Explorați Cărți electronice

Categorii

Explorați Cărți audio

Categorii

Explorați Reviste

Categorii

Explorați Documente

Categorii

100%(4)100% au considerat acest document util (4 voturi)

4K vizualizări112 pagini© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

100%(4)100% au considerat acest document util (4 voturi)

4K vizualizări112 paginiAttribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 112

| Matematica competitiva | Matematica distractiva| Formule, dictionare | Avizuri |

|Pagini din istorie | Examene, teste | Bibliografie | Link-uri | Site map | Cartea Vizitatorilor

AĂÂBCDEFGHIÎJKLMNOPQRSŞTŢUVWXYZ

A

abscisă - abscissa

absolut - absolute

aceleaşi semne - like signs

acurateţe - accuracy

admisibil - admissible

aduna - to add

adunare - addition

afirmaţie - statement

algebră - algebra

algoritm - algorithm

algoritm de divizare - algorithm for division, division algorithm

algoritmul lui Euclid - Euclidean algorithm

alternanţă - alternance

alternare - alteration

amplasare - disposition

amplitudine - amplitude

analiza - to analyze

analiză - analysis

analiză matematică - calculus

analogic - analogous, analogical

analogie - analogy

anula - to vanish

aplicată - applicate

aplicaţie - map, mapping

arbitrar - arbitrary

arc - arc

arccosinus - anticosine, arccosine

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 2 of 20

arctangentă - arctangent

argument - argument

argument al funcţiei - argument of a function

arie - area

arie a suprafeţei - surface area

asemănare - similarity, similitude

asimetric - asymmetric(al), unsymmetric

asimetrie - asymmetry

asimptotă - asymptote

asimptote ale hiperbolei - asymptotes of a hyperbola

axa x - x-axis

axă - axis

axă de coordonate - coordinate axis

axă de rotaţie - pivot

axă orizontală - horizontal axis

axă principală - major axis, principal axis

axă verticală - vertical axis

axiomă - axiom

B

bază - base, basis

bază ortogonală - orthogonal base

bază ortonormată - orthonormal basis

bilion - billion

binar - binary

bine definit - well-defined

binom - binomial

bisectoare - bisector, bisectrix

biunivoc - one-to-one

C

calcul - calculus, computation

calcula - to count

calculabil - computable

calculul determinantului - evaluation of determinant

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 3 of 20

canonic - canonical

determinarea extremului - hill climbing

câmp - field

cât - quotient, ratio

- greatest common divisor, greatest common

cel mai mare divizor comun

factor

cel mai mic multiplu comun - lowest common multiple

cel mai mic numitor comun - lowest common denominator

centru - centre, center

centru de rotaţie - pivot

centru al unei circumferinţe exînscrise - excentre, centre of the escribed circle

centrul circumferinţei circumscrise - circumcenter

centrul circumferinţei înscrise - incenter

cerc - circle

cercuri concentrice - concentric circles

cifră - digit

cilindru - cylinder

circumferinţă înscrisă - incircle, inscribed circle

circumferinţă unitară - unit circle

circumscris - escribed

coardă - chord

coeficient - coefficient

coeficient binomial - binomial coefficient

coeficient unghiular - slope

coincident - coincident

coliniaritate - collinearity

combinaţie - combination

comparare - comparation

comparaţie - comparation

con - cone

concavă - concave

condiţie - condition

condiţie iniţială - initial condition

condiţie necesară şi suficientă - necessary and sufficient condition

congruenţă - congruence

conjugat - adjoint, conjugate

consecinţă - corollary

constantă - constant

constantă de integrare - integration constant

continuitate - continuity

convex - convex

convexitate - convexity

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 4 of 20

coordonată - coordinate

coordonate afine - affine coordinates

coordonate carteziene - Cartesian coordinates

coplanar - coplanar

corolar - corollary

cosinus director - direction cosine

creşte - to increase

creştere - increment

criteriu - criterion

criteriu de divizibilitate - criterion for divisibility

cuantor - quantifier

cuantor existenţial - existential quantifier

cuantor universal - universal quantifier

cub - cube

cunoscut - known

cuplu - pair

cuplu ordonat - ordered pair

curbă - curve

curbă concavă - concave curve

curbă convexă - convex curve

curbă cubică - cubic, cubic curve

curbă integrală - integral curve

D

dacă şi numai dacă - if and only if

date - data

decizie - decision

deducţie - deduction

defini - to define

definit peste tot - everywhere defined

definiţie - definition

degenerat - degenerate

deîmpărţit - dividend

deînmulţit - multiplicand

delatare - dilatation, stretching

demonstra - to prove

demonstraţie - proof

dependent - dependent

derivabilitate - differentiability

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 5 of 20

derivată - derivative

derivată în punct - derivative at a point

descazut - minuend

descompunere - decomposition, expansion

descompunere binomială - binomial expansion

descompunere în factori - factoring, factorization

descompunere în factori primi - prime factorization

descompunere în fracţii elementare - partial-fraction expansion

descompunere a unei fracţii - decomposition of a fraction

descreşte - to decrease

determina - to determine

determinant - determinant

deviaţie - deviation

deviere - deviation

dezvoltare - expansion

dezvoltare a determinantului - expansion of a determinant

diagonală - diagonal

diagonală principală - main diagonal, principal diagonal

diametru - diameter

diferenţă - difference

diferenţiabilitate - differentiability

diferit - unequal

dimensiune - dimension

direct proporţional - directly proportional

direcţie - direction

discontinuu - discontinuous

discriminant - discriminant

dispărea - to vanish

distanţă - distance, way

distinct - distinct

divizare - division

divizibil {prin} - divisable {by}

divizor - divisor

divizor comun - common divisor, common factor

divizor propriu - proper factor

domeniu - domain, range

domeniu de definiţie - domain of definition

dreaptă - line

dreaptă numerică - number line

drept - straight

drepte neconcurente - skew lines

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 6 of 20

dreptunghi - rectangle

drum - way

dual - dual

E

echilateral - equilateral

echivalent - equivalent

ecuaţie - equation

ecuaţie algebrică - algebraic equation

ecuaţie a liniei drepte - equation of a straight line

ecuaţie a unei drepte cu coeficient - slope-intercept form of a straight line

unghiular equation

ecuaţie bipatrată - biquadratic equation

ecuaţie de ordinul întâi - first-order equation

ecuaţie exponenţială - exponential equation

ecuaţie liniară - linear equation

ecuaţie neliniară - non-linear equation

ecuaţie omogenă - homogeneous equation

ecuaţie de ordinul doi(patrată) - quadratic equation

element - element

element {al multimii} - member {of a set}

element de arie - differential of area, element of area

element de arie (al suprafeţei) - surface element

element diagonal - diagonal element

eliminare - elimination

eliminare prin substituţie - elimination by substitution

elipsă - ellipse

eroare - error

eroare de rotunjire - rounding error

esenţial - essential

estimaţie - estimation

evaluare - evaluation

exact - exact

exactitate - accuracy

excepţie - exclusion

exemplu - example

exînscris - escribed

exponent - degree, exponent, grade, power

exponenţial - exponential

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 7 of 20

expresie - expression

expresie algebrică - algebraic expression

expresie de sub integrală - integrand

extremal - extremal

extremum absolut - absolute extremum

F

factor - factor

familie - family

fascicul - pencil

fascicul de drepte - pencil of lines

faţă laterală - leg

figură circumscrisă - circumscribed figure

figură congruentă - equivalent figure

figuri congruente - congruent figures

flux - flux

focar - focus

formă generală - general form

formă parametrică - parametric form

formă standardă - standard form

formula binomului - binomial formula

formula coeficientului unghiular - slope formula

formula lui Leibniz - Leibniz rule

formula rădăcinilor ecuaţiei patrate - quadratic formula

formulă - formula

formulele jumătăţii unui unghi - half-angle formulas

fracţie - fraction

fracţie elementară - partial fraction

fracţie ordinară - common fraction

fracţie subunitară - proper fraction

fracţie supraunitară - improper fraction

fracţie zecimală - decimal fraction

fracţie zecimală finită - terminating decimal fraction

- infinite decimal fraction, non-terminating

fracţie zecimală infinită

decimal

fracţie zecimală periodică - periodic decimal fraction

fracţii cu numitori egali - similar fractions

funcţie - function

funcţie concavă - concave function

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 8 of 20

funcţie de mai multe variabile - function of several variables

funcţie de o variabilă - function of a single variable

funcţie de variabilă complexă - function of a complex variable

funcţie descrescătoare - decreasing function

funcţie diferenţiabilă - differentiable function

funcţie discontinuă - discontinuous function

funcţie impară - odd-function

- inter-stage function, jump function, step

funcţie în scară

function

funcţie liniară - linear function

funcţie monoton crescătoare - monotone increasing function

funcţie monoton descrescătoare - monotone decreasing function

funcţie monotonă - monotonic function

funcţie pară - even function, symmetric function

funcţie periodică - periodic function

funcţie primitivă - primitive

funcţie raţională - rational function

funcţie signum - signum function

funcţie simetrică - symmetric function

funcţie trigonometrică - trigonometric function

fundamental - fundamental

G

general - general

geometrie - geometry

geometrie euclidiană - Euclidean geometry

grad - degree, grade

grad al polinomului - degree of a polinomial

H

hexaedru - hexahedron, hexaeder

hexagon - hexagon

hiperbolă - hyperbola

hiperbolic - hyperbolic

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 9 of 20

I

identitate - identity

imagine - image, map, mapping

impar - odd

implicaţie - implication

incertitudine - uncertainty

include - to include

incluziune - inclusion

incompatibil - inconsistent

incorect - incorrect

independent - independent

independenţă liniară - linear independency

inducţie - induction

inducţie completă - complete induction

inducţie matematică - mathematical induction

inecuaţie - inequality

inegal - unequal

infinit - infinite

inflexiune - inflexion

iniţial - initial

integrală - integral

integrare prin părţi - integration by parts

interdependenţă - interdependency

intersecţie - intersection

interval - interval

interval deschis - open interval

interval închis - closed interval

interval mărginit - bounded interval

interval semiînchis - semiclosed interval

invers - inverse, vice versa

invers proporţional - inversely proportional

ipotenuză - hypotenuse

ipoteză - hypothesis

ireductibilitate - irreductibility

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 10 of 20

împărţire fără rest - exact division

în întregime - whole

înălţime - height

înălţime a triunghiului - altitude of a triangle

închis - closed

înclinare - slope

înlocui - to replace

înmulţi - to multiply

înmulţire - multiplication

înmulţitor - multiplier

înscrie - to inscribe

K

kilogram - kilogram(me)

kilometru - kilometre

L

latură {a unui unghi} - side {of an angle}

latură adiacentă - adjacent side

lege - law

lege asociativă - associative law

lege comutativă - commutative law

lege de compozitie - law of composition

lege distributivă - distributive law

legea terţului exclus - law of the excluded middle

lemă - lemma

limită - limit

limită inferioară - lower limit

limite de integrare - limits of integration

linie de fracţie - bar, vinculum

liniar - linear

liniaritate - linearity

linie dreaptă - straight-line

linie frântă - brocken line

linie punctată - dotted line

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 11 of 20

loc geometric al punctelor - geometric locus

local - local

logaritm - logarithm

logaritm zecimal - common logs

logaritm natural - natural logarithm

lungime - length

lungimea arcului - arc-length

M

mărime - magnitude

măsură - measure

măsurabil - measurable

matematică - mathematics

matrice - matrix

matrice de transformare - matrix of the transformation

matrice diagonală - diagonal matrix

matrice inversă - reciprocal matrix

matrice nulă - null-matrix

maxim - maximum

maximum - maximum

mediană - median {of a triangle}

medie aritmetică - mean, arithmetic mean

medie geometrică - geometric average, geometric mean,

mean proportional

metoda eliminării - elimination method

metoda inducţiei complete - principle of complete induction

metru - meter

minim - minimim

minimum - minimum

modul - module

monom - monom

monoton - monotonous

muchie - edge

mulţime - set

mulţime de soluţii - solution set

mulţime de valori - range

mulţime universală - universal set

mulţime vidă - empty set, null-set

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 12 of 20

multiplicare - multiplicaton

multiplicator - factor, multiplier

multiplu - multiple, multiplex

multiplu comun - common multiple

mutual - mutually

mutual disjuncte - mutually disjoint

N

necunoscută - unknown

nedefinit - undefined

nedegenerat - non-degnerate

nedescrescător - non-decreasing

nedeterminare - indeterminancy, uncertainty

nedeterminat - indefinite, undetermined

negativ - negative

neglijabil - negligible

neliniar - non-linear

nemărginit - unbounded

neomogen - inhomogeneous

neperiodic - non-periodic

nesimetric - non-symmetric

nod - node

normală - normal

normală la suprafaţă - normal to the surface

număr - number

număr complex - complex number

număr întreg - integer number

număr iraţional - irrational number

număr natural - natural number

număr par - even number

număr prim - prime number

număr raţional - rational number

număr real - real number

număr transcendent - transcendental number

număr zecimal - decimal number

număr ordinal - ordinal number

numărător - numerator

numărător al fracţiei - term of a fraction

numere întregi consecutive - consecutive integers

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 13 of 20

numitor - denominator

numitor comun - common denominator

numitori diferiţi - unlike denominators

numitori identici - like denominators, same denominators

O

oblic - oblique

octagon - octagon

omogen - homogeneous

ordin - degree, exponent

ordin al derivatei - order of derivative

ordin al ecuaţiei - order of equation

ordine - order

ordonată - ordinate

origine de coordonate - origin {of coordinates}

orizontal - horizontal

oval - oval

P

par - even

parabolă - parabola

parabolic - parabolic

paralel - parallel

paralelepiped - parallelepiped

paralelogram - parallelogram

parametru - parameter

paranteze figurate - braces

paranteze patrate - square brackets, brackets

paranteze rotunde - parentheses

patrat - quadrate, square

patrulater - tetragon

pătratic - quadratic

pentagon - pentagon

perimertu - perimeter

perioadă - period

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 14 of 20

picior al perpendicularei - foot {of a perpendicular}

piramidă - pyramid

plan - plane

plan tangent - tangent plane

plan xOy - xy-plane

planimetrie - plane geometry, planimetry

plus - plus sign

poliedru - polyhedron

poligoane asemenea - similar polygons

poligoane congruente - congruent polygons

poligon - polygon

poligon convex - convex polygon

poligon înscris - inscribed polygon

poligon regulat - equilateral polygon, regular polygon

polinom - polynomial

posibilitate - possibility

pozitiv - positive

precedent - preceding

precizie - accuracy

preimagine - pre-image

presupunere - assumption

primă derivată - first derivative

principal - principal

principiul dualitatii - duality principle

prizmă - prism

procent - per cent

produs - product

produs scalar - dot product

produs vectorial - cross-product, vector product

progresie - progression

progresie aritmetică - arithmetic progression

progresie geometrică - geometric progression

proiecţie - projection

proporţie - proportion

propoziţie - proposition, statement

proprietate - property

proprietate asociativă - associative property

punct - dot, point

punct de discontinuitate - point of discontinuity

punct de extrem - extremum point

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 15 of 20

punct diametral opus - diametrically opposite point

punct focal - focal point

punct izolat - acnode

putere - degree, grade, power

R

radian - radian

radical - radical, radical sign

ramură - branch

rang al unei matrici - rank of a matrix

raport - ratio, relation

raţie a unei progresii aritmetice - common difference

raţie a unei progresii geometrice - common ratio

raţional - rational

rază - radius

rază vectoare - radius vector

rădăcină - root

rădăcină dublă - double root

rădăcină multiplă - repeated root

rădăcină patrată - square root

rădăcină simplă - simple root

rădăcini conjugate - conjugate roots

real - real

reciproc - vice versa

reduce - to reduce

reducere termenilor asemenea - combine similar terms

reductibil - reducible

regulă - rule

regula paralelogramului - parallelogram law, parallelogram rule

relaţie - relation

relativ - relative

repetat - multiplex

reprezenta - to represent

rest - remainder, rest

restricţie - restriction

reuniune - union

rezolva - to solve

ridica la patrat - to square

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 16 of 20

romb - lozenge, rhombus, rhomb

rotaţie - rotation

rotunji - to round

S

salt - jump

satisface - to satisfy

scalar - scalar

scădere - subtraction

scăzător - subtrahend

schemă bloc - flow chart

schema lui Horner - Horner's scheme, synthetic division

schimb de variabilă - change of variable

secantă - secant

secţiune - cut

secţiune conică - conic, conic section

secţiune conică centrală - central conic

secţiune conică degenerată - degenerate conic

secţiune conică nedegenerată - non-degenerate conic,

non-degenerate conic section

sector circular - sector of a circle

segment - closed interval, intercept, segment

segment de pe axa x - x-intercept

segment liniar - line segment, straight-line segment

segmente congruente - congruent segments

semicerc - semi-circle

semidreaptă - ray

semisferă - hemisphere

semn - sign

semnul adunării - addition sign, plus sign

semnul rădăcinii - radical, radical sign

semnul scăderii - minus {sign}

sferă - sphere

simbol - symbol

simetric - symmetric

simetrie centrală - central symmetry

simplifica - to cancel

simplificare - simplification

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 17 of 20

simplu - simple

sinusoidă - sine curve

sistem - system

sistem cartezian de coordonate - Cartesian coordinate system

sistem cu mai multe necunoscute - many-variable system

sistem de coordonate - coordinate system

sistem de ecuaţii liniare - system of linear equation

sistem neortogonal de coordonate - non-orthogonal coordinate system

sistem omogen - homogeneous system

sistem ortogonal de coordonate - orthogonal coordnate system

sistem rectangular de coordonate - rectangular coordonate system

soluţie admisibilă - permissible solution, admissible solution

soluţie aproximativă - approximate solution

soluţie completă - complete solution

soluţie exactă - exact solution

soluţie generală - general solution

soluţie nenulă - non-zero solution

soluţie netrivială - non-trivial solution

soluţie nulă - zero solution

soluţie periodică - periodic solution

soluţie unică - unique solution

soluţiona - to solve

soluţionare {a unei probleme} - solution {of a problem}

spaţiu - space

spaţiu euclidian - Euclidean space

strict - strict

strict monoton - strongly monotonic

substitui - to replace

substituţie - substitution

substituţie inversă - back-substitution

suma - to add

sumă - sum

suprafaţă - surface

suprafaţă de rotaţie - surface of revolution

submulţime - subset

T

tangentă - tangent

teorema lui Pythagoras - Pythagorean theorem

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 18 of 20

teoremă - theorem

teorema fundamentală a aritmeticii - fundamental theorem of arithmetic

teorema lui Bezout - factor theorem

teorema lui Thales - intercept theorem

teorema sinusurilor - law of sines, sine rule

teoria mulţimilor - set theory

teorie - theory

termen - term

termen al sumei - addend, summand

termen general - general term

termeni asemenea - similar terms

tetraedru - tetrahedron

tot - whole

transforma - to transform

transformare de coordonate - transform of coordinates

translare - translation

translaţie - bridging

tranzitivitate - transitivity

trapez - trapezoid, trapezium

trigonometric - trigonometric

trigonometrie - trigonometry

trisecţia unui unghi - trisection of the angle

triunghi - triangle

triunghi ascutunghic - acute triangle

triunghi asemenea - similar triangle

triunghi dreptunghic - right triangle

triunghi echilateral - equilateral triangle

triunghi isoscel - isosceles triangle

triunghi obtuzunghic - obtuse triangle

triunghi scalen - scalene triangle

triunghiular - triangular

U

unghi - angle

unghi adiacent - adjacent angle

unghi alăturat - adjacent angle

unghi ascuţit - acute angle

unghi complementar {până la 90o} - complementary angle

- explementary angle

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 19 of 20

unghi de înclinare - slope angle

unghi diedru - dihedral angle

unghi drept - right angle

unghi exterior {al triunghiului} - exteriar angle {of a triangle}

unghi interior - interior angle

unghi înscris - inscribed angle

unghi întins - straight angle

unghi la bază a triunghiului - base angle {of a triangle}

unghi la centru - central angle

unghi obtuz - obtuse angle

unghi plin - straight ahgle

unghi suplimentar până la 360o - conjugate angle

unghiuri adiacente suplimentare - adjacent supplementary angles

unghiuri alterne - alternate angles

unghiuri alterne externe - alternate exterior angles

- alternate interior angles, opposite interior

unghiuri alterne interne

angles

unghiuri congruente - congruent angles

unghiuri corespondente - corresponding angles

unghiuri opuse la vârf - vertex angles

unghiuri suplimentare {până la 180o} - supplementary angles

unic - single

unicitate - uniqueness

unitate - unit

univoc - unambiguous

V

valabil - valid

valid - valid

valoare - value

valoare absolută - absolute value

valoare absolută a numărului complex - absolute value of a complex number

valoare iniţială - initial value

valoare medie - average, average value

valoare limită - limit value

variabilă - variable

variabilă independentă - independent variable

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Roman-Englez Page 20 of 20

vârf - vertex

vector - vector

vector coplanar - coplanar vector

vector de bază - base vector

vector normal - normal vector

vector nul - null-vector

vector unitar - unit vector

vector tangent unitar - unit tangent vector

veridicitate - truth

verifica - to verify

vertical - vertical

viteză - speed, velocity

volum - volume

Z

zecimal - decimal

zero - zero

Bibliografie

| Matematica competitiva | Matematica distractiva| Formule, dictionare | Avizuri |

|Pagini din istorie | Examene, teste | Bibliografie | Link-uri | Site map | Cartea Vizitatorilor |

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 1 of 22

| Matematica competitiva | Matematica distractiva| Formule, dictionare | Avizuri |

|Pagini din istorie | Examene, teste | Bibliografie | Link-uri | Site map | Cartea Vizitatorilor

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

A

abscissa - abscisă

absolute - absolut

absolute extremum - extremum absolut

absolute value - valoare absolută

absolute value of a complex number - valoare absolută a numărului complex

accuracy - precizie, exactitate, acurateţe

acnode - punct izolat

acute angle - unghi ascuţit

acute triangle - triunghi ascuţitunghic

add - a aduna, a suma

addend - termen al sumei

addition - adunare

addition sign - semnul adunării

adjacent angle - unghi adiacent, unghi alăturat

adjacent side - latură adiacentă

adjacent supplementary angles - unghiuri adiacente suplimentare

adjoint - conjugat

admissible - admisibil

admissible solution - soluţie admisibilă

affine coordinates - coordonate afine

algebra - algebră

algebraic equation - ecuaţie algebrică

algebraic expression - expresie algebrică

algorithm - algoritm

algorithm for division - algoritm de divizare

alternance - alternanţă

alteration - alternare

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 2 of 22

alternate exterior angles - unghiuri alterne externe

alternate interior angles - unghiuri alterne interne

altitude of a triangle - înălţime a triunghiului

amplitude - amplitudine

analogous - analogic

analogical - analogic

analogy - analogie

analysis - analiză

analyze - a analiza

angle - unghi

anticosine - arccosinus

antisine - arcsinus

applicate - aplicată

approximate solution - soluţie aproximativă

arbitrary - arbitrar

arc - arc

arccosine - arccosinus

arc-length - lungimea arcului

arcsine - arcsinus

arctangent - arctangentă

area - arie

argument - argument

argument of a function - argument al funcţiei

arithmetic mean - medie aritmetică

arithmetic progression - progresie aritmetică

associative law - lege asociativă

associative property - proprietate asociativă

assumption - presupunere

asymmetric(al) - asimetric

asymmetry - asimetrie

asymptote - asimptotă

asymptotes of a hyperbola - asimptote ale hiperbolei

average - valoare medie

average value - valoare medie

axiom - axiomă

axis - axă

B

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 3 of 22

bar - linie de fracţie

base - bază

base angle {of a triangle} - unghi la bază a triunghiului

base vector - vector de bază

basis - bază

billion - bilion

binary - binar

binomial - binom

binomial coefficient - coeficient binomial

binomial expansion - descompunere binomială

binomial formula - formula binomului

biquadratic equation - ecuaţie bipatrată

bisector - bisectoare

bisectrix - bisectoare

bounded interval - interval mărginit

braces - paranteze figurate

brackets - paranteze patrate

branch - ramură

bridging - translaţie

brocken line - linie frântă

C

calculus - analiză matematică, calcul

cancel - a simplifica

canonical - canonic

Cartesian coordinate system - sistem cartezian de coordonate

Cartesian coordinates - coordonate carteziene

central angle - unghi la centru

central conic - secţiune conică centrală

central symmetry - simetrie centrală

centre - centru

centre of the escribed circle - centru unei circumferinţe exînscrise

center - centru

change of variable - schimb de variabilă

chord - coardă

circle - cerc

circumcenter - centrul circumferinţei circumscrise

circumscribed figure - figură circumscrisă

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 4 of 22

closed - închis

closed interval - interval închis, segment

coefficient - coeficient

coincident - coincident

collinearity - coliniaritate

combination - combinaţie

combine similar terms - reducere a termenilor asemenea

common denominator - numitor comun

common difference - raţie a unei progresii aritmetice

common divisor - divizor comun

common factor - divizor comun

common fraction - fracţie ordinară

common logs - logaritm zecimal

common multiple - multiplu comun

common ratio - raţie a unei progresii geometrice

commutative law - lege comutativă

comparation - comparaţie, comparare

complementary angle - unghi complementar {până la 90o}

complete induction - inducţie completă

complete solution - soluţie completă

complex number - număr complex

computable - calculabil

computation - calcul

concave - concavă

concave curve - curbă concavă

concave function - funcţie concavă

concentric circles - cercuri concentrice

condition - condiţie

cone - con

congruence - congruenţă

congruent angles - unghiuri congruente

congruent figures - figuri congruente

congruent polygons - poligoane congruente

congruent segments - segmente congruente

conic - secţiune conică

conic section - secţiune conică

conjugate - conjugat

conjugate angle - unghi suplimentar până la 360o

conjugate roots - rădăcini conjugate

consecutive integers - numere întregi consecutive

constant - constantă

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 5 of 22

continuity - continuitate

continuous function - funcţie continuă

convex - convex

convex curve - curbă convexă

convex polygon - poligon convex

convexity - convexitate

coordinate - coordonată

coordinate axis - axă de coordonate

coordinate system - sistem de coordonate

coplanar - coplanar

coplanar vector - vector coplanar

coprime numbers - numere reciproc prime

corollary - consecinţă, corolar

corresponding angles - unghiuri corespondente

count - a calcula

criterion - criteriu

criterion for divisibility - criteriu de divizibilitate

cross-product - produs vectorial

cube - cub

cubic - curbă cubică

cubic curve - curbă cubică

curve - curbă

cut - secţiune

cylinder - cilindru

D

data - date

decimal - zecimal

decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală

decimal number - număr zecimal

decision - decizie

decomposition - descompunere

decomposition of a fraction - descompunere a unei fracţii

decrease - a descreşte

decreasing function - funcţie descrescatoare

deduction - deducţie

define - a defini

definition - definiţie

degenerate - degenerat

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 6 of 22

degree - putere, ordin, grad, exponent

degree of a polinomial - grad al polinomului

denominator - numitor

dependent - dependent

derivative - derivată

derivative at a point - derivată în punct

determinant - determinant

determine - a determina

deviation - deviaţie, deviere

diagonal - diagonală

diagonal element - element diagonal

diagonal matrix - matrice diagonală

diameter - diametru

diametrically opposite point - punct diametral opus

difference - diferenţă

differentiability - derivabilitate, diferenţiabilitate

differentiable function - funcţie diferenţiabilă

differential of area - element de arie

digit - cifră

dihedral angle - unghi diedru

dilatation - delatare

dimension - dimensiune

direction - direcţie

direction cosine - cosinus director

directly proportional - direct proporţional

discontinuous - discontinuu

discontinuous function - funcţie discontinuă

discriminant - discriminant

disposition - amplasare

distance - distanţă

distinct - distinct

distributive law - lege distributivă

dividend - deîmpărţit

divisable {by} - divizibil {prin}

division - divizare

division algorithm - algoritm de divizare

divisor - divizor

domain - domeniu

domain of definition - domeniu de definiţie

dot - punct

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 7 of 22

dotted line - linie punctată

double root - rădăcină dublă

dual - dual

duality principle - principiul dualităţii

E

edge - muchie

element - element

element of area - element de arie

elimination - eliminare

elimination by substitution - eliminare prin substituţie

elimination method - metoda eliminării

ellipse - elipsă

empty set - mulţime vidă

equation - ecuaţie

equation of a straight line - ecuaţie a liniei drepte

equilateral - echilateral

equilateral polygon - poligon regulat

equilateral triangle - triunghi echilateral

equivalent - echivalent

equivalent figure - figură congruentă

error - eroare

escribed - circumscris, exînscris

essential - esenţial

estimation - estimaţie

Euclidean algorithm - algoritmul lui Euclid

Euclidean geometry - geometrie euclidiană

Euclidean space - spaţiu euclidian

evaluation - evaluare

evaluation of determinant - calculul determinantului

even - par

even function - funcţie pară

even number - număr par

everywhere defined - definit peste tot

exact - exact

exact division - împărţire fără rest

exact solution - soluţie exactă

example - exemplu

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 8 of 22

exclusion - excepţie

existential quantifier - cuantor existenţial

expansion - descompunere, dezvoltare

expansion of a determinant - dezvoltare a determinantului

explementary angle - unghi complementar până la 360o

exponent - exponent, ordin

exponential - exponenţial

exponential equation - ecuaţie exponenţială

expression - expresie

exterior angle {of a triangle} - unghi exterior {al triunghiului}

extremal - extremal

extremum point - punct de extremum

F

factor - factor, multiplicator

factor theorem - teorema lui Bezout

factoring - descompunere în factori

factorization - descompunere în factori

family - familie

field - câmp

first derivative - primă derivată

first-order equation - ecuaţie de ordinul întâi

flow chart - schemă bloc

flux - flux

focal point - punct focal

focus - focar

foot {of a perpendicular} - picior al perpendicularei

formula - formulă

fraction - fracţie

function - funcţie

function of a complex variable - funcţie de variabilă complexă

function of a single variable - funcţie de o variabilă

function of several variables - funcţie de mai multe variabile

fundamental - fundamental

fundamental theorem of arithmetic - teoremă fundamentală a aritmeticii

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 9 of 22

G

general - general

general form - formă generală

general solution - soluţie generală

general term - termen general

geometric average - medie geometrică

geometric locus - loc geometric al punctelor

geometric mean - medie geometrică

geometric progression - progresie geometrică

geometry - geometrie

grade - grad, exponent, putere

greatest common divisor - cel mai mare divizor comun

greatest common factor - cel mai mare divizor comun

H

half-angle formulas - formule ale jumătăţii unui unghi

halve - a împărţi în două {în jumătate}

height - înălţime

hemisphere - semisferă

hexagon - hexagon

hexaeder - hexaedru

hexahedron - hexaedru

hill climbing - determinarea extremului

homogeneous - omogen

homogeneous equation - ecuaţie omogenă

homogeneous system - sistem omogen

horizontal - orizontal

horizontal axis - axă orizontală

Horner's scheme - schema lui Horner

hyperbola - hiperbolă

hyperbolic - hiperbolic

hypotenuse - ipotenuză

hypothesis - ipoteză

I

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 10 of 22

identity - identitate

if and only if - dacă şi numai dacă

image - imagine

implication - implicaţie

improper fraction - fracţie supraunitară

incenter - centrul circumferinţei înscrise

incircle - circumferinţă înscrisă

include - a include

inclusion - incluziune

inconsistent - incompatibil

incorrect - incorect

increase - a creşte

increment - creştere

indefinite - nedeterminat

independent - independent

independent variable - variabilă independentă

indeterminancy - nedeterminare

induction - inducţie

inequality - inecuaţie

infinite - infinit

infinite decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală infinită

inflexion - inflexiune

inhomogeneous - neomogen

initial - iniţial

initial condition - condiţie iniţială

initial value - valoare iniţială

inscribe - a înscrie

inscribed angle - unghi înscris

inscribed circle - circumferinţă înscrisă

inscribed polygon - poligon înscris

integer number - număr întreg

integral - integrală

integral curve - curbă integrală

integrand - expresie de sub integrală

integration by parts - integrare prin părţi

integration constant - constantă de integrare

inter-stage function - funcţie în scară

intercept - segment

intercept theorem - teorema lui Thales

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 11 of 22

interdependency - interdependenţă

interior angle - unghi interior

intersection - intersecţie

interval - interval

inverse - invers

inversely proportional - invers proporţional

irrational number - număr iraţional

irreductibility - ireductibilitate

isosceles triangle - triunghi isoscel

J

jump - salt

jump function - funcţie în scară

K

kilogram(me) - kilogram

kilometre - kilometru

known - cunoscut

L

law - lege

law of composition - lege de compoziţie

law of sines - teorema sinusurilor

law of the excluded middle - legea terţului exclus

least common denominator - cel mai mic numitor comun

least common multiple - cel mai mic multiplu comun

leg - faţă laterală

Leibniz rule - formula lui Leibniz

lemma - lemă

length - lungime

like denominators - numitori identici

like signs - aceleaşi semne

limit - limită

limit value - valoare limită

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 12 of 22

line - dreaptă

line segment - segment liniar

linear - liniar

linear equation - ecuaţie de gradul întâi (liniară)

linear function - funcţie liniară

linear independency - independenţă liniară

linearity - liniaritate

local - local

logarithm - logaritm

lower limit - limită inferioară

lowest common denominator - cel mai mic numitor comun

lowest common multiple - cel mai mic multiplu comun

lozenge - romb

M

magnitude - mărime

main diagonal - diagonală principală

major axis - axă principală

many-variable system - sistem cu mai multe necunoscute

map - imagine, aplicaţie

mapping - imagine, aplicaţie

meter - metru

mathematical induction - inducţie matematică

mathematics - matematică

matrix - matrice

matrix of the transformation - matrice de transformare

maximum - maximum, maxim

mean - medie aritmetică

mean proportional - medie geometrică

measurable - măsurabil

measure - măsură

median {of a triangle} - mediană

member {of a set} - element {al mulţimii}

minimum - minimum, minim

minuend - descăzut

minus {sign} - semnul scăderii

module - modul

monom - monom

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 13 of 22

monotone increasing function - funcţie monoton crescătoare

monotonic function - funcţie monotonă

monotonous - monoton

multiple - multiplu

multiplex - multiplu, repetat

multiplicand - deînmulţit

multiplication - înmulţire, multiplicare

multiplier - înmulţitor, multiplicator

multiply - a înmulţi

mutually - mutual

mutually disjoint - mutual disjuncte

N

natural logarithm - logaritm natural

natural number - număr natural

necessary and sufficient condition - condiţie necesară şi suficientă

negative - negativ

negligible - neglijabil

node - nod

non-decreasing - nedescrescător

non-degnerate - nedegenerat

non-degenerate conic - secţiune conică nedegenerată

non-degenerate conic section - secţiune conică nedegenerată

non-linear - neliniar

non-linear equation - ecuaţie neliniară

non-orthogonal coordinate system - sistem neortogonal de coordonate

non-periodic - neperiodic

non-symmetric - nesimetric

non-terminating decimal - fracţie zecimală infinită

non-trivial solution - soluţie netrivială

non-zero solution - soluţie nenulă

normal - normală, perpendiculară

normal to the surface - normală la suprafaţă

normal vector - vector normal

null-vector - vector nul

null-matrix - matrice nulă

null-set - mulţime vidă

number - număr

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 14 of 22

numerator - numărător

O

oblique - oblic

obtuse angle - unghi obtuz

obtuse triangle - triunghi obtuzunghic

octagon - octagon

odd - impar

odd-function - funcţie impară

one-to-one - biunivoc

open interval - interval deschis

opposite interior angles - unghiuri alterne interioare

order - ordine

order of derivative - ordin al derivatei

order of equation - ordinul ecuaţiei

ordered pair - cuplu ordonat

ordinal number - număr ordinal

ordinate - ordonată

origin {of coordinates} - origine de coordonate

orthogonal base - bază ortogonală

orthogonal coordnate system - sistem ortogonal de coordonate

orthonormal basis - bază ortonormată

oval - oval

P

pair - cuplu

parabola - parabolă

parabolic - parabolic

parallel - paralel

parallelepiped - paralelepiped

parallelogram - paralelogram

parallelogram law - regula paralelogramului

parallelogram rule - regula paralelogramului

parameter - parametru

parametric form - formă parametrică

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 15 of 22

partial fraction - fracţie elementară

partial-fraction expansion - descompunere în fracţii elementare

pencil - fascicul

pencil of lines - fascicul de drepte

pentagon - pentagon

per cent - procent

perimeter - perimertu

period - perioadă

periodic decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală periodică

periodic function - funcţie periodică

periodic solution - soluţie periodică

permissible solution - soluţie admisibilă

perpendicular - perpendiculară

pivot - axă de rotaţie, centru de rotaţie

plane - plan

plane geometry - planimetrie

planimetry - planimetrie

plus sign - semnul adunării, plus

point - punct

point of discontinuity - punct de discontinuitate

point of inflexion - punct de inflexiune

polygon - poligon

polyhedron - poliedru

polynomial - polinom

positive - pozitiv

possibility - posibilitate

power - putere, exponent

pre-image - preimagine

preceding - precedent

prime factorization - descompunere în factori primi

prime number - număr prim

pimitive - funcţie primitivă

principal - principal

principal axis - axă principală

principal diagonal - diagonală principală

principle of complete induction - metoda inducţiei complete

prism - prizmă

product - produs

progression - progresie

projection - proiecţie

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 16 of 22

proof - demonstraţie

proper factor - divizor propriu

proper fraction - fracţie subunitară

property - proprietate

proportion - proporţie

proposition - propoziţie

prove - a demonstra

pyramid - piramidă

Pythagorean theorem - teorema lui Pythagoras

Q

quadrate - patrat

quadratic - pătratic

quadratic equation - ecuaţie de gradul al doilea (patrată)

quadratic formula - formula rădăcinilor ecuaţiei de gradul al doilea

(ecuaţiei patrate)

quantifier - cuantor

quotient - cât

R

radian - radian

radical - radical, semnul rădăcinii

radical sign - radical, semnul rădăcinii

radius - rază

radius vector - rază vectoare

raise to a power - a ridica la putere

range - mulţime de valori, domeniu

rank of a matrix - rang al unei matrici

ratio - cât, raport

rational - raţional

rational function - funcţie raţională

rational number - număr raţional

ray - semidreaptă

real - real

real number - număr real

reciprocal matrix - matrice inversă

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 17 of 22

rectangle - dreptunghi

rectangular coordonate system - sistem rectangular de coordonate

reduce - a reduce

reducible - reductibil

regular polygon - poligon regulat

relation - relaţie, raport

relative - relativ

relatively prime numbers - numere reciproc prime

remainder - rest

repeated root - rădăcină multiplă

replace - a substitui, a înlocui

represent - a reprezenta

rest - rest

restriction - restricţie

rhomb - romb

rhombus - romb

right angle - unghi drept

right triangle - triunghi dreptunghic

root - rădăcină

rotation - rotaţie

round - a rotunji

rounding error - eroare de rotunjire

rule - regulă

S

same denominators - numitori identici

satisfy - a satisface

scalar - scalar

scalene triangle - triunghi scalen

secant - secantă

sector of a circle - sector circular

segment - segment

semi-circle - semicerc

semiclosed interval - interval semiînchis

set - mulţime

set theory - teoria mulţimilor

side {of an angle} - latură {a unui unghi}

sign - semn

signum function - funcţia signum

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 18 of 22

similar polygons - poligoane asemenea

similar terms - termeni asemenea

similar triangle - triunghi asemenea

similarity - asemănare

similitude - asemănare

simple - simplu

simple root - rădăcină simplă

simplification - simplificare

sine curve - sinusoidă

sine rule - teorema sinusurilor

single - unic

single root - rădăcină simplă

skew lines - drepte neconcurente

slope - înclinare, coeficient unghiular

slope angle - unghi de înclinare

slope formula - formula coeficientului unghiular

slope-intercept form of a straight line - ecuaţie a unei drepte cu coeficient

equation unghiular

solution {of a problem} - soluţie {a unei probleme}

solution set - mulţime de soluţii

solve - a soluţiona, a rezolva

space - spaţiu

speed - viteză

sphere - sferă

square - patrat, a ridica la patrat

square brackets - paranteze patrate

square root - rădăcină patrată

standard form - formă standardă

statement - propoziţie, afirmaţie

step function - funcţie în scară

straight - drept

straight angle - unghi întins, unghi plin

straight-line - linie dreaptă

straight-line segment - segment liniar

stretching - delatare

strict - strict

strongly monotonic - strict monoton

subset - submulţime

substitution - substituţie

subtraction - scădere

subtrahend - scăzător

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 19 of 22

sum - sumă

summand - termen al sumei

supplementary angles - unghiuri suplimentare {până la 180o}

surface - suprafată

surface area - arie a suprafeţei

surface element - element de arie {al suprafeţei}

surface of revolution - suprafaţă de rotaţie

symbol - simbol

symmetric - simetric

symmetric function - funcţie simetrică, funcţie pară

synthetic division - schema lui Horner

system - sistem

system of linear equations - sistem de ecuaţii liniare

T

tangent - tangentă

tangent line - linie tangentă

tangent plane - plan tangent

term - termen

term of a fraction - numărător al fracţiei

terminating decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală finită

tetragon - patrulater

tetrahedron - tetraedru

theorem - teoremă

theory - teorie

transcendental number - număr transcendent

transform - a transforma

transform of coordinates - transformare de coordonate

transitivity - tranzitivitate

translation - translare

trapezium - trapez

trapezoid - trapez

triangle - triunghi

triangular - triunghiular

trigonometric - trigonometric

trigonometric function - funcţie trigonometrică

trigonometry - trigonometrie

trisection of the angle - trisecţie a unui unghi

truth - veridicitate

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 20 of 22

U

unambiguous - univoc

unbounded - nemărginit

uncertainty - incertitudine, nedeterminare

undefined - nedefinit

undetermined - nedeterminat

unequal - inegal, diferit

union - reuniune

unique solution - soluţie unică

uniqueness - unicitate

unit - unitate

unit circle - circumferinţă unitară

unit tangent vector - vector tangent unitar

unit vector - vector unitar

universal quantifier - cuantor universal

universal set - mulţime universală

unknown - necunoscută

unlike denominators - numitori diferiţi

unsymmetric - asimetric

V

valid - valid, valabil

value - valoare

vanish - a se anula, a dispărea

variable - variabilă

vector - vector

vector product - produs vectorial

velocity - viteză

verify - a verifica

vertex - vârf

vertex angles - unghiuri opuse la vârf

vertical - vertical

vertical axis - axă verticală

vice versa - invers, reciproc

vinculum - linie de fracţie

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 21 of 22

volume - volum

W

way - drum, distantă

well-defined - bine definit

whole - tot, în întregime

X

x-axis - axa x

x-intercept - segment de pe axa x

xy-plane - plan xOy

Y

y-axis - axa y

Z

z-axis - axa z

zero - zero

zero solution - soluţie nulă

Bibliografie

| Matematica competitiva | Matematica distractiva| Formule, dictionare | Avizuri |

|Pagini din istorie | Examene, teste | Bibliografie | Link-uri | Site map | Cartea Vizitatorilor |

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Dictionar Englez-Roman Page 22 of 22

http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 1 of 70

| Matematica competitiva | Matematica distractiva| Formule, dictionare | Avizuri |

|Pagini din istorie | Examene, teste | Bibliografie | Link-uri | Site map | Cartea Vizitatorilor

AĂÂBCDEFGHIÎJKLMNOPQRSŞTŢUVWXYZ

A

abia The superscripts are hardly (or scarcely) visible.

abordare A more careful approach is needed.

absolut analog In complete analogy with the result, we may prove

that ...

accentua atenţie

se accentuiază atenţie asupra In this section, emphasis is placed (or attention is

focussed) on autonomous systems.

accepta o ipoteză to accept a hypothesis

aceiaşi The numbers +8 and +3 have like signs.

No two polynomials can have all their roots alike (or

the same) unless they differ by a numerical factor.

acelaşi The preceding discussion may be summed up by

saying that the arithmetic for complex numbers is

much the same as that for real numbers.

acum We now want to let j→∞.

For the present we content ourselves with

demonstrating the assertions just made concerning the

sets G and H.

arăta

acum este uşor de arătat că We can now easily show that ...

adecvat The model fits the process under study adequately.

adeveri

se adevereşte că Thus the martingale ψ(t) turns out to be a process

with independent increments.

s-a adeverit a fi This proved to be a bigger problem than originally

anticipated.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 2 of 70

admite

la fel admite The function η(t) also admits decomposition of the

form (4).

adresa

ne adresăm la We now turn to the task of considering the

continuous-parameter supermarlingales.

aduce

demonstraţia este adusă The proof of the theorem is given in [8].

aduna

adunăm Now write down these inequalities for n, n+1, ..., n+m

and add them to obtain the estimation (6).

afirma

afirmă The fundamental theorem of arithmetic asserts that

every integer greater than 1 can be factored in one and

only one way, apart from order, as the product of

positive prime numbers.

Bohm [2] claims that there is such a thing as the

primacy of metaphysics in connection with biology.

afirmaţie

afirmaţie mai generală A more general statement can be found in [15].

afirmaţie necesară Approaching the limit as N→∞ we obtain the

required assertion.

afirmaţie reciprocă The converse of (5) is false.

The converse of this statement is known to be false.

However, if we are concerned only with versions of a

given process, the converse holds in the following

sense.

afla

a afla We are now in a position to determine (or to find)

the value of x*.

ajunge

ajungem la ... Thus we arrive at the following conclusion

[definition, equation, theorem, assertion, result].

ajutor

cu ajutorul By means of the equivalence relation we get the

decomposition of the set of all oriented segments into

disjoint classes such that segments in the same class

are equivalent and segments in different classes are

not equivalent.

When formalizing the notions of probability theory,

the first fundamental assumption is that the results of

experiments can be described by means of a certain

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 3 of 70

set Ω.

The data were obtained with the help (or with the

aid) of a digitizer.

Both problems are solved by constructing a right-hand

inverse matrix Sr-1 of S.

Taylor series expansion of g(t).

altă Any term may be transposed from one member of

equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.

The random variable η may have a different

distribution.

altfel This definition also makes use of the abstraction

principle, but in another way.

altfel zis Otherwise speaking [fn(x)] = [gn(x)] if and only if

{fn(x)}~{gn(x)}.

amănunţit

mai amănunţit These operations are discussed in more detail in next

section.

ambele Both estimates are quite rough.

But the functions f and g are both continuous, and

thus the two functions coincide.

Multiplying the two sides of (4) by cosmx and

integrating, we obtain ...

ambele părţi The two sides of Young's inequality

if b=ϕ(a).

ambiguu This ambiguity does not lead to misunderstanding.

aminti

amintim că We recall that the compensator γn of the measure of

jumps µn is non-negative.

Recall that L is generated by all processes whose

trajectories are right-continuous and have right limits.

analiza

pentru a analiza To analyse the equation, it is convenient to go over to

non-dimensional variables.

este analizată To analyse the equation, it is convenient to go over to

non-dimensional variables.

The sum S is analysed analogously.

analogic The proof of (11) is completely analogous to that of

(10).

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 4 of 70

to that used in the Cantor theory when generalizing

rational to real numbers.

analogie The analogue of the Fermat's theorem is also valid.

anume In this particular case only one side of the triangle,

namely BC, has traces within the limits of the

drawing.

If S consists of a single element x, then R(x), namely

the smallest subring containing x, is commutative.

The extended solutions have the property II, namely

of uniform continuity.

aparatul matematic mathematical apparatus (or tools / techniques)

a body of mathematics

aparţine

aparţine la The process X(t) falls into one of the following three

classes depending on its asymptotic behaviour.

This equation falls among the so-called renewal

equations.

care nu aparţine This equation contradicts the assumption that G

contains points not belonging to D.

apărea

apare The problem arises of finding the conditions under

which the distribution p(u) is unimodal.

aplica

să aplicăm Let us apply this result to the case of an increasing

process At.

pot fi aplicate Formulas (1) and (2) may be employed on condition

that the contour C has no loops.

se poate de aplicat Since p is of the form 1+4m, Corollary 2.5 is

applicable and hence p=x2+y2.

aproape The temperature was observed to be near zero.

aproape de The angle θ is closed to 45 deg.

aproape peste tot The Lebesque-integrable functions are equal if and

only if they have the same values almost everywhere.

aproape toate Nearly all scientific problems deal with quantities and

relations among them.

aproape toţi It is easy to verify that f(x)<C for almost all x.

aproximativ acelaşi As the numbers of the molecules moving in opposite

directions are much the same, it is natural to

assume ...

aproximaţie

în primă aproximaţie

As (or in) a first approximation, x(t) may be chosen

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 5 of 70

to be t2.

aranja în ordine crescătoare

[descrescătoare]

sunt aranjaţi în ordine crescă- The jump moments t1, t2, ..., tn are arranged in

toare [descrescătoare] ascending [descending] order.

arăta

arată Fig.12 depicts the slope of the line ∆x versus ∆t.

vom arăta We shall show that in this case p must divide b.

este arătat The slope of the line ∆x versus ∆t is shown

schematically in Fig.12.

pentru a arăta că To show that q and r are unique, suppose that q'

and r' is any pair of integers for which a=bq'+r', 0

≤ r' < b.

cum este arătat mai sus As has been shown above, the process X t is a

continuous L2-martingale.

arbitrar Let ξ(t) be an arbitrary quasi-potential.

Suppose this is true for an arbitrary n.

argument This is a convincing reason for the study of stochastic

equations of the form.

This reason suggests that the solution to Eqn (17) is

unique.

argumente There are doubtful points in the above reasoning.

aritmetică Arithmetic is the elementary branch of mathematics

dealing with the properties of numbers and their

operations.

asigura

asigură Property 1o ensures the feasibility of the addition.

The MIS furnishes (or supplies) data for

management.

asociat

asociată cu (referitoare la) The error is associated with (or is due to) the

inaccuracy in computations.

The study is concerned with linear functionals of

supercritical processes.

The first problem is directly related to partial

differential equations.

Further extension of the notion of a stochastic integral

is connected with the extension of the notion of

convergence.

asociat la

The polynomial R(t) corresponding to this function

by (6) is almost everywhere nonzero.

The space, S2k-1, and the projective metric, L(r,s),

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 6 of 70

future.

It is convenient to replace k by a new factor µ related

to k by the relation µ=4πk.

Thus the following theorem has been proved.

astfel

The factors µ and k are related as follows: µ=4πk.

astfel încât Let X be a space such that from every open cover we

can select a finite cover.

We break up the component a into several

components in such a way that A and B now belong

to different components.

We select a basis in the underlying space such that ...

Specifically, the parameter can be chosen so that the

distribution is unimodal.

The model is so constructed as to allow further

modification and improvement.

astfel ... ca We take a point on the line such that ...

astfel ... încât We take a point on the line such that ...

Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer that there

exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)=g(x).

aşa numit

Heaviside function.

aşa ... pentru care We take a point on the line such that ...

aşadar Thus, the integral on the right-hand side of (5) can be

analytically continued to the whole domain.

The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that p|b.

Every element in T has norm at least equal to 1, so

there must be one of them, γ , which is of least

positive norm.

Since p is of the form 1+4m, Corollary 2.5 is

applicable and hence p=x2+y2.

Therefore P(x,s,t,A) saitsfies the Chapman-

Kolmogorov equation.

Consequently,

ataşa la

poate fi ataşat la The process X(t) may be placed (or put) into one of

the following three classes depending on its

asymptotic behaviour.

atinge

atinge maximum [minimum]

The function ψ(x) reaches its maximum [minimum]

at x*=3h/2.

Let b1(s,w) coincide with the z for which the

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 7 of 70

attained and let b2(s,w) coincide with z for which the

above function attains its maximum.

atinge scopul

de a atinge scopul In order to attain the purpose, we shall not avail

ourselves of the methods of functional analysis.

este atins scopul This aim is attained (or objective is accomplished)

by introducing non-dimensional variables x' = x/x0

and y' = y/y0.

atinge

se atinge Evidently, if the inf in (1.5) is attained at a certain

point , then the inf Φm(x,um) is also attained at that

point.

atrage atenţia

să atragă atenţia The reader should take notice of the fact that the scale

parameter a does not enter into the expression for G

(u).

It is necessary to pay special attention to the

behaviour of F(x) at infinity.

se atrage atenţia Recently much attention (or thought /

consideration) has been given to the study of the

diffusion processes.

atribui sens

pentru a atribui sens To attach a meaning to the solution of this stochastic

equation, we must define the measure µ more

accurately.

se atribuie sens Analogous meaning is attached to the notation D

[0,∞).

atribui valoarea

atribuim valoarea We assign the value 0 to this state.

valori pot fi atribuite A variable is a quantity to which an unlimited number

of values can be assigned in an investigation.

automat It follows automatically that these Rm-semisimple

rings are strongly Rm-semisimple.

discuss several auxiliary assertions.

avantaj

avantaje To appreciate the merits (or the advantages) of this

theory, it suffices to observe that ...

avantaj principal

The main (or principal / major) advantage of this

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 8 of 70

chapter to be extended to the case under

consideration.

avea

avem Since a satisfies (1), we have Y 1=Y 2.

nu are For instance, the function

has not a derivative at

the point 0.

The prime number p possess no factors other than ± 1

and ± p.

poate avea It follows that the solution can have only a finite

number of zeros in D.

nu poate avea It follows that the solution cannot have more than a

finite number of zeros in D.

avea de-a face

avem de-a face In this section we deal only with rational integers.

avea intenţia

vom avea intenţia In this section we are going to modify our definition

of distribution so as to obtain a notion equivalent to

that of S. Sobolyev and L. Schwartz.

avea loc

această nu poate avea loc This cannot be, for l/p is not a rational number.

această are loc în cazul This happens to be the case for those equations in

which S increases.

avea maxim [minim]

are maxim [minim] The function ψ(x) has a maximum [minimum] at the

point x*=3h/2.

avea neajunsul

au neajunsul These equations possess a fundamental defect (or

demerit / draw back / disadvantage).

are neajunsul His hypothesis has limitations of its own.

avea nevoie de

vom avea nevoie de In order to achieve this, we shall need some material

from elementary number theory.

avea o formă ...

are o formă ... Equation (3.2) is of the following form ...

avea o mare importanţă

are o mare importanţă In applications the following theorem is of great

importance.

avea sens

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 9 of 70

The symbol , if it is meaningful, always

represents a number.

nu are sens If the common part is empty, the difference has no

sense.

avea soluţie unică

are soluţie unică Equation (7) has a unique solution.

avea un caracter

are un caracter Noise ω(t) is stochastic in character (or in nature).

Noise ω(t) is of a stochastic character (or nature).

avea valoarea

are valoarea The derivative F'(x) has the value 0 at the point 0.

B

baza pe

se bazează pe The proof is based on the ideas of Kunita and

Watanabe [36].

The previous analysis proceeds from the assumption

that the class M* contains the class M2,∞.

below can be extended to σ-algebras.

biunivocitate Hence from (6) and the remark concerning the

one-to-one-ness of the correspondence, relation (8)

yields F=0.

C

ca de obicei As usual, we use continuous versions of (4).

ca şi în As in the example discussed above, we can easily

prove the following proposition.

ca şi în cazul ...

In the same manner as in the case of convergence to

a Wiener process, one can easily deduce the following

result.

In the case of distributions, as in the case of functions,

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 10 of 70

ca urmare Such a solution does not exist in consequence (or on

account) of (6) and Remark 4.

calcula As is easy to calculate ...

sunt calculate The coefficients of expansion (9) are evaluated (or

computed) from formulas (5).

cum este uşor de calculat as is easy to calculate

as is easy to evaluate

calcula integrală dea-lungul

to take the integral along a curve

curbei

calcula integrală pe domeniu to take the integral over a domain

care In classical analysis there have been considered several

sequences of functions which are distributionally

convergent to δ(x).

Choose in D2 any function that tends to infinity as

x→0.

cărui A variable is a quantity to which an unlimited number

of values can be assigned in an investigation.

al cărui Let A be a strongly positive operator whose domain of

definition does not depend on t.

care este Consider the function λ(y), which is a periodical

distribution coinciding with δ(y) for | y | < 1/2.

caz

caz particular This formula can be considered as a particular case of

formula (14).

cazul considerat In the case under consideration the process α(t) is

continuous.

Let us generalize equation (6) to the case under

discussion.

căuta

vom căuta We shall seek a solution to (12) in the form

z(t,u) = x(t) y(u).

sunt căutate It is convenient, in solving problems, to use letters for

the numders which are sought.

căutată The sought-for quantity M is involved in the equation

reciprocally.

The desired value of m can be determined from

conition (4).

care va fi căutată Consider the equation (3), where f(t) is the function to

be found.

Here v* is the value of v to be determined.

căutare

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 11 of 70

discovered that ...

câteva To see this, we shall prove several lemmas.

A few words should be said about physical meaning of

this parameter.

Some other examples of fundamental sequences will

be given after the following lemma.

câteva modalităţi There is more than one way to approach the problem.

ce For instance, the Dirac delta distribution cannot be

identified with any continuous function, which will be

proved in Section 8.

cel mai bine The nature of this problem can best be made plain by

examples.

cel mai mare divizor comun The greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers

(CMMDC) h and k is the largest positive factor common to both h

and k.

cel mai mic multiplu comun Twelve is the least common multiple (LCM) of 3 and

(CMMMC) 4.

cel mult The set of the points of discontinuity of f(t) is at (the)

most countable.

cel puţin Formula (7) is true under the hypothesis that at least

one of the integrals on the left-hand side is meaningful.

cercetare

cercetare profundă the in-depth study

cercetare ulterioară To determine whether these ideals coincide, we must

make a further study of the polynomials.

cere

se cere It is required to estimate in the best possible manner

the value of a random variable ξ.

se cere întrebarea It is therefore reasonable to ask for which classes of

"integers" the fundamental theorem holds, and for

which it does not.

cerinţă mai puternică The process Mt, satisfies the conditions of (1) with the

stronger requirement that be an L2-

martingale.

chiar în cazul când This example shows that the ordinary derivative does

not always coincide with the distributional derivative,

even when the ordinary derivative wrists everywhere

except at one point.

Thus we need not 8, but 9 parameters to describe the

ci

system.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 12 of 70

ciocni cu

ne ciocnim cu In applications we often come across the so-called

Heaviside function.

cititor The reader will find it a useful exercise to supply the

details of the proof.

clasic In classical analysis there have been considered

several sequence of functions which are

distributionally convergent to δ(x).

clar

este clar că Clearly, the sum, difference and product of such

integers are of the same form.

It is clear that a and -a are both in the set A.

intuitiv este clar It is clear intuitively that every collection, finite or

infinite, of non-negative integers contains a smallest

one.

the coefficient of smth.

coeficientul pe lângă

the coefficient multiplying smth.

coeficientul pe lângă A polinomial is monic if its leading coefficent is 1.

termenul

superior

coincide

coincide cu For an arbitrary function F(x) satisfying conditions 1) -

6) there exists a unique probability measure whose

distribution function coincides with F(x).

The characteristic through A is the same as the one

through B.

complet satisfăcător Completely satisfactory solution of the functional

problem is given in [6].

completa

este completată It is assumed that σ-algebra F0 is completed (or

augmented) by all P-null sets.

complicat The problem of optimization is, in general, more

complicated.

Integration of equation (3.2) represents a rather

involved boundary-value problem.

conclude From a>b and b>c we conclude that a>c.

condiţie

condiţia asupra This result was established in another way under

somewhat weaker conditions on the diffusion

coefficients.

condiţiile conform cărora The problem arose of finding the conditions under

which the distribution p(t) is unimodal.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 13 of 70

stated in the next section.

condiţie de existenţă şi Let the coefficients of equation (9) satisfy the

unicitate a soluţiei condition for the existence and uniqueness of the

solution.

condiţii exacte pentru The exact conditions for equilibria to exist and be

stable are examined.

condiţie mai fină The tangent bundle of the manifolds provides a

sharper necessary condition.

condiţii sunt verificate Assume that conditions (5) and (20) are satisfied.

If the conditions of Theorem 10 are satisfied and,

moreover, A(ϕ,t) is continuously differentiable, then ...

Let the conditions of Theorem 4 be satisfied and the

function be twice continuously differentiable.

alte condiţii fiind aceleaşi The distinction between (14) and (15) is that the

variable x entering into (15) depends on ω, other

things being equal.

în condiţia că Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined,

provided that it exists everywhere.

Any term may be transposed from one member of

equation to the other, providing its sign is changed.

The abstraction principle can be applied to sets of

arbitrary elements provided there exists an

equivalence relation ~.

These functions are locally Riemann-integrable under

(or on) the condition that their values are equal at all

points of continuity.

în condiţiile teoremei Under the conditions of Theorem 6.1 the limit

exists and is differentiable.

conduce

conduce la ecuaţia This reasoning yields a simple equation.

confirma ipoteza to verify a hypothesis

conform

conform algoritmului The classes can be formed by the FLAMENCO

algorithm.

conform criteriului By the Eisenstein's criterion, the polynomial xn-2 is

irreducible over the field of rational numbers.

conform definiţiei Then, by definition, ...

conform ipotezei inducţiei By the induction hypothesis, the theorem is true for f

(x).

conform lemei By Lemma 2.3, the sequence {gn(x)} is fundamental.

conform presurunerii

By assumption, E(1)=0.

By the assumption of the lemma, the solution to (1) is

positive.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 14 of 70

conform proprietăţii By property (4) of norms, every element in T has

norm at least equal to 1, so there must be one of them,

γ, which is of least positive norm.

conform teoremei By Theorem 1.1, we can find q and r so that b=dq+r,

0 ≤ r < d.

consecinţă

consecinţă din To complete the proof of the lemma, we use the

corollary of Lemma 2.

este o consecinţă The inequality f(x)≤0 is a direct consequence of the

system fi(x)≤0, i=l, 2, ..., n.

parentheses, they may be removed in succession,

beginning with the innermost.

considera

considerăm Consider the rational number a/b.

poate fi considerată The problem can be approached in many different

ways.

să considerăm Let us now consider the case a>1.

Consider now the case a>1.

sunt considerate Several other functions, very useful from the practical

point of view, are considered in the following section.

Some properties of the operator L are dealt with in the

next chapter.

considerată An integral part of the creative approach to the

problem under consideration (or under study) is the

analysis of its similarity to and difference from the

analogous problems.

poate fi considerat ca C (R+) can be regarded as a complete separable

metric space under the topology of uniform

convergence.

în lucrare se consideră The paper deals with the theory of distributions of

finite order.

considera acum

considerăm acum We now consider the process η(t).

Consider now the process η(t).

considera de la început

vom considera de la început Consider first the simplest case where a=0.

We will first confine our attention to discrete-

parameter martingales.

considera util

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 15 of 70

conjugacy and to discuss its relation to the old.

considerabil mai simplu Theorems IV and VI are considerably simpler than

the analogous theorems in the differential calculus.

consideraţie We now turn to the task of considering the

continuous-parameter stochastic processes.

The consideration (or discussion) of this problem in

more detail shows that ...

We must now subject the concept of equivalence to a

somewhat closer scrutiny.

Further inspection (or examination) of Fig.1 discloses

that there are two points of inflection on the curve.

consta

constă în ... The abstraction principle consists (or lies) in the

identification of objects (mathematical entities) which

have a common property.

construcţie By a slight change in the method of (7), the

construction of such functions is easily carried out.

construi

pentru a construi The abstraction principle is often applied in

mathematics to construct new notions.

In the case under consideration the process α(t) is

continuu

continuous at every point of the interval (c,d).

continuă din dreapta după t Ft is continuous from the right (or right-continuous)

in t if for all t ≥ 0 .

contrazice

ce contrazice So π is a unit, contrary to the hypothesis.

So p|L, contradicting the fact that L is prime.

această contrazice This contradicts r ≥ 0.

contrazice presupunerii This equation contradicts the assumption that G

contains a point not belonging to D.

This contradicts the hypothesis that k→∞ and that (6)

holds for all l<km.

contribui

pentru a contribui la This series of expository presentations of the best

răspândirea thoughts and keenest researches in pure and applied

mathematics is intended to contribute to the

dissemination of mathematical knowledge.

conţine

se conţine The subgroup Pn is contained in the centralizer of the

element p in B.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 16 of 70

properties of the norm.

convenabil

convenabilă In some cases the following complex form of

three phases.

este convenabil It is convenient to call two Gaussian integers

associates if α=εβ, where ε is a unit.

va fi convenabil It will be convenient to define the convergence of fn

(x) in the following sense.

deseori este convenabil It is often convenient to establish the position of

points by giving their coordinates.

conveni

vom conveni We shall agree to write A(x,t)∈S if A(x,t) is a process

with independent increments.

converge

converge absolut The series (1) converges absolutely.

converge aproape peste tot to converge almost everywhere

converge în medie to converge in (the) mean

converge în probabilitate to converge in probability

converge uniform Thus the series (4) converges uniformly.

convinge

ne convingem că Make (or be) sure that the coefficients have no

common factors other than +1.

To complete the proof, check that ...

Before applying Theorem 10.7, check to see that there

is an α in A such that ...

a se convinge în To prove the convergence X n→M, it suffices to make

sure that ...

trebuie să se convingă că The investigator must assure himself that the errors

are within the admissible limits.

pentru a se convinge în ... To see that if θ satisfies an equation

anxn + an-1xn-1 + ... + a0 = 0, then there is a rational r

such that rθ is an algebraic rational, observe that anθ

satisfies (3).

To be certain that c is the required element, check

that D[c,A]>0.

pentru a se convinge în To see this, notice that Powell's frequency function is

aceasta identical with our function Φb(x).

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 17 of 70

se poate de convins că Then, similarly as has been done in [1], one ascertains

that the limit function satisfies the equation (4).

este uşor de convins că It is easy to make sure that ϕ(x) is convex on [c,∞).

coordona

se coordonează The theory checks well (or agrees / is in good

agreement) with experiment.

The hypothesis fits the experimental data.

This conjecture is in line with that of Seidenberg.

corect This definition is correct; since the sequence {pn(m)

(x)} is fundamental.

corectitudinea definiţiei To verify the correctness of this definition, we must

prove that ...

corespondenţă biunivocă The one-to-one correspondence established above

makes it unnecessary to distinguish between functions

f(x) and distributions [f(x)].

crescător

crescătoare There is an increasing sequence of integers km such

that ...

strict crescător Introduce a strictly increasing funstion g(x) defined

on [0,∞).

creşte

creşte monoton după t Ft monotonically increases in t, that is Fs⊂ Ft, for

s<t.

cu ... ce tinde ... Each summand on the right of (12) becomes

vanishingty small with (or as) n→∞.

cub al numărului When a is used three times as a factor, the product is

called the third power of a, or the cube of a.

cunoaşte

cum noi deja cunoaştem Since, as we already know, all these trigonometrical

integrals vanish, we obtain formula (5).

cunoscut cu The reader acquainted with the Lebesgue integrals

can interpret formula (1) in a still wider sense, viz. as

the equality almost everywhere.

este cunoscut că It is well known that for an arbitrary function F(x)

satisfying conditions 1) - 6) there exists a unique

probability measure whose distribution function

coincides with F(x).

cum este cunoscut

is nothing else

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 18 of 70

este bine cunoscut It is well known that there exist sequences {Tn} and

{Sn} such that ηn=Tn-Sn.

este cunoscută ca This relation is known as the Biot-Savart law.

cuvânt

cu alte cuvinte To put it in another way, the gross weight W can be

represented as W=Wst+We+Wp.

D

da

dă The repeated application of relation (2.1) yields ...

The following theorem provides the description of the

everywhere dense set E.

dăm We give (or present) below a synthesis of various

approaches available.

da posibilitate

dă posibilitate The martingale approach enables us (or permits) to

suggest a new method for constructing solutions of

stochastic differential equations.

Knowledge of the numerical values of a and b offers a

means of (or makes possible) determining ...

This method makes it possible to tackle the boundary-

value problem under discussion.

The main advantage of this approach is that it enables

the results of the previous chapter to be extended to the

case under consideration.

da restul de la împărţire

dă restul de la împărţire Every integer a leaves a remainder r, 0 ≤ r < m, on

division by m.

dacă In the course of the proof of the theorem we have

described the method for determining the functions

Φn (x0, ..., xn) if X is locally compact.

dacă acesta este cazul If this is the case, the deterministic approach is quite

suited for this purpose.

dacă acesta există Hence, it follows that the representation of f(x) in the

form (4), if it exists, is unique.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 19 of 70

dacă este necesar The integer k can be, if necessary, replaced by any

greater integer.

dacă n-ar fi Were is not for the discontinous coefficient,the

problem would be much simpler.

dacă nu If there is no such ζ, we write max f = ∞.

Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be

assumed to be in force.

dacă numai Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined,

provided (that) it exists everywhere.

dacă şi numai dacă R is a realization of η(t) if and only if ...

dacă şi numai dacă există The martingale ξ(t) is uniformly integrable if and only

if there exists a random variable η such that E |η| <

∞ and ξ(t) = E {η | Ft}.

dacă ..., atunci Evidently, if the inf in (1.5) is attained at a certain point

, then the inf Φm(x,um) is also attained at that point.

dar Element ξ belongs to V, whereas (or and) ζ belongs to

W.

This value is negative — not positive.

dar atunci But then we could proceed from the pair (x, y) to a still

smaller in the same way as from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2).

dar nu With time the number of particles increases, rather

than remains constant.

date iniţiale the initial (or the input) data

datorită Delacherie and Meyer are well known for their book

'Stochastic Processes and Potentials'.

Mathematics, due to (or owing to / because of) its

abstract nature, finds wide application in most spheres

of human activity.

de aceea For this reason the points belonging to Ω are called

elementary events.

Conversely, if N=1, we have a+b=1, so that either a=0

or b=0.

The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that p|b.

Every element in T has norm at least equal to 1, so there

must be one of them, g, which is of least positive norm.

de asemenea

Observe also that |Dn(s)| ≤ C logn.

From equation (3) we find, as well,

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 20 of 70

β≠0.

de fapt In fact, this follows from the consideration that the

sequence gn(x) is bounded for x>0.

Since these are continuous processes, we actually

have ...

de fiecare dată când In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only the

numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must be

given whenever the rule is applied.

de k ori Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer that there

exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)(x)=g(x).

Differentiating formula (8) k times, we obtain the

equality ...

de la The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI

century.

Prof. Romanov is giving a course of lectures on chaos

and bifurcations in room 406, commencing October 1.

In order to start from the very beginning, we introduce

first the basic notions and concepts of the theory of

measurements.

From this time on, the density function decreases.

We shall start with the basic notions and concepts of

the theory of measurements.

de unde Setting (*) we obtain (**), whence, in view of

inequality (1), ...

The author does not explain from whence the estimate

(7) emerges.

deduce

deducem Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer (or deduce)

that there exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)=g

(x).

deducem ecuaţia We derive (or deduce) the equation for the

distribution of cell size at division and the distribution

of generation time.

defini

definim Define unit and prime just as we did for the Gaussian

integer.

definită The function h(x) is defined at every point of the

interval [c,d].

The variable, whose value is determined once the

value of the independent variable is given, is called the

dependent variable.

bine definită

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 21 of 70

definit anterior Using the Haar family {gn} defined above, we

introduce functions {hn}.

pozitiv definit A complex-valued function f(x) is called positive

definite if for any n and complex numbers zj

definire

în definirea In defining K(x) we have made use of our assumption

that b(x)=0 for x<a.

definiţie In the definition of the mth derivative we can replace

the polynomials pn(x) by functions fn(x).

din definiţie From the definition it follows at once that G(u)

satisfies condition (2).

definiţie echivalentă It is possible to give an equivalent definition of

integral (1) as the limit of sums (2).

definiţie exactă A precise definition is given below.

demonstra

demonstrează This proves that d is a factor shared by both a and b.

pentru a demonstra To prove the theorem, it suffices to show that ...

este demonstrată Since Nρ<Nα, the inequality (3) is established.

pentru a demonstra To prove this, interchange the order of integration in

the double integral in (6), after which all the integrals

except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate

change of variables.

To prove the theorem, note first that neither a nor b can

be zero.

nu este ce demonstra If p|a, there is nothing to prove.

se poate de demonstrat că It may be proved that if ...

de la început vom demonstra We shall first prove the following two lemmas.

înainte de a demonstra Before proving the theorem we illustrate its

teorema applications.

trebuie să demonstrăm că We must prove that the two factorizations differ at

most in the order in which the primes appear.

demonstrare

în procesul demonstrării In the course of the proof of this theorem we have

made use of the following lemma.

demonstraţie

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 22 of 70

denumire The name 'distribution' is due to L. Schwartz, who

developed the theory in 1945 and later.

deoarece This cannot be, for 1/p is not a rational number.

In the theory of distributions a distinction between the

trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is

unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical

series is an expansion of a periodic distribution.

Because (3), we have ...

deoarece în caz contrar All numbers amn can be arranged in a sequence {bk}

convergent to b0, for otherwise it would suffice to

neglect a finite number of initial terms a1n, a2n, ..., apn

to get a contradiction to property (5).

deoarece ..., atunci Since the functions w are solutions of this equation, the

difference of any two of them may be regarded as the

solution of a certain linear differential equation.

deosebi

se deosebeşte prin The function f(x) differs from F(x)(k-1)by a constant.

se deosebesc prin We must prove that the two factorizations differ at

most in the order in which the primes appear.

se deosebesc una de alta prin The equation f'(x) = g'(x) holds if and only if the

distributions f(x) and g(x) differ from each other by a

constant function.

deosebire

spre deosebire de ... The absolute value of a number a, as distinguished

from its algebraic value, is represented by |a|.

As opposed to (or as distinct from / in contrast to)

the real case, any polynomial always has a root in the

field of complex numbers.

In fundamental contrast to M. R. Stein, we have

preferred the algebraic approach.

deosebit

este deosebit de importantă The case of a linear substitution is especially

important (or is of particular importance) for us.

depinde

constant L not depending on s and n such that ...

nu depinde de alegere The distribution (1) does not depend on the choice of

the indefinite integral ψ(x).

depinde esenţial de In this new definition the fact that the choice of the

integer k depends on the interval [a,b] is essential.

depinde monoton de t

Let (2) be a family of finite stopping times which are

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 23 of 70

t.

deriva

deriva ... după x To differentiate v(t,x) with respect to x.

deriva ... în raport cu x To take the derivative of v(t,x,u) with respect to x.

derivând In fact, by differentiating (3) we obtain ...

Hence, by successive differentiation we obtain ...

derivând de k ori Differentiating formula (8) k times, we obtain the

equality ...

derivând succesiv Hence by successive differentiation we obtain ...

derivata după x A derivative of u(t,x,u) with respect to x.

deschide

deschide posibilităţi The interpretative approach opens perspectives in that

direction.

deschiderea parantezelor the removal of parentheses

descompune în factori to expand the number into factors

to factor the number

to present smth in a factor form

to factor smth into components

descompune în serie

descompunem în serie Expand function ϕ(x) in a Taylor series.

descompunem în serie în Expand function u(t,x,u) into a Taylor series about x.

raport cu x

poate fi descompusă în serie Under certain conditions a continuous function can be

expanded into a Fourier-Bessel series.

Function f(x) can be expanded as an infinite power

series.

Any supermartingale ζ(t) has exactly one

descompunere

decomposition of the form ζ(t)=µ(t)-α(t).

descompunere în 6 = 2*3 = 3*2 are the only factorizations of 6 into

positive prime factors.

descompunere în fracţii The decomposition of a fraction into partial

elementare fractions.

descompunere în serie Hence, we obtain the expansion of ctgx:

ctgx = 2(sin2x + sin4x + sin6x + ...).

descrescător Let {an} be a decreasing sequence and {bn} an

increasing sequence of numbers.

descriere formală A formal description of the basic notions is usually

based on the set-theoretical model of probability theory

developed by A. N. Kolmogorov in 1929.

descris

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 24 of 70

descris anterior We now show how the method described above can be

extended to move the existence of µ.

descrisă de ecuaţie We will consider only those systems whose evolution is

given by the equation of form (8).

desemna

desemnează The symbol Fn(x)→ will denote that the sequence

{Fn(x)} converges almost uniformly to a function.

desen

pe desen In Fig.11 the planes π1 and π2 are shown as coinciding.

din desen se vede că In Fig.10 it is seen that ...

în limitele desenului In this particular case only one side of the triangle,

namely BC, has traces within the limits of the

drawing.

deşi It is possible that the ordinary derivative does not exist,

although the distributional derivative has a value at this

point.

detaliat

mai detaliat It is necessary to consider this problem in greater

detail.

detaliile The details can be found in most texts on the theory of

equations, for example in the book of Thomas listed in

bibliography.

The Introduction gives details concerning the

application of stochastic differential equations in

natural sciences.

determina

determină Two sequences {fn(x)} and {gn(x)} determine the same

distribution if and only if they are equivalent.

determinat cu exactitate de The indefinite integral is determined up to a constant.

Integrating f(x) k times, we obtain a locally integrable

function F(x), which is determined up to a polynomial

of degree less than k.

deveni

devine The relation of equivalence is then transformed into

the usual equality.

The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that p|b.

With this terminology Theorem 1.5 becomes

meaningful for the Gaussian integers.

dezacord This explains the discrepancy in behaviour of the two

functions.

diferenţă

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 25 of 70

unică diferenţă între The only difference among them is the order of

appearance of the factors.

diferi

diferă de The function f(x) differs from F(k-1)(x) by a constant.

The proof is not like that of Theorem 5.6.

diferite de Consider the numbers which are different from 0 and

±1.

The prime numbers p possess no factors other than ±1

and ± p.

dificil

este mai dificil It is slightly more difficult to see that

dificultate

dificultate poate fi trecută This difficulty can be remedied by a slight restatement

of the fundamental theorem to include negative

numbers.

din nou Now we can, once again, use the arguments analogous

to those presented in Section II.

direct This inequality can be proved directly (or

immediately) using (7) and Lemma 9 in Section 1.

direcţie

în aceea direcţie The interpretative approach opens perspectives in that

direction.

discontinuitate de speţa întâia With probability 1 ξ(t) has no discontinuities of the

[a doua] first [second] kind.

discuta

discutăm In Chapter 8 we discuss the filtering problem.

nu va fi discutată The validity of this assumption will not be debated

here.

distinge

pentru a distinge The one-to-one correspondence established above

makes it unnecessary to distinguish between functions

f(x) and distributions [f(x)].

distingere In the theory of distributions a distinction between the

trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is

unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical

series is an expansion of a periodic distribution.

distribuţie comună the joint (or simultaneous) distribution

divide

se divid

Then the numbers 1, 2, ..., p-1 fall into pairs such that

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 26 of 70

se divide The procedure is then broken down (or divided /

subdivided) into the three steps: ...

se divide prin Nine is a multiple of three.

divizibil

sunt divizibile prin All the terms on the right are divisible by p.

domeniu de definiţie Let A be a strongly positive operator whose domain of

definition does not depend on G.

dori

dorit Passing to the limit in (6) we obtain the desired result.

This is exactly the wanted decomposition.

este de dorit It is desirable in many applications that the function Xt

be also measurable.

după ce To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the

double integral in (6), after which all the integrals

except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate

change of variables.

E

ecuaţie

din ecuaţia From equation (2) we find that ...

ecuaţie cu n necunoscute the equation in n unknowns

ecuaţie de gradul n the equation of degree n

ecuaţie iniţială the input equation

ecuaţie în raport cu the equation in (the unknown) x

(necunoscuta) x

ecuaţie rezolvabilă în raport the equation solvable for x

cu x

editarea The publication of this monograph was made possible

due to ...

He has over 70 published works.

efectua

pot fi efectuate The calculations can be carried out (or performed) in

the same way as in Section 15.

de a efectua transformarea On many occasions it is useful to take the Laplace

transform of equation (15).

egal

sunt egali The vectors and are equal in magnitude.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 27 of 70

elabora

era elaborată The statistical theory has been developed quite

recently.

elementar The solution of equation (5) is obtained in an

elementary manner by expanding function x(t) in a

Fourier series.

elibera

să ne eliberăm de But here we need only free ourselves of the term V(x)

*µ.

enunţul problemei The most general statement of the problem can be

formulated as follows.

evident A more exact answer to the question requires

apparently (or evidently) a refinement of the

definition of a system.

este evident It is obvious (or evident) that Xt is progressively

measurable.

Obviously (or evidently / apparently), the above

theorem hot index set is taken to be a finite interval

[0,T ] instead of R+.

eveniment sigur the sure event

evident The proof of this property is obvious since b=0.

Applying Theorem 12.3 to the obvious equality (*) we

get ...

evita

pentru a evita confuzii To avoid possible confusion, the continuity condition

will be restated in each case.

pentru a evita neînţelegeri To avoid misunderstanding, we may call the first kind

of intervals (including end-points) the closed intervals

and the second kind the open intervals.

pentru a evita repetări în To avoid repetitions in future, we present here basic

viitor concepts and definitions.

exact

exact unul Any prime Π divides exactly one positive rational

prime p.

mai exact More precisely, we shall assume that the following

condition is satisfied.

exactitate

cu exactitate de

Then we can write for the division-size density function

(up to a normalization factor) .

The factors in product (4) are determined uniquely

except for order.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 28 of 70

the order of factors.

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic asserts that

every integer greater than 1 can be factored in one and

only one way, apart from as the product of positive

prime numbers.

excepţie

cu excepţia The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and t

except for some sets of measure 0.

To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the

double integral in (6), after which all the integrals

except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate

change of variables.

exclude

se exclude The second of these possibilities is excluded, for r(x) is

in T.

exclude posibilitate This approach excludes the possibility of considering

the equations having solutions which belong to a more

general class of numbers.

exemplu Another example of the abstraction principle is the

Cantor definition of a real number.

Let us first look at some simple examples.

de exemplu For instance (or for example), the coefficient of

variation, CV, of size at division is typically 10% and

the CV of age at division is typically 20% or more.

As an example, let α=5 and β=1+2i.

prin exemple The nature of this problem can best be made plain by

examples.

We shall explain it by means of examples.

exemplu interesant We shall construct an interesting example of such a

process in this chapter.

exemplu tipic The polynomials Bn(t) are typical examples of

generalized Brownian functionals.

unele exemple Some other examples of fundamental sequences will

be given after the following lemma.

în calitate de exemplu As an example, consider the primitive polynomials

x2+3 and 3x2+7x-11.

exista

există limita With probability 1 there exists the limit

.

from the Kolmogorov's criterion.

explica

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 29 of 70

several examples.

pot fi explicate The variations are greater than can be accounted for

by chance.

pentru a explica Chance is unlikely to account for so great variations.

exponentul puterii A figure or a letter placed a little above and to the right

of a number is called an index, or an exponent, of the

power thus indicated.

expresie algebrică An expression composed of numbers, letters and signs

of algebraic operations and aggregation is called an

algebraic expression.

exprima

exprima ... prin ... To express the solution of equation (2) in terms of w

(t), it is sufficient to observe that w(t) satisfies equation

(3).

să exprim recunoştină I wish to express deep gratitude to O. A. Oleinik for

her valuable advice and her interest in my work.

expunere The exposition of mathematical subject is set forth in a

manner comprehensible not only to teachers and

students specializing in mathematics, but to all those

taking interest in mathematics and its applications.

extinde

va fi extinsă The definition of a stochastic integral will be further

extended to cover the alternating functions.

extindem ... asupra We now extend the definition of a stochastic integral to

a wider class of random processes.

de extins în cazul In §21 we show how to extend the basic definitions

and theorems to the case of distributions of infinite

order.

extinde rezultatele

de a extinde rezultatele The main purpose of this section is to extend the

results of the preceding section to the processes of a

continuous argument.

rezultatele pot fi extinse These results can be extended to all other cases.

extinderile noţiunii de As it is currently being recognized, similar extensions

of the notion of entropy are needed in the field of

biology.

extrage rădăcină patrată [cubică] To extract the square [cube] root of a number.

extragere a rădăcinei Evolution may be defined as the process of finding a

root of a number, or as the inverse of involution.

extremitate

cu extremităţi In every closed subinterval with ends a and b there is at

most a finite number of poles.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 30 of 70

F

face

de a face This helps to make the proofs of all the theorems

elementary and very simple.

făcând ... Making (or letting) n→∞ along the subsequence nk,

we have ...

să facem câteva observaţii Before presenting the main results, we want to make a

referitor few comments on the notion of entropy.

face de prisos The one-to-one correspondence established above

makes it unnecessary to distinguish between function

f(x) and distribution [f(x)].

face referinţă

de a face referinţă la To complete the proof, it is sufficient to refer to the

Cantor theorem on uniform continuity.

facem referinţă la For the proof of this theorem, we refer the reader to

Theorem 9.

poate să facă referinţă la For further information the reader is referred to

Chapter VI.

fals That such an impression is erroneous, we demonstrate

by exhibiting another simple class of "integers" for

which Theorem 8 is false.

familie (set) M is a collection (or family / set) of processes mt ,

t∈T.

fi

poate fi In case of right-continuity the condition (2) may be

replaced by the requirement (i).

fi de prisos

este de prisos In the theory of distributions a distinction between the

trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is

unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical

series is an expansion of a periodic distribution.

fi în relaţie

sunt în aşa relaţie încât When two variables are so related that the value of

the first variable is determined when the value of the

second variable is given, then the first variable is said

to be a function of the second.

fi în stare

suntem în stare We are now in a position to prove the fundamental

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 31 of 70

fi recunoscător ... pentru ...

sunt recunoscător ... I am particularly indebted to Miss Leila R. Raines for

pentru ... her painstaking assistance in the revision and

preparation of the manuscript for publication.

fie Put w=5.7.

Set v=t.

Let d be the smallest positive number in the set A.

Let G denote the set of all Gaussian integers, and J the

set of all rational integers.

acum fie Now set .

(t).

fie dat Given point A,construct point B symmetrical to the

given point A in relation to plane π.

Given any ε>0, we fix an index n0 such that

| fn(x) - f(x) |<ε for all n>n0.

fiecare

fiecare dintre care Let ξ1, ξ2, ..., ξn be a sequence of random variables

each of which is the sum of certain number of mutually

independent random variables.

pentru fiecare din M is the set of processes mt for each of which there

exists a random variable m such that ...

fix acelaşi Precisely the same proof is valid for Gaussian primes

provided only that we can find one prime.

fixa

vom fixa We fix some t∈S.

Fix k points -1 ≤ x1 < x2 < ... < xn ≤ 1.

fixat Indeed, let c>0 be an arbitrary fixed number.

este fixată A quantity whose value is fixed in any investigation is

called a constant.

folosi In the order to construct the solution to (2), we can use

(or utilize / make use of / apply / employ) relation

(12).

The reader can draw on the data from [4].

se foloseşte The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI

century.

This property is utilized (or exploited) in numerous

technical applicarions.

The term "information" is sometimes used (or applied)

to mean "data".

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 32 of 70

ne vom folosi acum de ... Let us now make use of the fact that the trajectory of

process is right-continuous.

font aldin The title should be printed in bold type.

forma

formează The numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., p-1 form a complete residue

system modulo p.

a forma ecuaţia to set up (or to formulate / to form / to write) the

equation

formalizare

în formalizarea When formalizing the notions of probability theory,

the first fundamental assumption is that the results of

the experiments can be described by means of a certain

set Ω.

formă

de formă The function η(t) also admits decomposition of the

form (4.3).

An integral of this form can be evaluated by

substitution.

în formă Write equation (3.2) as (or in the form) ...

în formă explicită To represent the solution of equation (12) explicitly, it

is necessary to solve equation (8) for u(t).

într-o formă concisă An equation that states a rule in a brief form is called a

formula.

într-o formă mai simplă More recently some of results were obtained in a

simplified form.

formula

să formulăm Let us formulate the conditions under which the

statement is valid.

formulare The new statement of the Fundamental Theorem is

this.

formulă

formula schimbului de

Apply now the change of variables formula to (1).

variabilă

formulă iniţială the assumption formula

funcţie

funcţii absolut continue The class of indefinite Lebesgue integrals of locally

integrable functions is the class of absolutely

continuous functions.

funcţie caracteristică EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to

unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω.

funcţie inversă the inverse function

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 33 of 70

G

garanta

garantează This condition ensures (or assures) the uniqueness of

the solution.

găsi

găsim From (5), (6) and (7), we find ...

se poate găsi The facts used below can be found in [5]-[7].

difficulties.

genera

generează Here w(t) denotes the process which generates the

current {Ft}.

generată Fs is a σ-algebra generated by the events {ξ(s)∈B}.

general

mai general More generally, if a sequence {fn(x)} converges almost

everywhere, then it converges also in a distributional

sense.

If the function f(x) is sectionally continuous, or, more

generally, if it is Riemann-integrable, equation (1) is

also true except of the points of discontinuities of f(x).

generaliza

pentru a generaliza To generalize the theorem, it is necessary to modify the

definition of convolution.

poate fi generalizat We now show how the method described above can be

extended to prove the existence of µ.

poate uşor fi generalizat Theorem 6 can be easily generalized.

generaliza ... pentru cazul Let us generalize equation (6) to the case under

discussion.

cazul multiplicative error.

generalizare Distributions are a generalization of functions.

grad

de gradul n pn(x) is a polynomial of degree n.

grupa

grupăm termenii asemenea To solve the equation 2x+x=12, unite (or group /

collect) similar terms in the first member to obtain 3x

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 34 of 70

x to be 4.

I

imediat Using Lemma 2 we can prove at once that G(u)

satisfies condition (ii).

It follows at once from 12.4 that ...

imita

vom imita In proving that Theorem 1.5 holds for the Gaussian

integers we shall imitate as far as possible the proof

already given for rational integers.

implica

această implică This implies the completeness of {hn} in L01[0,∞).

important

foarte important In applications the following theorem is of great

importance.

una din cele mai importante The concept of hierarchy is among the most

important in the theory of general systems.

importanţă The importance of the primes is due to the fact that,

together with 0 and ±1, all the other integers can be

constructed from them.

impresie falsă That such an impression is erroneous, we demonstrate

by exhibiting another simple class of "integers" for

which Theorem 8 is false.

impune

să impunem condiţii asupra In order that the solutions converge, we must impose

the following conditions on the coefficients of

equations (2).

include

include (ind. prez. 3 sg.) It is obvious that the set F includes the set of rational

numbers.

Equation (8) incorporates normal losses.

The dictionary contains (or includes) some

information about the appropriate use of collocations.

sunt incluse Some elements of artificial intelligence are now

incorporated in system.

inclusiv The function f(x,y) possesses bounded partial

derivatives up to the third order inclusive.

Let Ft be a σ-algebra of the events observed up to and

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 35 of 70

independent By a slight change in the method of [3] the reader can

easily prove the theorem by himself.

independent de Let θ be a random variable independent of the σ-

algebra.

This is true irrespective of whether E is a Hausdorff

space or not.

We can always do this, no matter how many points

from D are contained in the sphere S.

After each moment of regeneration the process X(t)

evolves independently of its past.

The distance between two points is the same

irrespective of the direction in which it is measured.

The function ex remains unaltered regardless of the

number of times it is differentiated.

mutual independente Let ξ1, ξ2, ..., ξn be a sequence of random variables

each of which is the sum of certain number of mutually

independent variables.

indica

indică că These results indicate (or suggest) that ...

indiferent

este indiferent It makes no difference whether we say that t is a

stopping time relative to {Ft} or {F't}.

imposibil

este imposibil But this is impossible for any pair of integers a and b is

in J.

It is impossible to represent 12 as m2 + n2.

Many of these questions are difficult if not impossible

to answer.

inducţie

după inducţie We shall prove the theorem by induction.

Define the random variables Mn inductively.

inducţie după k We shall prove the relation by induction in k.

infinit

la infinit The value of a function f(x) at infinity, written f(∞), is

the limit of this function as x →∞.

până la infinit to infinity

infinit mic

the infinitesimal (or the infinitesimal quantity / the

infinitely small quantity)

The limit distribution functions are determined by the

fact that they are the limits for sums of an increasing

number of independent random variables such that a

single summand becomes vanishingly small (or

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 36 of 70

iniţial The distribution of the initial vector converges

weakly to a limit as u→0.

The reader should be reminded that the initial value of

ν was chosen to be ν0=7.18.

structure of the process µ(P).

integra prin părţi to integrate by parts

integrală

integrală definită the definite integral

integrală improprie If g(x) is a locally integrable function and the

improper integral exists, then g(∞)=0

integrală nedefinită By an indefinite integral of a function f(x) we

understood each function ψ(x) such that ψ'(x) = f(x).

integrant the integrand (or the expression under the integral

sign)

integrare

după integrare Replacing x by x+t in (1), we have, after integration,

...

integrare prin părţi the integration by parts

interesant

este interesant de observat It is interesting to observe that the above formula

că remains true if the summation is understood according

to the method of arithmetic means.

intra

intră în This term appears in (or enters into) equation (9) in

parentheses.

care intră în ... The coefficient a*(x,s) entering into (or involved in)

the expression for I t can be assumed to be constant.

introduce

introducem Introduce the sequence {an}n ∈ N of positive numbers.

Allow sinu within the differential sign.

introducând Introducing 2n new variables ξi and ζi we deduced 2n

equations.

a fost introdusă The notion of distribution was introduced to

mathematics by S. Sobolyev in 1936.

sunt introduse Data are entered (or fed) into the computer from the

keyboard.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 37 of 70

intuitiv The model emerged from the intuition that the notions

of hierarchy, complexity, stability, and entropy were to

be very important.

inutil pentru If the coefficients of equation (2) do not satisfy the

Lipschitz condition, then the method of successive

approximations is unsuitable for the construction of

solutions.

invers Conversely, formula (6) defines a measurable linear

functional for any sequence of numbers (z,ek).

values of F(x) at a and b is not fulfilled, the equality

may be wrong.

The proof might have been arranged in a different way

if we had made no hypothesis about the value of G.

Î

în

în acest scop To this end, we establish first that there exists a

constant L such that ...

For this purpose (or with this object in view / with

this in mind), an attempt will be made to generalize

the notion of entropy.

în afară EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to

unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω.

în aplicaţii In applications we often come across the so-called

Heaviside function.

în aşa mod încât For the new distributions one can define addition,

subtraction, multiplication by a number or by a

function in such a manner that the fundamental

properties are preserved.

A variable x is said to vary continuously through an

interval [a,b] when x increases from a to b in such a

manner as to assume all the values between a and b in

the order of their magnitudes.

It follows from (1), (2) and (3) that the whole set is

decomposed into abstraction classes so that two

elements are in the same abstraction class if and only if

they are equivalent.

în concordanţă cu In accordance with the law of large numbers, a ≈ mξ

= x.

în conformitate cu In accordance with (or by) the law of large numbers,

a ≈ mξ = x.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 38 of 70

în fond Basically, the difficulty with establishing inequality (6)

is that ...

în grupe The cards may be processed singly or grouped (or in

groups).

în interior EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to

unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω.

All points of Ω lie in the interior of y2<d.

în întregime We will not attempt here to solve the problem in its

entirety.

Though the macroscopic properties of the cell

population as a whole follow a deterministic growth

law, the descriptors of individual ceils (such as size at

division and age at division) are highly variable.

The contents of this book may not be reproduced either

in whole or in part.

în loc de această Instead, we will assume that ...

în mare măsură The theory is based, to a large extent, on heuristic

considerations.

în realitate Actually, we shall prove somewhat more that we need

for the present.

în sfârşit Finally, to prove (5), suppose p is prime.

în spiritul The paper is written in the spirit of the Wilkinson's

error analysis.

în totalitate The graphs of these sequences do not intersect and in

totality there sequences absorb all jumps of the process

Z.

în totalitate The graphs of these sequences do not intersect and in

totality there sequences absorb all jumps of the process

Z.

în vigoare Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be

assumed to be in force.

în virtutea In view of Theorem V, the sequences from Example 2

converge.

By virtue of the basic assumptions, ...

Right-angle projection is most widely used because of

its comparative simplicity.

On account of the foregoing remark, the distributions

in the earlier sense can be identified with distributions

of finite order.

By 2.4, the limit of an(x) - gn(x) is also a polynomial of

degree less than l.

în caz In the case discussed above the left-hand side of (1)

can also interpreted as ...

în caz contrar

In the opposite case the point x0 is said to be singular.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 39 of 70

contrary to assumption.

în caz general This derivative is, in general, not a function, but a

distribution.

în caz particular In the special (or particular) case where α=1 equation

(3) can be solved explicitly.

In the specific case of Fig.12 the function B(u) has two

extrema.

în caz special In the special case where the L2-martingale is

continuous, the variation <M> will also be continuous.

în cazul acesta In this case ...

în cazul când In case where (or in the case when) a = 4k+3 equation

(2) assumes a more simple form.

In the case when measure µ is transferred from F into

a smaller space F0, the space F0 often turns out to be a

linear space.

în cazul considerat In the case under consideration the process α(t) is

continuous.

în cazul dacă In the case of a negative determinant a quadratic

equation has no roots.

în cazul limită In the limiting case the stochastic process ν(t)

becomes a constant.

în cazul mai sumplu In the simpler case where α=1 this relation takes the

form p=he2/3.

în acest caz particular In this particular case only one side of the triangle,

namely BC, has traces within the limits of the drawing.

în cel mai bun caz This problem has received at best only fragmentary

treatment.

în multe cazuri For many purposes (or in many cases / on numerous

occasions) we shall need the following assumption.

în mod

în mod analogic Analogously (or similarly / likewise), it is sometimes

useful consider only positive solutions to Eqn (17).

This theorem can be proved in much the same way (or

manner) as Theorem 1.

A similar argument yields ...

The plane passing through the vertex A and the vertex

C can likewise be constructed.

în mod arbitrar

The first term can be made arbitrarily small by an

appropriate choice of ε.

The variable, to which the values may be assigned at

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 40 of 70

The initial values of ξ and ζ may be chosen arbitrarily

(or at will).

în sens

în sens intuitiv Distributions may be, in an intuitive sense,

approximated by functions.

în sens larg The reader acquainted with the Lebesgue integrals can

interpret formula (1) in a still wider sense, viz. as the

equality almost everywhere.

în sens uzual A sequence of constant functions converges in the

distributional sense if and only if it converges in the

usual sense.

în sensul More generally, if a sequence {fn(x)} converges almost

everywhere, then it converges also in the distributional

sense.

This process is unique in the sense that if {Bt} is any

process with properties (1) through (4), then At=Bt for

every t.

în sensul că This process is unique in the sense that if {Bt} is any

process with properties (1) through (4), then At=Bt for

every t.

First of all, probabilistic methods are preferable in

biological studies in that they allow to take into

consideration the variability of the live matter.

în sensul larg in a broad (or wide / loose) sense

în sensul nou So α has n conjugate in the new sense, but m in the

old.

în sensul următor The converse holds in the following sense.

în sensul vechi Sequences fundamental in the earlier sense are

equivalent in the new sense if and only if they are

equivalent in the earlier sense.

So α has n conjugates in the new sense, but m in the

old.

într-un anumit sens A minimal, in some sense, current is obtained if one

observes nothing else, but the process ξ(t) itself.

Here the solution is a non-decreasing function of the

drift coefficients and, in a sense, of the jump functions.

înainta

a fost înaintată A new theory has been put forward this year.

We were informed that a new idea had been advanced

at the closing session.

înainta o ipoteză to advance a hypothesis

încă Many roadblocks must still be overcome before all the

subgroups of G are described.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 41 of 70

including additional data in the computation.

In order to improve the estimates still further,

additional data should be included in the computation.

încă unul Let us formulate one further assumption.

To conclude, consider one more example.

începe

vom începe cu To find the sum of the series, we start from the known

formula (1).

se începe Each command begins with a forward slash (/).

început

de la început We first establish the necessity of the condition.

First let us define ...

încheia demonstrarea

pentru a încheia

To complete the proof, it suffices to observe that ...

demonstrarea

îndoială

fără îndoială Undoubtedly (or without a doubt), the introduction of

the theory ...

îndrepta atenţia

vom îndrepta atenţia asupra Let us take note of the fact that the portions of the

straight lines A1A2 and A3A2 are equal.

înlocui

este înlocuit F∞ is replaced by Ft if t∈[0,T ].

poate fi înlocuit prin The integer k can be, if necessary, replaced by any

greater integer.

înlocuit ... prin Replacing in (2) α by β and afterwards x by αx we

obtain ...

înlocui a prin b to replace a with (or by) b

to substitute b for a

to change a for b

se poate de înlocuit In case of right-continuity the condition (2) may be

replaced by the requirement (3).

putem înlocui prin In the definition of the mth derivative we can replace

the polynomials pn(x) by functions fn(x).

însemna

înseamnă A(C) denotes the completion of B(C) with respect to

µν.

va înseamna

The letter M, with subscripts, will denote positive

constants.

'ln' signifies the natural logarithm.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 42 of 70

is to be multiplied by c.

In this equation X stands for the velocity to be found.

The subscript i identifies the number of the group.

această înseamnă că This means that a is different from any of a1, a2, ...,

an.

întâmpina dificultăţi

întâmpinăm dificultăţi If we try to apply the principle of unique factorization

to negative integers, we encounter an obvious

difficulty in the possible presence of minus signs in the

factors.

întoarce

ne întoarcem We turn to the proof of the theorem.

între We can restrict the variable so that it takes on only

values lying between a and b.

Denoting by p(x) the polynomial within (or between)

the signs | | on the left-hand side of (3), we can

write ...

întreaba

se întreabă It is asked what properties the limit distribution

function must possess.

întrebare considerată These ideas can bring advantages in attacking the

problem under consideration, over the usual theories.

întrece

care nu întrece The distribution δ2π(x) is the derivative of the function

E(x/2π), where the symbol E(a) denotes the greatest

integer not exceeding a.

înţelege Practically it suffices to understand integrability in the

sence of Riemann or of Lebesgue.

înţelegem By the integral of the P-measurable function f we mean

the Lebesgue-Stiltjes integral.

prin ... vom înţelege ... By the product of a distribution f(x) = [fn(x)] by a

number λ we understand the distribution [λfn(x)].

By an indefinite integral of f(x) we mean a function of

the form (2).

prin ... se înţelege A current is understood to be an increasing family of

σ-algebras such that ...

înţelegere profundă This information is needed for a fundamental

understanding of (or a deep insight into) the

properties of ...

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 43 of 70

J

jos

mai jos The operations introduced below will be identical with

the usual operations on functions.

de mai jos The definitions given below are for the processes

defined on R+.

juca un rol

va juca un rol decisiv The following fact will play a decisive role in the

proof.

joacă un rol important The class of normal functionals plays an important

role from the viewpoint of the causal calculus.

just Let us formulate the conditions under which the

statement is valid (or true).

L

la fel

la fel ca în cazul This is proved in the same manner as in the case of

discrete-argument submartingales.

la fel ca şi But then we could proceed from the pair (x,y) to a

still smaller pair in the same way as from (x1, y1) to

(x2, y2).

lăsa

lăsăm The rest we leave to the reader.

va fi lăsată cititorului The slight change in the original proof which is

needed here will be left to the reader.

lega

este legat de The estimation of ν runs into (or entails) great

difficulties.

limita

ne vom limita la

Not striving for the greatest generality, we shall

confine ourselves to he study of martingales with

continuous characteristics.

In this section, we shall restrict our attention to

integration over processes µ(t) with continuous

characteristics.

For the present we shall content ourselves with

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 44 of 70

the sets G and H.

We will first confine our attention to

discrete-parameter supermartingales.

We will restrict ourselves to the simplest case of

λ=0.

este limitată de Accuracy is limited only by that of the original data.

ne vom limita la cazul We shall restrict ourselves, in this paper,

to the case ...

limită

în limită In the limit, as n→∞, the last term in (8) vanishes.

limită inferioară de integrare the lower limit of an integral

limită superioară de integrare the upper limit of an integral

literal In the term 4x2y the numerical multiplier of the

literal part is the coefficient.

lua în consideraţie

luăm în consideraţie If we consider (or take into consideration) that the

series is a series of positive terms, we have ...

fără a lua în consideraţie ... The analysis has been made without reference (or

without regard) to heat losses.

Regardless of the last term which is sufficiently

small, equation (9) may be solved in radicals for x.

dacă se ia în consideraţie că The statement becomes apparent when it is

considered (or if it is remembered) that ...

The statement becomes apparent when it is

considered (or taken into account) that ...

trebuie de luat în consideraţie One should keep in mind (or it should be kept in

că mind / it should be remembered) that the partial

sums of the series (2.2) are the Fourier transforms of

functions Bn(t).

figurate] braces]

M

mai

mai ales This chapter deals mainly (or chiefly /

predominantly) with semigroups.

mai mic decât Now p is in T and has norm less than N(π).

mai mult ca atât Moreover, every solution of (9) may be represented in

the form (3).

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 45 of 70

mai mult decât ... Over (or more than) two thousand scientists took part

in the 1st World Congress.

mai multe ... decât The set B contains much more elements than the set

A.

The set B contains twice as many elements as the set

A.

margine

margine inferioară exactă the greatest lower bound

margine superioară exactă the least upper bound

matematică

matematică aplicată applied mathematics

matemitică finită Finite mathematics is considered as superior tool to

use, over differential equations.

matematică pură pure mathematics

In order to achieve this, we shall need some material

material

from elementary number theory.

material bogat despre This volume presents a wealth of material on

stochastic integrals.

matrice inversă the inverse matrix

maxim We denote by xmax the point at which the function f(x)

has a maximum (or is at its maximum).

maximum Any polinomial of degree n ≥ 1 has at most n distinct

roots.

We shall make the most (or the best use) of the

notation proposed by Dynkin in [8].

mărgini

putem mărgini We can restrict the variable so that it shall take on

only values lying between a and b.

mărginit The sequence gn(x)=1/(1+e-nx ) is bounded by number

1.

mărimea erorii The investigation of the magnitude of this error is

connected with profound properties of the geometry of

numbers.

membru al ecuaţiei (parte a Any term may be transposed from one member (or

ecuaţiei) side) of equation to the other, provided its sign is

changed.

menţiona

în primul rând trebuie de The first thing to notice is a wide variety of concepts

menţionat of entropy in the scientific literature.

menţionăm

We note that any arbitrary subset of Ω is called an

event.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 46 of 70

vom menţiona că It should be observed here that this definition of

equality is usually adopted in the theory of the

Lebesgue integral.

metoda aproximărilor succesive the method of successive approximations

minuţios The results reported by Dr. Evans need thoroughly be

checked.

modifica

puţin modificând We shall modify slightly the definition of ...

modificând puţin metoda By a slight change in the method of (3) the reader

can easily prove the theorem by himself.

modificare a metodei This is a modification (or an adaption) of the

method of steepest descent.

moment

din acest moment From now on, we assume B to be a complete

separable metric space.

From this time on, the density function decreases.

până la momentul Define the σ-field of events prior to a moment (or a

time / an instant) τ as

including the moment t.

până la acest moment Up till now no assumptions have been imposed

concerning the convergence of ψ(t).

în momentul t în punctul x Let a(t,x) be a velocity of the particle at time t at

point x.

multiplu Twelve is a multiple of three.

multiplu întreg 12.6 is a whole (or an integer) multiple of 4.2.

mulţime

mulţime de măsură 0 The σ-algebra A is generated by the P-null sets.

mulţime dintr-un singur We will assume in the future that the σ-algebra, N,

element contains all single-element sets.

N

neajuns To appreciate the demerits (or disadvantages) of the

theory, to observe that ...

neapărat

nu neapărat

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 47 of 70

Let α(t) be an increasing (but not necessarily adapted)

integrable process.

necesar Hence one of the factors of f(x) necessarily has the

same degree as g(x).

necesară We are going to show that the function F(x) has the

required property.

este necesar In some problems of the filtering theory, it is necessary

to work with Wiener processes on R.

este necesar ca In order that two triangles be congruent, it is necessary

that two angles of the first triangle be equal,

correspondingly, to those of the second triangle.

necesar pentru ca G(x) is the time needed for a cell to grow from size a to

size x.

necesitate By Theorem 2.1 it suffices to prove the necessity.

necunoscut the unknown

the unknown quantity

the sought-for (or the desired) quantity

A number whose value is to be found is called an

unknown number.

cu două necunoscute Thus we obtained an equation in two unknowns.

nedescrescător The comparison theorem for diffusion equations asserts

that the solution of these equations is a non-decreasing

function of the drift coefficient.

nici

nici o ... a cărei Let be p-dimensional cycles, no linear combination

of which is homologous to zero.

nici un No s∈D is an element of Γ.

nici ... No linear combination of is homologous to zero.

nici ..., nici ... The number 0 is neither positive nor negative.

nota

vom nota We denote by Λ the set of all points of discontinuity of

F(x).

să notăm prin Let us denote by C the completion of S in this norm

and by C* the corresponding conjugate space.

Denote the points by P1, P2, ..., Pn.

este notat prin The area of the triangle FGH is denoted by S.

This volume is designated as V.

sunt notate prin Variables are denoted usually by the later letters of the

alphabet.

pentru a nota The symbol f(x) is used to denote a function of x.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 48 of 70

where

ψ'(x) = f(x).

The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI

century.

The following designations are used: α=1/a, β=c/a,

and γ=b/a.

notaţie standardă the standard notation

noţiune When formalizing the notions of probability theory,

the first fundamental assumption is that the results of

experiments can be described by means of a certain set

Ω.

noţiuni şi definiţii de bază basic concepts and definitions

nu The line L does not intersect A or B.

Last time we were not appealing to Theorem 7.

But nothing in this definition indicates from whence

the class [x] is obtained.

This shows that this method cannot give all solutions

of the equation.

It is not a mere academic exercise to pick out the cases

of equality in such an inequality as Gronwall's.

Never did mathematicians worry much about the

foundations in algebra.

If there is no such ξ, we write max f = ∞.

nu ..., ci ... Thus we need not 8, but 9 parameters to describe the

system.

numeraţie roman The Roman system uses seven capital letters to

express numbers, viz.: I(1), V(5), X(10), L(50), C(100),

D(500), and M(1000).

numai We must prove that the two factorizations differ at

most in the order in which the primes appear.

Only then we can proceed to the limit in (14).

It was not until the beginning of this century that the

Euclidean geometry became completely axiomatized.

This fact was not known until 1947.

The process X(t) depends solely on u(t) and is

independent of µ(t) and ω(t).

Algebraic means alone is not sufficient to prove the

fundamental theorem of algebra.

nu numai In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only

the numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must

be given whenever the rule is applied.

These factorizations differ not merely in the order of

the factors, but in the factors themselves.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 49 of 70

număr

număr întreg A unit or an aggregate of units is called a whole

number, or an integer.

număr la cub A number a3 is read 'the cube of a', or 'the third

power of a'.

număr la pătrat A number a2 is read 'the square of a', or 'the second

power of a'.

numi

vom numi Let 1 and -1 be called units.

We shall call r the radius of the set D.

se numeşte Such an instant of time is called (or is termed) a

random time.

Occasionally it is referred to as a random variable

independent of the future, as a Markov moment or as a

stopping time.

se va numi Occasionally a stopping time is referred to as a

random time.

The method will be termed the method of imbedding.

This portion of the curve will be called (or be named)

the stable section.

O

oare We don't know whether the limit law exists for such a

process.

If f(x) and g(x) are locally integrable functions, then the

symbol f(x)+g(x) has the same meaning whether we

interpret them as functions or as distributions.

obişnuit In the case where the distribution is a function, this

definition coincides with the usual one.

observa

observaţi că Notice that U is not unique.

se observă că It may be noted that the problem lies actually in

finding an α such that M(t) ≤ Cα for all t.

To prove 2o, observe that ...

Observe that s is not uniquely determined.

Note that for s<t .

este util de observat că It is useful to remark that the integer k which occurs

in the definition of fundamental sequences can be, if

necessary, replaced by any greater integer.

de la început observăm că Observe first that ...

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 50 of 70

large numbers, a ≈ mξ = x.

It should be noted that R(t) is almost everywhere

nonzero.

obţine

obţinem Identifying equivalent oriented segments we obtain the

notion of free vector.

Hence, by the induction hypothesis, we infer that

a1=...=an=0.

Thus we arrive at a factorization m=p1p2...pn, where

each pi is positive and prime.

se obţine This function is obtained by application to expression

(4) a nonlinear differential operator Π.

obţine forma In this case equation (7) becomes (or takes the form /

assumes the form) ...

obţinem în rezultat After k similar steps we finally obtain ...

obţine valori Let f(x,t) take on (or assume) values in Rm.

ocupa

ocupă poziţie în spaţiu Two lines may occupy the following relative positions

in space: 1) they may be parallel, 2) they may be

intersect or, 3) not intersect.

ocupă un loc special The prime numbers occupy a special position among

integers.

omite

putem omite

Since and n > 200, we may drop the

last term on the right of (19).

omitem It would take us too far afield to give a proof of this

theorem, so we omit it and content ourselves with

demonstrating some applications of the theorem.

este omis The proof is omitted here.

operaţie

operaţii aritmetice asupra It follows immediately from the definition of

convergence that the arithmetic operations on limits

of sequences of distributions can be performed in the

same way as on sequences of functions.

operaţie inversă Evolution may be defined as the process of finding a

root of a number, or as the inverse of involution.

Division is the inverse of multiplication.

ordine

în ordine aleatoare Numbers may be added in any order.

ordinea integrării To prove this, interchange the order of integration in

the double integral in (6).

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 51 of 70

oricare n-ar fi Whatever (or no matter what) t (may be), one can

always find a sufficiently large N to satisfy the

inequality ζN>t.

orice

pentru orice For each ω∈Ω, the function τ→Ξτ(ω) is called the

sample path.

For every number ε>0 there exists an index n0 such

that | am - an |<ε for all m, n>n0.

P

pagină

la pagina Powell's carrier distribution, C(τ) on page 245, is our

distribution fm(T).

paranteză

în paranteze When numbers are collected by the sign of aggregation

( ), they are commonly said to be in parentheses.

The expression between (or in) the brackets is

precisely the Laplace transform of the function ϕ*(t).

paranteze rotunde [patrate, The signs of aggregation are the parentheses (), the

figurate] brackets [] and the braces {}.

paranteze pot fi deschise When an expression contains parentheses within

parentheses, the parentheses may be removed in

succession, beginning with the innermost.

parcurge

parcurge valorile If x goes through the values 1, 2, ..., p-1, then, by

Theorem 2, ax goes through a complete residue system

modulo p, excepting 0.

parte

parte componentă An integral part of the creative approach to the

problem under consideration is the analysis of its

similarity to and difference from the analogous

problems.

parte dreaptă The right-hand side of equation (12).

parte întreagă The integer (or whole) part of a real number is the

greatest integer not exceeding the number.

parte stângă The left-hand side (or member) of equation (12).

partea fracţionară The fractional part of 5.6 is 0.6.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 52 of 70

în partea dreaptă The term on the right-hand side (or on the right) of

(12) vanishes as k→∞.

în partea stângă The term on the left-hand side (or on the left) of Eqn

(12) vanishes as k→∞.

pe de altă parte On the other hand, if [fn(x)] = f(x), then the first two

conditions of Theorem 1 are satisfied.

partiţie Let tk, k =1, ..., m, be a partition of the interval (s,t)

into subintervals of equal length.

patrat al numărului When a is used twice as a factor, the product is the

second power of a, or the square of a.

păstra

păstrează Absolute constants retain the same value in all

problems.

vom păstra Since distributions are a generalization of the notion of

functions, we shall retain for them the usual notation

of functions, i.e., f(x), g(x), etc.

sunt păstrate For the new distributions one can define addition,

subtraction, multiplication by a number or by a function

in such a manner that the fundamental properties are

preserved.

primi

fi primit It should be observed that this definition of equality is

usually adopted in the theory of the Lebesgue

integrals.

The height of the triangle is taken to be 12m.

pentru

pentru aceasta For this purpose we select first the Gaussian integers.

To this end it suffices for the first term in (1) to have

the distribution F(x) and for the others to be zero with

probability 1.

pentru ca In order that the last property be valid, it is sufficient

that ...

In order to achieve this, we shall need some material

from elementary number theory.

To formulate the corresponding result, we consider the

following conditions which are the strengthened

versions of conditions of Theorem 8.

pentru care It is therefore reasonable to ask for which classes of

"integers" the fundamental theorem holds, and for

which it does not.

pentru comoditate For convenience we define a continuous locally

increasing process to be an adapted process which has

properties (1) through (4).

pentru nici un The function cannot be constructed for any value of x.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 53 of 70

of particles at height x above a horizontal barrier.

periodică cu perioada We say that a function f(x) is periodic with a period α,

if f(x+α) = f(x).

peste By the Eisenstein's criterion the polynomial xn-2 is

irreducible over the field of rational numbers.

peste tot The function H(p(x)) is everywhere equal to 0.

peste tot densă To determine IT (Ft), it is sufficient to describe the

everywhere dense set IT2(Ft).

approach to the problem.

probabilitate

cu probabilitatea With probability 1 there exists the limit

.

form (6).

poseda

posedă The derivative F'(x) has the value 0 at the point 0.

The stochastic integral (4) possesses finite moments up

to the (2m)th order inclusive.

posedă o proprietate The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and

t.

We are going to prove that the limits

exist and the function F(x) has the required property.

posibil

posibilă To avoid possible confusion, we shall use this

notation ...

The error, if any, will be allowed for by visual

estimation.

este posibil ca It is possible that the ordinary derivative does not

exist, although the distributional derivative has a value

at this point.

este întotdeauna posibil de This we can always do by choosing s and t as rational

făcut integers nearest to A and B respectively.

practic Practically it suffices to understand integrability in the

sense of Riemann or of Lebesgue.

precedent

precedentă

On account of the foregoing remark, the distributions

in the earlier sense can be identified with distributions

of finite order.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 54 of 70

nivele precedente Here X(t) is the number of paths, by which we go from

the preceding levels of a hierarchy to the new level t.

precum şi Using this technique we can calculate the phase as well

as the amplitude of the process at time t.

preliminar I think that my project is only tentative and subject to

continuous revision as the work makes a progress.

presupune

se presupune că It is assumed that σ-algebra F0 is completed by all P-

null sets.

All stochastic processes considered in this book will be

assumed to be measurable.

{Ft} is assumed to be right-continuous.

vom presupune că We assume that F*G=H, the operation * being

defined by F*G=RS, where R=TV.

Suppose Xt is a continuous process.

Suppose that the theorem is true for k-1.

Suppose the conclusion of the theorem to be true for

all f(x) of degree between 0 and n-1 inclusive.

presupunem contrariul Suppose the contrary.

presupunere

presupunerea că In defining K(x) we have made use of our assumption

that b(x)=0 for x<a.

This equation contradicts the assumption that G

contains points not belonging to D.

presupunerea conform cărei The assumption under which formula (10) is valid

can be somewhat weakened.

presupuneri sunt făcute The following assumptions are made concerning the

random process ξ(t): 1) the process is Ft-adapted and 2)

it satisfies condition (1).

Up till now no assumptions have been imposed

concerning the convergence of ϕn(t).

prezenta în forma

poate fi prezentat în forma Any potential ζt can be represented in the form ...

prezenta un interes

prezintă un interes Of interest also are the induced statistics.

The results have encouraged (or aroused) a more

serious interest in precision methods of control.

va prezenta un interes I hope this paper will be of interest to you.

prezintă un interes aparte To prove the existence of <a,a>t, the following lemma,

which is of interest in its own right, will be required.

care prezintă un mare Another theoretical approach of great interest consists

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 55 of 70

fitness.

prin

prin alegere This we can always do by choosing s and t as rational

integers nearest to A and B respectively.

probabil

puţin probabil These conditions are unlikely to occur in practice.

probabilist There is presented below a glossary translating set-

theoretic notions into probabilistic notions.

problemă de bază We are now in a position to state the basic problem of

algebraic number theory.

proces coordonat A random process ξ(t), t ≥ 0, is said to be adapted to a

current of σ-algebras {Ft}t 0 if for every t the random

≥

variable ξ(t) is Ft-measurable.

provine

provine de la The word 'school' has its origin in the Greek word

'schole' meaning 'leisure'.

provin de la The arithmetic symbols were derived from the Arabs

and the Hindus.

punct

în punct The function has no a

derivative at the point 0.

în puncte Such an identification can be extended to a wider class

of functions which have the poles at some points and

are locally integrable elsewhere.

punct ce se mişcă dea-lungul In the equation of straight line x and y are

the variable coordinates of a point moving along the

line.

punct de vedere

din punct de vedere logic From the logical point of view, this generalization is

exactly of the same type as the generalization of

rational numbers in the Cantor theory.

din punct de vedere practic Several other functions, very useful from the practical

point of view, are considered in the following section.

punct de referinţă Here the starting point is the notion of fundamental

sequences of rational numbers.

Approximation is our starting point for the definition

of distributions.

pune în corespondenţă

operatorul pune în The operator θ, assigns to (or associates with) any

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 56 of 70

este pusă în corespondenţă A probability is assigned to each outcome.

purta numele

poartă numele It is instructive to study the Ito's method of defining the

stochastic integral that now bears his name.

putea

nu putem If n=1, we cannot impose this condition.

nu se poate If n=1, this condition cannot be discarded.

As regards the solution of equation (3), it may not be

argued that it satisfies Condition 2.

puterea a n-a a numărului If a is used n times as a factor, the product is called the

nth power of the number.

puţin This definition will be somewhat generalized below.

The assumption under which formula (10) is valid can

be somewhat weakened.

R

raţionament There are doubtful points in the above reasoning.

Following the argument of N. N. Bautin, we can

now easily show that ...

raţiona

raţionând analogic Reasoning similarly we convince ourselves that the

solution to Eqn (7) is also unique.

raţionând ca Reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 7, we can

prove, under suitable assumptions, that relation (1)

holds for s>Nα.

rădăcină

rădăcină cubică din 2 is the third, or cube, root of 8.

rădăcină de ordinul n din indicates the nth root of a.

rădăcină din număr When the factors of a number are all equal, any of

the factors is called the root of the number.

rădăcină patrată din 5 is the square root of 25.

rămânea

rămâne It therefore remains only to verify that At is

uniformly integrable.

Much remains to be done in this area.

This relation remains valid when one passes from

functions to their differentials.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 57 of 70

particular system considered that an equilibrium

actually exists and is stable.

rămâne în vigoare Theorem 4 and Lemma 9.5 remain true.

This result holds true if we proceed from the group

G to any of its subgroups.

răspuns The answer to the question must be postponed until

later.

reaminti

reamintim Because of its great importance in this book, we

recall the definition of a normal distribution.

reaminteşte că The reader is reminded that the conjugates over F

of a number α algebraic over F are the roots of the

minimal polynomial of α over F.

trebuie de reamintit că It should also be recalled that R(t) is almost

everywhere nonzero.

reciproc

şi reciproc Equal chords cut off equal arcs, and the converse.

reduce

reduce la This fact reduces the construction of the solution to

(2) to that of a process such that

is a martingale.

This investigation amounts (or boils down) to

finding the operator Uγ such that Uγµ=UγUµ.

reduce termenii asemenea

reducem termenii asemenea To solve the equation 2x+x = 12, unite (or group /

collect) similar terms in the first member to obtain

3x and then divide both members by 3 to find the

value of x to be 4.

referi

se referă la The Henry's Law refers only to the effect of

pressure.

nu se referă la Evidently the Einstein's restriction does not apply to

the case under consideration.

care se referă We now state a number of results concerning

ordinary differential equations.

ceea ce se referă As regards (or in regard to / in respect to) the

solution of equation (3), it may not be argued that it

satisfies Condition 2o.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 58 of 70

regulă The rule for differentiation of a product.

The rule for the change of variables in integral

calculus.

relativ As regards (or in regard to / in respect to) the

solution of Eqn (3), it may not be argued that it

satisfies Condition 2.

The process ξ(t-) is a supermartingale with respect

to the family of σ-algebras (Ft-) t≥0.

Given point A, construct point B symmetrical to the

given point A in relation to plane Π.

For the present we content ourselves with

demonstrating the assertions just made concerning

the sets G and H.

relativ la In relation to Ω, an experiment is completely

characterized by a certain class of events.

remarca

este cazul de a remarca It is relevant to remark that the diffusion

corresponds to the increase of entropy.

repeta

poate fi repetată This procedure can be repeated with q2, q3, ... until

all the prime factors on one side are exhausted.

repetată The repeated application of this procedure proves

the assertion.

reprezenta

reprezentat în formă Any potential ζt can be represented in the form (3).

poate fi reprezentată în formă By the well-known Weierstrass approximation

theorem, every distribution can be represented in

the form [pn(x)], where pn(x) are polynomials.

de a reprezenta ... ca ... To prove this statement, it suffices to present the

integral as a limit of

restrânge generalitate

fără a restrânge generalitate

We shall also assume, without restricting the

generality, that z0=s0=0.

We can assume, without any restriction of

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 59 of 70

sequence {bk} convergent to b0.

In our discussion we may assume, without loss of

generality, that M is a subset of the set of natural

numbers.

restricţie With this additional restriction the problem just

posed received an exhaustive solution in the papers

of Bawty and Khinchin.

a rezolva ecuaţia în raport cu x

to solve the equation for x explicitly [implicitly]

explicit [implicit]

rezolva în raport cu x to solve for x

rezolvare

la rezolvare problemei It is convenient, in solving problems, to use letters

for the numbers which are sought.

rezulta

rezultă din The result follows from the induction hypothesis.

The term R/n results from the Bohr theory.

Much of the utility of the theorem stems from the

properties of the binomial coefficients.

rezultă imediat The proof follows immediately if we observe that ...

rezultă nemijlocit Since u(t) is continuous, it follows at once that x(u

(t),t) satisfies condition (ii).

această rezultă din This results from the following lemma.

This follows from the fact that e πi/2 = i.

din cele spuse rezultă că From what has been said it follows that ...

It follows from what has been said that T>0 almost

surely on the set B.

din ... rezultă că It follows from (1), (2), and (3) that the whole set is

decomposed into abstraction classes without

common elements so that two elements are in the

same abstraction class if and only if they are

equivalent.

de aici rezultă că From this it follows that A is consistently defined

except on a P-null set.

This implies that ...

It follows from this that ...

It follows that R(s) is a commutative ring.

nemijlocit rezultă din It follows directly from the definition that ...

This assertion follows immediately from relation

(2).

ridica

ridica la puterea n to raise to the nth power

ridica un număr la cub to cube a number

ridica un număr la patrat to square a number

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 60 of 70

ridicarea la putere

number is called involution.

S

satisface

se satisfac condiţiile Condition (4) is equivalent to the following

conditions being satisfied.

sau ..., sau Since a satisfies (1), we have that either a=1 or a=p-

1.

schimb

schimb de variabilă Relation (8) follows from the general rule of the

change (or the substitution) of variables in integral

calculus.

schimb de variabilă la

the change of a variable in integration

integrare

schimba

schimbăm ordinea de To prove this, interchange the order of integration

integrare in the double integral in (6).

fără a schimba The introduction of locally integrable allows us to

strengthen Lemma 6.8 without changing its proof.

este schimbat semnul Any term may be transposed from one member of

equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.

schimbare

schimbare mică A slight change in the original proof will be left to the

reader.

schimbarea ordinii de The main point of the proof is to justify the

integrare interchange of the order of integration in (8.4).

fără schimbări With this transform the first term in (4) vanishes,

whereas the last one remains unaltered (or

unchanged).

scoate în afară parantezelor

scoatem în afară parantezelor Now factor out of the expression in parentheses the

largest positive factor common to all the bi.

Now take the largest positive factor out of the

brackets.

scop (obiectiv) The purpose (or objective) of this monograph is to

make available elementary parts of classical algebraic

number theory.

The aim of this section is to define the stochastic

integral for a wider class of predictable integrands

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 61 of 70

scopul acestei lucrări The purpose of this paper is to present the

elementary exposition of the theory of distributions.

scopul constă în ... The purpose of introducing real numbers is to make it

always possible to carry out certain operations, e.g.,

the evaluation of roots or logatithms.

scrie

se poate de scris în formă The function F(x) can be written in the form ...

putem scrie Then we can write for the division-size density

function (up to a normalization factor)

.

scriind Writing down these inequalities for n, n+1, ..., n+m

and adding them we obtain the estimation ...

vom scrie Write down the coordinates of the points A, B and C.

If there is no such G, we write max f = 0.

scriem ... în formă Write the equation as (or in the form) (2).

scriere

în scrierea In writing numbers, the figures are separated into

groups of three figures each, called periods.

semn

cu semn opus Subtracting any number is equivelent to adding it with

its sign changed (or with reversal of its sign).

semnul opus The numbers +2 and -2 have unlike signs.

The number -2 is opposite in sign to +2.

sub semnul The products under the sign of Σ are the products of

continuous functions.

sub semnul integralei under the integral sign

sens In the last formula the symbol 0 has two different

meanings: on the left-hand side it denotes the number

zero and on the right-hand side the zero distribution.

serie absolut [condiţional]

the absolutely [conditionally] convergent series

convergentă

sfat I wish to express gratitude to O. A. Oleinik for her

valuable advice.

similar Progressive measurability of an S-valued process is

defined similarly.

Reasoning similarly, we convince ourselves that the

solution to Egn (17) is also unique.

similar ca The definition is the same as the one given above, but

with R instead of [0,T ].

simplifica

simplificăm Simplify 4a-(2a-2b).

simplifică Thus the introduction of distributions makes the

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 62 of 70

calculation easier.

pentru a simplifica To simplify the equation, make the substitution

u=2x2-1.

poate fi simplificată This equation can be simplified by the substitution

u=2x2-1.

simplifica fracţie prin a To reduce the fraction by the factor a.

simplifica prin

putem simplifica prin We can divide out (p-1)! from each side to obtain the

conclusion.

sistem

sistem de notaţii the system of notation

sistem zecimal The Arabic system, which is a decimal system,

employs ten figures to express numbers, viz.: naught,

one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, and nine.

situa

situate aproape This quantity may take on any values, however closely

spaced.

slăbi

putem slăbi Hence, we can weaken condition ϕ in the following

way.

pentru a slăbi restricţiile The aim of this section is to define the stochastic

referitor ... integral for a wider class of predictable integrands

and, at the same time, to relax the restrictions on M.

soluţie

soluţie unică Equation (7) has a unique solution.

spaţiu

spaţiu de stări A function ξ:Ω→S is called an S-valued stochastic

process and S is called the state space of ξ.

spaţiu metric separabil C (R+) can be regarded as a complete separable

complet metric space under the topology of uniform

convergence.

spaţiu-fază The values of ξ(t) are sometimes called the states of a

stochastic system Σ and the space S, the phase space

of the system Σ.

specifica

cum a fost specificat mai sus As has been stated (or specified) above, the

functions pm(x) defined by (1.6) are bounded.

dacă nu este specificat

contrariul We agree to assume, unless otherwise specified, that

all processes are adapted.

Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 63 of 70

assumed to be in force.

spune

spune (ind. prez. 3 sg.) The principle of mathematical induction says: "If P is

true ..."

The second law states (or reads): "If the same current

flows ..."

The theory holds (or states) that ...

Stated in a simple form, the hypothesis runs as

follows.

se spune If conditions (i) and (ii) are also fulfilled, then the

current is said to satisfy the 'ordinary' conditions.

vom spune If the members of a pair are equal, say to a, then

a2=1 (mod p).

vom spune că ... We shall say that two integers a and b are relatively

prime if they share no factors except ± 1.

spunând The function F is, so to say, the optimal cost of the

continuation of control.

spunând mai exact To put it more exactly, ...

din cele spuse mai sus From what has been outlined (or said) above the

following conclusions may be drawn.

stabili

stabileşte This requirement places (or sets) the upper limit on

the admissible error.

stabilim We first establish the necessity of the condition.

a fost stabilit This fact was ascertained (or established) from

experience.

a fost stabilită The average value was found to be 16 ± 3.

de a stabili condiţii Theorem 1.6 allows to lay down the conditions under

which the solutions to equations (6) are continuous in

parameter z.

strict Approximations, strictly defined, is our starting point

for the definition of distributions.

studia

studiat The experiments studied in probability theory are

carried out when a certain set of conditions Y is

satisfied.

substitui

substituim For this we make the substitution t-x=s.

substituind ... în Substituting these numbers into (or in) (1), we find

that ...

substitui a cu b to make the substitution of b for a

to carry out the change of a for b

substituţia b cu a the substitution of b for a

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 64 of 70

suficient de mare Whatever t may be, one can always find a sufficiently

large N such that ...

Now ECt < ε/2, if n is taken large enough.

suficient de mic The term can be made sufficiently small

by makingthe partition of the interval [0,T ] fine

enough.

este suficient By theorem 2.1, it suffices to prove the necessity.

este suficient de arătat că ... It suffices to show that if α is a Gaussian integer, so

is β and hence α+β.

este suficient de spus că ... Suffice it to say that ...

It suffices to say that ...

It is enough to say that ...

este suficient pentru ca In order that the series (1) of independent random

variables converge, it is sufficient that the series (2)

and (3) converge.

pentru această este suficient To this end it suffices for the first term in (1) to have

ca the distribution F(x) and for the others to be zero with

probability 1.

suma parţială

A series is said to be convergent if the

sequence of its partial sums fn(x) = g1(x) + ... + gn(x)

converges.

sumar A survey of the general theory of stochastic processes

can be found in [4].

supune

se supune legii The distribution of errors adheres to the law of

probability.

The kinetics of the system obey (or follow) the ideal

gas law.

se supune ecuaţiei It the coefficients on the right of (2) satisfy the

Lipschitz condition, then the function w(t) obeys the

equation (3.1).

The equilibrium distribution of particles in a

gravitational field adheres to (or is governed by) the

Boltzmann equation.

sus

mai sus It is easy to see that the relation of equivalence defined

above has the following properties.

de mai sus

The integral is well-defined in

The definition is the same as the one given above, but

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 65 of 70

T

tăia

taie Equal chords cut off equal arcs, and the converse.

târziu

mai târziu We shall show later on that this generalization contains

also class of non-continuous functions.

teoremă

teorema despre valoare

the theorem of the mean

medie

teorema probabilităţii totale the theorem of total probability

teoremă preliminară Some preliminary theorems will be established first.

teoremă reciprocă The converse theorem in not true.

teoretic Theoretically, it still remains to prove for each

particular system considered that an equilibrium

actually exists and is stable.

teorie

teoria jocurilor the theory of games

teoria mulţimilor the theory of numbers (or the set theory)

teoria numerilor the theory of numbers (or the number theory)

teoria probabilităţilor the theory of probability

teoria proceselor stocastice the theory of stochastic processes

teorie unitară the unified theory

teoria ce va fi dezvoltată Continuous functions on a fixed interval are the starting

point for the theory to be developed here.

termen Any term may be transposed from one member of

equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.

termen cu termen Roughly speaking, each convergent series can be

differentiated term by term (or termwise).

termina

termină This completes (or concludes) the proof of Lemma 4

and also that of Theorem 2.

am terminat Then r=s and we are done.

terminologie

în terminologia {Ut} is the 'dual predictable projection' in the

terminology of Dellacherie and Meyer [42].

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 66 of 70

timp

în timp ce Thus 5 and 9 are relatively prime, whereas 6 and 9 are

not.

As the point x tends to a, the function g(x) approaches

the value g(a).

tinde la

când ... tinde la Each summand on the right of (12) becomes

vanishingty small with (or as) n→∞.

când ... tinde la infinit to let smth approach (or to let smth go to) infinity

tinde la infinit to tend to (or to approach) infinity

tinde la zero (ind. prez. 3 sg.) The limit distribution functions are determined by the

fact that they are the limits for sums of an increasing

number of independent random variables such that a

single summand becomes vanishingly small with

n→∞.

toate

după toate Summing up these conditional probabilities over all the

newborn particles in the sample, we find that ...

tot (în întregime) Thus the integral on the right side of (5) can be

analytically continued to the whole domain.

The class of functionals of degree n covers the entire

space Hn(-n).

toţi When the factors of a number are all equal, any of the

factors is called a root of the number.

toţi următorii Every succeeding (or subsequent) member an must be

less than aN.

nu toţi However, not all distributions can be represented in the

form [f(x)], i.e., not all distributions can be identified

with continuous functions.

pentru toţi The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and

t.

transforma

a transforma ecuaţia to rearrange the equation

să transformăm la formă Let us transform (1) to the form (2).

a se transforma în infinit to become infinite

transformare inversă the inverse transform

trebui

trebuie The problem must be solved as soon as possible.

To ensure the existence of a solution to (14), additional

assumptions need be made.

Much needs to be done to complete the theory.

It should be particularly emphasized that condition (*)

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 67 of 70

of convenience.

To comprehend the main idea of my talk, it is essential

(or necessary) that the students be familiar with the

generalized Galois theory.

care trebuie In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only the

numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must

be given whenever the rule is applied.

ceea ce trebuia But p is of the form 1+4n, so that a p=l+im, as

required.

ceea ce trebuia de It follows that the points C1 and C2 lie on the line of

demonstrat intersection of the planes α and β, which is what had

to be proved.

However, by condition m>n/2 one has q>2, q.e.d.

trece

trecând la limită Approaching the limit as k→∞ and utilizing Fatou's

lemma we obtain (8).

Proceeding (or passing) to the limit in equality (5) we

convince ourselves that this limit is a solution of

equation (2).

de a trece la limita To obtain equation (3), it is necessary to pass to the

limit in relation (1).

poate fi trecut dintr-o parte

Any term may be transposed from one member of

a

equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.

ecuaţiei în altă

trecere

trecerea de la ... The identification of equivalent elements consists in

the passage from the elements of the set in question to

the abstraction classes.

trecerea la limită This equation is obtained from relation (3) by passing

to the limit.

la trecerea la limită Inequality (7) becomes the exact equality if one passes

to the limit.

When passing to the limit, inequality (7) becomes the

exact equality.

Ţ

ţine minte

ţinând seamă Considering (or taking into account) that the series is

a series of positive terms, we have ...

trebuie să ţinem minte că

It is to be remembered (or it should be borne in

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 68 of 70

distribution functions are determined by the fact that ...

U

unul şi numai unul Hence there is one and only one x which satisfies the

congruence.

unde We assume that F*G=RS, where R=TV.

uneori Occasionally a stopping time is referred to as a random

time.

Sometimes a current is understood to be an increasing

family of σ-algebras.

unic The element q is unique.

If S consists of a single element x, then R(x) is

commutative.

univoc This set of conditions uniquely determines the results

of the experiment.

univoc determinată Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined

provided it exists everywhere.

urma

această urmează din This follows from the Fundamental Theorem of

arithmetic.

cum urmează din cele spuse As appears from the above, the cycle C determines a

curve L.

următorul Such an element is unique.

următoare Making the change of variables x=acosϕ and ϕ=ωt+θ

the following relation may be obtained

.

uşor

este uşor de ... It is not difficult to establish the existence of an

infinite number of rational primes.

util This property of martingales may be useful when

proving the existence theorems for stochastic

differential equations.

The following result will be very helpful in proving the

theorems of this chapter.

utiliza

putem utiliza metoda In order to construct such a process, we can take such

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 69 of 70

an approach.

va fi utilizat permanent We shall prove below a very useful result which will be

constantly used in our work.

utilizate de obicei Using condition 2) of the theorem and commonly

employed estimates we assure ourselves that ...

V

valoare The value of a function f(x) at x=x0 will be denoted

by f(x0).

cu valori The problem of interpolation consists in approximate

evaluation of a function f(x) at a given point x1<x*<xn

from its values on a finite set of points x1, x2, ..., xn.

cu valori în Let β(ϕ,t) be a random function with values in Rm.

valoare în punct The Dirac function δ(x) has the value 0 at each point

x≠0 and has no value at the point x=0.

valoare absolută The absolute value of b is greater that of a.

după valoarea absolută These numbers are equal in absolute magnitude.

variabile aleatoare cu acelaşi Let θj , j=1, 2, ..., n, be mutually independent

repartiţie identically distributed random variables.

vedea

vedeţi See, for example, the deduction of inequality (11) in

the proof of Theorem 1.

este uşor de văzut că It is easy to see that {gn} is complete in L1[0,1].

It will readily be seen that that for any δ>0 the

sequence Z(nδ,ω) forms a Galton-Watson process.

cum este uşor de văzut As is easily seen, there exists a Borel function θs such

that ...

verifica

se verifică In the case of distributions the following identities are

valid.

Since inequality (4.8) holds true, the function ϕ(x) is

non-negative.

sunt verificate Since the conditions (1), (2) and (3) are fulfilled,the

set of all fundamental sequences gets decomposed

into disjoint abstraction classes.

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05

Fraze uzuale Page 70 of 70

aforementioned requirements.

pentru a verifica To verify that h(t) is the desired solution, observe

that ...

este uşor de verificat că It is easily verified that the polynomial xn-2 is

irreducible over the field of rational numbers.

dacă o serie de condiţii este The experiments studied in probability theory are

verificată carried out when a certain set of conditions F is

satisfied.

verifică condiţia Assume that the function B(ϕ,t) satisfies the local

Lipschitz condition.

verifică ecuaţie We shall prove that the function F(x) satisfies (or

fulfils) equation (1).

vom verifica ipoteza despre ... We shall test the hypothesis that ...

viitor

în viitor In what follows the notation 'm|n' means 'm divides n'.

Here and in the sequel the ai denote positive

constants.

Henceforth we shall adhere to the following model of

the probability theory.

In the future σn will always be assumed to be

bounded.

In the future, when continuous local martingales are

discussed, the σ n will always be assumed to take

values from T.

voluminos This method is too cumbersome (or awkward /

unwieldy).

vorbind în general The results of the experiments will, generally, be

different.

Generally, Eqn (10) may have no solution.

|Pagini din istorie | Examene, teste | Bibliografie | Link-uri | Site map | Cartea Vizitatorilor |

http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05