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1. Diodele conectate astfel nct s permit trecerea unui curent alternativ doar n semialternana pozitiv sunt numite redresoare.

Diodes connected in such a way that only the positive half-cycles of an alternating current ( !" are permitted to pass are called rectifier tu#es $. %ranzistorul #ipolar inventat n 1&'( este alctuit din trei straturi de material dopat) formnd dou *onciuni #ipolare de tip p-n de configuraie p-n-p respective n-p-n. %he #ipolar transistor was invented in 1&'() it consists of three layers of doped material) forming two p-n (#ipolar" *unctions with configurations of p-n-p or n-p-n +. tunci cnd o #o#in este utilizat n com#inaie cu un condensator) tensiunea din #o#in atinge o valoare ma,im pentru o frecven dat. -hen an inductor is used in con*unction with a capacitor) the voltage in the inductor reaches a ma,imal value for a specific fre.uency.

/01% 2. 1. %elecomunicaiile au ca o#iect transmisia de semnale optice sau electronice pe distane mari. %elecommunications) devices and systems that transmit electronic or optical signals across long distances. $. Dispozitivele utilizate n domeniul telecomunicaiilor transform diferite tipuri de date) precum cele audio sau video) n semnale electronice sau optice. %elecommunications devices convert different types of information) such as sound and video) into electronic or optical signals. +. 3a destinaie) dispozitivul de receptare) transform semnalul din nou n mesa*. -hen a signal reaches its destination) the device on the receiving end converts the signal #ac4 into an understanda#le message

/nit ( 1. 5ateliii de telecomunicaii asigur mi*loacele de transmisie necesare n telecomunicaiile de pe ntregul glo#) fr a necesita o reea de ca#luri. !ommunications satellites provide a means of transmitting telecommunications all over the glo#e) without the need for a networ4 of wires and ca#les. $. cest tip de or#it este cunoscut su# denumirea de or#it geostaionar sau geosincron deoarece viteza de deplasare or#ital a satelitului este sincron cu viteza mi6crii de revoluie a pmntului. %his type of or#it is called geostationary or geosynchronous or#it #ecause the satellite7s or#ital speed operates in synchronicity with 8arth7s rotation. /nit &. 1. /nele sisteme utilizeaz mai multe tipuri de medii de transmisie. 5ome systems ma4e use of several types of media to complete a transmission $. 5pre e,emplu) un apel telefonic poate fi transmis prin intermediul ca#lurilor de cupru) al ca#lurilor de fi#r optic) 6i al undelor radio succesiv. 9or e,ample) a telephone call may travel #y means of copper wire) fi#reoptic ca#le) and radio waves as the call is sent from sender to receiver. +. cea parte a reelei de telefonie care deserve6te locuine sau sedii de firm funcioneaz pe principiul analogic utiliznd ca#luri de cupru. %he part of the telephone networ4 that currently serves individual residences and many #usinesses operates in an analogue mode) uses copper wires