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Dictionar Roman-Englez de Termeni Matematici


AĂÂBCDEFGHIÎJKLMNOPQRSŞTŢUVWXYZ

A
abscisă - abscissa
absolut - absolute
aceleaşi semne - like signs
acurateţe - accuracy
admisibil - admissible
aduna - to add
adunare - addition
afirmaţie - statement
algebră - algebra
algoritm - algorithm
algoritm de divizare - algorithm for division, division algorithm
algoritmul lui Euclid - Euclidean algorithm
alternanţă - alternance
alternare - alteration
amplasare - disposition
amplitudine - amplitude
analiza - to analyze
analiză - analysis
analiză matematică - calculus
analogic - analogous, analogical
analogie - analogy
anula - to vanish
aplicată - applicate
aplicaţie - map, mapping
arbitrar - arbitrary
arc - arc
arccosinus - anticosine, arccosine

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arcsinus - antisine, arcsine


arctangentă - arctangent
argument - argument
argument al funcţiei - argument of a function
arie - area
arie a suprafeţei - surface area
asemănare - similarity, similitude
asimetric - asymmetric(al), unsymmetric
asimetrie - asymmetry
asimptotă - asymptote
asimptote ale hiperbolei - asymptotes of a hyperbola
axa x - x-axis
axă - axis
axă de coordonate - coordinate axis
axă de rotaţie - pivot
axă orizontală - horizontal axis
axă principală - major axis, principal axis
axă verticală - vertical axis
axiomă - axiom

B
bază - base, basis
bază ortogonală - orthogonal base
bază ortonormată - orthonormal basis
bilion - billion
binar - binary
bine definit - well-defined
binom - binomial
bisectoare - bisector, bisectrix
biunivoc - one-to-one

C
calcul - calculus, computation
calcula - to count
calculabil - computable
calculul determinantului - evaluation of determinant

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canonic - canonical
determinarea extremului - hill climbing
câmp - field
cât - quotient, ratio
- greatest common divisor, greatest common
cel mai mare divizor comun
factor
cel mai mic multiplu comun - lowest common multiple
cel mai mic numitor comun - lowest common denominator
centru - centre, center
centru de rotaţie - pivot
centru al unei circumferinţe exînscrise - excentre, centre of the escribed circle
centrul circumferinţei circumscrise - circumcenter
centrul circumferinţei înscrise - incenter
cerc - circle
cercuri concentrice - concentric circles
cifră - digit
cilindru - cylinder
circumferinţă înscrisă - incircle, inscribed circle
circumferinţă unitară - unit circle
circumscris - escribed
coardă - chord
coeficient - coefficient
coeficient binomial - binomial coefficient
coeficient unghiular - slope
coincident - coincident
coliniaritate - collinearity
combinaţie - combination
comparare - comparation
comparaţie - comparation
con - cone
concavă - concave
condiţie - condition
condiţie iniţială - initial condition
condiţie necesară şi suficientă - necessary and sufficient condition
congruenţă - congruence
conjugat - adjoint, conjugate
consecinţă - corollary
constantă - constant
constantă de integrare - integration constant
continuitate - continuity
convex - convex
convexitate - convexity

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coordonată - coordinate
coordonate afine - affine coordinates
coordonate carteziene - Cartesian coordinates
coplanar - coplanar
corolar - corollary
cosinus director - direction cosine
creşte - to increase
creştere - increment
criteriu - criterion
criteriu de divizibilitate - criterion for divisibility
cuantor - quantifier
cuantor existenţial - existential quantifier
cuantor universal - universal quantifier
cub - cube
cunoscut - known
cuplu - pair
cuplu ordonat - ordered pair
curbă - curve
curbă concavă - concave curve
curbă convexă - convex curve
curbă cubică - cubic, cubic curve
curbă integrală - integral curve

D
dacă şi numai dacă - if and only if
date - data
decizie - decision
deducţie - deduction
defini - to define
definit peste tot - everywhere defined
definiţie - definition
degenerat - degenerate
deîmpărţit - dividend
deînmulţit - multiplicand
delatare - dilatation, stretching
demonstra - to prove
demonstraţie - proof
dependent - dependent
derivabilitate - differentiability

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derivată - derivative
derivată în punct - derivative at a point
descazut - minuend
descompunere - decomposition, expansion
descompunere binomială - binomial expansion
descompunere în factori - factoring, factorization
descompunere în factori primi - prime factorization
descompunere în fracţii elementare - partial-fraction expansion
descompunere a unei fracţii - decomposition of a fraction
descreşte - to decrease
determina - to determine
determinant - determinant
deviaţie - deviation
deviere - deviation
dezvoltare - expansion
dezvoltare a determinantului - expansion of a determinant
diagonală - diagonal
diagonală principală - main diagonal, principal diagonal
diametru - diameter
diferenţă - difference
diferenţiabilitate - differentiability
diferit - unequal
dimensiune - dimension
direct proporţional - directly proportional
direcţie - direction
discontinuu - discontinuous
discriminant - discriminant
dispărea - to vanish
distanţă - distance, way
distinct - distinct
divizare - division
divizibil {prin} - divisable {by}
divizor - divisor
divizor comun - common divisor, common factor
divizor propriu - proper factor
domeniu - domain, range
domeniu de definiţie - domain of definition
dreaptă - line
dreaptă numerică - number line
drept - straight
drepte neconcurente - skew lines

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dreptunghi - rectangle
drum - way
dual - dual

E
echilateral - equilateral
echivalent - equivalent
ecuaţie - equation
ecuaţie algebrică - algebraic equation
ecuaţie a liniei drepte - equation of a straight line
ecuaţie a unei drepte cu coeficient - slope-intercept form of a straight line
unghiular equation
ecuaţie bipatrată - biquadratic equation
ecuaţie de ordinul întâi - first-order equation
ecuaţie exponenţială - exponential equation
ecuaţie liniară - linear equation
ecuaţie neliniară - non-linear equation
ecuaţie omogenă - homogeneous equation
ecuaţie de ordinul doi(patrată) - quadratic equation
element - element
element {al multimii} - member {of a set}
element de arie - differential of area, element of area
element de arie (al suprafeţei) - surface element
element diagonal - diagonal element
eliminare - elimination
eliminare prin substituţie - elimination by substitution
elipsă - ellipse
eroare - error
eroare de rotunjire - rounding error
esenţial - essential
estimaţie - estimation
evaluare - evaluation
exact - exact
exactitate - accuracy
excepţie - exclusion
exemplu - example
exînscris - escribed
exponent - degree, exponent, grade, power
exponenţial - exponential

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expresie - expression
expresie algebrică - algebraic expression
expresie de sub integrală - integrand
extremal - extremal
extremum absolut - absolute extremum

F
factor - factor
familie - family
fascicul - pencil
fascicul de drepte - pencil of lines
faţă laterală - leg
figură circumscrisă - circumscribed figure
figură congruentă - equivalent figure
figuri congruente - congruent figures
flux - flux
focar - focus
formă generală - general form
formă parametrică - parametric form
formă standardă - standard form
formula binomului - binomial formula
formula coeficientului unghiular - slope formula
formula lui Leibniz - Leibniz rule
formula rădăcinilor ecuaţiei patrate - quadratic formula
formulă - formula
formulele jumătăţii unui unghi - half-angle formulas
fracţie - fraction
fracţie elementară - partial fraction
fracţie ordinară - common fraction
fracţie subunitară - proper fraction
fracţie supraunitară - improper fraction
fracţie zecimală - decimal fraction
fracţie zecimală finită - terminating decimal fraction
- infinite decimal fraction, non-terminating
fracţie zecimală infinită
decimal
fracţie zecimală periodică - periodic decimal fraction
fracţii cu numitori egali - similar fractions
funcţie - function
funcţie concavă - concave function

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funcţie continuă - continuous function


funcţie de mai multe variabile - function of several variables
funcţie de o variabilă - function of a single variable
funcţie de variabilă complexă - function of a complex variable
funcţie descrescătoare - decreasing function
funcţie diferenţiabilă - differentiable function
funcţie discontinuă - discontinuous function
funcţie impară - odd-function
- inter-stage function, jump function, step
funcţie în scară
function
funcţie liniară - linear function
funcţie monoton crescătoare - monotone increasing function
funcţie monoton descrescătoare - monotone decreasing function
funcţie monotonă - monotonic function
funcţie pară - even function, symmetric function
funcţie periodică - periodic function
funcţie primitivă - primitive
funcţie raţională - rational function
funcţie signum - signum function
funcţie simetrică - symmetric function
funcţie trigonometrică - trigonometric function
fundamental - fundamental

G
general - general
geometrie - geometry
geometrie euclidiană - Euclidean geometry
grad - degree, grade
grad al polinomului - degree of a polinomial

H
hexaedru - hexahedron, hexaeder
hexagon - hexagon
hiperbolă - hyperbola
hiperbolic - hyperbolic

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I
identitate - identity
imagine - image, map, mapping
impar - odd
implicaţie - implication
incertitudine - uncertainty
include - to include
incluziune - inclusion
incompatibil - inconsistent
incorect - incorrect
independent - independent
independenţă liniară - linear independency
inducţie - induction
inducţie completă - complete induction
inducţie matematică - mathematical induction
inecuaţie - inequality
inegal - unequal
infinit - infinite
inflexiune - inflexion
iniţial - initial
integrală - integral
integrare prin părţi - integration by parts
interdependenţă - interdependency
intersecţie - intersection
interval - interval
interval deschis - open interval
interval închis - closed interval
interval mărginit - bounded interval
interval semiînchis - semiclosed interval
invers - inverse, vice versa
invers proporţional - inversely proportional
ipotenuză - hypotenuse
ipoteză - hypothesis
ireductibilitate - irreductibility

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împărţi în două {în jumătate} - to halve


împărţire fără rest - exact division
în întregime - whole
înălţime - height
înălţime a triunghiului - altitude of a triangle
închis - closed
înclinare - slope
înlocui - to replace
înmulţi - to multiply
înmulţire - multiplication
înmulţitor - multiplier
înscrie - to inscribe

K
kilogram - kilogram(me)
kilometru - kilometre

L
latură {a unui unghi} - side {of an angle}
latură adiacentă - adjacent side
lege - law
lege asociativă - associative law
lege comutativă - commutative law
lege de compozitie - law of composition
lege distributivă - distributive law
legea terţului exclus - law of the excluded middle
lemă - lemma
limită - limit
limită inferioară - lower limit
limite de integrare - limits of integration
linie de fracţie - bar, vinculum
liniar - linear
liniaritate - linearity
linie dreaptă - straight-line
linie frântă - brocken line
linie punctată - dotted line

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linie tangentă - tangent line


loc geometric al punctelor - geometric locus
local - local
logaritm - logarithm
logaritm zecimal - common logs
logaritm natural - natural logarithm
lungime - length
lungimea arcului - arc-length

M
mărime - magnitude
măsură - measure
măsurabil - measurable
matematică - mathematics
matrice - matrix
matrice de transformare - matrix of the transformation
matrice diagonală - diagonal matrix
matrice inversă - reciprocal matrix
matrice nulă - null-matrix
maxim - maximum
maximum - maximum
mediană - median {of a triangle}
medie aritmetică - mean, arithmetic mean
medie geometrică - geometric average, geometric mean,
mean proportional
metoda eliminării - elimination method
metoda inducţiei complete - principle of complete induction
metru - meter
minim - minimim
minimum - minimum
modul - module
monom - monom
monoton - monotonous
muchie - edge
mulţime - set
mulţime de soluţii - solution set
mulţime de valori - range
mulţime universală - universal set
mulţime vidă - empty set, null-set

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multiplicare - multiplicaton
multiplicator - factor, multiplier
multiplu - multiple, multiplex
multiplu comun - common multiple
mutual - mutually
mutual disjuncte - mutually disjoint

N
necunoscută - unknown
nedefinit - undefined
nedegenerat - non-degnerate
nedescrescător - non-decreasing
nedeterminare - indeterminancy, uncertainty
nedeterminat - indefinite, undetermined
negativ - negative
neglijabil - negligible
neliniar - non-linear
nemărginit - unbounded
neomogen - inhomogeneous
neperiodic - non-periodic
nesimetric - non-symmetric
nod - node
normală - normal
normală la suprafaţă - normal to the surface
număr - number
număr complex - complex number
număr întreg - integer number
număr iraţional - irrational number
număr natural - natural number
număr par - even number
număr prim - prime number
număr raţional - rational number
număr real - real number
număr transcendent - transcendental number
număr zecimal - decimal number
număr ordinal - ordinal number
numărător - numerator
numărător al fracţiei - term of a fraction
numere întregi consecutive - consecutive integers

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numere reciproc prime - coprime numbers, relatively prime numbers


numitor - denominator
numitor comun - common denominator
numitori diferiţi - unlike denominators
numitori identici - like denominators, same denominators

O
oblic - oblique
octagon - octagon
omogen - homogeneous
ordin - degree, exponent
ordin al derivatei - order of derivative
ordin al ecuaţiei - order of equation
ordine - order
ordonată - ordinate
origine de coordonate - origin {of coordinates}
orizontal - horizontal
oval - oval

P
par - even
parabolă - parabola
parabolic - parabolic
paralel - parallel
paralelepiped - parallelepiped
paralelogram - parallelogram
parametru - parameter
paranteze figurate - braces
paranteze patrate - square brackets, brackets
paranteze rotunde - parentheses
patrat - quadrate, square
patrulater - tetragon
pătratic - quadratic
pentagon - pentagon
perimertu - perimeter
perioadă - period

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perpendiculară - normal, perpendicular


picior al perpendicularei - foot {of a perpendicular}
piramidă - pyramid
plan - plane
plan tangent - tangent plane
plan xOy - xy-plane
planimetrie - plane geometry, planimetry
plus - plus sign
poliedru - polyhedron
poligoane asemenea - similar polygons
poligoane congruente - congruent polygons
poligon - polygon
poligon convex - convex polygon
poligon înscris - inscribed polygon
poligon regulat - equilateral polygon, regular polygon
polinom - polynomial
posibilitate - possibility
pozitiv - positive
precedent - preceding
precizie - accuracy
preimagine - pre-image
presupunere - assumption
primă derivată - first derivative
principal - principal
principiul dualitatii - duality principle
prizmă - prism
procent - per cent
produs - product
produs scalar - dot product
produs vectorial - cross-product, vector product
progresie - progression
progresie aritmetică - arithmetic progression
progresie geometrică - geometric progression
proiecţie - projection
proporţie - proportion
propoziţie - proposition, statement
proprietate - property
proprietate asociativă - associative property
punct - dot, point
punct de discontinuitate - point of discontinuity
punct de extrem - extremum point

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punct de inflexiune - point of inflexion


punct diametral opus - diametrically opposite point
punct focal - focal point
punct izolat - acnode
putere - degree, grade, power

R
radian - radian
radical - radical, radical sign
ramură - branch
rang al unei matrici - rank of a matrix
raport - ratio, relation
raţie a unei progresii aritmetice - common difference
raţie a unei progresii geometrice - common ratio
raţional - rational
rază - radius
rază vectoare - radius vector
rădăcină - root
rădăcină dublă - double root
rădăcină multiplă - repeated root
rădăcină patrată - square root
rădăcină simplă - simple root
rădăcini conjugate - conjugate roots
real - real
reciproc - vice versa
reduce - to reduce
reducere termenilor asemenea - combine similar terms
reductibil - reducible
regulă - rule
regula paralelogramului - parallelogram law, parallelogram rule
relaţie - relation
relativ - relative
repetat - multiplex
reprezenta - to represent
rest - remainder, rest
restricţie - restriction
reuniune - union
rezolva - to solve
ridica la patrat - to square

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ridica la putere - to raise to a power


romb - lozenge, rhombus, rhomb
rotaţie - rotation
rotunji - to round

S
salt - jump
satisface - to satisfy
scalar - scalar
scădere - subtraction
scăzător - subtrahend
schemă bloc - flow chart
schema lui Horner - Horner's scheme, synthetic division
schimb de variabilă - change of variable
secantă - secant
secţiune - cut
secţiune conică - conic, conic section
secţiune conică centrală - central conic
secţiune conică degenerată - degenerate conic
secţiune conică nedegenerată - non-degenerate conic,
non-degenerate conic section
sector circular - sector of a circle
segment - closed interval, intercept, segment
segment de pe axa x - x-intercept
segment liniar - line segment, straight-line segment
segmente congruente - congruent segments
semicerc - semi-circle
semidreaptă - ray
semisferă - hemisphere
semn - sign
semnul adunării - addition sign, plus sign
semnul rădăcinii - radical, radical sign
semnul scăderii - minus {sign}
sferă - sphere
simbol - symbol
simetric - symmetric
simetrie centrală - central symmetry
simplifica - to cancel
simplificare - simplification

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simplu - simple
sinusoidă - sine curve
sistem - system
sistem cartezian de coordonate - Cartesian coordinate system
sistem cu mai multe necunoscute - many-variable system
sistem de coordonate - coordinate system
sistem de ecuaţii liniare - system of linear equation
sistem neortogonal de coordonate - non-orthogonal coordinate system
sistem omogen - homogeneous system
sistem ortogonal de coordonate - orthogonal coordnate system
sistem rectangular de coordonate - rectangular coordonate system
soluţie admisibilă - permissible solution, admissible solution
soluţie aproximativă - approximate solution
soluţie completă - complete solution
soluţie exactă - exact solution
soluţie generală - general solution
soluţie nenulă - non-zero solution
soluţie netrivială - non-trivial solution
soluţie nulă - zero solution
soluţie periodică - periodic solution
soluţie unică - unique solution
soluţiona - to solve
soluţionare {a unei probleme} - solution {of a problem}
spaţiu - space
spaţiu euclidian - Euclidean space
strict - strict
strict monoton - strongly monotonic
substitui - to replace
substituţie - substitution
substituţie inversă - back-substitution
suma - to add
sumă - sum
suprafaţă - surface
suprafaţă de rotaţie - surface of revolution
submulţime - subset

T
tangentă - tangent
teorema lui Pythagoras - Pythagorean theorem

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teoremă - theorem
teorema fundamentală a aritmeticii - fundamental theorem of arithmetic
teorema lui Bezout - factor theorem
teorema lui Thales - intercept theorem
teorema sinusurilor - law of sines, sine rule
teoria mulţimilor - set theory
teorie - theory
termen - term
termen al sumei - addend, summand
termen general - general term
termeni asemenea - similar terms
tetraedru - tetrahedron
tot - whole
transforma - to transform
transformare de coordonate - transform of coordinates
translare - translation
translaţie - bridging
tranzitivitate - transitivity
trapez - trapezoid, trapezium
trigonometric - trigonometric
trigonometrie - trigonometry
trisecţia unui unghi - trisection of the angle
triunghi - triangle
triunghi ascutunghic - acute triangle
triunghi asemenea - similar triangle
triunghi dreptunghic - right triangle
triunghi echilateral - equilateral triangle
triunghi isoscel - isosceles triangle
triunghi obtuzunghic - obtuse triangle
triunghi scalen - scalene triangle
triunghiular - triangular

U
unghi - angle
unghi adiacent - adjacent angle
unghi alăturat - adjacent angle
unghi ascuţit - acute angle
unghi complementar {până la 90o} - complementary angle
- explementary angle

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unghi complementar până la 360o


unghi de înclinare - slope angle
unghi diedru - dihedral angle
unghi drept - right angle
unghi exterior {al triunghiului} - exteriar angle {of a triangle}
unghi interior - interior angle
unghi înscris - inscribed angle
unghi întins - straight angle
unghi la bază a triunghiului - base angle {of a triangle}
unghi la centru - central angle
unghi obtuz - obtuse angle
unghi plin - straight ahgle
unghi suplimentar până la 360o - conjugate angle
unghiuri adiacente suplimentare - adjacent supplementary angles
unghiuri alterne - alternate angles
unghiuri alterne externe - alternate exterior angles
- alternate interior angles, opposite interior
unghiuri alterne interne
angles
unghiuri congruente - congruent angles
unghiuri corespondente - corresponding angles
unghiuri opuse la vârf - vertex angles
unghiuri suplimentare {până la 180o} - supplementary angles
unic - single
unicitate - uniqueness
unitate - unit
univoc - unambiguous

V
valabil - valid
valid - valid
valoare - value
valoare absolută - absolute value
valoare absolută a numărului complex - absolute value of a complex number
valoare iniţială - initial value
valoare medie - average, average value
valoare limită - limit value
variabilă - variable
variabilă independentă - independent variable

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vârf - vertex
vector - vector
vector coplanar - coplanar vector
vector de bază - base vector
vector normal - normal vector
vector nul - null-vector
vector unitar - unit vector
vector tangent unitar - unit tangent vector
veridicitate - truth
verifica - to verify
vertical - vertical
viteză - speed, velocity
volum - volume

Z
zecimal - decimal
zero - zero

Bibliografie

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Dictionar Englez-Roman de Termeni Matematici


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

A
abscissa - abscisă
absolute - absolut
absolute extremum - extremum absolut
absolute value - valoare absolută
absolute value of a complex number - valoare absolută a numărului complex
accuracy - precizie, exactitate, acurateţe
acnode - punct izolat
acute angle - unghi ascuţit
acute triangle - triunghi ascuţitunghic
add - a aduna, a suma
addend - termen al sumei
addition - adunare
addition sign - semnul adunării
adjacent angle - unghi adiacent, unghi alăturat
adjacent side - latură adiacentă
adjacent supplementary angles - unghiuri adiacente suplimentare
adjoint - conjugat
admissible - admisibil
admissible solution - soluţie admisibilă
affine coordinates - coordonate afine
algebra - algebră
algebraic equation - ecuaţie algebrică
algebraic expression - expresie algebrică
algorithm - algoritm
algorithm for division - algoritm de divizare
alternance - alternanţă
alteration - alternare

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alternate angles - unghiuri alterne


alternate exterior angles - unghiuri alterne externe
alternate interior angles - unghiuri alterne interne
altitude of a triangle - înălţime a triunghiului
amplitude - amplitudine
analogous - analogic
analogical - analogic
analogy - analogie
analysis - analiză
analyze - a analiza
angle - unghi
anticosine - arccosinus
antisine - arcsinus
applicate - aplicată
approximate solution - soluţie aproximativă
arbitrary - arbitrar
arc - arc
arccosine - arccosinus
arc-length - lungimea arcului
arcsine - arcsinus
arctangent - arctangentă
area - arie
argument - argument
argument of a function - argument al funcţiei
arithmetic mean - medie aritmetică
arithmetic progression - progresie aritmetică
associative law - lege asociativă
associative property - proprietate asociativă
assumption - presupunere
asymmetric(al) - asimetric
asymmetry - asimetrie
asymptote - asimptotă
asymptotes of a hyperbola - asimptote ale hiperbolei
average - valoare medie
average value - valoare medie
axiom - axiomă
axis - axă

B
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back-substitution - substituţie inversă


bar - linie de fracţie
base - bază
base angle {of a triangle} - unghi la bază a triunghiului
base vector - vector de bază
basis - bază
billion - bilion
binary - binar
binomial - binom
binomial coefficient - coeficient binomial
binomial expansion - descompunere binomială
binomial formula - formula binomului
biquadratic equation - ecuaţie bipatrată
bisector - bisectoare
bisectrix - bisectoare
bounded interval - interval mărginit
braces - paranteze figurate
brackets - paranteze patrate
branch - ramură
bridging - translaţie
brocken line - linie frântă

C
calculus - analiză matematică, calcul
cancel - a simplifica
canonical - canonic
Cartesian coordinate system - sistem cartezian de coordonate
Cartesian coordinates - coordonate carteziene
central angle - unghi la centru
central conic - secţiune conică centrală
central symmetry - simetrie centrală
centre - centru
centre of the escribed circle - centru unei circumferinţe exînscrise
center - centru
change of variable - schimb de variabilă
chord - coardă
circle - cerc
circumcenter - centrul circumferinţei circumscrise
circumscribed figure - figură circumscrisă

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closed - închis
closed interval - interval închis, segment
coefficient - coeficient
coincident - coincident
collinearity - coliniaritate
combination - combinaţie
combine similar terms - reducere a termenilor asemenea
common denominator - numitor comun
common difference - raţie a unei progresii aritmetice
common divisor - divizor comun
common factor - divizor comun
common fraction - fracţie ordinară
common logs - logaritm zecimal
common multiple - multiplu comun
common ratio - raţie a unei progresii geometrice
commutative law - lege comutativă
comparation - comparaţie, comparare
complementary angle - unghi complementar {până la 90o}
complete induction - inducţie completă
complete solution - soluţie completă
complex number - număr complex
computable - calculabil
computation - calcul
concave - concavă
concave curve - curbă concavă
concave function - funcţie concavă
concentric circles - cercuri concentrice
condition - condiţie
cone - con
congruence - congruenţă
congruent angles - unghiuri congruente
congruent figures - figuri congruente
congruent polygons - poligoane congruente
congruent segments - segmente congruente
conic - secţiune conică
conic section - secţiune conică
conjugate - conjugat
conjugate angle - unghi suplimentar până la 360o
conjugate roots - rădăcini conjugate
consecutive integers - numere întregi consecutive
constant - constantă

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continuity - continuitate
continuous function - funcţie continuă
convex - convex
convex curve - curbă convexă
convex polygon - poligon convex
convexity - convexitate
coordinate - coordonată
coordinate axis - axă de coordonate
coordinate system - sistem de coordonate
coplanar - coplanar
coplanar vector - vector coplanar
coprime numbers - numere reciproc prime
corollary - consecinţă, corolar
corresponding angles - unghiuri corespondente
count - a calcula
criterion - criteriu
criterion for divisibility - criteriu de divizibilitate
cross-product - produs vectorial
cube - cub
cubic - curbă cubică
cubic curve - curbă cubică
curve - curbă
cut - secţiune
cylinder - cilindru

D
data - date
decimal - zecimal
decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală
decimal number - număr zecimal
decision - decizie
decomposition - descompunere
decomposition of a fraction - descompunere a unei fracţii
decrease - a descreşte
decreasing function - funcţie descrescatoare
deduction - deducţie
define - a defini
definition - definiţie
degenerate - degenerat

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degenerate conic - secţiune conică degenerată


degree - putere, ordin, grad, exponent
degree of a polinomial - grad al polinomului
denominator - numitor
dependent - dependent
derivative - derivată
derivative at a point - derivată în punct
determinant - determinant
determine - a determina
deviation - deviaţie, deviere
diagonal - diagonală
diagonal element - element diagonal
diagonal matrix - matrice diagonală
diameter - diametru
diametrically opposite point - punct diametral opus
difference - diferenţă
differentiability - derivabilitate, diferenţiabilitate
differentiable function - funcţie diferenţiabilă
differential of area - element de arie
digit - cifră
dihedral angle - unghi diedru
dilatation - delatare
dimension - dimensiune
direction - direcţie
direction cosine - cosinus director
directly proportional - direct proporţional
discontinuous - discontinuu
discontinuous function - funcţie discontinuă
discriminant - discriminant
disposition - amplasare
distance - distanţă
distinct - distinct
distributive law - lege distributivă
dividend - deîmpărţit
divisable {by} - divizibil {prin}
division - divizare
division algorithm - algoritm de divizare
divisor - divizor
domain - domeniu
domain of definition - domeniu de definiţie
dot - punct

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dot product - produs scalar


dotted line - linie punctată
double root - rădăcină dublă
dual - dual
duality principle - principiul dualităţii

E
edge - muchie
element - element
element of area - element de arie
elimination - eliminare
elimination by substitution - eliminare prin substituţie
elimination method - metoda eliminării
ellipse - elipsă
empty set - mulţime vidă
equation - ecuaţie
equation of a straight line - ecuaţie a liniei drepte
equilateral - echilateral
equilateral polygon - poligon regulat
equilateral triangle - triunghi echilateral
equivalent - echivalent
equivalent figure - figură congruentă
error - eroare
escribed - circumscris, exînscris
essential - esenţial
estimation - estimaţie
Euclidean algorithm - algoritmul lui Euclid
Euclidean geometry - geometrie euclidiană
Euclidean space - spaţiu euclidian
evaluation - evaluare
evaluation of determinant - calculul determinantului
even - par
even function - funcţie pară
even number - număr par
everywhere defined - definit peste tot
exact - exact
exact division - împărţire fără rest
exact solution - soluţie exactă
example - exemplu

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excentre - centru al unei circumferinţe exînscrise


exclusion - excepţie
existential quantifier - cuantor existenţial
expansion - descompunere, dezvoltare
expansion of a determinant - dezvoltare a determinantului
explementary angle - unghi complementar până la 360o
exponent - exponent, ordin
exponential - exponenţial
exponential equation - ecuaţie exponenţială
expression - expresie
exterior angle {of a triangle} - unghi exterior {al triunghiului}
extremal - extremal
extremum point - punct de extremum

F
factor - factor, multiplicator
factor theorem - teorema lui Bezout
factoring - descompunere în factori
factorization - descompunere în factori
family - familie
field - câmp
first derivative - primă derivată
first-order equation - ecuaţie de ordinul întâi
flow chart - schemă bloc
flux - flux
focal point - punct focal
focus - focar
foot {of a perpendicular} - picior al perpendicularei
formula - formulă
fraction - fracţie
function - funcţie
function of a complex variable - funcţie de variabilă complexă
function of a single variable - funcţie de o variabilă
function of several variables - funcţie de mai multe variabile
fundamental - fundamental
fundamental theorem of arithmetic - teoremă fundamentală a aritmeticii

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G
general - general
general form - formă generală
general solution - soluţie generală
general term - termen general
geometric average - medie geometrică
geometric locus - loc geometric al punctelor
geometric mean - medie geometrică
geometric progression - progresie geometrică
geometry - geometrie
grade - grad, exponent, putere
greatest common divisor - cel mai mare divizor comun
greatest common factor - cel mai mare divizor comun

H
half-angle formulas - formule ale jumătăţii unui unghi
halve - a împărţi în două {în jumătate}
height - înălţime
hemisphere - semisferă
hexagon - hexagon
hexaeder - hexaedru
hexahedron - hexaedru
hill climbing - determinarea extremului
homogeneous - omogen
homogeneous equation - ecuaţie omogenă
homogeneous system - sistem omogen
horizontal - orizontal
horizontal axis - axă orizontală
Horner's scheme - schema lui Horner
hyperbola - hiperbolă
hyperbolic - hiperbolic
hypotenuse - ipotenuză
hypothesis - ipoteză

I
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identity - identitate
if and only if - dacă şi numai dacă
image - imagine
implication - implicaţie
improper fraction - fracţie supraunitară
incenter - centrul circumferinţei înscrise
incircle - circumferinţă înscrisă
include - a include
inclusion - incluziune
inconsistent - incompatibil
incorrect - incorect
increase - a creşte
increment - creştere
indefinite - nedeterminat
independent - independent
independent variable - variabilă independentă
indeterminancy - nedeterminare
induction - inducţie
inequality - inecuaţie
infinite - infinit
infinite decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală infinită
inflexion - inflexiune
inhomogeneous - neomogen
initial - iniţial
initial condition - condiţie iniţială
initial value - valoare iniţială
inscribe - a înscrie
inscribed angle - unghi înscris
inscribed circle - circumferinţă înscrisă
inscribed polygon - poligon înscris
integer number - număr întreg
integral - integrală
integral curve - curbă integrală
integrand - expresie de sub integrală
integration by parts - integrare prin părţi
integration constant - constantă de integrare
inter-stage function - funcţie în scară
intercept - segment
intercept theorem - teorema lui Thales

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interdependency - interdependenţă
interior angle - unghi interior
intersection - intersecţie
interval - interval
inverse - invers
inversely proportional - invers proporţional
irrational number - număr iraţional
irreductibility - ireductibilitate
isosceles triangle - triunghi isoscel

J
jump - salt
jump function - funcţie în scară

K
kilogram(me) - kilogram
kilometre - kilometru
known - cunoscut

L
law - lege
law of composition - lege de compoziţie
law of sines - teorema sinusurilor
law of the excluded middle - legea terţului exclus
least common denominator - cel mai mic numitor comun
least common multiple - cel mai mic multiplu comun
leg - faţă laterală
Leibniz rule - formula lui Leibniz
lemma - lemă
length - lungime
like denominators - numitori identici
like signs - aceleaşi semne
limit - limită
limit value - valoare limită

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limits of integration - limite de integrare


line - dreaptă
line segment - segment liniar
linear - liniar
linear equation - ecuaţie de gradul întâi (liniară)
linear function - funcţie liniară
linear independency - independenţă liniară
linearity - liniaritate
local - local
logarithm - logaritm
lower limit - limită inferioară
lowest common denominator - cel mai mic numitor comun
lowest common multiple - cel mai mic multiplu comun
lozenge - romb

M
magnitude - mărime
main diagonal - diagonală principală
major axis - axă principală
many-variable system - sistem cu mai multe necunoscute
map - imagine, aplicaţie
mapping - imagine, aplicaţie
meter - metru
mathematical induction - inducţie matematică
mathematics - matematică
matrix - matrice
matrix of the transformation - matrice de transformare
maximum - maximum, maxim
mean - medie aritmetică
mean proportional - medie geometrică
measurable - măsurabil
measure - măsură
median {of a triangle} - mediană
member {of a set} - element {al mulţimii}
minimum - minimum, minim
minuend - descăzut
minus {sign} - semnul scăderii
module - modul
monom - monom

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monotone decreasing function - funcţie monoton descrescătoare


monotone increasing function - funcţie monoton crescătoare
monotonic function - funcţie monotonă
monotonous - monoton
multiple - multiplu
multiplex - multiplu, repetat
multiplicand - deînmulţit
multiplication - înmulţire, multiplicare
multiplier - înmulţitor, multiplicator
multiply - a înmulţi
mutually - mutual
mutually disjoint - mutual disjuncte

N
natural logarithm - logaritm natural
natural number - număr natural
necessary and sufficient condition - condiţie necesară şi suficientă
negative - negativ
negligible - neglijabil
node - nod
non-decreasing - nedescrescător
non-degnerate - nedegenerat
non-degenerate conic - secţiune conică nedegenerată
non-degenerate conic section - secţiune conică nedegenerată
non-linear - neliniar
non-linear equation - ecuaţie neliniară
non-orthogonal coordinate system - sistem neortogonal de coordonate
non-periodic - neperiodic
non-symmetric - nesimetric
non-terminating decimal - fracţie zecimală infinită
non-trivial solution - soluţie netrivială
non-zero solution - soluţie nenulă
normal - normală, perpendiculară
normal to the surface - normală la suprafaţă
normal vector - vector normal
null-vector - vector nul
null-matrix - matrice nulă
null-set - mulţime vidă
number - număr

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number line - dreaptă numerică


numerator - numărător

O
oblique - oblic
obtuse angle - unghi obtuz
obtuse triangle - triunghi obtuzunghic
octagon - octagon
odd - impar
odd-function - funcţie impară
one-to-one - biunivoc
open interval - interval deschis
opposite interior angles - unghiuri alterne interioare
order - ordine
order of derivative - ordin al derivatei
order of equation - ordinul ecuaţiei
ordered pair - cuplu ordonat
ordinal number - număr ordinal
ordinate - ordonată
origin {of coordinates} - origine de coordonate
orthogonal base - bază ortogonală
orthogonal coordnate system - sistem ortogonal de coordonate
orthonormal basis - bază ortonormată
oval - oval

P
pair - cuplu
parabola - parabolă
parabolic - parabolic
parallel - paralel
parallelepiped - paralelepiped
parallelogram - paralelogram
parallelogram law - regula paralelogramului
parallelogram rule - regula paralelogramului
parameter - parametru
parametric form - formă parametrică

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parentheses - paranteze rotunde


partial fraction - fracţie elementară
partial-fraction expansion - descompunere în fracţii elementare
pencil - fascicul
pencil of lines - fascicul de drepte
pentagon - pentagon
per cent - procent
perimeter - perimertu
period - perioadă
periodic decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală periodică
periodic function - funcţie periodică
periodic solution - soluţie periodică
permissible solution - soluţie admisibilă
perpendicular - perpendiculară
pivot - axă de rotaţie, centru de rotaţie
plane - plan
plane geometry - planimetrie
planimetry - planimetrie
plus sign - semnul adunării, plus
point - punct
point of discontinuity - punct de discontinuitate
point of inflexion - punct de inflexiune
polygon - poligon
polyhedron - poliedru
polynomial - polinom
positive - pozitiv
possibility - posibilitate
power - putere, exponent
pre-image - preimagine
preceding - precedent
prime factorization - descompunere în factori primi
prime number - număr prim
pimitive - funcţie primitivă
principal - principal
principal axis - axă principală
principal diagonal - diagonală principală
principle of complete induction - metoda inducţiei complete
prism - prizmă
product - produs
progression - progresie
projection - proiecţie

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proof - demonstraţie
proper factor - divizor propriu
proper fraction - fracţie subunitară
property - proprietate
proportion - proporţie
proposition - propoziţie
prove - a demonstra
pyramid - piramidă
Pythagorean theorem - teorema lui Pythagoras

Q
quadrate - patrat
quadratic - pătratic
quadratic equation - ecuaţie de gradul al doilea (patrată)
quadratic formula - formula rădăcinilor ecuaţiei de gradul al doilea
(ecuaţiei patrate)
quantifier - cuantor
quotient - cât

R
radian - radian
radical - radical, semnul rădăcinii
radical sign - radical, semnul rădăcinii
radius - rază
radius vector - rază vectoare
raise to a power - a ridica la putere
range - mulţime de valori, domeniu
rank of a matrix - rang al unei matrici
ratio - cât, raport
rational - raţional
rational function - funcţie raţională
rational number - număr raţional
ray - semidreaptă
real - real
real number - număr real
reciprocal matrix - matrice inversă

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rectangle - dreptunghi
rectangular coordonate system - sistem rectangular de coordonate
reduce - a reduce
reducible - reductibil
regular polygon - poligon regulat
relation - relaţie, raport
relative - relativ
relatively prime numbers - numere reciproc prime
remainder - rest
repeated root - rădăcină multiplă
replace - a substitui, a înlocui
represent - a reprezenta
rest - rest
restriction - restricţie
rhomb - romb
rhombus - romb
right angle - unghi drept
right triangle - triunghi dreptunghic
root - rădăcină
rotation - rotaţie
round - a rotunji
rounding error - eroare de rotunjire
rule - regulă

S
same denominators - numitori identici
satisfy - a satisface
scalar - scalar
scalene triangle - triunghi scalen
secant - secantă
sector of a circle - sector circular
segment - segment
semi-circle - semicerc
semiclosed interval - interval semiînchis
set - mulţime
set theory - teoria mulţimilor
side {of an angle} - latură {a unui unghi}
sign - semn
signum function - funcţia signum

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similar fractions - fracţii cu numitori egali


similar polygons - poligoane asemenea
similar terms - termeni asemenea
similar triangle - triunghi asemenea
similarity - asemănare
similitude - asemănare
simple - simplu
simple root - rădăcină simplă
simplification - simplificare
sine curve - sinusoidă
sine rule - teorema sinusurilor
single - unic
single root - rădăcină simplă
skew lines - drepte neconcurente
slope - înclinare, coeficient unghiular
slope angle - unghi de înclinare
slope formula - formula coeficientului unghiular
slope-intercept form of a straight line - ecuaţie a unei drepte cu coeficient
equation unghiular
solution {of a problem} - soluţie {a unei probleme}
solution set - mulţime de soluţii
solve - a soluţiona, a rezolva
space - spaţiu
speed - viteză
sphere - sferă
square - patrat, a ridica la patrat
square brackets - paranteze patrate
square root - rădăcină patrată
standard form - formă standardă
statement - propoziţie, afirmaţie
step function - funcţie în scară
straight - drept
straight angle - unghi întins, unghi plin
straight-line - linie dreaptă
straight-line segment - segment liniar
stretching - delatare
strict - strict
strongly monotonic - strict monoton
subset - submulţime
substitution - substituţie
subtraction - scădere
subtrahend - scăzător

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sum - sumă
summand - termen al sumei
supplementary angles - unghiuri suplimentare {până la 180o}
surface - suprafată
surface area - arie a suprafeţei
surface element - element de arie {al suprafeţei}
surface of revolution - suprafaţă de rotaţie
symbol - simbol
symmetric - simetric
symmetric function - funcţie simetrică, funcţie pară
synthetic division - schema lui Horner
system - sistem
system of linear equations - sistem de ecuaţii liniare

T
tangent - tangentă
tangent line - linie tangentă
tangent plane - plan tangent
term - termen
term of a fraction - numărător al fracţiei
terminating decimal fraction - fracţie zecimală finită
tetragon - patrulater
tetrahedron - tetraedru
theorem - teoremă
theory - teorie
transcendental number - număr transcendent
transform - a transforma
transform of coordinates - transformare de coordonate
transitivity - tranzitivitate
translation - translare
trapezium - trapez
trapezoid - trapez
triangle - triunghi
triangular - triunghiular
trigonometric - trigonometric
trigonometric function - funcţie trigonometrică
trigonometry - trigonometrie
trisection of the angle - trisecţie a unui unghi
truth - veridicitate

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U
unambiguous - univoc
unbounded - nemărginit
uncertainty - incertitudine, nedeterminare
undefined - nedefinit
undetermined - nedeterminat
unequal - inegal, diferit
union - reuniune
unique solution - soluţie unică
uniqueness - unicitate
unit - unitate
unit circle - circumferinţă unitară
unit tangent vector - vector tangent unitar
unit vector - vector unitar
universal quantifier - cuantor universal
universal set - mulţime universală
unknown - necunoscută
unlike denominators - numitori diferiţi
unsymmetric - asimetric

V
valid - valid, valabil
value - valoare
vanish - a se anula, a dispărea
variable - variabilă
vector - vector
vector product - produs vectorial
velocity - viteză
verify - a verifica
vertex - vârf
vertex angles - unghiuri opuse la vârf
vertical - vertical
vertical axis - axă verticală
vice versa - invers, reciproc
vinculum - linie de fracţie

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volume - volum

W
way - drum, distantă
well-defined - bine definit
whole - tot, în întregime

X
x-axis - axa x
x-intercept - segment de pe axa x
xy-plane - plan xOy

Y
y-axis - axa y

Z
z-axis - axa z
zero - zero
zero solution - soluţie nulă

Bibliografie

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Dictionar Matematic Roman-Englez de Fraze Uzuale


AĂÂBCDEFGHIÎJKLMNOPQRSŞTŢUVWXYZ

A
abia The superscripts are hardly (or scarcely) visible.
abordare A more careful approach is needed.
absolut analog In complete analogy with the result, we may prove
that ...
accentua atenţie
se accentuiază atenţie asupra In this section, emphasis is placed (or attention is
focussed) on autonomous systems.
accepta o ipoteză to accept a hypothesis
aceiaşi The numbers +8 and +3 have like signs.
No two polynomials can have all their roots alike (or
the same) unless they differ by a numerical factor.
acelaşi The preceding discussion may be summed up by
saying that the arithmetic for complex numbers is
much the same as that for real numbers.
acum We now want to let j→∞.
For the present we content ourselves with
demonstrating the assertions just made concerning the
sets G and H.
arăta
acum este uşor de arătat că We can now easily show that ...
adecvat The model fits the process under study adequately.
adeveri
se adevereşte că Thus the martingale ψ(t) turns out to be a process
with independent increments.
s-a adeverit a fi This proved to be a bigger problem than originally
anticipated.

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This value was found to be cos(π/17).


admite
la fel admite The function η(t) also admits decomposition of the
form (4).
adresa
ne adresăm la We now turn to the task of considering the
continuous-parameter supermarlingales.
aduce
demonstraţia este adusă The proof of the theorem is given in [8].
aduna
adunăm Now write down these inequalities for n, n+1, ..., n+m
and add them to obtain the estimation (6).
afirma
afirmă The fundamental theorem of arithmetic asserts that
every integer greater than 1 can be factored in one and
only one way, apart from order, as the product of
positive prime numbers.
Bohm [2] claims that there is such a thing as the
primacy of metaphysics in connection with biology.
afirmaţie
afirmaţie mai generală A more general statement can be found in [15].
afirmaţie necesară Approaching the limit as N→∞ we obtain the
required assertion.
afirmaţie reciprocă The converse of (5) is false.
The converse of this statement is known to be false.
However, if we are concerned only with versions of a
given process, the converse holds in the following
sense.
afla
a afla We are now in a position to determine (or to find)
the value of x*.
ajunge
ajungem la ... Thus we arrive at the following conclusion
[definition, equation, theorem, assertion, result].
ajutor
cu ajutorul By means of the equivalence relation we get the
decomposition of the set of all oriented segments into
disjoint classes such that segments in the same class
are equivalent and segments in different classes are
not equivalent.
When formalizing the notions of probability theory,
the first fundamental assumption is that the results of
experiments can be described by means of a certain

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set Ω.
The data were obtained with the help (or with the
aid) of a digitizer.
Both problems are solved by constructing a right-hand
inverse matrix Sr-1 of S.

alt Another way to approach the problem is to take a


Taylor series expansion of g(t).
altă Any term may be transposed from one member of
equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.
The random variable η may have a different
distribution.
altfel This definition also makes use of the abstraction
principle, but in another way.
altfel zis Otherwise speaking [fn(x)] = [gn(x)] if and only if
{fn(x)}~{gn(x)}.

amănunţit
mai amănunţit These operations are discussed in more detail in next
section.
ambele Both estimates are quite rough.
But the functions f and g are both continuous, and
thus the two functions coincide.
Multiplying the two sides of (4) by cosmx and
integrating, we obtain ...
ambele părţi The two sides of Young's inequality

are equal if and only

if b=ϕ(a).
ambiguu This ambiguity does not lead to misunderstanding.
aminti
amintim că We recall that the compensator γn of the measure of
jumps µn is non-negative.
Recall that L is generated by all processes whose
trajectories are right-continuous and have right limits.
analiza
pentru a analiza To analyse the equation, it is convenient to go over to
non-dimensional variables.
este analizată To analyse the equation, it is convenient to go over to
non-dimensional variables.
The sum S is analysed analogously.
analogic The proof of (11) is completely analogous to that of
(10).

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analogic cu ... We shall introduce distributions in a way analogous


to that used in the Cantor theory when generalizing
rational to real numbers.
analogie The analogue of the Fermat's theorem is also valid.
anume In this particular case only one side of the triangle,
namely BC, has traces within the limits of the
drawing.
If S consists of a single element x, then R(x), namely
the smallest subring containing x, is commutative.
The extended solutions have the property II, namely
of uniform continuity.
aparatul matematic mathematical apparatus (or tools / techniques)
a body of mathematics
aparţine
aparţine la The process X(t) falls into one of the following three
classes depending on its asymptotic behaviour.
This equation falls among the so-called renewal
equations.
care nu aparţine This equation contradicts the assumption that G
contains points not belonging to D.
apărea
apare The problem arises of finding the conditions under
which the distribution p(u) is unimodal.
aplica
să aplicăm Let us apply this result to the case of an increasing
process At.
pot fi aplicate Formulas (1) and (2) may be employed on condition
that the contour C has no loops.
se poate de aplicat Since p is of the form 1+4m, Corollary 2.5 is
applicable and hence p=x2+y2.
aproape The temperature was observed to be near zero.
aproape de The angle θ is closed to 45 deg.
aproape peste tot The Lebesque-integrable functions are equal if and
only if they have the same values almost everywhere.
aproape toate Nearly all scientific problems deal with quantities and
relations among them.
aproape toţi It is easy to verify that f(x)<C for almost all x.
aproximativ acelaşi As the numbers of the molecules moving in opposite
directions are much the same, it is natural to
assume ...
aproximaţie
în primă aproximaţie
As (or in) a first approximation, x(t) may be chosen

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to be t2.
aranja în ordine crescătoare
[descrescătoare]
sunt aranjaţi în ordine crescă- The jump moments t1, t2, ..., tn are arranged in
toare [descrescătoare] ascending [descending] order.
arăta
arată Fig.12 depicts the slope of the line ∆x versus ∆t.
vom arăta We shall show that in this case p must divide b.
este arătat The slope of the line ∆x versus ∆t is shown
schematically in Fig.12.
pentru a arăta că To show that q and r are unique, suppose that q'
and r' is any pair of integers for which a=bq'+r', 0
≤ r' < b.
cum este arătat mai sus As has been shown above, the process X t is a
continuous L2-martingale.
arbitrar Let ξ(t) be an arbitrary quasi-potential.
Suppose this is true for an arbitrary n.
argument This is a convincing reason for the study of stochastic
equations of the form.
This reason suggests that the solution to Eqn (17) is
unique.
argumente There are doubtful points in the above reasoning.
aritmetică Arithmetic is the elementary branch of mathematics
dealing with the properties of numbers and their
operations.
asigura
asigură Property 1o ensures the feasibility of the addition.
The MIS furnishes (or supplies) data for
management.
asociat
asociată cu (referitoare la) The error is associated with (or is due to) the
inaccuracy in computations.
The study is concerned with linear functionals of
supercritical processes.
The first problem is directly related to partial
differential equations.
Further extension of the notion of a stochastic integral
is connected with the extension of the notion of
convergence.
asociat la
The polynomial R(t) corresponding to this function
by (6) is almost everywhere nonzero.
The space, S2k-1, and the projective metric, L(r,s),

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associated with it will play an important part in the


future.
It is convenient to replace k by a new factor µ related
to k by the relation µ=4πk.
Thus the following theorem has been proved.
astfel
The factors µ and k are related as follows: µ=4πk.
astfel încât Let X be a space such that from every open cover we
can select a finite cover.
We break up the component a into several
components in such a way that A and B now belong
to different components.
We select a basis in the underlying space such that ...
Specifically, the parameter can be chosen so that the
distribution is unimodal.
The model is so constructed as to allow further
modification and improvement.
astfel ... ca We take a point on the line such that ...
astfel ... încât We take a point on the line such that ...
Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer that there
exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)=g(x).

In applications we often come across the so-called


aşa numit
Heaviside function.
aşa ... pentru care We take a point on the line such that ...
aşadar Thus, the integral on the right-hand side of (5) can be
analytically continued to the whole domain.
The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that p|b.
Every element in T has norm at least equal to 1, so
there must be one of them, γ , which is of least
positive norm.
Since p is of the form 1+4m, Corollary 2.5 is
applicable and hence p=x2+y2.
Therefore P(x,s,t,A) saitsfies the Chapman-
Kolmogorov equation.
Consequently,

ataşa la
poate fi ataşat la The process X(t) may be placed (or put) into one of
the following three classes depending on its
asymptotic behaviour.
atinge
atinge maximum [minimum]
The function ψ(x) reaches its maximum [minimum]
at x*=3h/2.
Let b1(s,w) coincide with the z for which the

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minimum of the function | B(s,w) z |, | z |=1, is


attained and let b2(s,w) coincide with z for which the
above function attains its maximum.
atinge scopul
de a atinge scopul In order to attain the purpose, we shall not avail
ourselves of the methods of functional analysis.
este atins scopul This aim is attained (or objective is accomplished)
by introducing non-dimensional variables x' = x/x0
and y' = y/y0.

atinge
se atinge Evidently, if the inf in (1.5) is attained at a certain
point , then the inf Φm(x,um) is also attained at that
point.
atrage atenţia
să atragă atenţia The reader should take notice of the fact that the scale
parameter a does not enter into the expression for G
(u).
It is necessary to pay special attention to the
behaviour of F(x) at infinity.
se atrage atenţia Recently much attention (or thought /
consideration) has been given to the study of the
diffusion processes.
atribui sens
pentru a atribui sens To attach a meaning to the solution of this stochastic
equation, we must define the measure µ more
accurately.
se atribuie sens Analogous meaning is attached to the notation D
[0,∞).

atribui valoarea
atribuim valoarea We assign the value 0 to this state.
valori pot fi atribuite A variable is a quantity to which an unlimited number
of values can be assigned in an investigation.
automat It follows automatically that these Rm-semisimple
rings are strongly Rm-semisimple.

auxiliar As a preliminary to the proof of the theorem, we shall


discuss several auxiliary assertions.
avantaj
avantaje To appreciate the merits (or the advantages) of this
theory, it suffices to observe that ...
avantaj principal
The main (or principal / major) advantage of this

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approach is that it enables the results of the previous


chapter to be extended to the case under
consideration.
avea
avem Since a satisfies (1), we have Y 1=Y 2.
nu are For instance, the function
has not a derivative at
the point 0.
The prime number p possess no factors other than ± 1
and ± p.
poate avea It follows that the solution can have only a finite
number of zeros in D.
nu poate avea It follows that the solution cannot have more than a
finite number of zeros in D.
avea de-a face
avem de-a face In this section we deal only with rational integers.
avea intenţia
vom avea intenţia In this section we are going to modify our definition
of distribution so as to obtain a notion equivalent to
that of S. Sobolyev and L. Schwartz.
avea loc
această nu poate avea loc This cannot be, for l/p is not a rational number.
această are loc în cazul This happens to be the case for those equations in
which S increases.
avea maxim [minim]
are maxim [minim] The function ψ(x) has a maximum [minimum] at the
point x*=3h/2.
avea neajunsul
au neajunsul These equations possess a fundamental defect (or
demerit / draw back / disadvantage).
are neajunsul His hypothesis has limitations of its own.
avea nevoie de
vom avea nevoie de In order to achieve this, we shall need some material
from elementary number theory.
avea o formă ...
are o formă ... Equation (3.2) is of the following form ...
avea o mare importanţă
are o mare importanţă In applications the following theorem is of great
importance.
avea sens

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dacă are sens


The symbol , if it is meaningful, always

represents a number.
nu are sens If the common part is empty, the difference has no
sense.
avea soluţie unică
are soluţie unică Equation (7) has a unique solution.
avea un caracter
are un caracter Noise ω(t) is stochastic in character (or in nature).
Noise ω(t) is of a stochastic character (or nature).
avea valoarea
are valoarea The derivative F'(x) has the value 0 at the point 0.

B
baza pe
se bazează pe The proof is based on the ideas of Kunita and
Watanabe [36].
The previous analysis proceeds from the assumption
that the class M* contains the class M2,∞.

bineînţeles It is clear that the definitions and properties given


below can be extended to σ-algebras.
biunivocitate Hence from (6) and the remark concerning the
one-to-one-ness of the correspondence, relation (8)
yields F=0.

C
ca de obicei As usual, we use continuous versions of (4).
ca şi în As in the example discussed above, we can easily
prove the following proposition.
ca şi în cazul ...
In the same manner as in the case of convergence to
a Wiener process, one can easily deduce the following
result.
In the case of distributions, as in the case of functions,

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the following properties hold true.


ca urmare Such a solution does not exist in consequence (or on
account) of (6) and Remark 4.
calcula As is easy to calculate ...
sunt calculate The coefficients of expansion (9) are evaluated (or
computed) from formulas (5).
cum este uşor de calculat as is easy to calculate
as is easy to evaluate
calcula integrală dea-lungul
to take the integral along a curve
curbei
calcula integrală pe domeniu to take the integral over a domain
care In classical analysis there have been considered several
sequences of functions which are distributionally
convergent to δ(x).
Choose in D2 any function that tends to infinity as
x→0.
cărui A variable is a quantity to which an unlimited number
of values can be assigned in an investigation.
al cărui Let A be a strongly positive operator whose domain of
definition does not depend on t.
care este Consider the function λ(y), which is a periodical
distribution coinciding with δ(y) for | y | < 1/2.
caz
caz particular This formula can be considered as a particular case of
formula (14).
cazul considerat In the case under consideration the process α(t) is
continuous.
Let us generalize equation (6) to the case under
discussion.
căuta
vom căuta We shall seek a solution to (12) in the form
z(t,u) = x(t) y(u).
sunt căutate It is convenient, in solving problems, to use letters for
the numders which are sought.
căutată The sought-for quantity M is involved in the equation
reciprocally.
The desired value of m can be determined from
conition (4).
care va fi căutată Consider the equation (3), where f(t) is the function to
be found.
Here v* is the value of v to be determined.
căutare

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în căutarea In looking (or in search) for the optimal solution we


discovered that ...
câteva To see this, we shall prove several lemmas.
A few words should be said about physical meaning of
this parameter.
Some other examples of fundamental sequences will
be given after the following lemma.
câteva modalităţi There is more than one way to approach the problem.
ce For instance, the Dirac delta distribution cannot be
identified with any continuous function, which will be
proved in Section 8.
cel mai bine The nature of this problem can best be made plain by
examples.
cel mai mare divizor comun The greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers
(CMMDC) h and k is the largest positive factor common to both h
and k.
cel mai mic multiplu comun Twelve is the least common multiple (LCM) of 3 and
(CMMMC) 4.
cel mult The set of the points of discontinuity of f(t) is at (the)
most countable.
cel puţin Formula (7) is true under the hypothesis that at least
one of the integrals on the left-hand side is meaningful.
cercetare
cercetare profundă the in-depth study
cercetare ulterioară To determine whether these ideals coincide, we must
make a further study of the polynomials.
cere
se cere It is required to estimate in the best possible manner
the value of a random variable ξ.
se cere întrebarea It is therefore reasonable to ask for which classes of
"integers" the fundamental theorem holds, and for
which it does not.
cerinţă mai puternică The process Mt, satisfies the conditions of (1) with the
stronger requirement that be an L2-
martingale.
chiar în cazul când This example shows that the ordinary derivative does
not always coincide with the distributional derivative,
even when the ordinary derivative wrists everywhere
except at one point.
Thus we need not 8, but 9 parameters to describe the
ci
system.

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ciocni cu
ne ciocnim cu In applications we often come across the so-called
Heaviside function.
cititor The reader will find it a useful exercise to supply the
details of the proof.
clasic In classical analysis there have been considered
several sequence of functions which are
distributionally convergent to δ(x).
clar
este clar că Clearly, the sum, difference and product of such
integers are of the same form.
It is clear that a and -a are both in the set A.
intuitiv este clar It is clear intuitively that every collection, finite or
infinite, of non-negative integers contains a smallest
one.
the coefficient of smth.
coeficientul pe lângă
the coefficient multiplying smth.
coeficientul pe lângă A polinomial is monic if its leading coefficent is 1.
termenul
superior
coincide
coincide cu For an arbitrary function F(x) satisfying conditions 1) -
6) there exists a unique probability measure whose
distribution function coincides with F(x).
The characteristic through A is the same as the one
through B.
complet satisfăcător Completely satisfactory solution of the functional
problem is given in [6].
completa
este completată It is assumed that σ-algebra F0 is completed (or
augmented) by all P-null sets.
complicat The problem of optimization is, in general, more
complicated.
Integration of equation (3.2) represents a rather
involved boundary-value problem.
conclude From a>b and b>c we conclude that a>c.
condiţie
condiţia asupra This result was established in another way under
somewhat weaker conditions on the diffusion
coefficients.
condiţiile conform cărora The problem arose of finding the conditions under
which the distribution p(t) is unimodal.

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condiţie de convergenţă la The condition for convergence to a Wiener process is


stated in the next section.
condiţie de existenţă şi Let the coefficients of equation (9) satisfy the
unicitate a soluţiei condition for the existence and uniqueness of the
solution.
condiţii exacte pentru The exact conditions for equilibria to exist and be
stable are examined.
condiţie mai fină The tangent bundle of the manifolds provides a
sharper necessary condition.
condiţii sunt verificate Assume that conditions (5) and (20) are satisfied.
If the conditions of Theorem 10 are satisfied and,
moreover, A(ϕ,t) is continuously differentiable, then ...
Let the conditions of Theorem 4 be satisfied and the
function be twice continuously differentiable.
alte condiţii fiind aceleaşi The distinction between (14) and (15) is that the
variable x entering into (15) depends on ω, other
things being equal.
în condiţia că Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined,
provided that it exists everywhere.
Any term may be transposed from one member of
equation to the other, providing its sign is changed.
The abstraction principle can be applied to sets of
arbitrary elements provided there exists an
equivalence relation ~.
These functions are locally Riemann-integrable under
(or on) the condition that their values are equal at all
points of continuity.
în condiţiile teoremei Under the conditions of Theorem 6.1 the limit
exists and is differentiable.

conduce
conduce la ecuaţia This reasoning yields a simple equation.
confirma ipoteza to verify a hypothesis
conform
conform algoritmului The classes can be formed by the FLAMENCO
algorithm.
conform criteriului By the Eisenstein's criterion, the polynomial xn-2 is
irreducible over the field of rational numbers.
conform definiţiei Then, by definition, ...
conform ipotezei inducţiei By the induction hypothesis, the theorem is true for f
(x).
conform lemei By Lemma 2.3, the sequence {gn(x)} is fundamental.
conform presurunerii
By assumption, E(1)=0.
By the assumption of the lemma, the solution to (1) is
positive.

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Since ... by hypothesis, (4) is a bounded sequence.


conform proprietăţii By property (4) of norms, every element in T has
norm at least equal to 1, so there must be one of them,
γ, which is of least positive norm.
conform teoremei By Theorem 1.1, we can find q and r so that b=dq+r,
0 ≤ r < d.
consecinţă
consecinţă din To complete the proof of the lemma, we use the
corollary of Lemma 2.
este o consecinţă The inequality f(x)≤0 is a direct consequence of the
system fi(x)≤0, i=l, 2, ..., n.

consecutiv When an expression contains parentheses within


parentheses, they may be removed in succession,
beginning with the innermost.
considera
considerăm Consider the rational number a/b.
poate fi considerată The problem can be approached in many different
ways.
să considerăm Let us now consider the case a>1.
Consider now the case a>1.

sunt considerate Several other functions, very useful from the practical
point of view, are considered in the following section.
Some properties of the operator L are dealt with in the
next chapter.
considerată An integral part of the creative approach to the
problem under consideration (or under study) is the
analysis of its similarity to and difference from the
analogous problems.
poate fi considerat ca C (R+) can be regarded as a complete separable
metric space under the topology of uniform
convergence.
în lucrare se consideră The paper deals with the theory of distributions of
finite order.
considera acum
considerăm acum We now consider the process η(t).
Consider now the process η(t).
considera de la început
vom considera de la început Consider first the simplest case where a=0.
We will first confine our attention to discrete-
parameter martingales.
considera util

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considerăm util We find it useful to define a new concept of


conjugacy and to discuss its relation to the old.
considerabil mai simplu Theorems IV and VI are considerably simpler than
the analogous theorems in the differential calculus.
consideraţie We now turn to the task of considering the
continuous-parameter stochastic processes.
The consideration (or discussion) of this problem in
more detail shows that ...
We must now subject the concept of equivalence to a
somewhat closer scrutiny.
Further inspection (or examination) of Fig.1 discloses
that there are two points of inflection on the curve.
consta
constă în ... The abstraction principle consists (or lies) in the
identification of objects (mathematical entities) which
have a common property.
construcţie By a slight change in the method of (7), the
construction of such functions is easily carried out.
construi
pentru a construi The abstraction principle is often applied in
mathematics to construct new notions.
In the case under consideration the process α(t) is
continuu
continuous at every point of the interval (c,d).
continuă din dreapta după t Ft is continuous from the right (or right-continuous)
in t if for all t ≥ 0 .

contrazice
ce contrazice So π is a unit, contrary to the hypothesis.
So p|L, contradicting the fact that L is prime.
această contrazice This contradicts r ≥ 0.
contrazice presupunerii This equation contradicts the assumption that G
contains a point not belonging to D.
This contradicts the hypothesis that k→∞ and that (6)
holds for all l<km.

contribui
pentru a contribui la This series of expository presentations of the best
răspândirea thoughts and keenest researches in pure and applied
mathematics is intended to contribute to the
dissemination of mathematical knowledge.
conţine
se conţine The subgroup Pn is contained in the centralizer of the
element p in B.

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conţine proprietăţi The following list contains the fundamental


properties of the norm.
convenabil
convenabilă In some cases the following complex form of

trigonometrical series is advantageous.

mai convenabil It is more convenient to break up the experiment into


three phases.
este convenabil It is convenient to call two Gaussian integers
associates if α=εβ, where ε is a unit.
va fi convenabil It will be convenient to define the convergence of fn
(x) in the following sense.
deseori este convenabil It is often convenient to establish the position of
points by giving their coordinates.
conveni
vom conveni We shall agree to write A(x,t)∈S if A(x,t) is a process
with independent increments.
converge
converge absolut The series (1) converges absolutely.
converge aproape peste tot to converge almost everywhere
converge în medie to converge in (the) mean
converge în probabilitate to converge in probability
converge uniform Thus the series (4) converges uniformly.
convinge
ne convingem că Make (or be) sure that the coefficients have no
common factors other than +1.
To complete the proof, check that ...
Before applying Theorem 10.7, check to see that there
is an α in A such that ...
a se convinge în To prove the convergence X n→M, it suffices to make
sure that ...
trebuie să se convingă că The investigator must assure himself that the errors
are within the admissible limits.
pentru a se convinge în ... To see that if θ satisfies an equation
anxn + an-1xn-1 + ... + a0 = 0, then there is a rational r
such that rθ is an algebraic rational, observe that anθ
satisfies (3).
To be certain that c is the required element, check
that D[c,A]>0.
pentru a se convinge în To see this, notice that Powell's frequency function is
aceasta identical with our function Φb(x).

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se poate de convins că Then, similarly as has been done in [1], one ascertains
that the limit function satisfies the equation (4).
este uşor de convins că It is easy to make sure that ϕ(x) is convex on [c,∞).

coordona
se coordonează The theory checks well (or agrees / is in good
agreement) with experiment.
The hypothesis fits the experimental data.
This conjecture is in line with that of Seidenberg.
corect This definition is correct; since the sequence {pn(m)
(x)} is fundamental.
corectitudinea definiţiei To verify the correctness of this definition, we must
prove that ...
corespondenţă biunivocă The one-to-one correspondence established above
makes it unnecessary to distinguish between functions
f(x) and distributions [f(x)].
crescător
crescătoare There is an increasing sequence of integers km such
that ...
strict crescător Introduce a strictly increasing funstion g(x) defined
on [0,∞).
creşte
creşte monoton după t Ft monotonically increases in t, that is Fs⊂ Ft, for
s<t.
cu ... ce tinde ... Each summand on the right of (12) becomes
vanishingty small with (or as) n→∞.
cub al numărului When a is used three times as a factor, the product is
called the third power of a, or the cube of a.
cunoaşte
cum noi deja cunoaştem Since, as we already know, all these trigonometrical
integrals vanish, we obtain formula (5).
cunoscut cu The reader acquainted with the Lebesgue integrals
can interpret formula (1) in a still wider sense, viz. as
the equality almost everywhere.
este cunoscut că It is well known that for an arbitrary function F(x)
satisfying conditions 1) - 6) there exists a unique
probability measure whose distribution function
coincides with F(x).
cum este cunoscut

As is well known, the nth partial sum of the series


is nothing else

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than the Dirichlet kernel .

este bine cunoscut It is well known that there exist sequences {Tn} and
{Sn} such that ηn=Tn-Sn.
este cunoscută ca This relation is known as the Biot-Savart law.
cuvânt
cu alte cuvinte To put it in another way, the gross weight W can be
represented as W=Wst+We+Wp.

D
da
dă The repeated application of relation (2.1) yields ...
The following theorem provides the description of the
everywhere dense set E.
dăm We give (or present) below a synthesis of various
approaches available.
da posibilitate
dă posibilitate The martingale approach enables us (or permits) to
suggest a new method for constructing solutions of
stochastic differential equations.
Knowledge of the numerical values of a and b offers a
means of (or makes possible) determining ...
This method makes it possible to tackle the boundary-
value problem under discussion.
The main advantage of this approach is that it enables
the results of the previous chapter to be extended to the
case under consideration.
da restul de la împărţire
dă restul de la împărţire Every integer a leaves a remainder r, 0 ≤ r < m, on
division by m.
dacă In the course of the proof of the theorem we have
described the method for determining the functions
Φn (x0, ..., xn) if X is locally compact.
dacă acesta este cazul If this is the case, the deterministic approach is quite
suited for this purpose.
dacă acesta există Hence, it follows that the representation of f(x) in the
form (4), if it exists, is unique.

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dacă este necesar The integer k can be, if necessary, replaced by any
greater integer.
dacă n-ar fi Were is not for the discontinous coefficient,the
problem would be much simpler.
dacă nu If there is no such ζ, we write max f = ∞.
Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be
assumed to be in force.
dacă numai Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined,
provided (that) it exists everywhere.
dacă şi numai dacă R is a realization of η(t) if and only if ...
dacă şi numai dacă există The martingale ξ(t) is uniformly integrable if and only
if there exists a random variable η such that E |η| <
∞ and ξ(t) = E {η | Ft}.

dacă ..., atunci Evidently, if the inf in (1.5) is attained at a certain point
, then the inf Φm(x,um) is also attained at that point.

dacă ... nu Unless u is a power of 2, this can always be done.


dar Element ξ belongs to V, whereas (or and) ζ belongs to
W.
This value is negative — not positive.
dar atunci But then we could proceed from the pair (x, y) to a still
smaller in the same way as from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2).
dar nu With time the number of particles increases, rather
than remains constant.
date iniţiale the initial (or the input) data
datorită Delacherie and Meyer are well known for their book
'Stochastic Processes and Potentials'.
Mathematics, due to (or owing to / because of) its
abstract nature, finds wide application in most spheres
of human activity.
de aceea For this reason the points belonging to Ω are called
elementary events.
Conversely, if N=1, we have a+b=1, so that either a=0
or b=0.
The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that p|b.
Every element in T has norm at least equal to 1, so there
must be one of them, g, which is of least positive norm.
de asemenea
Observe also that |Dn(s)| ≤ C logn.
From equation (3) we find, as well,

If α and β belong to F, so do α+β, α−β, αβ, and α/β if

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β≠0.
de fapt In fact, this follows from the consideration that the
sequence gn(x) is bounded for x>0.
Since these are continuous processes, we actually
have ...
de fiecare dată când In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only the
numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must be
given whenever the rule is applied.
de k ori Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer that there
exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)(x)=g(x).
Differentiating formula (8) k times, we obtain the
equality ...
de la The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI
century.
Prof. Romanov is giving a course of lectures on chaos
and bifurcations in room 406, commencing October 1.
In order to start from the very beginning, we introduce
first the basic notions and concepts of the theory of
measurements.
From this time on, the density function decreases.
We shall start with the basic notions and concepts of
the theory of measurements.
de unde Setting (*) we obtain (**), whence, in view of
inequality (1), ...
The author does not explain from whence the estimate
(7) emerges.
deduce
deducem Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer (or deduce)
that there exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)=g
(x).
deducem ecuaţia We derive (or deduce) the equation for the
distribution of cell size at division and the distribution
of generation time.
defini
definim Define unit and prime just as we did for the Gaussian
integer.
definită The function h(x) is defined at every point of the
interval [c,d].
The variable, whose value is determined once the
value of the independent variable is given, is called the
dependent variable.
bine definită

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The integral is well defined in

accordance with the above definition.


definit anterior Using the Haar family {gn} defined above, we
introduce functions {hn}.
pozitiv definit A complex-valued function f(x) is called positive
definite if for any n and complex numbers zj

definire
în definirea In defining K(x) we have made use of our assumption
that b(x)=0 for x<a.
definiţie In the definition of the mth derivative we can replace
the polynomials pn(x) by functions fn(x).
din definiţie From the definition it follows at once that G(u)
satisfies condition (2).
definiţie echivalentă It is possible to give an equivalent definition of
integral (1) as the limit of sums (2).
definiţie exactă A precise definition is given below.
demonstra
demonstrează This proves that d is a factor shared by both a and b.
pentru a demonstra To prove the theorem, it suffices to show that ...
este demonstrată Since Nρ<Nα, the inequality (3) is established.
pentru a demonstra To prove this, interchange the order of integration in
the double integral in (6), after which all the integrals
except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate
change of variables.
To prove the theorem, note first that neither a nor b can
be zero.
nu este ce demonstra If p|a, there is nothing to prove.
se poate de demonstrat că It may be proved that if ...
de la început vom demonstra We shall first prove the following two lemmas.
înainte de a demonstra Before proving the theorem we illustrate its
teorema applications.
trebuie să demonstrăm că We must prove that the two factorizations differ at
most in the order in which the primes appear.
demonstrare
în procesul demonstrării In the course of the proof of this theorem we have
made use of the following lemma.
demonstraţie

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fără demonstraţie We shall assume without proof the following theorem.


denumire The name 'distribution' is due to L. Schwartz, who
developed the theory in 1945 and later.
deoarece This cannot be, for 1/p is not a rational number.
In the theory of distributions a distinction between the
trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is
unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical
series is an expansion of a periodic distribution.
Because (3), we have ...
deoarece în caz contrar All numbers amn can be arranged in a sequence {bk}
convergent to b0, for otherwise it would suffice to
neglect a finite number of initial terms a1n, a2n, ..., apn
to get a contradiction to property (5).
deoarece ..., atunci Since the functions w are solutions of this equation, the
difference of any two of them may be regarded as the
solution of a certain linear differential equation.
deosebi
se deosebeşte prin The function f(x) differs from F(x)(k-1)by a constant.
se deosebesc prin We must prove that the two factorizations differ at
most in the order in which the primes appear.
se deosebesc una de alta prin The equation f'(x) = g'(x) holds if and only if the
distributions f(x) and g(x) differ from each other by a
constant function.
deosebire
spre deosebire de ... The absolute value of a number a, as distinguished
from its algebraic value, is represented by |a|.
As opposed to (or as distinct from / in contrast to)
the real case, any polynomial always has a root in the
field of complex numbers.
In fundamental contrast to M. R. Stein, we have
preferred the algebraic approach.
deosebit
este deosebit de importantă The case of a linear substitution is especially
important (or is of particular importance) for us.
depinde

care nu depinde de To this end, we establish first that there exists a


constant L not depending on s and n such that ...
nu depinde de alegere The distribution (1) does not depend on the choice of
the indefinite integral ψ(x).
depinde esenţial de In this new definition the fact that the choice of the
integer k depends on the interval [a,b] is essential.
depinde monoton de t
Let (2) be a family of finite stopping times which are

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monotonically dependent on t and right-continuous in


t.
deriva
deriva ... după x To differentiate v(t,x) with respect to x.
deriva ... în raport cu x To take the derivative of v(t,x,u) with respect to x.
derivând In fact, by differentiating (3) we obtain ...
Hence, by successive differentiation we obtain ...
derivând de k ori Differentiating formula (8) k times, we obtain the
equality ...
derivând succesiv Hence by successive differentiation we obtain ...
derivata după x A derivative of u(t,x,u) with respect to x.
deschide
deschide posibilităţi The interpretative approach opens perspectives in that
direction.
deschiderea parantezelor the removal of parentheses
descompune în factori to expand the number into factors
to factor the number
to present smth in a factor form
to factor smth into components
descompune în serie
descompunem în serie Expand function ϕ(x) in a Taylor series.
descompunem în serie în Expand function u(t,x,u) into a Taylor series about x.
raport cu x
poate fi descompusă în serie Under certain conditions a continuous function can be
expanded into a Fourier-Bessel series.
Function f(x) can be expanded as an infinite power
series.
Any supermartingale ζ(t) has exactly one
descompunere
decomposition of the form ζ(t)=µ(t)-α(t).
descompunere în 6 = 2*3 = 3*2 are the only factorizations of 6 into
positive prime factors.
descompunere în fracţii The decomposition of a fraction into partial
elementare fractions.
descompunere în serie Hence, we obtain the expansion of ctgx:
ctgx = 2(sin2x + sin4x + sin6x + ...).
descrescător Let {an} be a decreasing sequence and {bn} an
increasing sequence of numbers.
descriere formală A formal description of the basic notions is usually
based on the set-theoretical model of probability theory
developed by A. N. Kolmogorov in 1929.
descris

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descris anterior We now show how the method described above can be
extended to move the existence of µ.
descrisă de ecuaţie We will consider only those systems whose evolution is
given by the equation of form (8).
desemna
desemnează The symbol Fn(x)→ will denote that the sequence
{Fn(x)} converges almost uniformly to a function.

desen
pe desen In Fig.11 the planes π1 and π2 are shown as coinciding.
din desen se vede că In Fig.10 it is seen that ...
în limitele desenului In this particular case only one side of the triangle,
namely BC, has traces within the limits of the
drawing.
deşi It is possible that the ordinary derivative does not exist,
although the distributional derivative has a value at this
point.
detaliat
mai detaliat It is necessary to consider this problem in greater
detail.
detaliile The details can be found in most texts on the theory of
equations, for example in the book of Thomas listed in
bibliography.
The Introduction gives details concerning the
application of stochastic differential equations in
natural sciences.
determina
determină Two sequences {fn(x)} and {gn(x)} determine the same
distribution if and only if they are equivalent.
determinat cu exactitate de The indefinite integral is determined up to a constant.
Integrating f(x) k times, we obtain a locally integrable
function F(x), which is determined up to a polynomial
of degree less than k.
deveni
devine The relation of equivalence is then transformed into
the usual equality.
The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that p|b.
With this terminology Theorem 1.5 becomes
meaningful for the Gaussian integers.
dezacord This explains the discrepancy in behaviour of the two
functions.
diferenţă

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unică diferenţă între The only difference among them is the order of
appearance of the factors.
diferi
diferă de The function f(x) differs from F(k-1)(x) by a constant.
The proof is not like that of Theorem 5.6.
diferite de Consider the numbers which are different from 0 and
±1.
The prime numbers p possess no factors other than ±1
and ± p.
dificil
este mai dificil It is slightly more difficult to see that

dificultate
dificultate poate fi trecută This difficulty can be remedied by a slight restatement
of the fundamental theorem to include negative
numbers.
din nou Now we can, once again, use the arguments analogous
to those presented in Section II.
direct This inequality can be proved directly (or
immediately) using (7) and Lemma 9 in Section 1.
direcţie
în aceea direcţie The interpretative approach opens perspectives in that
direction.
discontinuitate de speţa întâia With probability 1 ξ(t) has no discontinuities of the
[a doua] first [second] kind.
discuta
discutăm In Chapter 8 we discuss the filtering problem.
nu va fi discutată The validity of this assumption will not be debated
here.
distinge
pentru a distinge The one-to-one correspondence established above
makes it unnecessary to distinguish between functions
f(x) and distributions [f(x)].
distingere In the theory of distributions a distinction between the
trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is
unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical
series is an expansion of a periodic distribution.
distribuţie comună the joint (or simultaneous) distribution
divide
se divid
Then the numbers 1, 2, ..., p-1 fall into pairs such that

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the product of any pair is congruent to 1 modulo p.


se divide The procedure is then broken down (or divided /
subdivided) into the three steps: ...
se divide prin Nine is a multiple of three.
divizibil
sunt divizibile prin All the terms on the right are divisible by p.
domeniu de definiţie Let A be a strongly positive operator whose domain of
definition does not depend on G.
dori
dorit Passing to the limit in (6) we obtain the desired result.
This is exactly the wanted decomposition.
este de dorit It is desirable in many applications that the function Xt
be also measurable.
după ce To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the
double integral in (6), after which all the integrals
except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate
change of variables.

E
ecuaţie
din ecuaţia From equation (2) we find that ...
ecuaţie cu n necunoscute the equation in n unknowns
ecuaţie de gradul n the equation of degree n
ecuaţie iniţială the input equation
ecuaţie în raport cu the equation in (the unknown) x
(necunoscuta) x
ecuaţie rezolvabilă în raport the equation solvable for x
cu x
editarea The publication of this monograph was made possible
due to ...
He has over 70 published works.
efectua
pot fi efectuate The calculations can be carried out (or performed) in
the same way as in Section 15.
de a efectua transformarea On many occasions it is useful to take the Laplace
transform of equation (15).
egal
sunt egali The vectors and are equal in magnitude.

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elabora
era elaborată The statistical theory has been developed quite
recently.
elementar The solution of equation (5) is obtained in an
elementary manner by expanding function x(t) in a
Fourier series.
elibera
să ne eliberăm de But here we need only free ourselves of the term V(x)
*µ.
enunţul problemei The most general statement of the problem can be
formulated as follows.
evident A more exact answer to the question requires
apparently (or evidently) a refinement of the
definition of a system.
este evident It is obvious (or evident) that Xt is progressively
measurable.
Obviously (or evidently / apparently), the above
theorem hot index set is taken to be a finite interval
[0,T ] instead of R+.

eveniment We note that any subset of Ω is called an event.


eveniment sigur the sure event
evident The proof of this property is obvious since b=0.
Applying Theorem 12.3 to the obvious equality (*) we
get ...
evita
pentru a evita confuzii To avoid possible confusion, the continuity condition
will be restated in each case.
pentru a evita neînţelegeri To avoid misunderstanding, we may call the first kind
of intervals (including end-points) the closed intervals
and the second kind the open intervals.
pentru a evita repetări în To avoid repetitions in future, we present here basic
viitor concepts and definitions.
exact
exact unul Any prime Π divides exactly one positive rational
prime p.
mai exact More precisely, we shall assume that the following
condition is satisfied.
exactitate
cu exactitate de
Then we can write for the division-size density function
(up to a normalization factor) .
The factors in product (4) are determined uniquely
except for order.

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Factorization of any positive integer is unique to within


the order of factors.
The fundamental theorem of arithmetic asserts that
every integer greater than 1 can be factored in one and
only one way, apart from as the product of positive
prime numbers.
excepţie
cu excepţia The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and t
except for some sets of measure 0.
To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the
double integral in (6), after which all the integrals
except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate
change of variables.
exclude
se exclude The second of these possibilities is excluded, for r(x) is
in T.
exclude posibilitate This approach excludes the possibility of considering
the equations having solutions which belong to a more
general class of numbers.
exemplu Another example of the abstraction principle is the
Cantor definition of a real number.
Let us first look at some simple examples.
de exemplu For instance (or for example), the coefficient of
variation, CV, of size at division is typically 10% and
the CV of age at division is typically 20% or more.
As an example, let α=5 and β=1+2i.
prin exemple The nature of this problem can best be made plain by
examples.
We shall explain it by means of examples.
exemplu interesant We shall construct an interesting example of such a
process in this chapter.
exemplu tipic The polynomials Bn(t) are typical examples of
generalized Brownian functionals.
unele exemple Some other examples of fundamental sequences will
be given after the following lemma.
în calitate de exemplu As an example, consider the primitive polynomials
x2+3 and 3x2+7x-11.
exista
există limita With probability 1 there exists the limit
.

existenţă The existence of the Wiener process follows easily


from the Kolmogorov's criterion.
explica

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vom explica We shall explain the essence of the problem by giving


several examples.
pot fi explicate The variations are greater than can be accounted for
by chance.
pentru a explica Chance is unlikely to account for so great variations.
exponentul puterii A figure or a letter placed a little above and to the right
of a number is called an index, or an exponent, of the
power thus indicated.
expresie algebrică An expression composed of numbers, letters and signs
of algebraic operations and aggregation is called an
algebraic expression.
exprima
exprima ... prin ... To express the solution of equation (2) in terms of w
(t), it is sufficient to observe that w(t) satisfies equation
(3).
să exprim recunoştină I wish to express deep gratitude to O. A. Oleinik for
her valuable advice and her interest in my work.
expunere The exposition of mathematical subject is set forth in a
manner comprehensible not only to teachers and
students specializing in mathematics, but to all those
taking interest in mathematics and its applications.
extinde
va fi extinsă The definition of a stochastic integral will be further
extended to cover the alternating functions.
extindem ... asupra We now extend the definition of a stochastic integral to
a wider class of random processes.
de extins în cazul In §21 we show how to extend the basic definitions
and theorems to the case of distributions of infinite
order.
extinde rezultatele
de a extinde rezultatele The main purpose of this section is to extend the
results of the preceding section to the processes of a
continuous argument.
rezultatele pot fi extinse These results can be extended to all other cases.
extinderile noţiunii de As it is currently being recognized, similar extensions
of the notion of entropy are needed in the field of
biology.
extrage rădăcină patrată [cubică] To extract the square [cube] root of a number.
extragere a rădăcinei Evolution may be defined as the process of finding a
root of a number, or as the inverse of involution.
extremitate
cu extremităţi In every closed subinterval with ends a and b there is at
most a finite number of poles.

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F
face
de a face This helps to make the proofs of all the theorems
elementary and very simple.
făcând ... Making (or letting) n→∞ along the subsequence nk,
we have ...
să facem câteva observaţii Before presenting the main results, we want to make a
referitor few comments on the notion of entropy.
face de prisos The one-to-one correspondence established above
makes it unnecessary to distinguish between function
f(x) and distribution [f(x)].
face referinţă
de a face referinţă la To complete the proof, it is sufficient to refer to the
Cantor theorem on uniform continuity.
facem referinţă la For the proof of this theorem, we refer the reader to
Theorem 9.
poate să facă referinţă la For further information the reader is referred to
Chapter VI.
fals That such an impression is erroneous, we demonstrate
by exhibiting another simple class of "integers" for
which Theorem 8 is false.
familie (set) M is a collection (or family / set) of processes mt ,
t∈T.
fi
poate fi In case of right-continuity the condition (2) may be
replaced by the requirement (i).
fi de prisos
este de prisos In the theory of distributions a distinction between the
trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is
unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical
series is an expansion of a periodic distribution.
fi în relaţie
sunt în aşa relaţie încât When two variables are so related that the value of
the first variable is determined when the value of the
second variable is given, then the first variable is said
to be a function of the second.
fi în stare
suntem în stare We are now in a position to prove the fundamental

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theorem stated in the opening paragraph of the chapter.


fi recunoscător ... pentru ...
sunt recunoscător ... I am particularly indebted to Miss Leila R. Raines for
pentru ... her painstaking assistance in the revision and
preparation of the manuscript for publication.
fie Put w=5.7.
Set v=t.
Let d be the smallest positive number in the set A.
Let G denote the set of all Gaussian integers, and J the
set of all rational integers.
acum fie Now set .

fie că este dat Let there be given a continuous increasing process ξ


(t).
fie dat Given point A,construct point B symmetrical to the
given point A in relation to plane π.
Given any ε>0, we fix an index n0 such that
| fn(x) - f(x) |<ε for all n>n0.

fiecare
fiecare dintre care Let ξ1, ξ2, ..., ξn be a sequence of random variables
each of which is the sum of certain number of mutually
independent random variables.
pentru fiecare din M is the set of processes mt for each of which there
exists a random variable m such that ...
fix acelaşi Precisely the same proof is valid for Gaussian primes
provided only that we can find one prime.
fixa
vom fixa We fix some t∈S.
Fix k points -1 ≤ x1 < x2 < ... < xn ≤ 1.
fixat Indeed, let c>0 be an arbitrary fixed number.
este fixată A quantity whose value is fixed in any investigation is
called a constant.
folosi In the order to construct the solution to (2), we can use
(or utilize / make use of / apply / employ) relation
(12).
The reader can draw on the data from [4].
se foloseşte The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI
century.
This property is utilized (or exploited) in numerous
technical applicarions.
The term "information" is sometimes used (or applied)
to mean "data".

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ne vom folosi acum de ... Let us now make use of the fact that the trajectory of
process is right-continuous.
font aldin The title should be printed in bold type.
forma
formează The numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., p-1 form a complete residue
system modulo p.
a forma ecuaţia to set up (or to formulate / to form / to write) the
equation
formalizare
în formalizarea When formalizing the notions of probability theory,
the first fundamental assumption is that the results of
the experiments can be described by means of a certain
set Ω.
formă
de formă The function η(t) also admits decomposition of the
form (4.3).
An integral of this form can be evaluated by
substitution.
în formă Write equation (3.2) as (or in the form) ...
în formă explicită To represent the solution of equation (12) explicitly, it
is necessary to solve equation (8) for u(t).
într-o formă concisă An equation that states a rule in a brief form is called a
formula.
într-o formă mai simplă More recently some of results were obtained in a
simplified form.
formula
să formulăm Let us formulate the conditions under which the
statement is valid.
formulare The new statement of the Fundamental Theorem is
this.
formulă
formula schimbului de
Apply now the change of variables formula to (1).
variabilă
formulă iniţială the assumption formula
funcţie
funcţii absolut continue The class of indefinite Lebesgue integrals of locally
integrable functions is the class of absolutely
continuous functions.
funcţie caracteristică EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to
unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω.
funcţie inversă the inverse function

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G
garanta
garantează This condition ensures (or assures) the uniqueness of
the solution.
găsi
găsim From (5), (6) and (7), we find ...
se poate găsi The facts used below can be found in [5]-[7].

greutăţi mari The estimation of ν runs into severe (or great)


difficulties.
genera
generează Here w(t) denotes the process which generates the
current {Ft}.
generată Fs is a σ-algebra generated by the events {ξ(s)∈B}.

general
mai general More generally, if a sequence {fn(x)} converges almost
everywhere, then it converges also in a distributional
sense.
If the function f(x) is sectionally continuous, or, more
generally, if it is Riemann-integrable, equation (1) is
also true except of the points of discontinuities of f(x).
generaliza
pentru a generaliza To generalize the theorem, it is necessary to modify the
definition of convolution.
poate fi generalizat We now show how the method described above can be
extended to prove the existence of µ.
poate uşor fi generalizat Theorem 6 can be easily generalized.
generaliza ... pentru cazul Let us generalize equation (6) to the case under
discussion.

poate fi generalizată pentru This theorem may be generalized to the case of


cazul multiplicative error.
generalizare Distributions are a generalization of functions.
grad
de gradul n pn(x) is a polynomial of degree n.

grupa
grupăm termenii asemenea To solve the equation 2x+x=12, unite (or group /
collect) similar terms in the first member to obtain 3x

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and then divide both members by 3 to find the value of


x to be 4.

I
imediat Using Lemma 2 we can prove at once that G(u)
satisfies condition (ii).
It follows at once from 12.4 that ...
imita
vom imita In proving that Theorem 1.5 holds for the Gaussian
integers we shall imitate as far as possible the proof
already given for rational integers.
implica
această implică This implies the completeness of {hn} in L01[0,∞).

important
foarte important In applications the following theorem is of great
importance.
una din cele mai importante The concept of hierarchy is among the most
important in the theory of general systems.
importanţă The importance of the primes is due to the fact that,
together with 0 and ±1, all the other integers can be
constructed from them.
impresie falsă That such an impression is erroneous, we demonstrate
by exhibiting another simple class of "integers" for
which Theorem 8 is false.
impune
să impunem condiţii asupra In order that the solutions converge, we must impose
the following conditions on the coefficients of
equations (2).
include
include (ind. prez. 3 sg.) It is obvious that the set F includes the set of rational
numbers.
Equation (8) incorporates normal losses.
The dictionary contains (or includes) some
information about the appropriate use of collocations.
sunt incluse Some elements of artificial intelligence are now
incorporated in system.
inclusiv The function f(x,y) possesses bounded partial
derivatives up to the third order inclusive.
Let Ft be a σ-algebra of the events observed up to and

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including the moment t.


independent By a slight change in the method of [3] the reader can
easily prove the theorem by himself.
independent de Let θ be a random variable independent of the σ-
algebra.
This is true irrespective of whether E is a Hausdorff
space or not.
We can always do this, no matter how many points
from D are contained in the sphere S.
After each moment of regeneration the process X(t)
evolves independently of its past.
The distance between two points is the same
irrespective of the direction in which it is measured.
The function ex remains unaltered regardless of the
number of times it is differentiated.
mutual independente Let ξ1, ξ2, ..., ξn be a sequence of random variables
each of which is the sum of certain number of mutually
independent variables.
indica
indică că These results indicate (or suggest) that ...
indiferent
este indiferent It makes no difference whether we say that t is a
stopping time relative to {Ft} or {F't}.

imposibil
este imposibil But this is impossible for any pair of integers a and b is
in J.
It is impossible to represent 12 as m2 + n2.
Many of these questions are difficult if not impossible
to answer.
inducţie
după inducţie We shall prove the theorem by induction.
Define the random variables Mn inductively.
inducţie după k We shall prove the relation by induction in k.
infinit
la infinit The value of a function f(x) at infinity, written f(∞), is
the limit of this function as x →∞.
până la infinit to infinity
infinit mic
the infinitesimal (or the infinitesimal quantity / the
infinitely small quantity)
The limit distribution functions are determined by the
fact that they are the limits for sums of an increasing
number of independent random variables such that a
single summand becomes vanishingly small (or

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infinitesimal) with n→∞.


iniţial The distribution of the initial vector converges
weakly to a limit as u→0.
The reader should be reminded that the initial value of
ν was chosen to be ν0=7.18.

instructiv This example is instructive because it displays the


structure of the process µ(P).
integra prin părţi to integrate by parts
integrală
integrală definită the definite integral
integrală improprie If g(x) is a locally integrable function and the
improper integral exists, then g(∞)=0

provided g(∞) exists.


integrală nedefinită By an indefinite integral of a function f(x) we
understood each function ψ(x) such that ψ'(x) = f(x).
integrant the integrand (or the expression under the integral
sign)
integrare
după integrare Replacing x by x+t in (1), we have, after integration,
...
integrare prin părţi the integration by parts
interesant
este interesant de observat It is interesting to observe that the above formula
că remains true if the summation is understood according
to the method of arithmetic means.
intra
intră în This term appears in (or enters into) equation (9) in
parentheses.
care intră în ... The coefficient a*(x,s) entering into (or involved in)
the expression for I t can be assumed to be constant.

introduce
introducem Introduce the sequence {an}n ∈ N of positive numbers.
Allow sinu within the differential sign.
introducând Introducing 2n new variables ξi and ζi we deduced 2n
equations.
a fost introdusă The notion of distribution was introduced to
mathematics by S. Sobolyev in 1936.
sunt introduse Data are entered (or fed) into the computer from the
keyboard.

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intuitiv The model emerged from the intuition that the notions
of hierarchy, complexity, stability, and entropy were to
be very important.
inutil pentru If the coefficients of equation (2) do not satisfy the
Lipschitz condition, then the method of successive
approximations is unsuitable for the construction of
solutions.
invers Conversely, formula (6) defines a measurable linear
functional for any sequence of numbers (z,ek).

ipoteza despre Observe that if the hypothesis on the existence of


values of F(x) at a and b is not fulfilled, the equality
may be wrong.
The proof might have been arranged in a different way
if we had made no hypothesis about the value of G.

Î
în
în acest scop To this end, we establish first that there exists a
constant L such that ...
For this purpose (or with this object in view / with
this in mind), an attempt will be made to generalize
the notion of entropy.
în afară EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to
unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω.
în aplicaţii In applications we often come across the so-called
Heaviside function.
în aşa mod încât For the new distributions one can define addition,
subtraction, multiplication by a number or by a
function in such a manner that the fundamental
properties are preserved.
A variable x is said to vary continuously through an
interval [a,b] when x increases from a to b in such a
manner as to assume all the values between a and b in
the order of their magnitudes.
It follows from (1), (2) and (3) that the whole set is
decomposed into abstraction classes so that two
elements are in the same abstraction class if and only if
they are equivalent.
în concordanţă cu In accordance with the law of large numbers, a ≈ mξ
= x.
în conformitate cu In accordance with (or by) the law of large numbers,
a ≈ mξ = x.

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în continuare Next, define M∞ as the limit of Mt , as t→∞.


în fond Basically, the difficulty with establishing inequality (6)
is that ...
în grupe The cards may be processed singly or grouped (or in
groups).
în interior EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to
unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω.
All points of Ω lie in the interior of y2<d.
în întregime We will not attempt here to solve the problem in its
entirety.
Though the macroscopic properties of the cell
population as a whole follow a deterministic growth
law, the descriptors of individual ceils (such as size at
division and age at division) are highly variable.
The contents of this book may not be reproduced either
in whole or in part.
în loc de această Instead, we will assume that ...
în mare măsură The theory is based, to a large extent, on heuristic
considerations.
în realitate Actually, we shall prove somewhat more that we need
for the present.
în sfârşit Finally, to prove (5), suppose p is prime.
în spiritul The paper is written in the spirit of the Wilkinson's
error analysis.
în totalitate The graphs of these sequences do not intersect and in
totality there sequences absorb all jumps of the process
Z.
în totalitate The graphs of these sequences do not intersect and in
totality there sequences absorb all jumps of the process
Z.
în vigoare Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be
assumed to be in force.
în virtutea In view of Theorem V, the sequences from Example 2
converge.
By virtue of the basic assumptions, ...
Right-angle projection is most widely used because of
its comparative simplicity.
On account of the foregoing remark, the distributions
in the earlier sense can be identified with distributions
of finite order.
By 2.4, the limit of an(x) - gn(x) is also a polynomial of
degree less than l.
în caz In the case discussed above the left-hand side of (1)
can also interpreted as ...
în caz contrar
In the opposite case the point x0 is said to be singular.

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Moreover Np=0, for otherwise p≠0 so that Π=α,


contrary to assumption.
în caz general This derivative is, in general, not a function, but a
distribution.
în caz particular In the special (or particular) case where α=1 equation
(3) can be solved explicitly.
In the specific case of Fig.12 the function B(u) has two
extrema.
în caz special In the special case where the L2-martingale is
continuous, the variation <M> will also be continuous.
în cazul acesta In this case ...
în cazul când In case where (or in the case when) a = 4k+3 equation
(2) assumes a more simple form.
In the case when measure µ is transferred from F into
a smaller space F0, the space F0 often turns out to be a
linear space.
în cazul considerat In the case under consideration the process α(t) is
continuous.
în cazul dacă In the case of a negative determinant a quadratic
equation has no roots.
în cazul limită In the limiting case the stochastic process ν(t)
becomes a constant.
în cazul mai sumplu In the simpler case where α=1 this relation takes the
form p=he2/3.
în acest caz particular In this particular case only one side of the triangle,
namely BC, has traces within the limits of the drawing.
în cel mai bun caz This problem has received at best only fragmentary
treatment.
în multe cazuri For many purposes (or in many cases / on numerous
occasions) we shall need the following assumption.
în mod
în mod analogic Analogously (or similarly / likewise), it is sometimes
useful consider only positive solutions to Eqn (17).
This theorem can be proved in much the same way (or
manner) as Theorem 1.
A similar argument yields ...
The plane passing through the vertex A and the vertex
C can likewise be constructed.
în mod arbitrar
The first term can be made arbitrarily small by an
appropriate choice of ε.
The variable, to which the values may be assigned at

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pleasure, is called the independent variable.


The initial values of ξ and ζ may be chosen arbitrarily
(or at will).
în sens
în sens intuitiv Distributions may be, in an intuitive sense,
approximated by functions.
în sens larg The reader acquainted with the Lebesgue integrals can
interpret formula (1) in a still wider sense, viz. as the
equality almost everywhere.
în sens uzual A sequence of constant functions converges in the
distributional sense if and only if it converges in the
usual sense.
în sensul More generally, if a sequence {fn(x)} converges almost
everywhere, then it converges also in the distributional
sense.
This process is unique in the sense that if {Bt} is any
process with properties (1) through (4), then At=Bt for
every t.
în sensul că This process is unique in the sense that if {Bt} is any
process with properties (1) through (4), then At=Bt for
every t.
First of all, probabilistic methods are preferable in
biological studies in that they allow to take into
consideration the variability of the live matter.
în sensul larg in a broad (or wide / loose) sense
în sensul nou So α has n conjugate in the new sense, but m in the
old.
în sensul următor The converse holds in the following sense.
în sensul vechi Sequences fundamental in the earlier sense are
equivalent in the new sense if and only if they are
equivalent in the earlier sense.
So α has n conjugates in the new sense, but m in the
old.
într-un anumit sens A minimal, in some sense, current is obtained if one
observes nothing else, but the process ξ(t) itself.
Here the solution is a non-decreasing function of the
drift coefficients and, in a sense, of the jump functions.
înainta
a fost înaintată A new theory has been put forward this year.
We were informed that a new idea had been advanced
at the closing session.
înainta o ipoteză to advance a hypothesis
încă Many roadblocks must still be overcome before all the
subgroups of G are described.

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încă mai mult These estimates could be further improved by


including additional data in the computation.
In order to improve the estimates still further,
additional data should be included in the computation.
încă unul Let us formulate one further assumption.
To conclude, consider one more example.
începe
vom începe cu To find the sum of the series, we start from the known
formula (1).
se începe Each command begins with a forward slash (/).
început
de la început We first establish the necessity of the condition.
First let us define ...
încheia demonstrarea
pentru a încheia
To complete the proof, it suffices to observe that ...
demonstrarea
îndoială
fără îndoială Undoubtedly (or without a doubt), the introduction of
the theory ...
îndrepta atenţia
vom îndrepta atenţia asupra Let us take note of the fact that the portions of the
straight lines A1A2 and A3A2 are equal.

înlocui
este înlocuit F∞ is replaced by Ft if t∈[0,T ].
poate fi înlocuit prin The integer k can be, if necessary, replaced by any
greater integer.
înlocuit ... prin Replacing in (2) α by β and afterwards x by αx we
obtain ...
înlocui a prin b to replace a with (or by) b
to substitute b for a
to change a for b
se poate de înlocuit In case of right-continuity the condition (2) may be
replaced by the requirement (3).
putem înlocui prin In the definition of the mth derivative we can replace
the polynomials pn(x) by functions fn(x).

însemna
înseamnă A(C) denotes the completion of B(C) with respect to
µν.
va înseamna
The letter M, with subscripts, will denote positive
constants.
'ln' signifies the natural logarithm.

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The expression (a+b)c signifies that the sum of a and b


is to be multiplied by c.
In this equation X stands for the velocity to be found.
The subscript i identifies the number of the group.
această înseamnă că This means that a is different from any of a1, a2, ...,
an.

întâmpina dificultăţi
întâmpinăm dificultăţi If we try to apply the principle of unique factorization
to negative integers, we encounter an obvious
difficulty in the possible presence of minus signs in the
factors.
întoarce
ne întoarcem We turn to the proof of the theorem.
între We can restrict the variable so that it takes on only
values lying between a and b.
Denoting by p(x) the polynomial within (or between)
the signs | | on the left-hand side of (3), we can
write ...
întreaba
se întreabă It is asked what properties the limit distribution
function must possess.
întrebare considerată These ideas can bring advantages in attacking the
problem under consideration, over the usual theories.
întrece
care nu întrece The distribution δ2π(x) is the derivative of the function
E(x/2π), where the symbol E(a) denotes the greatest
integer not exceeding a.
înţelege Practically it suffices to understand integrability in the
sence of Riemann or of Lebesgue.
înţelegem By the integral of the P-measurable function f we mean
the Lebesgue-Stiltjes integral.
prin ... vom înţelege ... By the product of a distribution f(x) = [fn(x)] by a
number λ we understand the distribution [λfn(x)].
By an indefinite integral of f(x) we mean a function of
the form (2).
prin ... se înţelege A current is understood to be an increasing family of
σ-algebras such that ...
înţelegere profundă This information is needed for a fundamental
understanding of (or a deep insight into) the
properties of ...

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J
jos
mai jos The operations introduced below will be identical with
the usual operations on functions.
de mai jos The definitions given below are for the processes
defined on R+.

juca un rol
va juca un rol decisiv The following fact will play a decisive role in the
proof.
joacă un rol important The class of normal functionals plays an important
role from the viewpoint of the causal calculus.
just Let us formulate the conditions under which the
statement is valid (or true).

L
la fel
la fel ca în cazul This is proved in the same manner as in the case of
discrete-argument submartingales.
la fel ca şi But then we could proceed from the pair (x,y) to a
still smaller pair in the same way as from (x1, y1) to
(x2, y2).

lăsa
lăsăm The rest we leave to the reader.
va fi lăsată cititorului The slight change in the original proof which is
needed here will be left to the reader.
lega
este legat de The estimation of ν runs into (or entails) great
difficulties.
limita
ne vom limita la
Not striving for the greatest generality, we shall
confine ourselves to he study of martingales with
continuous characteristics.
In this section, we shall restrict our attention to
integration over processes µ(t) with continuous
characteristics.
For the present we shall content ourselves with

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demonstrating the assertions just made concerning


the sets G and H.
We will first confine our attention to
discrete-parameter supermartingales.
We will restrict ourselves to the simplest case of
λ=0.
este limitată de Accuracy is limited only by that of the original data.
ne vom limita la cazul We shall restrict ourselves, in this paper,
to the case ...
limită
în limită In the limit, as n→∞, the last term in (8) vanishes.
limită inferioară de integrare the lower limit of an integral
limită superioară de integrare the upper limit of an integral
literal In the term 4x2y the numerical multiplier of the
literal part is the coefficient.
lua în consideraţie
luăm în consideraţie If we consider (or take into consideration) that the
series is a series of positive terms, we have ...
fără a lua în consideraţie ... The analysis has been made without reference (or
without regard) to heat losses.
Regardless of the last term which is sufficiently
small, equation (9) may be solved in radicals for x.
dacă se ia în consideraţie că The statement becomes apparent when it is
considered (or if it is remembered) that ...
The statement becomes apparent when it is
considered (or taken into account) that ...
trebuie de luat în consideraţie One should keep in mind (or it should be kept in
că mind / it should be remembered) that the partial
sums of the series (2.2) are the Fourier transforms of
functions Bn(t).

lua în paranteze rotunde [patrate, to put (or to enclose) in parentheses [brackets,


figurate] braces]

M
mai
mai ales This chapter deals mainly (or chiefly /
predominantly) with semigroups.
mai mic decât Now p is in T and has norm less than N(π).
mai mult ca atât Moreover, every solution of (9) may be represented in
the form (3).

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mai mult decât ... Over (or more than) two thousand scientists took part
in the 1st World Congress.
mai multe ... decât The set B contains much more elements than the set
A.
The set B contains twice as many elements as the set
A.
margine
margine inferioară exactă the greatest lower bound
margine superioară exactă the least upper bound
matematică
matematică aplicată applied mathematics
matemitică finită Finite mathematics is considered as superior tool to
use, over differential equations.
matematică pură pure mathematics
In order to achieve this, we shall need some material
material
from elementary number theory.
material bogat despre This volume presents a wealth of material on
stochastic integrals.
matrice inversă the inverse matrix
maxim We denote by xmax the point at which the function f(x)
has a maximum (or is at its maximum).
maximum Any polinomial of degree n ≥ 1 has at most n distinct
roots.
We shall make the most (or the best use) of the
notation proposed by Dynkin in [8].
mărgini
putem mărgini We can restrict the variable so that it shall take on
only values lying between a and b.
mărginit The sequence gn(x)=1/(1+e-nx ) is bounded by number
1.
mărimea erorii The investigation of the magnitude of this error is
connected with profound properties of the geometry of
numbers.
membru al ecuaţiei (parte a Any term may be transposed from one member (or
ecuaţiei) side) of equation to the other, provided its sign is
changed.
menţiona
în primul rând trebuie de The first thing to notice is a wide variety of concepts
menţionat of entropy in the scientific literature.
menţionăm
We note that any arbitrary subset of Ω is called an
event.

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Observe that (ξt ,Ft) is a potential.


vom menţiona că It should be observed here that this definition of
equality is usually adopted in the theory of the
Lebesgue integral.
metoda aproximărilor succesive the method of successive approximations
minuţios The results reported by Dr. Evans need thoroughly be
checked.
modifica
puţin modificând We shall modify slightly the definition of ...
modificând puţin metoda By a slight change in the method of (3) the reader
can easily prove the theorem by himself.
modificare a metodei This is a modification (or an adaption) of the
method of steepest descent.
moment
din acest moment From now on, we assume B to be a complete
separable metric space.
From this time on, the density function decreases.
până la momentul Define the σ-field of events prior to a moment (or a
time / an instant) τ as

Let Ft be a σ-algebra of events observed up to and


including the moment t.
până la acest moment Up till now no assumptions have been imposed
concerning the convergence of ψ(t).
în momentul t în punctul x Let a(t,x) be a velocity of the particle at time t at
point x.
multiplu Twelve is a multiple of three.
multiplu întreg 12.6 is a whole (or an integer) multiple of 4.2.
mulţime
mulţime de măsură 0 The σ-algebra A is generated by the P-null sets.
mulţime dintr-un singur We will assume in the future that the σ-algebra, N,
element contains all single-element sets.

N
neajuns To appreciate the demerits (or disadvantages) of the
theory, to observe that ...
neapărat
nu neapărat

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In general, φe and φ* need not be identical.


Let α(t) be an increasing (but not necessarily adapted)
integrable process.
necesar Hence one of the factors of f(x) necessarily has the
same degree as g(x).
necesară We are going to show that the function F(x) has the
required property.
este necesar In some problems of the filtering theory, it is necessary
to work with Wiener processes on R.
este necesar ca In order that two triangles be congruent, it is necessary
that two angles of the first triangle be equal,
correspondingly, to those of the second triangle.
necesar pentru ca G(x) is the time needed for a cell to grow from size a to
size x.
necesitate By Theorem 2.1 it suffices to prove the necessity.
necunoscut the unknown
the unknown quantity
the sought-for (or the desired) quantity
A number whose value is to be found is called an
unknown number.
cu două necunoscute Thus we obtained an equation in two unknowns.
nedescrescător The comparison theorem for diffusion equations asserts
that the solution of these equations is a non-decreasing
function of the drift coefficient.
nici
nici o ... a cărei Let be p-dimensional cycles, no linear combination
of which is homologous to zero.
nici un No s∈D is an element of Γ.
nici ... No linear combination of is homologous to zero.
nici ..., nici ... The number 0 is neither positive nor negative.
nota
vom nota We denote by Λ the set of all points of discontinuity of
F(x).
să notăm prin Let us denote by C the completion of S in this norm
and by C* the corresponding conjugate space.
Denote the points by P1, P2, ..., Pn.
este notat prin The area of the triangle FGH is denoted by S.
This volume is designated as V.
sunt notate prin Variables are denoted usually by the later letters of the
alphabet.
pentru a nota The symbol f(x) is used to denote a function of x.

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notaţie Let us introduce the following notation

where

ψ'(x) = f(x).
The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI
century.
The following designations are used: α=1/a, β=c/a,
and γ=b/a.
notaţie standardă the standard notation
noţiune When formalizing the notions of probability theory,
the first fundamental assumption is that the results of
experiments can be described by means of a certain set
Ω.
noţiuni şi definiţii de bază basic concepts and definitions
nu The line L does not intersect A or B.
Last time we were not appealing to Theorem 7.
But nothing in this definition indicates from whence
the class [x] is obtained.
This shows that this method cannot give all solutions
of the equation.
It is not a mere academic exercise to pick out the cases
of equality in such an inequality as Gronwall's.
Never did mathematicians worry much about the
foundations in algebra.
If there is no such ξ, we write max f = ∞.
nu ..., ci ... Thus we need not 8, but 9 parameters to describe the
system.
numeraţie roman The Roman system uses seven capital letters to
express numbers, viz.: I(1), V(5), X(10), L(50), C(100),
D(500), and M(1000).
numai We must prove that the two factorizations differ at
most in the order in which the primes appear.
Only then we can proceed to the limit in (14).
It was not until the beginning of this century that the
Euclidean geometry became completely axiomatized.
This fact was not known until 1947.
The process X(t) depends solely on u(t) and is
independent of µ(t) and ω(t).
Algebraic means alone is not sufficient to prove the
fundamental theorem of algebra.
nu numai In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only
the numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must
be given whenever the rule is applied.
These factorizations differ not merely in the order of
the factors, but in the factors themselves.

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număr
număr întreg A unit or an aggregate of units is called a whole
number, or an integer.
număr la cub A number a3 is read 'the cube of a', or 'the third
power of a'.
număr la pătrat A number a2 is read 'the square of a', or 'the second
power of a'.
numi
vom numi Let 1 and -1 be called units.
We shall call r the radius of the set D.
se numeşte Such an instant of time is called (or is termed) a
random time.
Occasionally it is referred to as a random variable
independent of the future, as a Markov moment or as a
stopping time.
se va numi Occasionally a stopping time is referred to as a
random time.
The method will be termed the method of imbedding.
This portion of the curve will be called (or be named)
the stable section.

O
oare We don't know whether the limit law exists for such a
process.
If f(x) and g(x) are locally integrable functions, then the
symbol f(x)+g(x) has the same meaning whether we
interpret them as functions or as distributions.
obişnuit In the case where the distribution is a function, this
definition coincides with the usual one.
observa
observaţi că Notice that U is not unique.
se observă că It may be noted that the problem lies actually in
finding an α such that M(t) ≤ Cα for all t.
To prove 2o, observe that ...
Observe that s is not uniquely determined.
Note that for s<t .
este util de observat că It is useful to remark that the integer k which occurs
in the definition of fundamental sequences can be, if
necessary, replaced by any greater integer.
de la început observăm că Observe first that ...

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trebuie de observat că It is worth noticing that, in accordance with the law of


large numbers, a ≈ mξ = x.
It should be noted that R(t) is almost everywhere
nonzero.
obţine
obţinem Identifying equivalent oriented segments we obtain the
notion of free vector.
Hence, by the induction hypothesis, we infer that
a1=...=an=0.
Thus we arrive at a factorization m=p1p2...pn, where
each pi is positive and prime.
se obţine This function is obtained by application to expression
(4) a nonlinear differential operator Π.
obţine forma In this case equation (7) becomes (or takes the form /
assumes the form) ...
obţinem în rezultat After k similar steps we finally obtain ...
obţine valori Let f(x,t) take on (or assume) values in Rm.
ocupa
ocupă poziţie în spaţiu Two lines may occupy the following relative positions
in space: 1) they may be parallel, 2) they may be
intersect or, 3) not intersect.
ocupă un loc special The prime numbers occupy a special position among
integers.
omite
putem omite
Since and n > 200, we may drop the
last term on the right of (19).
omitem It would take us too far afield to give a proof of this
theorem, so we omit it and content ourselves with
demonstrating some applications of the theorem.
este omis The proof is omitted here.
operaţie
operaţii aritmetice asupra It follows immediately from the definition of
convergence that the arithmetic operations on limits
of sequences of distributions can be performed in the
same way as on sequences of functions.
operaţie inversă Evolution may be defined as the process of finding a
root of a number, or as the inverse of involution.
Division is the inverse of multiplication.
ordine
în ordine aleatoare Numbers may be added in any order.
ordinea integrării To prove this, interchange the order of integration in
the double integral in (6).

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oricare n-ar fi Whatever (or no matter what) t (may be), one can
always find a sufficiently large N to satisfy the
inequality ζN>t.

oricât ar dori Let ε be an arbitrary however small value.


orice
pentru orice For each ω∈Ω, the function τ→Ξτ(ω) is called the
sample path.
For every number ε>0 there exists an index n0 such
that | am - an |<ε for all m, n>n0.

P
pagină
la pagina Powell's carrier distribution, C(τ) on page 245, is our
distribution fm(T).

paranteză
în paranteze When numbers are collected by the sign of aggregation
( ), they are commonly said to be in parentheses.
The expression between (or in) the brackets is
precisely the Laplace transform of the function ϕ*(t).
paranteze rotunde [patrate, The signs of aggregation are the parentheses (), the
figurate] brackets [] and the braces {}.
paranteze pot fi deschise When an expression contains parentheses within
parentheses, the parentheses may be removed in
succession, beginning with the innermost.
parcurge
parcurge valorile If x goes through the values 1, 2, ..., p-1, then, by
Theorem 2, ax goes through a complete residue system
modulo p, excepting 0.
parte
parte componentă An integral part of the creative approach to the
problem under consideration is the analysis of its
similarity to and difference from the analogous
problems.
parte dreaptă The right-hand side of equation (12).
parte întreagă The integer (or whole) part of a real number is the
greatest integer not exceeding the number.
parte stângă The left-hand side (or member) of equation (12).
partea fracţionară The fractional part of 5.6 is 0.6.

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în partea dreaptă The term on the right-hand side (or on the right) of
(12) vanishes as k→∞.
în partea stângă The term on the left-hand side (or on the left) of Eqn
(12) vanishes as k→∞.
pe de altă parte On the other hand, if [fn(x)] = f(x), then the first two
conditions of Theorem 1 are satisfied.
partiţie Let tk, k =1, ..., m, be a partition of the interval (s,t)
into subintervals of equal length.
patrat al numărului When a is used twice as a factor, the product is the
second power of a, or the square of a.
păstra
păstrează Absolute constants retain the same value in all
problems.
vom păstra Since distributions are a generalization of the notion of
functions, we shall retain for them the usual notation
of functions, i.e., f(x), g(x), etc.
sunt păstrate For the new distributions one can define addition,
subtraction, multiplication by a number or by a function
in such a manner that the fundamental properties are
preserved.
primi
fi primit It should be observed that this definition of equality is
usually adopted in the theory of the Lebesgue
integrals.
The height of the triangle is taken to be 12m.
pentru
pentru aceasta For this purpose we select first the Gaussian integers.
To this end it suffices for the first term in (1) to have
the distribution F(x) and for the others to be zero with
probability 1.
pentru ca In order that the last property be valid, it is sufficient
that ...
In order to achieve this, we shall need some material
from elementary number theory.
To formulate the corresponding result, we consider the
following conditions which are the strengthened
versions of conditions of Theorem 8.
pentru care It is therefore reasonable to ask for which classes of
"integers" the fundamental theorem holds, and for
which it does not.
pentru comoditate For convenience we define a continuous locally
increasing process to be an adapted process which has
properties (1) through (4).
pentru nici un The function cannot be constructed for any value of x.

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pentru simplitate For the sake of simplicity, consider the concentration


of particles at height x above a horizontal barrier.
periodică cu perioada We say that a function f(x) is periodic with a period α,
if f(x+α) = f(x).
peste By the Eisenstein's criterion the polynomial xn-2 is
irreducible over the field of rational numbers.
peste tot The function H(p(x)) is everywhere equal to 0.
peste tot densă To determine IT (Ft), it is sufficient to describe the
everywhere dense set IT2(Ft).

principial nou We will describe a radically (or fundamentally) new


approach to the problem.
probabilitate
cu probabilitatea With probability 1 there exists the limit
.

polinom de By a polinomial in x1, x2, ..., xn we mean a sum of the


form (6).
poseda
posedă The derivative F'(x) has the value 0 at the point 0.
The stochastic integral (4) possesses finite moments up
to the (2m)th order inclusive.
posedă o proprietate The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and
t.
We are going to prove that the limits
exist and the function F(x) has the required property.
posibil
posibilă To avoid possible confusion, we shall use this
notation ...
The error, if any, will be allowed for by visual
estimation.
este posibil ca It is possible that the ordinary derivative does not
exist, although the distributional derivative has a value
at this point.
este întotdeauna posibil de This we can always do by choosing s and t as rational
făcut integers nearest to A and B respectively.
practic Practically it suffices to understand integrability in the
sense of Riemann or of Lebesgue.
precedent
precedentă
On account of the foregoing remark, the distributions
in the earlier sense can be identified with distributions
of finite order.

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This follows from the previous theorem.


nivele precedente Here X(t) is the number of paths, by which we go from
the preceding levels of a hierarchy to the new level t.
precum şi Using this technique we can calculate the phase as well
as the amplitude of the process at time t.
preliminar I think that my project is only tentative and subject to
continuous revision as the work makes a progress.
presupune
se presupune că It is assumed that σ-algebra F0 is completed by all P-
null sets.
All stochastic processes considered in this book will be
assumed to be measurable.
{Ft} is assumed to be right-continuous.
vom presupune că We assume that F*G=H, the operation * being
defined by F*G=RS, where R=TV.
Suppose Xt is a continuous process.
Suppose that the theorem is true for k-1.
Suppose the conclusion of the theorem to be true for
all f(x) of degree between 0 and n-1 inclusive.
presupunem contrariul Suppose the contrary.
presupunere
presupunerea că In defining K(x) we have made use of our assumption
that b(x)=0 for x<a.
This equation contradicts the assumption that G
contains points not belonging to D.
presupunerea conform cărei The assumption under which formula (10) is valid
can be somewhat weakened.
presupuneri sunt făcute The following assumptions are made concerning the
random process ξ(t): 1) the process is Ft-adapted and 2)
it satisfies condition (1).
Up till now no assumptions have been imposed
concerning the convergence of ϕn(t).

prezenta în forma
poate fi prezentat în forma Any potential ζt can be represented in the form ...

prezenta un interes
prezintă un interes Of interest also are the induced statistics.
The results have encouraged (or aroused) a more
serious interest in precision methods of control.
va prezenta un interes I hope this paper will be of interest to you.
prezintă un interes aparte To prove the existence of <a,a>t, the following lemma,
which is of interest in its own right, will be required.
care prezintă un mare Another theoretical approach of great interest consists

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interes in looking at the evolution toward equal phenotypic


fitness.
prin
prin alegere This we can always do by choosing s and t as rational
integers nearest to A and B respectively.
probabil
puţin probabil These conditions are unlikely to occur in practice.
probabilist There is presented below a glossary translating set-
theoretic notions into probabilistic notions.
problemă de bază We are now in a position to state the basic problem of
algebraic number theory.
proces coordonat A random process ξ(t), t ≥ 0, is said to be adapted to a
current of σ-algebras {Ft}t 0 if for every t the random

variable ξ(t) is Ft-measurable.

provine
provine de la The word 'school' has its origin in the Greek word
'schole' meaning 'leisure'.
provin de la The arithmetic symbols were derived from the Arabs
and the Hindus.
punct
în punct The function has no a
derivative at the point 0.
în puncte Such an identification can be extended to a wider class
of functions which have the poles at some points and
are locally integrable elsewhere.
punct ce se mişcă dea-lungul In the equation of straight line x and y are
the variable coordinates of a point moving along the
line.
punct de vedere
din punct de vedere logic From the logical point of view, this generalization is
exactly of the same type as the generalization of
rational numbers in the Cantor theory.
din punct de vedere practic Several other functions, very useful from the practical
point of view, are considered in the following section.
punct de referinţă Here the starting point is the notion of fundamental
sequences of rational numbers.
Approximation is our starting point for the definition
of distributions.
pune în corespondenţă
operatorul pune în The operator θ, assigns to (or associates with) any

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corespondenţă function from D a function from D(−∞,0].


este pusă în corespondenţă A probability is assigned to each outcome.
purta numele
poartă numele It is instructive to study the Ito's method of defining the
stochastic integral that now bears his name.
putea
nu putem If n=1, we cannot impose this condition.
nu se poate If n=1, this condition cannot be discarded.
As regards the solution of equation (3), it may not be
argued that it satisfies Condition 2.
puterea a n-a a numărului If a is used n times as a factor, the product is called the
nth power of the number.
puţin This definition will be somewhat generalized below.
The assumption under which formula (10) is valid can
be somewhat weakened.

R
raţionament There are doubtful points in the above reasoning.
Following the argument of N. N. Bautin, we can
now easily show that ...
raţiona
raţionând analogic Reasoning similarly we convince ourselves that the
solution to Eqn (7) is also unique.
raţionând ca Reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 7, we can
prove, under suitable assumptions, that relation (1)
holds for s>Nα.

rădăcină
rădăcină cubică din 2 is the third, or cube, root of 8.
rădăcină de ordinul n din indicates the nth root of a.
rădăcină din număr When the factors of a number are all equal, any of
the factors is called the root of the number.
rădăcină patrată din 5 is the square root of 25.
rămânea
rămâne It therefore remains only to verify that At is
uniformly integrable.
Much remains to be done in this area.
This relation remains valid when one passes from
functions to their differentials.

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rămâne de demonstrat Theoretically, it still remains to prove for each


particular system considered that an equilibrium
actually exists and is stable.
rămâne în vigoare Theorem 4 and Lemma 9.5 remain true.
This result holds true if we proceed from the group
G to any of its subgroups.
răspuns The answer to the question must be postponed until
later.
reaminti
reamintim Because of its great importance in this book, we
recall the definition of a normal distribution.
reaminteşte că The reader is reminded that the conjugates over F
of a number α algebraic over F are the roots of the
minimal polynomial of α over F.
trebuie de reamintit că It should also be recalled that R(t) is almost
everywhere nonzero.
reciproc
şi reciproc Equal chords cut off equal arcs, and the converse.
reduce
reduce la This fact reduces the construction of the solution to
(2) to that of a process such that

is a martingale.

se reduce la Under these conditions equation (3) reduces to (4).


This investigation amounts (or boils down) to
finding the operator Uγ such that Uγµ=UγUµ.

reduce ecuaţia la formă to reduce the equation to the form ...


reduce termenii asemenea
reducem termenii asemenea To solve the equation 2x+x = 12, unite (or group /
collect) similar terms in the first member to obtain
3x and then divide both members by 3 to find the
value of x to be 4.
referi
se referă la The Henry's Law refers only to the effect of
pressure.
nu se referă la Evidently the Einstein's restriction does not apply to
the case under consideration.
care se referă We now state a number of results concerning
ordinary differential equations.
ceea ce se referă As regards (or in regard to / in respect to) the
solution of equation (3), it may not be argued that it
satisfies Condition 2o.

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As for property (ii), suppose first that a is a unit.


regulă The rule for differentiation of a product.
The rule for the change of variables in integral
calculus.
relativ As regards (or in regard to / in respect to) the
solution of Eqn (3), it may not be argued that it
satisfies Condition 2.
The process ξ(t-) is a supermartingale with respect
to the family of σ-algebras (Ft-) t≥0.
Given point A, construct point B symmetrical to the
given point A in relation to plane Π.
For the present we content ourselves with
demonstrating the assertions just made concerning
the sets G and H.
relativ la In relation to Ω, an experiment is completely
characterized by a certain class of events.
remarca
este cazul de a remarca It is relevant to remark that the diffusion
corresponds to the increase of entropy.
repeta
poate fi repetată This procedure can be repeated with q2, q3, ... until
all the prime factors on one side are exhausted.
repetată The repeated application of this procedure proves
the assertion.
reprezenta
reprezentat în formă Any potential ζt can be represented in the form (3).
poate fi reprezentată în formă By the well-known Weierstrass approximation
theorem, every distribution can be represented in
the form [pn(x)], where pn(x) are polynomials.
de a reprezenta ... ca ... To prove this statement, it suffices to present the

integral as a limit of

respectiv The largest Π-factors are ν1 and ν2 respectively.

respinge o ipoteză to reject the hypothesis


restrânge generalitate
fără a restrânge generalitate
We shall also assume, without restricting the
generality, that z0=s0=0.
We can assume, without any restriction of

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generality, that all numbers amn can be arranged in a


sequence {bk} convergent to b0.
In our discussion we may assume, without loss of
generality, that M is a subset of the set of natural
numbers.
restricţie With this additional restriction the problem just
posed received an exhaustive solution in the papers
of Bawty and Khinchin.
a rezolva ecuaţia în raport cu x
to solve the equation for x explicitly [implicitly]
explicit [implicit]
rezolva în raport cu x to solve for x
rezolvare
la rezolvare problemei It is convenient, in solving problems, to use letters
for the numbers which are sought.
rezulta
rezultă din The result follows from the induction hypothesis.
The term R/n results from the Bohr theory.
Much of the utility of the theorem stems from the
properties of the binomial coefficients.
rezultă imediat The proof follows immediately if we observe that ...
rezultă nemijlocit Since u(t) is continuous, it follows at once that x(u
(t),t) satisfies condition (ii).
această rezultă din This results from the following lemma.
This follows from the fact that e πi/2 = i.
din cele spuse rezultă că From what has been said it follows that ...
It follows from what has been said that T>0 almost
surely on the set B.
din ... rezultă că It follows from (1), (2), and (3) that the whole set is
decomposed into abstraction classes without
common elements so that two elements are in the
same abstraction class if and only if they are
equivalent.
de aici rezultă că From this it follows that A is consistently defined
except on a P-null set.
This implies that ...
It follows from this that ...
It follows that R(s) is a commutative ring.
nemijlocit rezultă din It follows directly from the definition that ...
This assertion follows immediately from relation
(2).
ridica
ridica la puterea n to raise to the nth power
ridica un număr la cub to cube a number
ridica un număr la patrat to square a number

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The process of finding any required power of a


ridicarea la putere
number is called involution.

S
satisface
se satisfac condiţiile Condition (4) is equivalent to the following
conditions being satisfied.
sau ..., sau Since a satisfies (1), we have that either a=1 or a=p-
1.
schimb
schimb de variabilă Relation (8) follows from the general rule of the
change (or the substitution) of variables in integral
calculus.
schimb de variabilă la
the change of a variable in integration
integrare
schimba
schimbăm ordinea de To prove this, interchange the order of integration
integrare in the double integral in (6).
fără a schimba The introduction of locally integrable allows us to
strengthen Lemma 6.8 without changing its proof.
este schimbat semnul Any term may be transposed from one member of
equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.
schimbare
schimbare mică A slight change in the original proof will be left to the
reader.
schimbarea ordinii de The main point of the proof is to justify the
integrare interchange of the order of integration in (8.4).
fără schimbări With this transform the first term in (4) vanishes,
whereas the last one remains unaltered (or
unchanged).
scoate în afară parantezelor
scoatem în afară parantezelor Now factor out of the expression in parentheses the
largest positive factor common to all the bi.
Now take the largest positive factor out of the
brackets.
scop (obiectiv) The purpose (or objective) of this monograph is to
make available elementary parts of classical algebraic
number theory.
The aim of this section is to define the stochastic
integral for a wider class of predictable integrands

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and, at the same time, to relax the restrictions on M.


scopul acestei lucrări The purpose of this paper is to present the
elementary exposition of the theory of distributions.
scopul constă în ... The purpose of introducing real numbers is to make it
always possible to carry out certain operations, e.g.,
the evaluation of roots or logatithms.
scrie
se poate de scris în formă The function F(x) can be written in the form ...
putem scrie Then we can write for the division-size density
function (up to a normalization factor)
.
scriind Writing down these inequalities for n, n+1, ..., n+m
and adding them we obtain the estimation ...
vom scrie Write down the coordinates of the points A, B and C.
If there is no such G, we write max f = 0.
scriem ... în formă Write the equation as (or in the form) (2).
scriere
în scrierea In writing numbers, the figures are separated into
groups of three figures each, called periods.
semn
cu semn opus Subtracting any number is equivelent to adding it with
its sign changed (or with reversal of its sign).
semnul opus The numbers +2 and -2 have unlike signs.
The number -2 is opposite in sign to +2.
sub semnul The products under the sign of Σ are the products of
continuous functions.
sub semnul integralei under the integral sign
sens In the last formula the symbol 0 has two different
meanings: on the left-hand side it denotes the number
zero and on the right-hand side the zero distribution.
serie absolut [condiţional]
the absolutely [conditionally] convergent series
convergentă
sfat I wish to express gratitude to O. A. Oleinik for her
valuable advice.
similar Progressive measurability of an S-valued process is
defined similarly.
Reasoning similarly, we convince ourselves that the
solution to Egn (17) is also unique.
similar ca The definition is the same as the one given above, but
with R instead of [0,T ].
simplifica
simplificăm Simplify 4a-(2a-2b).
simplifică Thus the introduction of distributions makes the

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calculation easier.
pentru a simplifica To simplify the equation, make the substitution
u=2x2-1.
poate fi simplificată This equation can be simplified by the substitution
u=2x2-1.
simplifica fracţie prin a To reduce the fraction by the factor a.

simplifica prin
putem simplifica prin We can divide out (p-1)! from each side to obtain the
conclusion.
sistem
sistem de notaţii the system of notation
sistem zecimal The Arabic system, which is a decimal system,
employs ten figures to express numbers, viz.: naught,
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, and nine.
situa
situate aproape This quantity may take on any values, however closely
spaced.
slăbi
putem slăbi Hence, we can weaken condition ϕ in the following
way.
pentru a slăbi restricţiile The aim of this section is to define the stochastic
referitor ... integral for a wider class of predictable integrands
and, at the same time, to relax the restrictions on M.
soluţie
soluţie unică Equation (7) has a unique solution.
spaţiu
spaţiu de stări A function ξ:Ω→S is called an S-valued stochastic
process and S is called the state space of ξ.
spaţiu metric separabil C (R+) can be regarded as a complete separable
complet metric space under the topology of uniform
convergence.
spaţiu-fază The values of ξ(t) are sometimes called the states of a
stochastic system Σ and the space S, the phase space
of the system Σ.
specifica
cum a fost specificat mai sus As has been stated (or specified) above, the
functions pm(x) defined by (1.6) are bounded.
dacă nu este specificat
contrariul We agree to assume, unless otherwise specified, that
all processes are adapted.
Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be

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assumed to be in force.
spune
spune (ind. prez. 3 sg.) The principle of mathematical induction says: "If P is
true ..."
The second law states (or reads): "If the same current
flows ..."
The theory holds (or states) that ...
Stated in a simple form, the hypothesis runs as
follows.
se spune If conditions (i) and (ii) are also fulfilled, then the
current is said to satisfy the 'ordinary' conditions.
vom spune If the members of a pair are equal, say to a, then
a2=1 (mod p).
vom spune că ... We shall say that two integers a and b are relatively
prime if they share no factors except ± 1.
spunând The function F is, so to say, the optimal cost of the
continuation of control.
spunând mai exact To put it more exactly, ...
din cele spuse mai sus From what has been outlined (or said) above the
following conclusions may be drawn.
stabili
stabileşte This requirement places (or sets) the upper limit on
the admissible error.
stabilim We first establish the necessity of the condition.
a fost stabilit This fact was ascertained (or established) from
experience.
a fost stabilită The average value was found to be 16 ± 3.
de a stabili condiţii Theorem 1.6 allows to lay down the conditions under
which the solutions to equations (6) are continuous in
parameter z.
strict Approximations, strictly defined, is our starting point
for the definition of distributions.
studia
studiat The experiments studied in probability theory are
carried out when a certain set of conditions Y is
satisfied.
substitui
substituim For this we make the substitution t-x=s.
substituind ... în Substituting these numbers into (or in) (1), we find
that ...
substitui a cu b to make the substitution of b for a
to carry out the change of a for b
substituţia b cu a the substitution of b for a

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suficient This equation determines a sufficient condition.


suficient de mare Whatever t may be, one can always find a sufficiently
large N such that ...
Now ECt < ε/2, if n is taken large enough.
suficient de mic The term can be made sufficiently small
by makingthe partition of the interval [0,T ] fine
enough.
este suficient By theorem 2.1, it suffices to prove the necessity.
este suficient de arătat că ... It suffices to show that if α is a Gaussian integer, so
is β and hence α+β.
este suficient de spus că ... Suffice it to say that ...
It suffices to say that ...
It is enough to say that ...
este suficient pentru ca In order that the series (1) of independent random
variables converge, it is sufficient that the series (2)
and (3) converge.
pentru această este suficient To this end it suffices for the first term in (1) to have
ca the distribution F(x) and for the others to be zero with
probability 1.
suma parţială
A series is said to be convergent if the
sequence of its partial sums fn(x) = g1(x) + ... + gn(x)
converges.
sumar A survey of the general theory of stochastic processes
can be found in [4].
supune
se supune legii The distribution of errors adheres to the law of
probability.
The kinetics of the system obey (or follow) the ideal
gas law.
se supune ecuaţiei It the coefficients on the right of (2) satisfy the
Lipschitz condition, then the function w(t) obeys the
equation (3.1).
The equilibrium distribution of particles in a
gravitational field adheres to (or is governed by) the
Boltzmann equation.
sus
mai sus It is easy to see that the relation of equivalence defined
above has the following properties.
de mai sus
The integral is well-defined in

accordance with the above definition.


The definition is the same as the one given above, but

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with R instead of [0,T].

T
tăia
taie Equal chords cut off equal arcs, and the converse.
târziu
mai târziu We shall show later on that this generalization contains
also class of non-continuous functions.
teoremă
teorema despre valoare
the theorem of the mean
medie
teorema probabilităţii totale the theorem of total probability
teoremă preliminară Some preliminary theorems will be established first.
teoremă reciprocă The converse theorem in not true.
teoretic Theoretically, it still remains to prove for each
particular system considered that an equilibrium
actually exists and is stable.
teorie
teoria jocurilor the theory of games
teoria mulţimilor the theory of numbers (or the set theory)
teoria numerilor the theory of numbers (or the number theory)
teoria probabilităţilor the theory of probability
teoria proceselor stocastice the theory of stochastic processes
teorie unitară the unified theory
teoria ce va fi dezvoltată Continuous functions on a fixed interval are the starting
point for the theory to be developed here.
termen Any term may be transposed from one member of
equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.
termen cu termen Roughly speaking, each convergent series can be
differentiated term by term (or termwise).
termina
termină This completes (or concludes) the proof of Lemma 4
and also that of Theorem 2.
am terminat Then r=s and we are done.
terminologie
în terminologia {Ut} is the 'dual predictable projection' in the
terminology of Dellacherie and Meyer [42].

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timp
în timp ce Thus 5 and 9 are relatively prime, whereas 6 and 9 are
not.
As the point x tends to a, the function g(x) approaches
the value g(a).
tinde la
când ... tinde la Each summand on the right of (12) becomes
vanishingty small with (or as) n→∞.
când ... tinde la infinit to let smth approach (or to let smth go to) infinity
tinde la infinit to tend to (or to approach) infinity
tinde la zero (ind. prez. 3 sg.) The limit distribution functions are determined by the
fact that they are the limits for sums of an increasing
number of independent random variables such that a
single summand becomes vanishingly small with
n→∞.
toate
după toate Summing up these conditional probabilities over all the
newborn particles in the sample, we find that ...
tot (în întregime) Thus the integral on the right side of (5) can be
analytically continued to the whole domain.
The class of functionals of degree n covers the entire
space Hn(-n).

toţi When the factors of a number are all equal, any of the
factors is called a root of the number.
toţi următorii Every succeeding (or subsequent) member an must be
less than aN.
nu toţi However, not all distributions can be represented in the
form [f(x)], i.e., not all distributions can be identified
with continuous functions.
pentru toţi The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and
t.
transforma
a transforma ecuaţia to rearrange the equation
să transformăm la formă Let us transform (1) to the form (2).
a se transforma în infinit to become infinite
transformare inversă the inverse transform
trebui
trebuie The problem must be solved as soon as possible.
To ensure the existence of a solution to (14), additional
assumptions need be made.
Much needs to be done to complete the theory.
It should be particularly emphasized that condition (*)

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is not essential and was introduced solely for the sake


of convenience.
To comprehend the main idea of my talk, it is essential
(or necessary) that the students be familiar with the
generalized Galois theory.
care trebuie In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only the
numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must
be given whenever the rule is applied.
ceea ce trebuia But p is of the form 1+4n, so that a p=l+im, as
required.
ceea ce trebuia de It follows that the points C1 and C2 lie on the line of
demonstrat intersection of the planes α and β, which is what had
to be proved.
However, by condition m>n/2 one has q>2, q.e.d.
trece
trecând la limită Approaching the limit as k→∞ and utilizing Fatou's
lemma we obtain (8).
Proceeding (or passing) to the limit in equality (5) we
convince ourselves that this limit is a solution of
equation (2).
de a trece la limita To obtain equation (3), it is necessary to pass to the
limit in relation (1).
poate fi trecut dintr-o parte
Any term may be transposed from one member of
a
equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.
ecuaţiei în altă
trecere
trecerea de la ... The identification of equivalent elements consists in
the passage from the elements of the set in question to
the abstraction classes.
trecerea la limită This equation is obtained from relation (3) by passing
to the limit.
la trecerea la limită Inequality (7) becomes the exact equality if one passes
to the limit.
When passing to the limit, inequality (7) becomes the
exact equality.

Ţ
ţine minte
ţinând seamă Considering (or taking into account) that the series is
a series of positive terms, we have ...
trebuie să ţinem minte că
It is to be remembered (or it should be borne in

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mind) that the specific properties of the limit


distribution functions are determined by the fact that ...

U
unul şi numai unul Hence there is one and only one x which satisfies the
congruence.
unde We assume that F*G=RS, where R=TV.
uneori Occasionally a stopping time is referred to as a random
time.
Sometimes a current is understood to be an increasing
family of σ-algebras.
unic The element q is unique.
If S consists of a single element x, then R(x) is
commutative.
univoc This set of conditions uniquely determines the results
of the experiment.
univoc determinată Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined
provided it exists everywhere.
urma
această urmează din This follows from the Fundamental Theorem of
arithmetic.
cum urmează din cele spuse As appears from the above, the cycle C determines a
curve L.
următorul Such an element is unique.
următoare Making the change of variables x=acosϕ and ϕ=ωt+θ
the following relation may be obtained
.

este următoare The new statement of the Fundamental Theorem is this.


uşor
este uşor de ... It is not difficult to establish the existence of an
infinite number of rational primes.
util This property of martingales may be useful when
proving the existence theorems for stochastic
differential equations.
The following result will be very helpful in proving the
theorems of this chapter.
utiliza
putem utiliza metoda In order to construct such a process, we can take such

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an approach.
va fi utilizat permanent We shall prove below a very useful result which will be
constantly used in our work.
utilizate de obicei Using condition 2) of the theorem and commonly
employed estimates we assure ourselves that ...

V
valoare The value of a function f(x) at x=x0 will be denoted
by f(x0).
cu valori The problem of interpolation consists in approximate
evaluation of a function f(x) at a given point x1<x*<xn
from its values on a finite set of points x1, x2, ..., xn.
cu valori în Let β(ϕ,t) be a random function with values in Rm.

valoare în punct The Dirac function δ(x) has the value 0 at each point
x≠0 and has no value at the point x=0.
valoare absolută The absolute value of b is greater that of a.
după valoarea absolută These numbers are equal in absolute magnitude.
variabile aleatoare cu acelaşi Let θj , j=1, 2, ..., n, be mutually independent
repartiţie identically distributed random variables.
vedea
vedeţi See, for example, the deduction of inequality (11) in
the proof of Theorem 1.
este uşor de văzut că It is easy to see that {gn} is complete in L1[0,1].
It will readily be seen that that for any δ>0 the
sequence Z(nδ,ω) forms a Galton-Watson process.
cum este uşor de văzut As is easily seen, there exists a Borel function θs such
that ...
verifica
se verifică In the case of distributions the following identities are
valid.
Since inequality (4.8) holds true, the function ϕ(x) is
non-negative.
sunt verificate Since the conditions (1), (2) and (3) are fulfilled,the
set of all fundamental sequences gets decomposed
into disjoint abstraction classes.

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verifică cetinţe The functionals L and M satisfy (or meet) the


aforementioned requirements.
pentru a verifica To verify that h(t) is the desired solution, observe
that ...
este uşor de verificat că It is easily verified that the polynomial xn-2 is
irreducible over the field of rational numbers.
dacă o serie de condiţii este The experiments studied in probability theory are
verificată carried out when a certain set of conditions F is
satisfied.
verifică condiţia Assume that the function B(ϕ,t) satisfies the local
Lipschitz condition.
verifică ecuaţie We shall prove that the function F(x) satisfies (or
fulfils) equation (1).
vom verifica ipoteza despre ... We shall test the hypothesis that ...
viitor
în viitor In what follows the notation 'm|n' means 'm divides n'.
Here and in the sequel the ai denote positive
constants.
Henceforth we shall adhere to the following model of
the probability theory.
In the future σn will always be assumed to be
bounded.
In the future, when continuous local martingales are
discussed, the σ n will always be assumed to take
values from T.
voluminos This method is too cumbersome (or awkward /
unwieldy).
vorbind în general The results of the experiments will, generally, be
different.
Generally, Eqn (10) may have no solution.

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