care societatea se confrunta la un anumit moment. De la locuinele ridicate la Trgul Internaional de la Chicago din 1933, la programul lansat de Art & Architecture Magazin (1945) i la proiectele de azi n cadrul crora se cldesc prototipuri ce urmeaz a fi testate i analizate din mai multe puncte de vedere, inclusiv acela al consumurilor de materiale i al preurilor, implicarea autoritailor n impunerea pe piaa a unor soluii la problemele actuale, este evident. n condiiile n care, schimbrile de mediu se manifest i la noi, and anual au loc inundaii i, ca urmare, un numar mare de locuine sunt afectate, cnd consecinele defririlor din anii trecui amplific alunecrile de teren, cldirile cu structuri metalice, din profile clasice dar mai ales din profile cu perei subiri, ar putea fi o soluie pentru diferite destinaii (locuine, coli, spitale, centre comerciale, etc.), mai ales din localitai mici sau din mediul rural. Durata de timp redus n care pot fi ridicate un mare numar de uniti, ct i faptul c, fiind demontabile i uor de transportat, se pot reamplasa n alte locaii n caz de necesitate sau de schimbare a condiiilor sociale, le recomand att pentru cldiri cu durat mai mare de funcionare ct i pentru cele a cror utilitate este posibil s nu mai fie de interes dup un anumit timp (coli i gradinie stesti a caror existena nu se mai justific dac structura populatiei pe grupe de vrsta se schimb). Viitorul va decide dac, pe masura derulrii la nivel naional, a unor programe sociale, factorii implicati n producerea de profile i de subansamble vor avea un rspuns pe msura cererilor pieii.

Since then, the shares of steel products for residential constructions have been constant on the market, or they have had an ascendant evolution. The use of the steel structures beyond the usual destinations has been, in the past and today, in some other countries, the subject of national programs for solving the various problems the society was confronted at a specific time. Starting from the residential buildings set up at the World Fair in Chicago in 1933, until the program of the "Art and Architecture Magazine " in 1945, and the projects of these days, when prototypes are erected, then tested and analyzed from various points of view, including those concerning the quantities of materials and the costs, the involvement of authorities in imposing some solutions to the current problems is obvious. Considering that the weather changes are also present in our country, when floods take place almost yearly and as a result many houses are damaged, when the consequences of the land clearing made in the past amplify the sliding of soil, the steel structured buildings, especially the thin-walled ones might be a solution for various purposes (houses, schools, hospitals, commercial centers, etc.) especially in the small communities or in villages. The short time in which a great number of units could be set up, the possibility of locating them in a different place in the case of need or when the social conditions change, considering that they could be dismantled and easily transported, make them suitable for buildings with a long a life or for those that could become useless after a certain time (rural schools and kindergartens which are not necessary any more when the percentages of different categories of age changes). The future will decide whether, while some national social programs will be in progress, thoseinvolved in the manufacture of these profiles and of some parts of assemblies will meet the market demandsat the same level.

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Construction rsidentielle en acier Rsum Bien que l'utilisation de l'acier, comme matriel pour les structures des constructions rsidentielles, soit considre comme "nouvelle", lhistoire prouvent que les premiers produits en acier pour des maisons ont t faits il y a plus de 100 ans. Quoique les maisons portatives de fer de Peter le Naylors installe en 1849 dans la Californie sont considres la premire certification de l'utilisation de l'acier (froid form) pour les constructions rsidentielles, le premier btiment rsidentiel qui a utilise un systme bas exclusivement sur l'acier pour les pices de la structure tait "La maison Lovell" de Richard Neutra construite en 1929 Los Angeles et installe en juste 40 heures. Commenc par les btiments rsidentiels dans la Foire du monde de Chicago en 1933, jusqu' les projets de nos jours, l'utilisation des structures mtalliques au del des destinations habituelles ont t, dans le pass et aujourd'hui, dans quelques autres pays, le sujet des programmes nationaux pour trouver des solutions pour diffrents problmes que la socit doive se confronte un moment spcifique. Bibliografie References [1] DAN ALLEN; History of Cold Formed S teel; Structure Magazine; November 2006 [2] BOB FITTRO; History of Metal Buildings Reflects Ability of Industry to Meet Needs of Marketplace; Metal Architecture, March 1999 [3] ESTHER MC COY; Richard Neutra, Master of World Architecture, Hardcover, 1960 [4] JACKIE CRAVEN; Lovell House; Great Buildings [5] DION NEUTRA; Lovell House; Neutra Architecture Tours, 26 October 1997 [6] JONATHAN OCHSHORN; Steel in 20th-century Architecture; Enciclopedia of Twenieth Century Architecture; Routledge, 2003 [7] MONICA BROOKS; 1933 Chicago World's Fair: A Century of Progress Homes of Tomorrow Exhibition [8] www. Oldhouseweb.com [9] MONICA BROOKS; The Good Housekeeping Stran-Steel House from the 1933 Chicago World's Fair: [10] Quonse Huts; Polar Inertia; May- June 2004 [11] www..US Army Corps of Engineers Virtual Museum [12] CHRIS CHIEI; Quonset Hut, Metal Living for a Modern Age; PAPress 2005 [13] ROSEMARY THORNTON; Lustron Homes; All steel, post WWII homes, an engineering marvel; House web [14] DENNIS SHARP; A Visual History of Twentyeth-Century Architecture; Hardcover, July 2006 Old

[15] FRANK HARRIS, WESTON BONENBERGER; A Guide to Contemporary Architecture in South California; Los Angeles: Watling & Company, 1951. [16] www. Greatbuildings.com/buildings/Eames_House.htlm; Case Study no.8, Modern aesthetic of light elegant assembly from standard industrial elements [17] LUCIA EAMES; History of the House (Eames House); Eames Office, 2004 [18] CHRISTY ROGERS; Farnsworth House, Ludwig Mies van Rohe 1950, Galinsky 1998 [19] JONATHAN OCHSHORN; Steel in 20th-century Architecture; Enciclopedia of Twenieth Century Architecture; Routledge, 2003 [20] Eagle Rock House, An essay in sequential space, Ian Ritchie Architects [21] History of Light Framing in Steel Homes and Metal Homes; Stud chapper News Buletinul tiinific nr.1 2008 101

Principiile de baza ale redactarii tehnic competente

Fundamentals of Proficient Technical Writing

Conf. dr. Zoia Manolescu, Departamentul de Limbi strine i Comunicare, Universitatea Tehnica de Construcii Bucureti (Department of Foreign Languages and Communication, Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest, email: zoia1230@yahoo.com

Majoritatea scriitorilor din domeniul tehnic aproape niciodat nu s-ar considera scriitori n adevratul sens al cuvntului. Redactarea tehnic se definete ca o scriitur ce se ocup cu subiecte de natur tehnic, iar prin tehnic se nelege tot ce are legtur cu zonele specializate ale tiinei i tehnicii. n mod tradiional scriitorii domeniului tehnic sunt considerai a fi scriitorii ingineri angajai n industriile cu orientare tehnic. Odat cu creterea vertiginoas a folosirii computerelor, muli scriitori din domeniul tehnic lucreaz n sfera informaticii i a zonelor adiacente tehnicii de vrf, unde este nevoie de scriitori care sa produc documentaia sistemelor de programare, manuale pentru consumatori, dar si o varietate de documente tehnice. ntruct redactarea tehnic se ocup de obicei de un obiect, proces, sistem sau idee Abstract, limbajul este utilitar, punnd accent pe precizie mai degrab dect pe stil. Tonul este obiectiv, coninutul tehnic fiind important si nu stilul redactrii ce relev sentimentele autorului fa de subiect. Principalul scop al oricrei comunicri tehnice este acela de a transmite informaia tehnic n mod ct mai precis. O redactare tehnic bun este: Precis din punct de vedere tehnic. Deoarece scopul unei redactri tehnice este acela de a transmite informaia, coninutul trebuie s fie veridic i ct se poate de precis

Most technical writers would hardly ever classify themselves as writers. Technical writing is defined as writing that deals with topics of a technical nature, by technical being meant anything having to do with the specialized areas of science and technology. Traditionally, technical writers are thought of as engineering writers employed in technical oriented industries. With the tremendous increase in the use of computers, many technical writers are in computers and related technical high-tech areas, where writers are needed to produce software documentation, users manuals, and a variety of technical documents. As technical writing usually deals with an object, process, system, or abstract idea, the language is utilitarian, stressing accuracy rather than style. The tone is objective, the technical content being important and not the writing style of the authors feelings toward the subject. The main goal of any technical communication is to transmit technical information accurately. A good technical writing is:
Technically Accurate. As the purpose of the technical writing is the transmission of information the content must be true and as technically accurate

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din punct de vedere tehnic. Dac faptele, teoriile, datele i observaiile conin erori atunci redactarea este un eec. Un asemenea rezultat nseamn pierderea credibilitii n faa cititorilor. Precizia este de asemenea important deoarece cititorii iau decizii de afaceri, opereaz echipamente sau trag concluzii tiinifice pe baza informaiilor prezentate de autor. Erorile din documentele tehnice pot costa nu doar bani ci i viei omeneti, cum ar fi cazul manualelor de utilizare n care instruciunile sunt greite. Documentele alctuite de scriitorii din domeniul tehnic ar trebui s fie ntotdeauna recenzate pentru precizie de ctre unul sau mai muli oameni de tiin sau ingineri familiari cu tiinele tehnice. Calculele i tabelele trebuie verificate de cteva ori. Erorile de numere sunt mult mai puin evidente unui corector dect cele de ortografie sau de gramatic. Documentele pregtite de experi tehnici ar trebui s fie revzute de un coleg pentru corectitudine ct i de un editor din domeniul tehnic care s verifice transpunerea figurilor, tipografia i alte lucruri de felul acesta. Util. De cele mai multe ori, oamenii citesc un raport tehnic, o specificaie, un manual sau o ofert deoarece intenioneaz s foloseasc informaiile. Asigurai-v c fiecare propoziie conine informaii utile. Eliminai ceea ce este ornamental, ceea ce e agreabil, dar nu informeaz sau ceea ce se prezint a fi interesant, dar e informaie de baz inutil. Cititorii doresc s le spunei doar ceea ce doresc s tie despre subiect, nici mai mult, nici mai puin. De exemplu, un manual al utilizatorului nu trebuie sa povesteasc cum sa inventat software+ul, cte linii de cod conine sau n ce limbaj este scris. Acesta trebuie n mod simplu i direct s spun utilizatorilor c, pentru a activa funcia X, ei trebuie s apese pe butonul Y.

as possible. If the facts, theories, data and observations are in error the writing is a failure. Such a result means loss of credibility in front of readers. Accuracy is important also because readers make business decisions, operate equipment, or draw scientific conclusions based on the information presented by the author. Errors in technical documents can cost not only money, but also human lives, in case of manuals where the instructions are wrong. Documents prepared by technical writers should always be reviewed for accuracy by one or more scientists or engineers familiar with the technology. Calculations and tables should be checked several times. Errors in numbers are far less evident to the non-technical proofreader than errors in spelling or grammar. Documents prepared by technical experts should be reviewed by a colleague for accuracy as well as by a technical editor who checks for transposed figures, typos and other things of that nature.
Useful. In most cases, people read a technical report, data sheet, manual or proposal because they intend to use the information. Make sure that every sentence contains useful information. Delete writing that is ornamental, that entertains, but does not inform, or that presents interesting but unnecessary background information. Readers want you to tell them just what they want to know about the topic, no more, no less. For example, a users manual should not tell how the software was invented, how many lines of code it contains, or what language it is written in. It should simply and directly tell the users that to activate function X, they have to press button Y.
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Concis. Lecturarea unui text tehnic concis este mai uor de realizat i necesit mai puin timp dect ceea a unui text tehnic prolix. In plus. Un text tehnic cu prea multe cuvinte este costisitor. Pentru un manual al utilizatorului economisirea costurilor de tiparire, de la 200 de pagini la 50, de exemplu, este important. Principalul motiv pentru care majoritatea documentelor sunt prea lungi este acela c nlturarea cuvintelor de prisos sau a repetiiilor nseamn o munc laborioas pe care majoritatea profesionitilor din domeniul tehnic doresc s-o evite atunci cnd redacteaz. Dup cum scria odat Blaise Pascale Am scris aceast scrisoare lung deoarece nu am avut timp s-o fac mai scurt. Prin evitarea repetiiilor nedorite, frazelor cu prea multe cuvinte, explicaiilor incoerente, limbajului pompos i a jargonului, proza succint i bine scris poate fi produs fr a sacrifica coninutul tehnic. Prin urmare, cuvintele i expresiile trebuie s fie precise, redactarea s fie bine organizat i la subiect. Complet. Mult lume confund concizia cu scurtimea. A fi concis nseamn a spune ntreaga poveste folosind ct mai puine cuvinte. A fi scurt nseamn a fi laconic, indiferent dac acest lucru se realizeaz printr-o redactare ngrijit sau prin eliminarea aleatorie a unor poriuni din text. O redactare bun n domeniul tehnic este cea care este complet, asta nsemnnd c tot ceea ce trebuie s tie cititorul trebuie inclus, i nimic din ceea ce este esenial nu este omis. In special avei grij cnd editai specificaii, liste de caracteristici, sau elemente vizuale cum ar fi diagrame i grafice. Astfel de reprezentri trebuie mnuite cu tot atta grij ca i textul narativ. Asigurai-v ca specificaia este complet i c nici o dat cheie nu lipsete. A fi complet nu
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Concise. Concise technical reading is easier and less time consuming to read than wordy technical writing. Moreover, long-winded technical writing costs money. For a users manual saving on printing costs, from 200 pages to 50, for example is important. The main reason most technical documents are too long is that deleting the wordiness and repetitions is hard work, and working at their writing is something most technical professionals want to avoid. As Blaise Pascale once wrote I have made this a long letter because I havent the time to make it shorter. By avoiding undesirable repetitions, wordy phrases, rambling explanations, pompous language, and jargon, succinct, readable prose can be produced without sacrificing technical content. Thus, words and phrases should be precise, the composition well organized and to the point. Complete. Many people confuse conciseness with brevity. Being concise means telling the whole story using the fewest possible words. Being brief means keeping it short, regardless of whether this is achieved through careful writing or by deleting sections at random. Good technical writing is complete, and that means that everything the reader needs to know should be included, with nothing essential being left out. In particular, be careful when editing specifications, lists of features, or visuals such as charts and graphs. Such material should be handled as carefully as narrative text. Make sure that the specification is complete and that no key data are omitted. Being complete does not mean that everything that can be said about the technology should be

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nseamn c orice se poate spune despre tehnic trebuie inclus. Documentul trebuie s fie suficient de clar i concis pentru a fi de interes pentru cititorul cel mai puin avizat i destul de complet pentru ca cititorul sofisticat din punct de vedere tehnic sa gseasc tot ce are nevoie.
Clar. Scriitorii din domeniul tehnic reuesc atunci cnd opera lor este cu uurin neleas de ctre publicul cititor int. Iat cteva sugestii: pstrai redactarea scurt i simpl; pstrai paragrafele i propoziiile scurte; mprii un paragraf lung n dou mai scurte, ori de cte ori se poate; mprii textul n seciuni scurte, fiecare cu un subtitlu descriptiv, i limitai fiecare seciune la un subiect, tem sau idee; una dintre greelile cele mai frecvente este s nghesuii prea multe idei ntr-o singur propoziie sau paragraf. - evitai jargonul; o parte din terminologia tehnic este bun i necesar, dar prea mult limbaj tehnic face ca textul s devin de neneles. - Prezentai totul ntr-o manier logic, ordonat, pe rnd; prea multe informaii ntr-un spaiu prea scurt poate fi contraproductiv; este mai bine s rspndeti informaiile ntr-o serie de paragrafe bine sistematizate, deoarece prea mult descriere ntr-o singur propoziie face ca textul s fie prea dens i prea dificil de parcurs; dac o anumit informaie este important, dar nu se potrivete logic n fluena textului, plasai-o ntr-o not de subsol sau ntr-o anex. - Folosii elemente vizuale; anumite informaii sunt comunicate mai eficient n form vizual dect sub forma de text; un plan de detaliu poate spune inginerului

included. The document should be clear and concise enough to be of interest to the least technical reader, yet complete enough so that the technically sophisticated readers will find everything they need.

Clear. Technical writers succeed when their work is readily understood by the intended audience. Here are a few suggestions: keep the writing short and simple; keep paragraphs and sentences short; break a long paragraph into two shorter ones, whenever possible; break the writing into short sections, each with a description subhead, and limit each section to one topic, theme, or idea; one of the most common writing mistakes is to cram too many thoughts into a single sentence or paragraph. - avoid jargon; some technical terminology is valid and necessary; but too much technical jargon makes writing incomprehensible. - present everything in a logical, orderly fashion, one step at a time; too much information in too short a space can be counterproductive; it is better to spread your information in a series of well-ordered paragraphs, as too much description in a single sentence makes writing too dense and difficult to read; if a particular piece of information is important, but does not fit logically in the flow of the narrative, place it in a footnote or appendix. - use visuals; certain information is communicated more effectively in visual form than as narrative text; a blueprint can tell a civil engineer more about the
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constructor mai multe despre structura unui pod dect o pot face propoziiile sau paragrafele; cele mai comune elemente de tip vizual sunt: ecuaiile, fotografiile, desenele, diagramele, schemele tehnologice, graficele, diagramele circulare, histogramele, tabelele i diagramele structurate; totui, acestea necesit aproape ntotdeauna interpretri i explicaii in text.
Consecvent. Este o sarcin dificil s pstrezi un stil consecvent. Inconsecvenele n scrierile tehnice confuzionez cititorii i i convinge c acestea pot fi nengrijite i neprofesioniste. In zilele noastre literatura tehnic este contaminat de majuscule nenecesare i ntmpltoare, cu seturi amestecate de uniti de msur, i de folosirea la ntmplare a abrevierilor, a punctuaiei i a regulilor gramaticale. Facei efortul de a fi consecveni. E nevoie de un editor atent pentru a pstra peste tot un stil consecvent. Corect ortografic, gramatical i ca punctuaie. Toate redactrile trebuie s urmeze regulile de ortografie, de punctuaie i cele gramaticale. Muli oameni de tiin, ingineri i profesioniti nu sunt peste msur de ngrijorai de aceste aspecte ale folosirii limbii engleze. Simplul fapt c poi citi i nelege literatur tehnic n limba englez nu te transform ntr-un bun scriitor din domeniu tehnic. Chiar i cei mai indifereni cititori, interesai mai ales de literatura respectiv, au capacitatea de a identifica cuvintele scrise greit, gramatica proast i folosirea incorect a termenilor tehnici. Folosii un ndreptar de stil sau cerei ajutorul unui profesionist. S aib o int. Una dintre provocrile cele mai dificile cu care se confrunt scriitorii din

structure of a bridge than sentences or paragraphs; the most common types of visuals are: equations, photographs, drawings, diagrams, flowcharts, graphs, pie charts, bar charts, tables and structured diagrams; however, they almost always require interpretation and explanations in the text.
Consistent. It is a difficult task to preserve one consistent style. Inconsistencies in technical writing confuse readers and convince them that scientific work can be sloppy and unprofessional. Today technical literature is plagued with random and unnecessary capitalization, mixed sets of units of measure, and indiscriminate use of abbreviations, punctuation, and rules of grammar. Make all efforts to be consistent. It takes a careful editor to keep everything in one consistent style.

Correct in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar. All writing must follow the rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar. Many scientists, engineers and professionals are not overly concerned by these matters of English usage. The very fact that you can read and understand technical literature in English does not transform you into a good technical writer. Even the most indifferent readers, interested mainly in the respective literature, are quick to spot misspelled words, poor grammar and incorrect use of technical terms. Use a style guide or ask for help with a professional. Targeted. One of the most difficult challenges technical writers face is writing to

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domeniul tehnic este de a scrie la nivelul de competen i nelegere a publicului cititor int. ngrijorarea este legat de faptul c daca textul este prea simplu, experii ar putea s se simt dezamgii, insultai sau expediai, iar dac este la un nivel prea mare de complexitate tehnic cititorul mai puin educat ar putea sa nu-l neleag. Pentru a evita astfel de probleme, iat cteva linii directoare: - definii- v publicul cititor; - imaginai-v publicul cititor, adic punei-v n locul lor; - scriei pentru majoritate, dar nu uitai nici minoritile importante; - cnd publicul cititor nu este din domeniul tehnic, adugai explicaii; - cnd publicul cititor este din domeniul tehnic eliminai explicaiile lungi i detaliate.
Bine organizat. Proasta organizare este unul dintre obstacolele majore ce mpiedic lumea s prezinte materialul tehnic ntr-o manier clar, uor de urmrit. Organizarea proast provine din planificarea proast. nainte de a scrie, facei planuri. Schiai o ciorn cu cuprinsul i organizarea lucrrii sau a raportului. Reinei c ciorna este un instrument care v ajut la organizarea i la mprirea proiectului n pri mai mici, mai uor de manevrat. Organizarea ciornei depinde de tipul de document pe care l scriei. Un raport de laborator, de exemplu, conine un rezumat, o tabla de materii, o introducere, un corp principal, (teorie, aparatur, proceduri, rezultate i discuii) concluzii i recomandri, terminologie, dac este necesar, si bibliografie. Exist diferite formate pentru organizarea materialului tehnic, cum ar fi ordinea locaiei, ordinea dificultii cresctoare, ordinea secvenial, alfabetic sau cronologic, problem/soluie,

the level of technical proficiency and understanding of the intended audience. The concern is that if the writing is too simple, experts might feel disappointed, insulted or turned off, and if it is at a high level of technical complexity the less educated reader might not understand it. In order to avoid such problems here are some guidelines: - define your audience; - picture your audience, that is, put yourself in their shoes; - write for the majority while accommodating significant minorities; - when the audience is non-technical, add explanations; - when the audience is technical omit long, detailed explanations.
Well Organized. Poor organization is one of the major obstacles preventing people from presenting technical material in a clear and easy-to-follow manner. Poor organization derives from poor planning. Before writing, plan ahead. Create a rough outline with your contents and organization of your paper or report. Keep in mind that the outline is a tool to aid in organization and helps you divide the writing project into many smaller, easier to handle pieces and parts. The organization of your outline depends on the type of document you are writing. A laboratory report for example has an abstract, a table of contents, an introduction, a main body (theory, apparatus, procedures, results, and discussion), conclusions and recommendations, nomenclature, if necessary, and bibliography. There are various formats for organizing technical material, such as order of location, order of increasing difficulty, sequential, alphabetical or chronological order,
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piramida inversat, ordinea deductiv, ordinea inductiv, i listarea, dar toate acestea vor fi discutate ntr-o lucrare viitoare. Dac formatul nu este strict definit de tipul de document, selectai schema organizaional care se potrivete cel mai bine materialului despre care scriei.
Interesant. Este un pacat s-i plictiseti semenii, spune David Ogilvy, fondatorul celei mai mari agenii de publicitate (Ogilvy & Mother). Un text scris trebuie s ctige i s pstreze atenia cititorului dac are sperane s fie citit. A fi un scriitor competent n domeniul tehnic devine din ce in ce mai important, n special n societatea noastr modern, bazat pe tehnologie nalt. Dac nu poi comunica ceea ce tii celor ce au nevoie de aceasta, atunci ceea ce tii nu va conta prea mult. n inginerie i n tiin, a fi capabil s-ti pui ideile intr-o form ce poate fi folosit cu uurin i competen de alii devine cheia succesului.

problem/solution, inverted pyramid, deductive order, inductive order, and list, but all of them will be discussed in detail in another paper. If the format is not strictly defined by the type of document, select the organizational scheme that best fits the material you should write
Interesting. It is a sin to bore your fello creatures, says David Ogilvy, founder of th worlds largest advertising agencies (Ogilv & Mother). A piece of writing must gain an keep readers attention if it has any hope o being read. Being an effective technical writer is becoming increasingly important, especially in our modern, high-techtechnology society. If you cannot communicate what you know to those who need to know it, then what you know will not count for much. In engineering and science, being able to put your ideas into a form that others can use easily and effectively is the key to success.

Bibliography [1]. Alred, G, Brusaw, C &Oliu, W., 2006, Handbook of Technical Writing, St. Martins Press, New York [2]. Finkelstein, L. Jr. , 2005, Pocket Book of Technical Writing for Engineers and Scientists, McGrow-Hill, New York [3]. Rosten, L., 1996, Leo Rosten's Carnival of Wit: From Aristotle to Woody Allen, Plume, New York

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