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NEBOSH International
Certificate
Day 4
Programme for Today
HSG65 a Safety Management System
(continued):
- Measuring Performance.
- Active Monitoring.
- Audits.
Risk Assessment.
Safe Systems of Work.
Permits-to-Work.
Policy
Organising
Planning &
Implementing
Measuring
Performance
HSG65 El ements
of Successful
Health & Safety
Management
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Measuring Performance
Active Systems
Spot and routine
checks.
Formal inspections .
Statutory tests.
Safety audits.
Reactive Systems
Accident investigation.
Accident and ill-health
trend analysis.
Pattern analysis.
Comparison of Achievements Against Targets
Syndicate Group Exercise
In y our groups, list t he topic headings
that should be i ncluded on an
inspection checklist for use in y our
workplace.
Sketch out a rough format for the
inspection checksheet.
Inspections
How useful are inspection
checksheets?
How frequently should formal
inspections be carried out?

Other Monitoring Methods


Safety sampling:
Quantitative, short duration and repeated.
Gives an indication of accident potential.
Safety tour:
Focus on one topic area, e.g. fire safety.
Safety surv ey :
In-depth exami nation of one issue.
Proactive/Active Monitoring
Definitions:
1. Safety Inspections
Routine scheduled inspection to make an immediate
check on standards.
2. Safety Sampli ng
Organised system of regular random sampling by
systematic recording of hazard situations observed
during inspections made along predetermined routes.
Proactive/Active Monitoring
3. Safety Tours
Housekeeping inspection of short duration,
performed weekly or monthly.
4. Safety Surveys
Detailed examination of a particular safety issue.
5. Safety Audits
Every area of an organisation is subject to a
thorough and systematic critical examination.
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Purpose of Monitoring Summary
To answer questions, such as:
How are we doing?
Are we achieving obj ectives?
Are we complying with international, national
legal, and company standards?
Are we improving or getting worse?
Are there weaknesses in our management systems?
Are staff still committed and interested?
Where must we improve?
It is a reference point it means
comparing to a standard.
The process is about continuously
learning from others.
Examini ng the or ganisations
strengths and weaknesses.
Health and Safety Benchmarking
Policy
Organising
Planning &
Implementing
Measuring
Performance
Reviewing
Performance
Audit
HSG65 El ements
of Successful
Health & Safety
Management
-
Reviewing Performance
This is the periodic internal
assessment of performance
agai nst targets.
Are we on target?
If not why not?
What do we have to
change?
Policy
Organising
Planning &
Implementing
Measuring
Performance
Reviewing
Performance
Audit
HSG65 El ements
of Successful
Health & Safety
Management
Auditing
Key features of an audit:
Independent.
Systematic.
Comprehensive
(covers all aspects).
Objective.
Evidence-based.

Audit
Provides confirmation that healt h and safety
systems are in place and are effective.
Provides evidence of legal compliance.
Reports on non-fulfilment of obligations.
Encourages continuous improvement in the
safety management system.
ha
Auditing
Which i s better, internal or external auditing?
Audit Areas
Safety policy and organisation.
Safety committee and representatives.
First-aid and medical facilities.
Fire and bomb arrangements.
Crisis management plans.
Accident reporting.
Insurance obligations.
Staff development and training.
Risk management.
Vehicle and passenger safety.
Work experience/shadowing.
Hazardous pursuits/visits and outings.
Safety inspections.
ha
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Audit Areas - continued
Control of substances hazardous to health.
Building maintenance.
Purchasing controls and acquisitions.
Electricity (fixed and portable equipment).
Display screen equipment.
Manual handling.
Personal protective equipment.
Health: - smoking, drinking and drug-taking.
- stress and related human factors.
Pregnant women.
Radiation.
Environmental protection and waste management.
NEBOSH International
Certificate
Risk Assessment
Risk Assessment
Our programme for this section:
The fiv e steps of risk assessment explained.
Sy ndicate group exercise.
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Introduction
What is risk assessment?
Risk assessment is a simple process
of identify ing hazards, ev aluating risks
and identify ing control s to av oid or
minimise those risks.
Suitable and Sufficient
Identifies the signifi cant hazards and risk.
Proportionate to lev el of risk:
Resources.
Sophistication.
Advice.
Anticipates reasonably foreseeable risk.
Identifies length of time it will be v alid.
Qualitative Risk Assessment
INDG163 HSG183
Approach recommended for SMEs:

The 5 Steps of Risk


Assessment
1. Identify the hazar ds.
2. Identify the people who might be harmed.
3. Evaluate the risk.
4. Record your findings.
5. Review the assessment as required.
Step 1 - Identify the Hazards
Can you thi nk of some
examples of hazards?
What is a hazard?
Something with the potential
to cause harm.
Step 1 - Identify the Hazards
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Step 1 - Identify the Hazards
Hazards can be categorised by ty pe:
Phy sical.
Chemical.
Ergonomic.
Biological.
Psy chological.
Step 1 - Identify the Hazards
Hazards can be identified by:
Inspections .
Accident/ill-health recor ds.
Hazard books.
Guidance documents/manuals.
HAZOPs.
Involvement of others.
Also, Job Safety Analysis.
Step 2 - Who Might be Harmed
Which gr oups of people are at risk?
- Operators.
- Maintenance staff.
- Cleaners.
- Contractors.
- Visitors.
- Members of the public.
- Trespassers.
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Step 2 - Who Might be Harmed
Are certain groups especially at risk?
Young people.
New or expectant mothers.
People with disabilities.
Lone workers.
New starters and temporary staff.
If so, record who they are.
Step 3 - Evaluate the Risk
What is risk ?
It is a measure of the
likelihood of harm
occurring and t he
severity of that harm.
Step 3 - Evaluate the Risk
Risk is a combination of two factors:
Likelihood.
Sev erity .
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Step 3 - Evaluate the Risk
Qualitative
Uses words to describe likelihood
and severity, e.g. acceptabl e or
unacceptable.
Semi-Quantitative
Uses words and numbers to
describe likelihood and severity.
Quantitative
Uses numbers to describe both
likelihood and severity.
The risk evaluation can be:
Using a scoring sy stem:
Likelihood: Sev erity :
Almost certain = 3 Fatality/disabling = 3
Likely = 2 Three day injury = 2
Very low = 1 Minor injury = 1
L x S = ?
1 = triv ial risk 9 = high risk
Step 3 - Evaluate the Risk
What is the likelihood of harm occurring?
What is the severity of the foreseeable
harm?
Consider the controls already in place, but
also consider the possibility of failure.
Step 3 - Evaluate the Risk
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Existing Controls
Safe working
procedures.
Checks and inspections.
Training, instruction and
information.
Signs and alarms.
Housekeeping.
Supervision.
Specialist assessments.
Personal protective
equipment (PPE).
Planned preventative
maintenance and testing.
Environmental controls:
Light.
Temperature.
Guards and barriers.
Step 3 - Evaluate the Risk
Step 3 - Evaluate the Risk
The Hierarchy of Control:
Eliminate hazard - most effective.
Reduce hazard.
Isolate hazard from people.
Contr ol extent of exposur e/contact.
Personal protective equipment.
Discipline (SSW, information, traini ng,
supervision and enforcement) - least effective.
Remember ERIC Prevents Death!
Step 4 - Record Your Findings
Record:
The significant hazards.
The existing controls.
Those at risk.
Further actions necessary .
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Step 4 - Record Your Findings
What further action is
required?
Risk Rating
( LxS)
S L Existing
Controls
Who might be
harmed?
Hazard
Review date: Area
or
Task:
L osttime 2
Mi nor 1
L ik el y 2
Unli kely 1
Assessors:
Date:
Dept.
Sev eri ty
Major injury 3
L ik el ihood
Very L ik el y 3
Risk
Assessment
Record
Step 5 - Review of Assessment
Assessments must be reviewed if:
There is reason to suspect it is
no longer valid.
There has been a significant
change.
It is best practice to review
assessments periodically.
The 5 Steps of Risk Assessment
1. Identify the hazards.
2. Identify the people
who might be harmed.
3. Ev aluate the risk.
4. Record y our findings.
5. Rev iew the assessment
as required.
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Alternative
Syndicate Group Exercise
In y our groups, carry out a risk
assessment on an area here.
Use Steps 1 to 4.
Use a quantitativ e scoring sy stem.
Present y our findings to t he other
groups in 20 minutes.
NEBOSH International
Certificate
Safe Systems of Work
Safe Systems of Work
A formal procedure which results from a
systematic examination of a task, in order
to identify all of the hazards. It def ines safe
methods to ensure that hazards are
eliminated or risk minimised.
Safe systems of work are pre-planned and
enforced methods for performing routine and
non-routine work safely, which take into account
the capabilities of the individuals doi ng the work
and the human factors which might arise.
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Developing a SSW
Remember S-R-E-D-I-M
Select the task.
Record the stages of the oper ation.
Evaluate the risks at each stage.
Develop safe method.
Implement safe method.
Monitor .
Safe Systems of Work
When developing SSW consider:
Materials and substances:
Hazards to health.
Handling - mechanical or manual.
Equipment and plant:
Guar ding on machi nery.
Environment:
Lighting and slippery floors.
People:
Competence and young people.
NEBOSH International
Certificate
Permits-to-Work
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Permits-to-Work
These are formal documents specifying
work to be done and precautions to be
taken. Work can only start when safe
procedures have been defined and put into
place. The permit provides a clear written
record, signed by a responsible off icer, that
all forseeable hazards have been
considered and all necessary actions have
been taken. It must be in the possession of
the person in charge of the operation
before work can commence.
Permits-to-Work
Operations mostly relate
to maintenance work
which can only be carried
out if normal safeguards
are dropped. It can also
include certain types of
routine work which
demands that special
precautions are taken.