Sunteți pe pagina 1din 529

DICTIONARY A OF RELIGION AND ETHICS

THE

MACMILLAN

COMPANY

NKW

YORK
"

BOSTON
"

CHICAGO
"

DALLAS

ATLANTA
"

SAN

FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN

"

CO.,

Limited

LONDON
"

BOMBAY
"

CALCUTTA

MELBOURNE

THE

MACMILLAN

CO.

OF

CANADA,

Ltd.

TORONTO

DICTIONARY
OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

EDITED

BY

Shailer

Mathews,
!I

D.D., LL.D.

and Dean Theology, of Historicaland Comparative Professor School, of Chicago ofthe Divinity University

AND

Gerald

Birney

Smith, D.D.

Professor of Christian

Theology, University of Chicago

NEW

YORK

THE

MACMILLAN
1923

COMPANY

31. 3/

Copyright, 1921
By the

MACMILLAN

COMPANY

Set up and

Published September, electrotyped. 1921.

PWNTEP

THE

UNITED

STATES

OF

AMERICA

CONTRIBUTORS

TO

THE AND

DICTIONARY
ETHICS
Cook, Stanley
Ex-FeUow Study of Gk)nville

OF

RELIGION

fADENET, Walter
Late Professor

Frederick,
of New

D.D.

Arthur,
and

A.M., Litt.D.
Comparative and Syriac,

Church

History; College, Manchester, England.


Hartley

Testament Exegesis and pendent IndePrincipal of Lancaster

Lecturer in the Rehgions and in Hebrew and Gaius College,

Cambridge,

Alexander,

Burr, Ph.D. raska, Professor of Philosophy, University of NebLincoln, Neb.; Associate Editor MidWest and Quarterly, Midland.

England.

Cope,

Henry Frederick, D.D. General Secretary of the Religious Education Association. Editor Religious Education. John

George, Ph.D. in Egyptology, University of ChiInstructor cago; Secretary of Haskell Oriental Museum. Ames, Edward Scribner, Ph.D. of Philosophy, University Associate Professor
of

Allen, Thomas

Coulter,

Merle,
and Head

Professor

Botany,
Botanical

University
Gazette.

Ph.D. of the Department of Chicago; Editor

of The

Chicago.
Gillies.

Baker, Archibald
Assistant

Crawford, John Professor of Wis.


Professor of

Forsyth, Ph.D. Philosophy, Beloit College, Beloit,


D.D.

Professor of Missions, University of

Cross, George, Ph.D.,

Chicago. Barnes, Lemuel Call, D.D. of EvangeUsm, Secretary of the Department Mission American Baptist Home Society. Barton, George Aaron, Ph.D., LL.D.
Professor of Biblical Literature and

Systematic Theology, Rochester Theological Seminary, Rochester, N.Y. Deutsch,

Semitic

Gotthard, Ph.D., D.D. Professor of Jewish History and Literature, Hebrew Union Cincinnati, O. College,

Pa. College,BrynMawr, Barton, James Levi, D.D., LL.D. of Board Foreign Secretary of the American Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

Languages, BrynMawr

Dickerson, James Spencer, Litt.D. Formerly Editor The Standard, Chicago, 111. Dickinson,
Professor

Edward,
of the

Litt.D. of

Baskervill,

Read, Ph.D. Professor of English Literature, University of Philology. Chicago; Managing Editor Modern Beckwith, Clarence Augustine, D.D. Christian Professor of Theology, Chicago Editor The Theological Seminary; Associate New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.

Charles

Criticism History and Music, Oberlin College, Oberhn, O.

DowD,

Quincy

L.

Author, Funeral Easton, Burton


Professor

Management

and

Costs.

D.D. New Testament History and Interpretation, General Theological Seminary, New York. of

Scott, Ph.D.,

Benson,

Louis Fitzgerald, D.D. Editor of various hymnals, and standard books on the history of

Author

of

Ellwood,

Charles
of

Abram,

Ph.D.

hymnology.

Professor

Sociology, Universityof Missouri.

Erb, Frank Otis, Ph.D. Boas, Franz, Ph.D., LL.D., Sc.D. Editor of Young American People's Publications, of versity, UniProfessor Anthropology, Columbia Baptist Pubhcation Society. New York, Editor Journal of American
Folk-Lore.

Everett, Watson,
of Ph.D. Professor

Burgess, Ernest
Associate

Sociology, Universityof

Walter Ph.D. Goodnow, Professor of Philosophy and Natural Brown University, Providence, R.I.

Theology,

Chicago.
Burt, Frank
President

H., LL.D.
Y.M.CA.

College, Chicago, 111.


New D.D.

Burton, Margaret
General

Fallows, Samuel, LL.D., D.D. Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal Church, Chicago, 111. Faris, Ellsworth,
Professor of Ph.D. of

Secretary Y.W.C.A.,

York

City.

Case, Shirley
Professor
',

Jackson, Ph.D.,
of

University Sociology,
LL.D.

Chicago.

ament

Early Church History and NewTestInterpretation, University of Chicago.


of Church

Fisher, Lewis Dean of

Beals, D.D., the (Universalist) Divinity Ryder

Christie, Francis
I
I

Albert, D.D. History, Meadville logical Seminary, Meadville, Pa.


Professor A. Missionary in Korea. Walter Assistant

School,Chicago.
Theo-

Gardiner,
Order.

Robert

H.

ClarKj Charles
Clark,

Secretary World's
Ph.D. of Sanskrit

Conference

on

Faith

and

Eugene,
Professor

and

Indo-

European Comparative of Chicago.


t Deceased.

Philology, University

Gilbert, George Holley, Ph.D., D.D. Theologian and Author; Formerly Professor of and Interpretation, Literature New Testament Chicago Theological Seminary.

463

131

CONTRIBUTORS

TO

THE

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

GiLMORE, George
Associate Editor

William Editor The New

Lyman, Eugene clopedia EncySchaff-Herzog


Associate Professor

of Religious Knowledge;
The Homiletic Review.

William, D.D. Philosophy of ReUgion, Union TheologicalSeminary,New York, N.Y.


of

Goodspeed, Edgar
Professor

Johnson, Ph.D.

Patristic Greek, of Biblical and University of Chicago; Assistant Director of Haskell Oriental Museum.

Gordon, Alexander
Professor of Old

Reid, Litt.D.,D.D.
Testament Literature and

Mathews, Shailer,D.D., LL.D. Dean of the Divinity School of the University of Chicago; Professor of Historical and Comparative Theology. McGlothlin, William Joseph, Ph.D., D.D.,
LL.D.

President,Furnam University,Greenville, S.C; formerlyProfessor of Church History, Canada. Southern ville, Baptist Theological Seminary,LouisNathan, Ph.D. Gould, Chester Ky. and navian ScandiAssistant Professor of German McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, LL.D. Universityof Chicago. Literature, Professor of Historyand Head of the Department of History, Gray, Lottis Herbert, Ph.D. of Chicago. University of Nebraska; Professor of Philosophy, University McNeill, John Thomas, Ph.D. Editor Mythology ofAll Races; Assistant Editor Instructor in European History, lege, Queen's ColHastings Encyclopediaof Religionand Ethics; Canada. Kingston, International New Editor clopedia. EncyDepartmental Herbert Mead, George Professor of Philosophy, of Chicago. University Elliot, D.D., L.H.D. Gkiffis, William Mead, Lucia True Ames in Lecturer; Author; and formerly Educator National Secretary of Woman's Peace Party. Japan. Merrill, Elmer Truesdell, LL.D. Professor of Latin, Universityof Chicago; Hall, Francis Joseph, D.D. Editor Classical Philology. and President, Professor of Dogmatic Theology, York. Michel, F. J. General TheologicalSeminary, New Field Secretary of Laymen's Missionary Harada, Tasuktt, LL.D., D.D. Movement. Doshisha University, Former President, Kyoto, Mode, Peter George, Ph.D. Japan. Assistant Professor of Church versity History,UniHarvey, Albert Edward, Ph.D. of Chicago. of Formerly Instructor in History,University Moore, Clifford Herschel, Ph.D., Litt.D. Chicago.
Exegesis, Presbyterian College, Montreal, Haydon, Albert Eustace, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of the History of of Chicago. University

ReUgions,

Professor of Mass. David Associate

Latin, Harvard

bridge, CamUniversity,

MuzzEY, College,

HoBEN, Allan, Ph.D. of Professor Sociology,Carleton Minn. Northfield, HoLTOM, Daniel


Professor of Church

Saville,Ph.D. Professor of History, Columbia Director of History, Ethical Culture University, NewYork, N.Y. School,
S. Movement of States and Canada. Education Secretary, Missionary the United

Clarence, Ph.D. logical History, Baptist TheoSeminary, Tokyo, Japan. Friendly

Myers, Harry

HuRREY, Charles General on Secretary, Committee Relations among Foreign Students.

Newman,

Albert

Formerly Professor of Church Waco, Tex. University, Odlin, W. S.


Assistant Director of

Henry, LL.D., D.D. Baylor History,

Jackson, Abraham

Valentine Williams, L.H.D. Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages, Columbia New York, N.Y. University,

American Red Publicity,

Cross,Washington, D.C. Palmieri, a.

Jones,Rufus

of Old Testament Exegesis and Hartford Criticism, TheologicalSeminary, Kantor, Jacob Robert, Hartford, Conn. of Indiana, Professor of Psychology, University Thomas, A.M. Paul, Charles Ind. Bloomington, of Missions, Indianapolis, President, College O. Ph.D. King, Irving, LL.D. Ph.D., Pound, Roscoe, o f Assistant Professor of Education, University and Dean Professor of General Jurisprudence, Iowa, Iowa City,la. of the Faculty of Law, Harvard University, Henry Professor Ph.D.

Litt.D. Haverford of Philosophy, Pa. Haverford,

Matthew,

Professor

College,

Cambridge,Mass.
Paton, Lewis Bayles, Ph.D., D.D.

fKiNGMAN,

Formerly Missionaryin China; Late Kuring, Adolph, A.m. Pastor,Lutheran Church,Chicago. Laing, Gordon
Professor of

Pastor,

Cambridge, Mass.

Congregational Church, Claremont,Calif.

Pratt, James

Bisset, Ph.D. Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, Williams College,WiUiamstown, Mass.
Professor of the Old Testament

Price, Ira Maurice, Ph.D., LL.D.

Jennings, Ph.D.
of Chicago. Latin, University

Language and

Universityof Chicago. Literature, fRAUSCHENBUSCH,


Late Professor

LUCKENBILL, DaNIEL

DaVID, Ph.D. Associate Professor of the Semitic Languages of Chicago. and Literatures, University
t Deceased.

WaLTER, D.D.
of Church Rochester History,

Theological Seminary,Rochester,N.Y.

CONTRIBUTORS

TO

THE

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Reagan,

Joseph of N.Y. Harold Baton George of of

Nicholas, Greek,
St.

S.T.D.,

Ph.D.

Smith,

John

Merlin of the

Powis,
Old of

Ph.D.

Professor

Bonaventure's

College,

Professor

Testament

Language
Editor

and the and

Allegany, Reinhart,

Literature,
American F. Literatures.

University
Journal

Chicago;

of

Semitic

Languages

Rabbi,
Richards,
Professor

Rouge, Warren,
Church the

La.

Scares,
D.D.

Theodore of and

Gerald,
Homiletics Head of the

Ph.D.,
and

D.D.

Professor

Religious
of

cation, Edutical Prac-

History,
Reformed Church

Theological
in Associate the

Department
of

Seminary
United

Theology, Sprengling,
Assistant and

University
Ph.D. of the

Chicago.

States,

Lancaster,
Church Review.

Pa.;

Martin,
Professor

Editor

Reformed
William of

Semitic of

Languages

Rockwell,
Professor

Walker,
Church New

Ph.D.

Literatures,
Frank Professor of

University Bigelow,
of

Chicago.

History, York,
Ph.D. Science N.Y.

Union

logical Theo-

Seminary, RowE,
Henry Professor Newton

fTARBELL,
Late

Ph.D.

Classical

Archeology,
Ph.D.

versity Uni-

Kalloch,
of Social

Chicago. Westfall,
Medieval

and

History,
Newton

Thompson,
Professor

James of

Theological
Mass.

Institution,

History,
Ph.D.,
LL.D. the of

University

of

Center,

Chicago. Tufts,
James

Hayden,
and Head

Salter,

William The

Mackintire, Society
for D.D.

D.B. Ethical

Professor

of

Department

of Editor

Lecturer,

Culture.

Philosophy,
International

University
Journal

Chicago;

BcHAFP,
of

David of

Schley,
Western Pa.

of Ethics.
D.D.

Professor

Ecclesiastical

History

and

History Seminary, Vedder,


Henry of

Doctrine,

Theological

Clay,
Church

Professor

Pittsburgh, Scott,
Ernest

History,
Pa.

Crozer

logical Theo-

Seminary,

Chester,
Ph.D. Testament

Findlay,
of

D.D.

VoTAW,
Union N.Y. logical Theo-

Clyde

Weber,
of of New

Professor

New
New

Testament, York,
D.D. of New York

Professor

Literature,

versity Uni-

Seminary, Sears,
Charles

Chicago.
Hammersley,
of Ecclesiastical Ph.D.

Hatch, Secretary Society.

Executive Mission

City

Walker, Baptist

Henry

Professor

History,
DD.,

Chicago LL.D.,

Theological tWABFiELD,
of

Seminary. Breckenridge,
Didactic and Polemic

Shapley,

John,

Ph.D. Professor R.I.

Benjamin S.T.D. of

Assistant

Art,

Brown

University,

LiTT.D.,
Professor Princeton

Providence, Sharpe, Dean,


Charles

Theology,
N.J.

Manford,
of BibUcal Men's

Ph.D. and

Theological

Seminary,
Ph.D. and O.

Princeton,

College Detroit,

Religious
Christian

Studies,
tion, Associa-

Watson,

Arthur of

Clinton,
Philosophy

Metropohtan

Young
Mich.

Professor Marietta

Education,

College,
Hutton,
of Social

Marietta,

Sheldon,

Henry of

Clay,

D.D.

Webster,

Ph.D.

Professor

Systematic

Theology,

Boston

Professor of

Anthropology,
Neb. Ph.D. Madras

University

University. Smith,
Gerald of

Nebraska,
Angus of

Lincoln,

Birney,
Christian Editor

D.D.

WooDBURNE,
Professor

Stewart, Psychology,
India.

Christian

Professor

Theology,

University

of

Chicago;
Smith,
Henry

Journal

of Religion.
D.D.

College, YouTZ,
Herbert

Madras,

Preserved,
of Old Union

Alden,
of

Ph.D. of School O.

Professor Chief New

Testament

Librarian, N.Y. York,

and Literature, Theological Seminary,

Professor Christian OberUn

Philosophy
Graduate

Religion
of

and

Ethics,

Theology,

College,

Oberlin,

t Deceased.

PREFACE
The of of this

purpose

Dictionary
at

is to

define
to

all terms discuss

biblical) of importance in the field (not strictly


with
some as a

rehgion and

ethics,and

the

same

time
use

fullness
means

terms

general plan thus involves


the limits of The

the

generous

of

cross

references

of

of primary value. bringing the treatment

The within

volume. a single general plan of editing involves definition of ail terms


to

: a more

1. The

and clear

extended

discussion

of the
terms

more

2. Particular

attention

the

explanation of the important

used

important topics. in primitive and

ethnic

rehgions. 3. Especial regard


4. Historical 5. persons rather

to

the

than

Biographical articles
are

psychology and history of religion. of all topics. apologeticor partisan treatment limited to persons in rehgion especially significant
the transUteration of

and

morals.

No

Uving
left free
use,

included.

6. No
to

attempt
the

to

standardize which he

foreign words,
spelUngs of
a

each word

contributor
are

being

employ

system
in the

prefers. Where
proper

different

in

common

the

variants

places. omission 7. The of technical with terms which would not loosely connected religionand morals naturally be sought in such a dictionary. of consultation, 8. For ease after the first compound compound words arranged in sequence term. 9. Bibhographies in an appendix to the volume thus easily be kept up to date. can The editors wish to express their gratitude to Drs. A. S. Woodburne, A. Eustace Haydon, and J. N. assistance in preparation of copy and E. Lewis Reagan for valuable for reading proof, and to Dr. Frank supervisingthe preparationof the bibliographies. While every article and definition has been independently " Wagnalls for their kind consent to the use of some produced their thanks are due to Funk especially admirable contained in copyright material in the Standard expressionsand arrangements Dictionary and New Schaff-HerzogEncyclopedia of ReligiousKnowledge.
appear

titles at the

vu

DICTIONARY
AND

OF

RELIGION

ETHICS

AB, NINTH fifth month of approximately


anniversary
Nebuchadnezzar of
to

OF." the the

Jewish

holiday

on

the

already baptized, who


hgious belief.

are

suspected
various

of

error
:

in

re-

Jewish

August.
in 586 Titus
b.c,

corresponding year, traditional It is the


of Jerusalem

It has taken

forms

in the 4th.

destruction and
a.d.

by

of the

fall of the observed is still


so

century a written statement, in the period of the and Inquisition a solemn public pronouncement, more recently a private profession before priestly
witnesses. of all Roman Converts make
to
a

holy city
as one

before orthodox

in

70

Long
the

formal the

renunciation of the

of

fasting and
as

mourning,
Jews. historic

day
Jews

doctrine church.

opposed

teaching

kept
the not

by day

Reform

regard
do

of solemn

significance, but
F. Reinhart

distinguish it with ABBEY,


ABBOT monastic

specialobservance.
Harold An ABBESS." abbey was institution, comprising for the
was

ABLUTION.

"

See

Bathing;

Purification.

and

originally a
cathedral other
or

book

An apocryphal OF." ABRAHAM.TESTAMENT of Jewish origin describing the last days of

church,

cloisters The

monks the

and
growth out-

Abraham. ABSOLUTE." limitations. In there That

appurtenances.
of the

abbey

into (q.v.) development of monasticism began in the 4th. century form, which The with Pachomius, Egyptian. organization an Benedict of of monastic orders, beginning with the Nursia to (q.v.) contributed development. called The monk in charge was the abbot, which coenobitic
means philologically

which
in
to

is

free

from

all

religious Ufe
is the natural of finite

as

philosophical thinking,

"father."

his

authority "being
Abbots
were

rules."

paternally, by canonical originallylaymen, but from the


He limited

ruled

only

began to be ordained, and in the Middle The corresponding Ages performed episcopal duties.
7th. century head called
an

from the imperfections escape experience. The ultimate reahty the vicissitudes is pictured as eternally perfect, above and of time and change. Complete space be found only in spiritcan security of the human In the rehgion alliance with this perfect Absolute. of the losophies PhiVedanta and (see India, Religions is to lose aim OP, Sec. 1) the ultimate one's finite
a

desire

of

female Certain

institution churches monastic with

or

nunnery

is

abbess. connected the

and

cathedrals,
institutions,

provides
emotional Absolute. has

personahty in the philosophical way


absolute ideas. of the identification IdeaUstic

Infinite. in which

Platonism
men

may

formerly
still retain

participate in

Mysticism
inner in modern

is

an

name,

as, e.g.,

Westminster

Abbey.

self with

the times

philosophy

lastic SchoPETER ABELARD, (1079-1142)." French and in philosopher theologian, known


Uterature Heloise. and which Realism

attempted
to

through
the

monism existence.

relate See

doctrine of dynamic the Absolute concretely to finite

through
In the he

his

romantic
out

connection

with

God;

Monism;
Gerald

Idealism;
Birney

matism. PragSmith

controversy
worked

between
a

Nominalism of

mediating
kind

promoted a more theology he opposed a authority, and


he this collected aroused Patristic distrust

vital
mere

position logic. In
to

ABSOLUTION." the
name

submission
a

astical ecclesi-

chism According to the Larger Cateis prescribed by Pope Pius X., "Absolution which Christ the
to

attempted
In
on

rationaUstic his Sic et Non both siides of While


was

sentence

Priest remit
to

explanation of church
debatable

doctrines.

of Jesus

in the pronounces the penitent'ssins."

quotations
matters at

Roman John

theologians appeal
Absolution

positions in

of doctrine.

the

time, his method

20:21-23. confession (q.v.), and


a

(q.v.),and

Matt. 16: 19; 18: 18; contrition presupposes faction; the promise of satis-

in Catholic subsequently adopted and elaborated of his rationalistic dogmatics. The chief opponent Bernard of Clairvaux, who secured tendency was his

condemnation.
to

His the

last

years

were

spent

in

silent submission
ABHISEKA."

chiu-ch. later for


to

be imparted only can has jurisdiction duly ordained priest who the penitent. The over present form of absolution thee." "I absolve is declarative or indicative, and in other oriental communions In the Holy Orthodox

valid absolution

by

the In the Vedic

form

of absolution for

India

ceremony

used

emperors,

reUgion of kings and


the of Hindus
name

form in of the

of

prayer
use

pardon.
Latin

is precatory, in the Precatory forms were till the Roman without


or even

common

in the

church

middle

high state functionaries to applied by the Buddhists stages of perfection: used


ceremonial

give power;
the last the
among waters.

13th.
cannot

century.
serious

their

ten

For

certain

offences

Catholic

of

priest
pope.

grant
from the restrictions

absolution

special
from the cases"

bathing
"

in sacred A

authorization The of of

bishop
in Wm. these hour

"reserved of death.

reqmred

ABJURATION. by the

renunciation Cathohc church

Roman

heresy those.

are

relaxed,however,

in the

WaLKEB

RoCKWEUi

Abyss

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

filled boltoroless space (originally or faith in Jesus. Many types of theology ABYSS.^The it dependent on belief in right doctrine. have made believed to be under the water) which was earths Bairyloniapthought tne abyss was possibly ACCEPTILATION.-^-Originally a form of ;, ; '.!ja
.

with

the' primeval chaos from which our universe and all God Ufe sprang. this original substance From The created the imiverse,according to Genesis. cosmology of the Bible represents the earth as extending resting on and surrounded by waters the abyss. imder the earth,thus constituting fullyto Through usage which it is not possible trace,the abyss ceased to be thought of as filled with water and became identifiedwith the abode The that is, Sheol or Hades. of the departed spirits, latter place is said by Job 38 : 16 to be at the bottom of the sea. It is from the conceptionof Hades that the word came also to denote the imdergroundplace the time of Enoch From of punishment, or Hell. it was regardedas filledwith fire rather apparently

eousnes
edged legalpracticein which a creditor acknowlof a debt though no payment had The term is loosely been made. used in Christian in theology to characterize theories of atonement which the efficacy of Christ's work depends upon its intrinsic acceptance by God rather than upon its own worth, e.g., the theory of Duns Scotus (q.v.). Roman

payment

ACCIDENT. pectedly (1) An event occurring unexand contrary to rational order. An accident upsets plans, and hence demands special rehgiousor moral explanation. (2)Philosophically, of essential not the existence to a property absolutely scholastic an object. The term is important in some of the doctrine of transubstantiation. explanations
"

than water. literature of the apocalyptic With the appearance to represense the word is used in a more general sent the abyss of the underworld in which was lived and where fire in which the demons Satan, accordingto the Apocalypse of John, is to be confined Hades for a thousand years. The term included also of the dead Uved, and in which wherein the spirits Fathers Christ himself is said by the later church his death and his to have spent the days between resurrection. In the later cosmologiesdeveloped by gnosticism of the the abyss was as the firstprinciple personified evolved and infinite deity from which all aeons were created so the universe In modern thought these earlier conceptions is used and the word have entirelydisappeared, for a deep chasm. simply as a synonym Shailer Mathews RELIGION OF." The reUgion of the peoplesof Abyssinia is a curious blend of primitivitywith the reUgious ideas of Judaism, early and Christianity. The Arabia, Mohammedanism which forms is the nature-reUgion basis of allmodern for the lifeconsists (1) of the tribal provision needs of the people when the chief performs reUgious ceremonies for crops and food; (2)of the control of through the agency of shamans who know the spirits is influence of early Arabia The magical forms. in the presence of the mother-goddess,AUat, seen entered in and of the male Ashtar. Christianity the middle of the 5th. century probably from Syria estabUshed is now and after long struggle as finally of the Abyssinian empire. It the official religion is of the monophysite form generally; though so elements are mingled in it as to give it almost many the character of a new religion. Islam is making rapid progress, has gained control of all the tribes and is penetratingtheir surrounding the Christians, and. influence of Judaism is territory.The source evidences stillobscure,though there are undoubted Jewish ideas and practices. of distinctively A. Eustace Haydon

ACCIDENTALISM." A world view which allows the possibility of tincaused and unpredictable and acts. events and ACCLAMATION." (1) The uncanvassed election of a pope by the collegeof cardinals. in anti(2) A congregationalresponse

spontaneous

phonal singing.
ACCOMMODATION." The
statement
so as

modification
to meet

or

adjustment of
needs
or

specific

person

such as the immaturity of the taught. In bibUcal interpretationcertain apparently been found crude in Scripture have conceptions explained on the ground that God accommodated his revelation to the capacity of men to receive it. conditions
to be

ABYSSINIA,

in the New of the Old Testament Misquotations references of have been similarlyexplained. The considered by some Jesus to demons theologians are to be instances of accommodation. In the 18th. century rationahstic theologians carried the principle to absurd attempting lengths, to find in the Bible their own theology,and thus explaining all features which are unacceptableto modern thinking as instances of accommodation. Historical interpretationtoday repudiates this ings and attempts to set forth the exact teachattitude, of the Bible as honest and straightforward of a rather than as accommodations convictions,

theological system. predetermined


In the Roman Catholic church
a

so-called

"accommodation

controversy" occurred in the disapproved the popes 17th. centuries,when 16th. and sionaries of the concessions made by Jesuit misto current

ACEPHALI.
no

"

bishop mediaeval Flagellants.


"

ideas in India and China. Smith Birney Gerald edged acknowlsect which A religious authoritative head; as e.g., the or

OF CAESAREA." ACACIUS Bishop of Caesarea of the most in the 4th. century and one prominent of the moderate opponents of the Nicene Creed in the Arian controversy.

^An eastern order of ascetics of ACOEMETAE. from their custom the 5th. century, so designated of continuous prayer and praisenight and day. of the highest of the A member ACOLYTE." CathoUc church, whose minor orders in the Roman duties are attendance on a priestperformingsome the celebration of the mass. rite especially That ACOSMISM." that the universe from the Absolute.
asserts

ACCEPTANCE."
with which God

The

attitude

of satisfaction

regards those who have met the for obtaining divine favor. requirements necessary some more primitiveand even Among some among highly developed religionsthe deity is beheved and hence and to be naturally hostile, offerings
sacrifices are In the Hebrew

type of pantheism which


has
no

real existence

apart

considered necessary

to

acceptance.

prophetic books and in the New Testament, acceptance is dependent on moral right-

ACQUIRED
In

AND the

CONGENITAL

TERISTICS." CHARAC-

study

of

heredity,

two

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Adamites

ADALBERT, SAINT, OF PRAGUE." Bishop of Prague, b. 950; forced to flee his see by papal ACTA MARTYRUM." A collection of the biographies opposition a mission to the Prussians, by ; undertook of early Christian latest martyrs. The whom he was murdered, 997; known as the "Apostle is from the 4th. century. Their value varies and "Apostle of the Prussians." of Bohemia" according to the degree of legendary material included. ADAM. Man, or Adam a proper name. The word is used in Genesis,both as a generic
"

namely, generalkinds of characters are recognized, those determined by the constitution of the "germ plasm" and those acquired by the body during its development. Germ plasm is the essential substance and determines of eggs and sperms, the fundamental of the offspring. Acquired structure in response tions characters appear to the varyingcondithat obtain during development. Formerly it was supposed that acquired characters might be inherited and increased from generationto generation. Weismann the first to analyze the situation, was and to show that germ and plasm body plasm are entirelydistinct. Germ plasm gives rise to body plasm, which in turn builds the body; but from plasm itself is continuous generation germ to generation, passing on what it has received from previous generations. An acquired character is a of the body plasm, and disappears with response the body. It has no influence upon more germ the spring from plasm than has a stream upon which it has issued. this point of view, From the body is simply a container of the germ plasm, and no affects its constitution than does a more water bag affect the constitution of the contained It is beginning to be realized, water. however, that some affect the acquired characters may tion to influence the constituas organism so profoundly of the germ plasm. The body is a physiological unity,so that while such an acquired character as affect the germ a mutilation,for example, cannot plasm, any character which profoundly affects the include the germ physiology of the body may plasm in its effects. The conclusion is that while in general acquired characters not are inherited, because they involve only body structures, some acquired characters may involve every regionof the organism, includingthe germ plasm. The problem concerns ethics in so far as it is desirable to ascertain what be laid stress should the education of the individual in view of the on factors in his inheritance. John M. Coulter

year'simprisonment for a second offense, and life imprisonment for a third. Laymen disturbing to violate uniformity worship or encouragingpriests liable to fines and imprisonment. A second were Act (1552) legalized the ecclesiastical censure and excommunication of laymen, who failed to attend and imposed upon prayer on Sundays and holy days, those attendingunauthorized forms of worshippenalties
in the Act of 1549. Elizabeth's Act of the Edwardian statute, but to the penalty of ecclesiastical censure added fine levied by the church wardens for parish a With the restoration of Charles II revenue. (1662)the use of a revised prayer book in every place of public worship was made bents compulsory. Incumwere required to make declaration of their acceptance of the prayer book. University teachers, school masters and private tutors were required to accept the Liturgy and the doctrine of nonresistance. A bishop'slicense was required of all schoolmasters and private tutors. For refusing to of clergymen lost their benefices conform, hundreds in the "Great Eviction," and the Estabhshed from Church forced^ her fellowship much of the The strongest religiousleadership of the age. venticle the Conas statute, fortifiedby such legislation and Corporation Acts (q.v.), remained in force until the Toleration Act (q.v.) made tial substanmoderations. Peter G. Mode much
as

Uniformity(1559) revived

ADAD. An ancient storm-god of the Amorites, known in Palestine and Syria, who appears as Hadad later as an important figure in the pantheon of Babylonia as god of storms and rain. He is also known Rammon. as
"

ADALBERT

OF

HAMBURG

BREMEN."

Archbishop from 1043 or 1045 to 1072; strove to unify the church of Northern Europe with himself as a patriarch, plan frustrated by Rome.

ACTA collection of lives SANCTORUM." A of the saints and information concerning festivals, etc., associated with them, made subsequently to the 4th. century. remains The to be literary included are so numerous and the questions involved difficult that although the Bollandists so began in 1643 the collection is'not publication yet complete. The lives are arranged according to the months in which a saint's feast is celebrated.

term

and

as

proper

name.

The

account

of

tion crea-

document deals with according to the priestly the making of man from who clay by God The account breathed into him the breath of God. then proceeds to treat the first created member of the human race as possessing the name Adam; he was how from one of his given a mate made ribs,how the two lived in a garden in innocence until sin came through temptation by the serpent obeying (q.v.)on the ground that the pair might by disGod ACTION moral SERMON." A sermon immediately get new knowledge. This precedingthe Lord's Supper in Scotch Presbyterian disobedience led to the exclusion of the pair from because the Supper was the garden and their being made churches,so named subjectto death. nated desigThere are many "the Action." Babylonian and other parallels to the Hebrew sets forth story of Adam, but none ACT OF GOD. the problem of temptation and such An occurrence considered insin with evitably because due to the operation of beauty or psychological precision. necessary tian cosmic forces from in Chriswhich the human This Adam of Genesis became is a figure agency both from entirelyabsent; used as an excuse theology. As the actual progenitorof a race for moral wrong and (legally) from civil liability begotten after the Fall he has been treated as the and position of original sin and his experience damages in courts of law. source been have determining factors in the orthodox
"

ACTS
secure

OF

UNIFORMITY."

Enactments

to

uniformity of worship in the churches of England. mon According to the first (1549) the Book of ComPrayer was to be used by all priests on penalty of losinga year's revenue and from the benefice, six months' imprisonment for a first offense,a

salvation. Mathews Shailer ADAMITES. obscure An sect originatingin North Africa in the 2nd. century, the members of of Adam and which laid claim to the innocence ordered their lives after their conception of Eden. Neo-Adamites in the Brethren and Sisters of arose
treatment
"

of sin and

Adapa

A DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION
been

AND

ETHICS
it. Recent studies of the

the Free Spirit of the 13th. century and the of the 14th. century.
"

Beghards

associated with
mental

ADAPA. A figure of Babylonian mythology, favorite of Ea, who and offered the bread was of life by the gods but through a misunderwater standing refused it and forfeited immortality. ADELOPHAGI." A 4th. century sect,who held that Christians should eat in secret,supposedly in imitation of the prophets.
"

changes of this period have confirmed the commonly accepted view of its less a well marked or being more epoch in human development. Physical changes. These are more definitely determined than the mental, social and religious. They consist in greatly accelerated bodily growth in both height and weight. The reproductive
"

physical and

organs

increase

in

size and

come

to

functional

the second maturity; the skin becomes coarser, molars lung capacity increases greatly, appear, ing ADIAPHORA. A word of Greek origindenotin boys, the heart enlargesrapidly, the actions or rites which neither positively especially are voice changes. commanded nor positively forbidden,hence liberty Mental changes. The physical changes are of opinion and action must ever be recognized. Wherassociated with a definitely rapid and striking the attempt is made to organize religion or enlargement of the mental life. Children of normal ethics in terms of a complete legal system such the whole better on of perplexity pubertal development are morally indifferent items are a source successful in their developed mentally and more and give rise to controversy. See Adiaphokistic
"

Controversies. ADIAPHORISTIC ing DurCONTROVERSIES." the Protestant Reformation an attempt was made Charles V., to reunite the by the emperor, Catholic and the Lutheran bodies. burg (See AugsInterim; Leipzig Interim.) Necessarily cism this involved countenancing certain rites of CatholiLuther had repudiated (Latin Mass, which ship candles,fasts, etc.) Those who, under the leaderfavored of Melanchthon granting libertyof called versy contropractice were Adiaphorists. The continued until the Formula of Concord (1577) decided in favor of the stricter view. second A controversy called by this name occurred in the 17th. century over the question of "doubtful amusements," the Pietists contending for the more puritanical positionagainst the conventional Lutherans. Gerald Birney Smith
to refer to the whose of acts meditation by emanation, the five great come, Buddhas and through them the lower orders of divine and earthly existence. He seems to have at times the character of a personalGod, at others to be the pantheistic world-ground.
"

work than are the immature of the same than those whose physical development has been unduly deferred. The sexual ripening outlook upon fife. The earnnew bringsan entirely ing instinct looms large in the boy and the homemaking instinct in the girl. "The type of play
age
or

school

changes, new companions are sought, new hkings, and emotions enthusiasms make tendencies, over life." The the whole central tendency of these changes appears to be near the fifteenthor sixteenth Ambition for the future,periods of elation year.
and depression, and great great dreaminess in some exuberance of physical and mental activity in others, tempestuous passions, and in the later teens a marked and ethical, developmentof social, reUgious impulses appear to be quite common. to occupy comes a Friendship large place in the his susceptibility to good or to bad youth's life, social influences is especially marked. In the later adolescent years philosophic speculationand This may lead rehgious doubts appear in some. either to a cynicalindifference to all higher values idealism and an enor to a lifepermeated by a lofty thusiasm to serve humanity in some far-reaching way. of the adolescent often leads The exuberance him into clashes with the conventional restrictions and school,resulting, of home in the case of the less "storm intense natures, in more and more or stress." Inductive studies of youth lead,however, that proper to the view guidance and a not too should result in a repressivesocial environment steady growth rather than in one marked by sudden and transitions. Unfavorable and tempestuous environments ties repressive produce various abnormaliin adolescent such as are s"en characteristically and insanity. In the former the impulse criminality and in the latter the to action breaks all bounds self-centered,subjective, loses all youth becomes of practical expression and develops some power form of dementia precox. Practical phases. The securing of normal sex tion development is the most vital problem. Instrucin the hygiene of the sex life is coming to be hfe tends in many regarded as essential. Modern the youth, and common to overstimulate mercialized comways flourish through their amusements of the normal interests with disastrous sex exploitation results. On the side of generalhygiene,plenty of physical food and rest, avoidance of overexertion, exercise, proper opportunity for normal social reactions, and emphasis upon service and work rather than a life of pleasure or of morbid introspectionare mend indispensable generalrules. All authorities recomthat children of the same degrees of physical development, irrespectiveof chronological age, be grouped together for secular and religious instruction.
"

ADIBUDDHA.

eternal essential,

A name Buddha

used from

ADITI. A word used divine name in as a Vedic reUgion meaning "the Boundless,"important the early drift from polytheism to an as indicating abstract unity in Indian theology.
"

ADITYAS. A group of shining Vedic religion often identified with the


"

gods of the planets.

An mand, urgent entreaty or comre-enforced by coupling with it an oath. For its use in Scripture Matt. 26:63 and Mark see Catholic 5:7. In Roman devils usage, may be exorcized by adjuring them in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. In the Roman ritual there are other forms of adjuration, used especially in the of baptism. sacrament

ADJURATION.

"

ADMONITION."

discipline, public or
reinstatement or of the culpable. ADOLESCENCE."

Gentle reproof; a method of private,aiming at either the eventual excommunication

the

That

period

of

human

the development extending from beginning of pubertyto complete adult maturity. the nations Among all primitivepeoples, among of antiquity and in practically all religious sects this period has received special attention as an important transition stage between childhood and adult life. Various initiation ceremonies, special educational regimens and religious efforts have

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Advocate

ADVENT. A term used to describe: 1. The Incarnation the coming of the Son as of God into the world through the Virgin birth. Second 2. The of Jesus Advent, the return Christ from heaven to carry on his Messianic work. See Parousia. 3. A feast celebrated the first season of the church year as a preparation for Christmas. It in different months began originally according to the practicesof the different churches. In the ADONIS. The youth beloved by Aphrodite in church the Advent western begins on the season the Greek form of the mystery-symbolism of Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day, November 30, and resurrection. See Mother Goddesses. and four Sundays devoted contains fertility respectively to the Second the Ministry, and Coming, the Bible, ADOPTIANISM." the Incarnation (1)A theory current among (inthe Anglican Church). certain Christians of the second and third centuries Shailer Mathews in nature a man that Jesus Christ was who became ADVENTISTS." The general name for a number the Son of God only by adoption. (2)A heresywhich of religious bodies who believe in the imminent and Frankish in the 8th. in of Jesus Christ to the earth. appeared Spanish bodily return century The Adventists founded Miller officially were suppressed in 799, churches, and was by Wm. until 860. This in 1816,and were called "Millerites." (q.v.) though traces of it continued generally the The form Adventists of adoptianism distinguished between of are grouped in a number divine Christ and the human in goveriunent. Christ, the former organizations usuallycongregational Of these the Life and Advent Union and the Church being the real, and the latter the adopted, Son of God. each numbers less than a thousand ofGod (Adventist) tive members, and may be disregardedexcept as indicaof the tendency of the group ADOPTION," to divide and legal procedure by (1) The tion which an adult person assumes to a minor the relaorganize independent bodies on the basis of some of parent to child. detail. eschatological (2)Analogously, the act ship 1. The most important of the bodies is the whereby God receives the behever into the relationSeventh Day Adventist. Unlike of child,a figureoriginatingin the PauUne other Adventists literature. they observe the Seventh Day in place of Sunday. hold to the sleep of the They are. premillenarian, ADORATION." feet washing in connection tion dead, practicetithing, (1) An attitude,act or emoand awe of deep admiration Their leadingto special with the Lord's Supper, and immersion. most Mrs. Ellen G. White, or important teacher was applicable to God and to persons reverence, such as to whom and powers of objects with specialrehgious significance they attribute inspiration the Virgin Mary, saints, prophecy. Their organization is unlike other martyrs, the crucifix or bodies in that it is presbyterianrather the host. Adventist (2) The worshipful recognition of a than congregational. They are particularly careful newly elected pope by the cardinals. of health,especially affected by food, and have as of six popes. established a number ADRIAN. The name of sanitaria. Their ministry is composed of evangelists. Adrian and I.,Pope 772-795; a contemporary of They have 7 colleges he had several struggles seminaries, of papers, and maintain Charlemagne with whom a number publish 1 hey have 87,583 members. foreignmissions. regarding the extent of his temporal power. 2. Advent Christians separated from the EvanAdrian II.,Pope 867-872. gelical Adventists in 1855 because Adrian III., of a difference Pope 884-885. in belief as to immortality of the soul. The former, Adrian IV. (NicholasBreakspeare), Pope 1154holding that immortality is a result of regeneration, being 1159; the only English pope, his pontificate marked and that all unregenerate are to be annihilated, by a stormy conflict with Frederick BarAdvent Christian the as organized themselves Adrian 1 school of theology, V., Pope July 12 to August 18, 1276, Church. They have 1 college, but died before his ordination. and publish several papers. They have 30,597 members. Adrian VI., Pope 1522-1523, during the time of Luther, who endeavored to reunite Christendom The small are now a Evangelical Adventists the common by acknowledging the evils of papal rule and body holding to what are essentially time insisting positions of premillenarian Christiani"^y. promising reforms,while at the same small the elimination of Luther. of God in Christ are 3. The Churches on a believe in the restitution of Adventists who group tween of all things by God, including the establishment ADULTERY. Legally, sexual intercourse beis married to a third of a Jewish state in Jerusalem. of whom one They have 3,457 persons moral unfaithfulness to God, members. Figuratively, person. as appliedby the prophets to the nation Israel. In the world religions, defends two motives underlie the who ADVOCATE. One cause or a a aversion to adultery: (1) the desire to protect the tribunal. person before a judicial wife as the husband's the penitentand believing In Christian doctrine, property; (2) the need of guarding the status of the familyor caste. Morally, sinner finds in Jesus Christ an advocate before the cessory involves a lack of sexual self-control, and adultery judgment seat of God (I John 2:1). The interis condemned work of Christ has been thus interpreted. along with other forms of unrestrained Advocate sexual indulgence. The Holy Spiritis also called an (e.g., in the John 14:16), although the word paraclete ADVAITA. A doctrine of the Vedanta 4th. gospelis often translated "comforter." losophy phiof India which maintains Catholic church, the ceremony that there is no In the Roman dualism of spirit of beatification or of canonization requires and matter, self and the world. a '"devil's
" " " " " "

and religious Moral phases. While the youth iadifferent to such matters, there is often seems evidence in the latter half of the adolescent period interest in the largerproblems of of a deep-seated hfe and of right living. Special attention should education therefore be given to moral and religious be established. in order that suitable ideals may Religiousconversions are more frequent in middle and than other time. at any later adolescence Many studies indicate that ideals and ambitions acquired in these years tend to become the permanent of the adult. Irving Kino possessions
"

thought and being; that the one indefinable reality miderlying all existence is Brahman.

Advowson

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHIC,"^

advocate" diaboli) whose duty it is to {advocalus serious consideration of all possible objections against the proposed action. His arguments are answered Dei). by "God's advocate" (advocalus Smith Gerald Birney The ADVOWSON." legalright of naming an ecclesiastical vacant incumbent to a church or a benefice in England. See Benefice.
secure

characteristicsall involved in varying degree in


state of

heightened emotion and thrillwhich is contemplative rather than practical, and which regards its object as quasi-personal.This latter aspect is what is called Einfuhlung or empathy. When we is strong,""the mountain rises from say "the tower the plain,""the tree is graceful," etc.,we illustrate this attitude. The most studies recent significant
in the field of art are those which show hkewise its social origins and Much art seems significance. to serve enhancement of emotion by re-echoing the individual's own feeling. James H. Tufts ETHER." (1) A term appearing ia hterature descriptive of cosmological theory, being a fifth element in addition to earth, fire and water, and the substance of which stars air, are composed. In Stoicism (q.v.) aether was described as creative fire and identified with God. science ether is a hypothetical (2) In modern physicalmedium pervading all space and servingto transmit energy, as, e.g., lightwaves.
or

The RELIGION." AEGEAN reUgion of the in islands of the Mediterranean lands and coast the prehistoric age, often referred to as the period Cretan excavaculture. tions of Mycenaean or Minoan of the rehgion indicate that the central figures and unmarried an were goddess,symbol of fertihty to life again. and her son who dies and comes life, divine names The were probably Rhea and Zeus. See Mother Goddesses.

AETHER ancient Greek

EGIS." In Greek AEGIS or shield given by Zeus to Apollo and any protecting power or influence.
"

mythology, the Athena; hence,

AEON. (1) A term used to describe a group from Absolute of successive emanations Being by divine is mediated to the which the spiritual or material world. (SeeGnosticism.) (2)The Greek word for an indefinite period of time constituting 0, cosmic cycleor epoch. See Age. of a group of gods AESIR (ASA). The name of the Teutonic pantheon under the leadershipof Odin, the All-Father.
" '

AETIOLOGY ETIOLOGY." The science of or efficient or physicalcauses, in contrast with explanations in terms of purpose, final causes; the or ence explanation of the phenomenal universe by referto a First Cause. AFFIRMATION." The solemn declaration made before a magistrate or other official by persons to taking a judicial having conscientious objections oath, such as Quakers. It is accepted as a legal equivalentof an oath. MISSIONS TO." its AFRICA, Apart from of its southern edges and a limited penetration both a "dark" portion Africa remained essentially
outer

AESTHETICISM
to

or

ESTHETICISM."

tion Devo-

beauty in its sensuous


of moral

subordination

forms, implying the values to beauty.

fined deis commonly Aesthetics AESTHETICS." In this case, the science of the beautiful. as be taken in the broad sense must however, beautiful as including the sublime, comic, tragic,pathetic, ugly, etc. Originallyused by Baumgarten in his Aesthetica (1750-58) to signify the science of

knowledge, supplementary and_parallel the science of clear thinkingor the intellect. logic, As the excellence of clear thinking is truth,so the held to be perfectionof sensuous knowledge was beauty.
sensuous

to

Modern

aesthetics deals

on

the

one

hand

with

the other on problems of aesthetic appreciation, aesthetic with those of artistic production. Under appreciationfalls (1) the study of the psychology of aesthetic feelingand imagination, and (2) an of the characteristicsor essential qualities analysis of the aesthetic as contrasted with the spheres of "Study of logic,ethics,economics, etc. Under and developArt Production" fall (1)study of origin ment of art, of art, (2) the end of essential nature and (3)the relation of art to other activities and to the progress of civiUzation. Plato's discussions of art were chieflyfrom a moral and educational point of view, and beauty played an important role in his metaphysical Aristotle's Poetics laid the found.ation system. of philosophical analysis of tragedy. Kant's Critique of the Aesthetic Judgment was the beginning of a treatment of art problems largely metaphysical in interest and method which continued by was Schelling, Hegel, Vischer and others. The more of psychological, and modern treatment makes use studies. to a considerable degree of experimental, Instead of setting characteristic one single up some such as (a) unity and variety, the essential, or as for contemplation,or (c)shareable(6) perfection plexity ness, the tendency is rather to recognizethe comof aesthetic feehng and to find its important

and "closed" Continent till 1875. The heroic but fruitlessefforts of Raymond Lull to win the Moslems of Tunis to Christianity ended only with his death in 1315. The 15th. and 16th. centuries witnessed the ineffective attempts of the great Orders,working in conjunctionwith the Portuguese, to win the Congo region for Rome. Ecclesiastical connivance with the slave trafficserved as a serious handicap to these efforts. The Dutch, who reached South Africa in the 17th. century made only a The the natives. late feint at missions among 18th. century found the Moravians in South- West nent Africa. The actual opening of the African Contiwestern to the impact of Christianityand civiUzation was first accompHshed by Livingstone whose mented supple(q.v.), epoch-making explorations, by those of Stanley,penetrated the heart mately and ultiof Africa,blazing the trail for commerce the suppressionof the slave traffic. They to the missionary also served as a powerful inspiration factor a impulse which was so significant in Livingstone himself. They led also to the mobilization of forces and the creation of new missionary agencies for the Christian conquest of the The Africa. past half century has witnessed and occupation of vast areas by well penetration steadily increasing missionary organized and modern organizations. For the sake of convenience, be grouped in the following missions in Africa may
areas. geographical

In Egypt the is that directed of the ancient toward the revitahzation Coptic The United Church. Presbyterianshave a chain and Cairo Alexandria of stations extending from and Colportage Education to the Nile Cataracts. difficult most are especiallyemphasized. The problem in Egypt, the Soudan, and the French, Africa is and Spanish territories of North ItaUan I. Egypt
and

North

Africa.

"

most

missionary work significant

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Africa, Religions of

United Free, and the Church in the vast Moslem of Scotland Missions population. No either by has as yet been made (1875-76),the Church (1875),and London (1877) found The latter have Institution Catholics or Protestants. Missionary Societies. The Livingstonia effective instrument is of most missions their the chief one medical (1875),Nyasaland, centers for industrial training. Of all the missions in Africa in evangelization(Cairo,Khartum, Morocco), the is romantic entire coast in inception, none Africa. II. West more or Including phenomenal in growth than that in Uganda. and hinterland from the Senegal River to German Beginning in 1875 This Africa. South-West territory is occupied in response to Stanley's appeal, it has enrolled of the greatest names in the missionary some by France, Britain, Belgium, and Portugal. In Catholic Roman Continent and Portugese possessions French history of the Dark (Hannington, former d. 1885; Mackay, d. 1890). Its missionary force Missions predominate. In British and of ca. German 100 foreign,and ca. possessions (Togoland, the Cameroons) 3,000 native workers work is in the ascendancy. Among conducts Protestant a dispensary,and schools press, hospital, be enrolhng over early 19th. century missions in this region may 90,000. UnUke India named those of the Wesleyan, Church Missionary, or China, with their ancient Basel of the The missions and and Basel Societies. religious,Africa civilizations, philosophies Board of tribes on (Angola) emphasize Society and the American presents the problem of a vast congeries Christian missions in this region the lowest plane of culture, education. and bound by the most have faced peculiardifficulties: a deadly chmate, future of success degrading superstition.The compelling the employment of native leadership missions in Africa appears to lie in education, lem the Mosfor this responsibility; industrial education, and the raising often ill-prepared especially up of a trained Christian leadership. It is generally today constitutingthe Equator as menace, and the of conflict between that the future of the zone the to Christianity key recognized Christianity from the Mohammedan tide sweeping southward in Africa lies in the conversion of certain particularly intricate the virile tribes (Hausas of Nigeria; Zulus of complex Soudan; the liquortraffic; of tribes (117 represented in Sierra Leone alone) Natal, etc.),and the winning of the Continent with the linguisticproblems herein involved. through them. Missionary statistics (approximate) Of these the Moslem follows : Societies at work, 119; total foreign are as problem is by far the most serious. else in the world, Christianity staff, ca. As nowhere 5,365; residence stations ca. 1,485; here meet in a lifeand death native staff ca. 29,700; organizedchurches ca. 6,770; and Mohammedanism To communicants ca. baptized nonstruggle for the conquest of a Continent. 729,000; sionaries this oncoming tide there are some 400 miscommunicants meet (including children) 503,000; societies others under Protestant Christian instruction 543,000; enrolled representing 15 in Sunday in the Congo region. A more recent Schools problem has 338,000; enrolled in schools of all grades 725,000; medical missions 121. out of the Great War, followed as it was by grown the enforced H. Walker Henry Germany's loss of her African Colonies, and the of most of her missionaries, retirement OF." The native religions AFRICA, RELIGIONS of their work of Africa are found chiefly the Negroes consequent redistribution among among and missionary societies.Catholic Protestant, of the West Coast and the Bantus of Central and the institutions Africa. of Britain and France. South North and North-east Africa Among under the have largelycome engaged in raising up an adequate native leadership includingthe Sudan be mentioned should Fourah and Christianity Bay College (Sierra influence of Mohammedanism has a hold in the two of the continent. extremes Leone). In Angola and elsewhere both Romanists While and Protestants Mohammedanism has approached at some are employing industrial missions of propagandism. as a means pointsto within a few hundred miles of the equator III. South The work of the German and while Christian missions are representedin all Africa. missions in South- West Africa has been seriously the pohtical divisions of the land, the vast bulk curtailed in the territorial readjustments following of the Negroes and Bantus but littleinfluenced are missions the War. In South Africa proper modern though as yet by either of the two militant rehgions. Althe Negroes, the Bantus, the Hottentots, began a century ago when the Anglicans took up ship. of leaderthe work which has given them a position and the Bushmen of sepacomprise a vast number rate tribes differing and This has been in language, cultural level, ably supplemented by the American and London the political Missionary Society development,yet it is possibleto make man out the outstanding characteristic features of the Board Wesleyan, Scottish,Ger(Congregational), and Scandinavian of the primitiveraces of Africa as all of Societies,over thirty religions organizations in all now laboring in this field. these may be justlytermed. The best understood The names of Livingstoneand Moffat are indelibly religiouspractices are of South Africa. after a consideration of the main features of their stamped on the missionary map of Scotland The United has made social and political Free Church and cannot prehended a life, reallybe comnotable contribution units are to the problem of industrial apart from it. The political education Lovedale at for the most (1824) and Blythswood part small, the separate tribes are with the there is a total lack of literacy, (1877). Lovedale, the largestChristian industrial isolated, in South center result that the political Africa, draws its students from genius of the able leaders, obstacles and contributes its graduates to, every which cannot be denied, has insuperable part of South Africa. The latter serve as ministers, to overcome. Slavery is all but universal,and But catechists, teachers, tradesmen, farmers, etc. polygamy prevailsas a natural consequence. The American labors among Board the Zulus in ruler is absolute, prevaihng no a sort of feudaUsm Natal to where superficially the despoticchief seems (1834). Its extensive educational work, as even illustrated in Amanzimtote dustrial Inhave absolute Seminary and Diplomatic skill is highly power. School is aided by substantial government esteemed and the art of oratory is cultivated and grants. greatly prized. While wandering hunting tribes IV. East and Central tribes Africa. The exploranot pastoral are wholly wanting and some tions of Livingstone (Nyasaland) and are Stanley found, yet for the most part they are settled warlike and the slave (Uganda) led to the opening of this territory and agricultural.All are to missionary effort. The Universities' Mission, 1861 to be both indigenous. raid and the slave trade seem (Anglican),was organized in direct response to They have a very high degree of control over their Livmgstone'sappeal. This was followed by the the forces of natm'e children but their control over that involved

significant progress

"

"

"

Africa,Religions of
is

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

be called spiritof the departed. This also can rehgious. The question of the ordeal is not so easy. It is universallypracticed but usually as an integral part of a formal judicial procedure. Africans are trials and among them very fond of court judicial procedure has developed farther than among any other primitive people. Almost everywhere there is an orderlyprocedure before constituted tribunals. for the "witch-doctor" is very different from a Within this procedure the ordeal is often a merely minister of religion, and finally there are no "idols." technical device,analogous to the "third degree Nevertheless, there is a religion. Or rather the different peoples have each a group of practices of the modern police. and observances which to be identified with are Totemism, which characterizes Australian and North American the reUgious life. If we define rehgion as that Indian life, is difficult to Irace in the African culture. There are, indeed,some facts type of behavior in which the ideals and ultimate which defined and made ends of the group to indicate seem that they have are real,then passed it is in the ceremonials that are so frequent a phase form of totemic organization, through some but,as should look for the typical now of African hfe that we the institution of totemism existing, plays no manifestations of ceremonials religion. These importantpart either in the reUgious or social Ufe. manifold. Tabu in the birth, They concern marriage,death, are Quite otherwise is it with tabu. of being forbidden, unclean, harmful, is sense seedtime, harvest, rainpuberty and initiation, encountered hand. There is also the fishing, hunting, war on making and rain prevention, every and peace, crime and punishment, and in fact all conception of tabu as belonging to a specific owner, the crises of their life. such as the chief, and the wizard. Each tribe has social certain food ceremonials The animals that the and within are are characteristically tabu, and for the most tribe there will be tabus for the men, others for the part public in nature and appear Chief among in many forms. these is the cerewhile special families will have monial family women, dance. This may be one of three forms: tabus of diet, and individuals have Ufe-longinjunctions it has case a preparatory ceremonial, in which concerning food, the eating of which wiU be or magical influence such as a hunting dance which perhaps fatal. There are also very harmful the game more actually makes easily caught; temporary tabus of food, tabud clothing,tabud and seasons, well as persons, or a subsequent celebration in which the natural places,articles, as emotions and relations. The social attitudes toward following a successful enterprise are rulers, the tabus vary greatly but in some instances the given vent; or a third stage in which the dances
_

slight. Their main dependence is on very takes the place of science. magic, and superstition The rehgion of such a people impresses the civihzed observer on first contact mainly by its sacred literature, no negations. There is of course there are no temples or sacred meeting places, of a formal sort, no worship as civilized no prayer people define worship, no prieststrictly speaking,

become celebrations entertainment. and mere The religious becomes trations the festival. Illusceremony ance of this tendency may be found in the observin America of Hallowe'en no longer a serious reUgiousfestival but in some respects like a carnival. It is not easy to make a clear distinction between and the questionis one on which magic and religion the experts in the field are at present not in agreement. But if we try to think of the preparatory certain effort to as a secure practical ceremony and then of the subsequent ceremony results, (such of victory) as the dance as a spontaneous expression, it is possible to isolate a state of feeling and a type of behavior in which the ideal interests of the tribe will receive definition and emotional emphasis in the exalted moments of such a social celebration. Other types of ceremonial besides the dances in the initiation of adolescent to be found are boys into the tribe and corresponding formaUties of puberty in girls. connected with the advent It is too much perhaps to identifythis with the conversion experienceof some Protestant churches the confirmation or but the seriousness ceremony, with which all parties to the transaction regard the whole procedure and the high emotional tone which makes it characterizes the community necessary to include this also as religious. Of the same generalnature are the ceremonies surrounding the inauguration of a chief with its precautions
"

is treated with the greatest reverence and It is not easy to make out any moral quality and there is no connection between the tabu and the sacred or morally holy such as can be made out in the Greek and Hebrew aries reUgions. The missionusually find the word for tabu unsuitable for reUgious ideas they wish to impart to their any
awe.

tabu

converts.

and solemnity.
Funeral attention of the left deceased, slaves and unburied, while chiefs and their relatives receive the greatest care. Doubtless motive is that of one ostentation and pride; for a costlyfuneral testifies not only to the affection for the deceased but also to the power and wealth of the survivors. Mackay records how he made coffin for the an enormous mother of Mutesa into whose there went grave trade cloth to the value of $75,000. But there is also the feehng of fear and the desire for caution customs
vary

depends

on

greatly. The amount prominence of strangers being often


the

Another universal phenomenon is the fetish or It appears both as an amulet to keep off evil and as a taUsman to bring desirable results. fetishes Here again the variation is great. Some are private,and untried with little to make new, them prized, others are very old, very powerful, feared or both. In some and greatly esteemed or parts of the continent the fetish is in the form of a human being but this is not essential and is thethis fact that led early writers exception. It was to speak of the fetishes as gods or idols and to speak of fetishism as if it were a system or a reUgion. of the many It is better to regard the fetish as one and varying devices for controlUng the environment from trivially all the way magical to profoundly emotional and socially important devices. Thus far nothing has been said of the beliefs of There is the very greatest confusion the Africans. and the in the writingsof the earlier investigators has no is now reason plain. T|ie primitive man definite doctrines which are in any sense religious theologiesbecause and systematic. There no are debates or arguthere are no sects, no no parties, ments about such conceptions. Their cosmologies stillin the stage of folk-lore and folk-lore is stiU are feels free to embelUsh. each narrator art which There is a universal belief in ghosts,and a sort of one primitive mysticism is imiversal. But when for God and the names attempts to get specific the fate of the good or definite doctrines about devil, realized and the bad in the next world,it is soon men that the search is vain. aries One result of this situation is that the missionwhether Mohanaof the developed religions,

charm.

which and security

secures

the friendlinessof the

medan

or

never Christian,

encounter

any

systematic

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Agnosticism

representcrude opposition.Primitive religions


unsuccessful attempts
to meet

and

ills of life. Their adherents are quick to accept a better way. Faris Ellsworth The name of a social reUgious meal AGAPE. widely and variouslycelebrated in the early church. Its association with the Lord's Supper was probably due to the fact that the First Supper had been to have connected with a feast. This meal seems the
"

lished.
duration of time. Shailer Mathews and
on a

After the Judgment Day the final or for the evil and happiness Age-status of suffering for the good would begin. used in the plural, The word is sometimes as the of expressingendless Ages of Ages, for the purpose

Jerusalem (Acts 2:42, 46), as an It was brotherliness. expression of Christian easilytransferred to the Gentile churches because
at originated

similar meals world. Roman If it is the

were

common

in

the

Greek

Agape which is mentioned in I Cor. conclude that each should 11:20-34, we person on brought food as he was able; but of the custom have no certain this point in subsequent times we early writers knowledge. It appsars from some Tertullian and the Apostohc Constitutions) (e.g., in remembered that,at the Agape, tha needy were

practical ways.
Among
more or

This character. fact and regard for the Eucharist led,perhaps as early as Justin Martyr, from the to the separation of the Agape first, of the Lord's Supper, and then to its sacrament Synod of Laodicea gradual suppression.The (ca.363) forbade holding the Agape in churches, and the Council of Carthage (419) declared that, the people were to be kept from far as possible, as still these feasts. But here and there the custom See also Eucharist. for centuries. persisted George Gilbert Holley Monks and nuns and AGAPETAE." AGAPETI while professing of the early Middle Ages who celibacydwelt together in holy love. The practise was by the Lateran Council, 1139. suppressed AGAPETUS." The
name

the Gentile converts less pronounced pagan the church's supreme

Agape took

The age which has been AGE, CANONICAL." fixed by the canons decisions of the church for or the ordinationof an officialor for the execution of The act. specific (of Synod of Neocaesarea any tion 314 or 325) firstfixed the canonical age for ordinaof a priest at 30, corresponding to Jesus' entry upon his pubhc ministry. The final decisions of the Roman Catholic church those of the were Council of Trent (1563) which fixed the canonical at 24, a deacon at 23, age for ordination of a priest cal The canoniat 22, and a bishop at 30. a subdeacon of discretion for children is 7 when they age The under of the church. the discipline come canonical age for marriage is 14 in boys and 12 in for the with certain exceptions. The girls, age observance of fasts is 21-60. AGE OF

CONSENT." The which at age law. If a be contracted by common be prosecuted that age, a man may to intercourse. for rape, even though she consents In Europe The age varies in different countries. The American it ranges from 12 to 18 for females. states formerly fixed the age at 12 years for girls, but moral education has stimulated pubUc opinion and the age of to demand greater legalprotection, to 16 has been raised in a majority of cases consent K. Rowe or 18 years (inWyoming, 21). Henry

marriage may girl is below

who suffered A Christian girl AGNES, SAINT." in 304; of Diocletian, martyrdom in the persecutions venerated 21 and 14,21, and
"

as

saint by the Latin

church

on

ary Janu-

of two

popes.

28, and by the Greek church on January July 5. Patron saint of young maidens.

Agapelus I., 535-536; chiefly noted for his canonized by the rigorous defence of orthodoxy; church, his festival occurringSeptember 20. Agapelus II.,946-955. AGATHA,
the Western in the 3rd. ST." church

The fire-god of Vedi'creUgion. He is AGNI. of the three most important gods of the priestly reUgion because of his essential relation to the magical ritual of sacrifice.
one

Virgin and martyr listed in calendar, who lived in Sicily saint of Catania, century. Patron

Sicily.
AGATHO." Monothelite AGE. time was
"

AGNOETAE." (1) A 4th. century sect which limited the omniscience of God to present time. cience (2) A 6th. century sect which denied the omnisof Jesus. AGNOSTICISM." A

Pope, 678-681,
controversy.

active

in

the

philosophicalattitude

One of the elemental divisions into which divided by the Jews. subsequently According to Jewish speculation, carried over into Christianity, there were two Ages or Aeons, the Present and the Coming. Between the two were the Days of the Messiah. The Present Age was regarded as under the control of its prince,Satan, and abounded in evils inflicted on the servants world or identified of events, either in the physical of God, who were sequences with the Jews. of consciousness, without entering in the processes In the Coming Age the sovereign authority into speculationconcerning the hidden causes lying of God would be established; evil doers,particularly back of these processes.;' agnosticism Rehgiousty, the oppressors be of the Jewish declares that the supersensibleobjects of faith, people, would fife after death, such as God, incorporeal or spirits, punished and the people of God be given the and loyalty attendant upon righteousness be known cannot td^exist. blessings to Yahweh. nate Huxley brought the word into currency to desigattitude of ignorance as morallypreferable According to the eschatological conception (see an ism materialEschatology) of the time, the Coming Age would to either reUgiousdogmatism or aggressive be introduced of transcendent in questions as to the nature miraculously. The dead (at least the righteous) would be raised from Sheol and with definition of the ultimate reality. Herbert Spencer's those who alive at its coming share in the were Energy from which all realityas the Unknowable the great involves a degree of agnosticism; at judgments and blessings accorded things proceed, assize with which the Coming Age was but Spencer contended that men to be estaba assume may

of knowledge beyond asserting the impossibiUty the limits of verifiable experience, and usually expressing disapproval of any attempts to make afl"rmations as to reaUty beyond these limits. the In science or philosophy agnosticism means or refusal to discuss metaphysical substances to the realm of causes, thus limitinginvestigation verifiable experience. Usually agnosticism here involves the restriction of inquiry to the observable

Agnus Dei

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

10

attitude toward this Unknowable religious positive in the form of cosmic mysticism. The Ritschlian theology, following Kant, is to a certain extent holding that the objectsof rehgiousbelief agnostic, not are scientifically demonstrable, faith alone of their reality. assurance givingpractical of the veto Because placed on metaphysical discussion,agnosticism tends to give the right of way to unquestionable physical facts, and into avowed skepticismso far as easily passes over is concerned. religion Romanes, in his Thoughts cism on Religion,contended that an impartial agnostibeliefs are preferable would show that religious alternatives. Recent to any logical psychonon-religious indicate and epistemological investigations is so complex relation to environment that our between be drawn that no sharp dividing Une can and vaguer knowledge in the strict sense sensory apprehensions of reality. A certain degree of with a agnosticism therefore is not incompatible of religious experience. positiveinterpretation Gerald AGNUS DEI." Birney Smith of God," a (1)Lat.,"the Lamb name applied to Jesus. (2) The figureof a lamb symboUzing Jesus,usuallybearing a banner and a Catholic church a wax cross. (3) In the Roman cake or medallion bearing the impression of the and blessed by the pope. emblem (4)In the Greek used to cover with this figure, church a cloth marked the elements of the Eucharist. (5) A section of the and of the Gloria beginningwith these words. mass, AGRAPHA. Sayings attributed to Jesus Christ which are not to be found in our canonical literature, but carried along by oral tradition until were embodied in some writing. finally of canonical variations If misquotations or not counted, these sayings of Jesus are utterances not numerous are and, with the exceptionof possibly a dozen importance. Possibly cases, of no particular the most are: interesting 1. "On the sapie day, having seen working one if indeed the Sabbath, he said to him, 'O man, on thou doest, thou art blessed; thou knovvest what but if thou knowest not, thou are accursed and a trangressor of the law.'" 'Ask great things, 2. "Jesus said to his disciples, and ask and the small shall be added unto you; heavenly things and the earthly shall be added
"

At the time of sowing, the seed is stimulated by processions, by the use of obscene language phallic Greece),by cursing(Greece), (India, by incantation formulae which command the gods of food (Japan), by mixing it with material of great potency such as the seed of the last sheaf of the previousharvest, human of pigs devoured or blood, or remnants by snakes as in the Greek Thesmophoria (q.v.). The growing crops are protectedby recitation of magical rituals (Japan), processionsaround the boundary and sacrifices (Roman), by carryingthe image of the deity around the fields (Germany, France, Peru). There are many magical arts for securing rain and for making the stalks grow long. The great time of the year is the harvest. All over the world the first-fruits call for special ceremonies. The first tion grain is cut with great caution,often with lamentawho possesses special or by someone a powers, or magician. The crop is made safe to eat the first fruits to the god, to the king, y offering chief or priests, or mon. by a sacred meal shared in comThe last sheaf of the year embodies the cornspirit. It is called by such names as "cornmother," "the maiden," "the old woman," and becomes the of dancing and feasting. There is evidence center that at this time human victims were their killed, blood mingled with the first cakes baked from the and eaten in a sacred meal (S.America). new corn At this point the harvest festival merges in the great cult of vegetation at the autumnal equinox when the waning life of the year is stimulated by special rites from which arise the great fertihty and the goddesses (see Mother-Goddesses)

Eriest

Mysteries (q.v.).
The
most

elaborate development of the agricultural

rites is seen in the state rehgion of China where the whole splendor of the state ritual is concentrated in spring, in times of drought, at seed-time, and especially in the autumn the one object upon of securing prosperityby control of the powers of A. Eustace Haydon heaven, air,and earth. AHIMSA. A principle of the to many common ascetic sects of India which forbids injury to any form of sentient life; sometimes, as with the Jains, carried to the extreme of tolerating vermin.
"

AHIQAR,

THE

STORY

OF."

story of

the

unto

you.'

"

versions of the Thousand sage Ahiqar, found in some derived from Syrian Christian literature, and One Nights,

and probably a part of the lost literature of 3. "Rightly, therefore, the Scripture in its of the pre-Christianera. desire to make such dialecticians, exhorts us: the Aramaeans Several us deities are mentioned in it. skilful money-changers,' rejecting some Aramaean 'Be ye but retaining what is good." things, Mathews The name of a modern Shailer AHMADIYA. reform of India begun in German the Moslems JOHANN." theologian, movement AGRICOLA, among claimed the originator of the Ahmad who to be the 1891 by Ghulam as 1494-1566; noted chiefly the German formers expected Madhi Reof Islam, the returning Spiritof antinomian controversy among of the Jews and an which avatar brought him into conflict with Christ, the Messiah and later with Luther. is chiefly Melanchthon See Antiof Krishna. The movement a rehgious formalism. There are nomianism. protest against Moslem at the present time. 70,000 members RITES OF." In the narrow AGRICULTURE, The rites deal with the technique of AHRIMAN. sense principleof evil agricultural personified the soil, in the Zoroastrian of sin, religion; the source sowing, protectingthe crop and The principle He is a creative arvest. underlying the ceremonies disease,disorder, and death. coeval with the good God, Ormazd, but is is that of the use of a magical power controlled by power annihilation at the end of doomed to overcome influences hostile to the to defeat and the group the world. Typical examples only may be given here. crops. The ground is prepared by dabces around the AHURA MAZDA." See Ormazd. borders, by sprinkling with human blood, by victim whose ashes are sprinkled burning a human OF." The survivors of this to the field (America),by the sacrifice of cows AINUS, RELIGION on the Earth and to Ceres, by firebrands sent across dwindlingrace five in Siberia,Saghalin and the islands of Japan. Their religion fields tied to the tails of foxes (Roman). The northern is an in which primitive first furrow is often turned by the chief or king example of the manner interesting with the environthe season to open (Siam, China). auspiciously peoplebuild up social relationships
" "

Ereparing

11

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Albert

of

Brandenberg

their life. Their customs forces affecting of control of the favorable and consist of methods vegetation, dangerous things in nature sun, fire,

ing nature

"

storms, trees, sea,


and diseases,

mountains, swamps, animals, the unknown potencies of the outer

central ceremonies those The most world. are which deal with food in the forms of vegetationand of the eating of the bear. protection They secure from evil forces such as diseases and the danger of magic spells, of the forsst and swamp by means charms, amulets and fetish-sticks. No clear ideas of after-life, of gods or of have developed of the soul, spirits.The dead go underground; the religious the potencies in fire, in grain, in the bear; are objects is the concept of the the nearest approach to spirit in the disease-giving dangerous presence swamp. There is nothing correspondingto the organization, of developed religion. temples or priesthood GODS. This name refers strictly AIR to that pheric class of supernatural beings belonging to atmosentiated and meteorologicalphenomena as differboth from the gods of the sky and from and ghosts dwelUng in the air or demons spirits, of the air which have shown clouds. The powers themselves sufficiently important in the hfe of early to attain divine rank are man rain,winds, storm, thunder and lightning. To these should be added the gods of the four quarters symbohzed in ancient Ancient America by the cross. Egypt alone has a The gift of rain is often a god of the air,Shu. is function of the sky gods but where agriculture rain god usuallydevelops as in important a special Vedic India (Parjana,Indra),and in China (Master of Rain). Wind gods are very prominent in the They are usuallyassociated rehgions of America. with the cardinal points of the sky and function as In India the good fertiUtyand creative powers. wind gods are Vata and Vayu while the destructive and troublesome winds are represented in Rudra and the Maruts. Greece and Rome picture anthropomorphic gods of the wind, e.g., Boreas, for the winds of the north wind. An earlier name or Harpies Greece, however, is the "snatchers" and to the pestilential which comes to refer largely winds. China has her Prince of the maleficent of the rain,wind, thunder A combination Wind. in the various storm and lightningis seen gods Indra, the slayer of the drought-demon, Vritra Adad, Rammon (Semitic), (India), Woden, leader of the Wild Hunt of Souls and Thor (Teutonic), Suso-no-wo, who disputesthe region of the sky with his sister the sun-goddess (Japan). The in called simply the Thunderer as god is sometimes China, or the lightningstands out as an individual thing as in the Dragon-Sword of Shinto. The early of Yahweh, as of the Babylonian Enhl, descriptions suggest a connection with storm, wind and clouds. It should be said,in regard to these gods of the air,that they rarely remain separated but either and mingle their functions with ascend to heaven descend those of the sky-gods or to earth and take on the characteristics of fertility or powers A. Eustace Haydon war gods.
" "

Emperor of all North India in the of the 16th. century a.d. His real administrator and as an greatness lay in his ability in his powers of concihation. He is best known for his easy tolerance of all religious faiths and for his attempt to estabhsh a religion for his empire by selection from several faiths, from Islam especially and Parsism. Representatives of all the great welcomed rehgions,free-thinkers and atheist? were to present their views at his coai't. He of was vision to see that the good life calm sufficiently for man and the security of the empire did not of the battle of creeds. depend upon the outcome enthusiast not He was or a a religious skeptic; it may fairlybe said that his faith centered in a God whose for the belief in one agent he was administration of the empire.
"

AKBAR. second half

Jewish rabbi and AKIBA BEN JOSEPH." practical philosopher, 50-132(-5). He was strongly opposed to the Christian schism, to gnosticismand the destruction to mysticism. In the period following of Jerusalem, he helped to modify Jewish of Scripture, thought by his Uteralistic interpretation of Pharisaic by his systematization^ he One of the greatest of Jewish teachers, (q.v.) supportedthe Jewish Messiah Bar Kokhbar before the revolt headed and suffered martyrdom by the latter was crushed by the Romans. and tradition. MISSIONS RELIGIONS OF AND ALASKA, TO." American 1. Religions,see Eskimos, North Indians. 2. Missions. pation Immediately after Russian occuchurch Orthodox of Alaska, the Russian in the In 1915 there were began its mission. Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and North America 10,000 Indians, Aleutians, Creoles and Eskimos. Moravian work was begun in 1855 and sixty years later this church counted 1,400 baptized Indians. of the most the Protestant Among prosp)erous missions is that of the Presbyterianchurch, begun in 1915 had eight stations serving in 1877, which Christians. The PresbyterianBoard four thousand work at the Congregational in 1920 took over Wales, which since 1890 had been under the supervision of the American Association. Missionary^ The Protestant in 1915 had Episcopal church twenty churches with twelve clergymen and six lay readers. The Methodists had but four churches of adherents in 1919, the number being but 98. This service was almost entirely to the white population. Catholics have 16 churches with The Roman resident priests, 20 mission chapels and several In addition to strictly schools. work, most religious of the denominations carry on educational activities industrial which include training. Missionaries from the have found that there is better response which is natives than from the white population and is interested chiefly in getting temporary ents gold. Almost all of the natives (1920) are adheris often of some sect, although this adherence Stock Harry Thomas nominal.
" _

AjrVlKAS.

"

An

ascetic

community

of

India

led at the close of the 6th. century b.c. by Gosala,a and contemporary of the founders of the Buddhist
Jain communities. In cosmogony and psychology their behef was identical with that of practically the Jains (q.v). Their chief distinctive beUefs were (1) a thorough-going determinism; (2) the since impossibilityof free-will or responsibility man's life is fixed by fate,by his own inherited nature, and by his environment; (3) the universal salvation of all souls after the lapseof vast ages of transmigration.

ALB. (1)A linen robe,reaching to the feet and by Roman having closely fittingsleeves,worn Catholic priests (2) A robe when celebrating mass. worn by the newly baptized in the early church.
"

ALBERT

V. OF
a

1528-1579,

Duke of Bavaria, BAVARIA." vigorous and influential leader of the

Counter-Reformation. ALBERT and Mainz Elector of BRANDENBERG." OF CathoUc cardinal of the Roman church, 1490-1545; at first tolerant toward the Reformers,

Albert of Prussia

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

12

but later

supporter of the Catholic reaction in

Germany.
First duke of Prussia, PRUSSIA." and Melanchthon friend of Luther in Germany; and a supporter of the Reformation foimder of the Prussian national church. ALBERT OF

and tolerant, the image of Jesus syncretistic being placedin his domestic chapel besides those of Abraham, ApoUonius of Tyana and Orpheus.
was

1490-1568;

MAGNUS ALBERTU" (ca. 1193-1280)." can Schoolman and a leaderin the Dominiiieologian, in Cologne; a order in Germany, especially of wide learning in science,philosophyand man of the teachers of Thomas theology, and one in the substitution was Aquinas. His significance of Aristotelian for Platonic logicand metaphysics. His assertion of a higher sphere of authority for the revelation beyond the limits of reason was beginning of the long conflict between naturalism science and theology. and supernaturalism, ALBIGENSES." Name derived from Albi

ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL." A theological school of great influence in the early Greek church. literature and the Epistle to the The Johannine influenced by Alexandrian Hebrews are thought. The Gnostic schools of Basilides and Valentinus The originatedin Alexandria. great catechetical school of Alexandria numbered its heads among and served Pantaenus, Clement and Origen (q.v.), and defender of orthodoxy. The as the formulater theology of the Cappadocians is an Alexandrian "the father of orthodoxy," product. Athanasius (q.v.), was bishop of Alexandria. Cyril (q.v.), who was the leader of the Alexandrian school in his to the theologians of the Antiochan day in opposition school (q.v.), influential figurein the conwas an troversies the person of Christ. over

(S.France) ; called also New Manichaeans, Cathari. the expressionof the Among Christians they were ences influArian oriental,Manichaean, Gnostic and which poured over Italy and France in the earUer Christian centuries and held their ground Manichaean were They against Catholicism. (q.v.)in theology; rejected the Old Testament the work of an evil deity; substituted the as of laying consolamentum (an elaborate ceremony of hands and on fasting)for baptism; forbade marriage, ownership of property, and eating of meat; taught transmigration of souls of the unto a state of perfected,the saints going at once eternal happiness. They were scattered and almost exterminated by the Crusades and Inquisition.
ALEXANDER." The name of eight popes. Alexander I. -Bishop of Rome in the first quarter of the 2nd. century. Alexander //."Pope, 1061-1073. Alexander III. Pope, 1159-1181, one of the successful in his pohtical was greatest popes; contests with Frederick of Germany Barbarossa and Henry II. of England. Alexander IV." Pope, 1254-1261. fered Italy sufmuch during his reignby the conflict between the GhibelUnes and the Guelphs, the pope siding with the latter. Alexander V. His claim Pope, 1409-1410. was disputedby Benedict XIII. and Gregory XII., the latter of whom is frequentlyregarded as the
" " "

ALEXANDRINUS,
Al"bxandrinus.

CODEX."

See Codex

ALEXIANS. A in R.C. order which arose the Netherlands, at the time of the Black Death, in the middle of the i4th. century. Its purpose to bury the dead and care for the sick. They was chose St. Alexius (5th. cent.) as patron. Other for the order are names Celhtes, Cell-brethren, Lollards and Nollards.
"

'ALIYAH." (Hebrew, "going up".) In the services of the Synagog, the act of going up to the reading-desk to take part in the reading of the Scroll of the Five Books of Moses. ALLAH. (Arab.) God, the Mohammedans Qu'ran and among Being. See Mohammedanism.
"

name

used in the for the Supreme

ALLEGORY. An elaborated metaphor in which conceptions of one class are expressed in forms of and another; as when abstract ideas are personified given relations involved in such personification.
"

The process

word

also is used

to

express

the

reverse

rightful pope.
Alexander VI. of Pope, 1492-1503, a man unusual but charged with immoral acter, chartalents, and the ambition his alleged to elevate Caesar and Lucretia Borgia, children, particularly of wealth and influence. to positions Alexander VII. Pope, 1655-1667, a friend of the Jesuits and an ally of Spain on whom he was
"
"

partlydependent.
of
a

Alexander VIII. Pope, 1689-1691, a supporter and of civic improvements in Rome, and learning for the vigorous opponent of the movement
"

by which personal narratives are explained as representingabstract ideas. Thus a character be said to representa virtue or a vice, and his may actions may be regarded as symbohcal of the effects of such virtue or vice in society. As examples of the former meaning of the word, the two best known works in English are Spenser's "Fairie Queene" and Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress," the latter being a pictorial of the author's exposition method of finding allegorical theology. The teachingin the Bible was elaborately developedby Philo of Alexandria with the purpose of giving universal This method to the O.T. narratives. validity of expression was with church teachers common like Origen and is still in vogue bibUcal among students who hold that Scripturehas other meanings than those reached by historical and critical
methods.
ALL Shailer Mathews

greater freedom
GaUicanism ALEXANDER

of the church

in France

known

as

(q.v.).
OF HALES."

Englsh

scholastic

theologian of the 13th. century; called Doctor He entered the Franciscan order Irrefragabilis. in 1222, and his work, the Summa is the Theologiae, first important contribution from the Franciscans. It is written in the form of question and answer, scholastic in method and is typically and content.
ALEXANDER SEVERUS." Roman emperor,

DAY." named from FOOL'S Aprilthe first, of perpetratingpractical jokes on that practise day at the expense of the victim's creduhty; originated in the Celtic cult of Arianrhod, the counterpart the of Venus. ALLIANCE CHURCHES. OF THE REFORMED A fraternal alhance of all churches, throughout the world of presbyterial polity, ized organThe membership is comin London in 1875. posed in of churches of Presbyterian principles,
"

his religious 222-235; of noble character; policy harmony with the Reformed

churches

who

hold

13

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Ambrose,

Saint

to the

morals.
once

but

of faith and matters holds its General Councils every 3 or 4 years, its functions being advisory, the known as It is popularly not legislative.

authorityof the Bible in


The Alliance

is regarded as a the Christian Eucharist Where sacrificethe table at which it is celebrated is properly H. P. Smith called an altar.

"PresbyterianAUiance."
A DAY." church festival in SAINTS' ALL and unknown, honor of all saints and martyrs, known observed Nov. 1st. by the R.C. church and the first Sunday of England, and on the Church after Pentecost by the Eastern church; also called Allhallowmas. All-Hallows,

ALTAR-BREAD.
Eucharist

"

The

bread

used

in

the

by both the Western and Eastern CathoUc churches, usually in the form of an unleavened the host (q.v.). wafer; also designated
ALTAR-CARDS.
"

Three

cards

tain cercontaining

portions of the liturgyof the Mass in R.C. churches, and placed on the altar to assist the
of the celebrant. the 16th. century.
memory

Their

use

dates from

observed A R.C. festival, SOULS' DAY." ALL the souls of all the faithful dead Nov. 2nd., when in prayer. are remembered
ALMARICIANS.
"

See Brothers

of

the

Free

Spirit.
ALMSGIVING. ALOGL
"

for term A Lutheran ALTAR-FELLOWSHIP." of the church in the Lord's communion the outward altar-fellowship being equivalent Supper, unmixed to and mixed altar-fellowship to close communion communion. open In Social Psychology Lat. "other." the "other" of the social environment, conditioningthe experienceof the personal "ego." See Altruism for an earher use of the word. ALTER." Ethics ALTRUISM. (1) In psychology, a term correlative to egoism, meaning an attitude having of benefitinga social other. the specific purpose (2) In ethics an attitude of moral interest in others to the and activity on their behalf, in contrast seeking of selfish satisfaction.
"

See Charity

and Almsgiving.
and

A heretical sect of the 2nd. and 3rd. known centuries only through references in Irenaeus, Hippolytus and Epiphanius, according to which of the Logos doctrine they rejectedthe application to Jesus,and the Johannine authorship of the 4th. Gospel and of the Apocalypse.
"

ALOMBRADOS

(or ALUMBRADOS)."

sect

of ascetic mystics, arising in .Spain in the first quarter of the 16th. century, and later suppressed

by the Inquisition.
AMANA ALTAR.
"

SOCIETY.

"

An

American

tic communis-

piece of furniture for

sanctuary,

which of a raised structure on consisting burnt. to the deity are of be a mound In its simplestform the altar may To earth,a heap of stones or a singlelarge stone. meaning an excavation speak of a depressed altar, into which victims are thrown, is hardly accurate. In the more ornate templesthe stone might be carved,

in Germany in 1714, religious society. Founded in protest offerings as the Community of True Inspiration, of against the formaUty and lack of spirituality Lutheranism. The members banded themselves

dren together to live in brotherly relations as the chilof God They refused to seeking salvation. to take the oath of allegiance or to serve as soldiers, schools. send their children to Lutheran Suffering to introduced. and at the latest stage metal altars were persecution in Germany they finallymoved Since food was America, N.Y. state, in 1842 and to Iowa in 1855, presentedon it the altar was thought called the where They were of as a table and is in fact sometimes own they now 26,000 acres. table of the god (Ezek. 41:22, 44:16). The fire incorporatedas the Amana Society in 1859. The to train of the community is religious, main purpose the means which by was kept burning on it was the soul in preparation for the future Ufe. Out of sublimated and carried to the which the food was has developed a remarkably the religious of a stage however traces divinity. There are purpose The successful communism. the of rehgion at which fire was not used, and Society is governed blood of the victim was by a central board of thirteen trustees elected simply poured or smeared the elders. the altar. Since the intention of the offerer annually by all the people from among on and modern the community is entirely to give this part of the sacrifice to the god it was Industrially clear that he was seems provides for every need of its 1800 people. There thought to reside in the The the sacred is no emphasis upon altar then was stone. religious dogma or ceremony originally and piety. On this basis the but upon the spirituality stone, the Bethel (house of God) in which or Stories which relate that at home. divinity was people are graded in three ranks and advanced fire broke out from the stone on which the offering reduced according to the judgment of the Great All work at their chosen Council of Trustees. the gift confirm this was placed and consumed share in central direction and impression. The story of the sacrifice of Isaac specialty under that in one form of the ritual the victim bound and laid on the wood of the altar and its throat was then cut so that the blood would the altar. This as well as the flow directlyonto Arab custom of pouring the blood into an excavation at the foot of the altar points in the same direction. The pouring of the blood upon the altar is precisely to the anointing of the sacred parallel stone at Bethel. the altar and Later the sacred stone were the former differentiated, becoming the table of the divinity. As the ritual became refined more shows
was were unbloody offerings
.

common.

AMATERASU. The sun-goddess,chief of the divine figures of the native Japanese rehgion and of the ruUng line of Mikados. ancestress
"

AMBO. An official reading desk in the early church, later superseded by the pulpit and the
"

lectern. SAINT (ca. 340-397)." Bishop of of the four Latin doctors of the educated church. He was as a lawyer and called from a magisterial post to be bishop of Milan in 374. On accepting the office he divested himself of his ness. faithfulof episcopal a model property, and became enabling His power and influence were great,

AMBROSE, Milan, and one

brought

"

fruit, grain, or

incense

and In the altar became smaller. the temple at Jerusalem there was a small golden altar for incense as well as the largeone of stone for
"

animal sacrifice.

Ambrosian

Chant

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

14

for an and prescribepenance accepted the ascetic ideal of and his day, emphasizing the virtue of virginity, promulgating a high standard of Christian ethics
even

him

to

emperor.

rebuke Ambrose

in both individual and social relations. He was one of the foremost exegetes and hymn-writers of the early church, as well as a great pulpit orator. AMBROSIAN CHANT." A

Latin Vulgate, for which it is the best authority; written early in the 8th. century in the north of England and sent in a.d. 716 as a present to the Amiata Pope; afterward given to Monte (whence in the Laurentian Library at its name), but now Florence. AMICE.
"

fur-lined hood or cloak, or in cold weather by priests and monks, and stillused on the left arm as or a badge by some chant, growing out of a combination song clerics. (2) A vestment French and traof Greek ditionally music with the church psalter, consistingof a around the accredited to Ambrose of Milan (q.v.). rectangularpiece of white hnen worn neck or shoulders by R.C. priestsin celebrating of the time It dominated church music from close mass. Ambrose till the Gregorian reaction at the of the 6th. century. See Music. AMIDA. See Amitabha.

(1) A fur

spiritedcongregational

formerly worn

"

of certain R.C. (1) Name Milan since the in or near originating congregations of from Ambrose 14th. century, taking their name Milan. (2) A 16th. century Anabaptist sect whose diate leader was named Ambrose, and who claimed immerevelation from God. Doctrinally the Ambrosians belonged to the branch of the Anabaptists called Pneumatics. (q.v.)
AMBROSIANS." AMBROSIASTER." The used to designame nate the author of certain 4th. century Christian of Milan, writings wrongly ascribed to Ambrose the most a commentary important of which was the epistles of Paul. on
"

of the five Buddhas of contemplation, removed from the eternal Buddha He is the merciful (see Adibuddha). vowed not into complete to enter figure who until assured that all who Buddhahood trust his would find eternal salvation in the happy grace western Paradise over which he presides.
a

AMITABHA."

One

step

AMMON." AMON.
rose

See Amon,
"

who

AMEN. A Hebrew word, the meaning of which is to confirm or strengthen. It has been used in A M O R A Muhammadan and liturgies. (Aramaic, "interpreter," Jewish, Christian plural: One of the Jewish masters Sometime its use is with reference to the words of anof Babylonia other Amoraim.) and Palestine in the 3rd. to 6th. centuries, who speaker,e.g.. Rev. 22:20, or the response of in the congregation to the prayer offered by the priest expounded the Mishna (q.v.)and whose teachings it is contained in the Gemara Sometimes the R.C. and AngUcan churches. are (q.v.) used by the speaker to strengthen his own words, AMORITES." See Canaanites. e.g., Jesus' usage as in John 16:23, or in the doxolothe final word of a prayer. I Cor. 14 : 16 or as gies, in is cited as the firstevidence of its liturgical AMPHICTYONY." A union of Greek tribal usage with a common Christianity. rehgious interest meeting groups under a "truce of God" at the temple of the deity. The two chief amphictyonic unions were AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS those centered and FOR of at Delos The legalname Delphi (earlier probably at FpREIGN MISSIONS." the foreignmissionarysociety of the Congregational Pylae). Denomination, in America. flask employed in the R.C. AMPULLA." A AMERICAN ON church as a container for the consecrated oil, LECTURES HISTORY OF wine See RELIGIONS. Lectures History on of or water, used in baptism, confirmation,extreme and the consecration of kings. Religions. unction,mass
"

God of the nome of Thebes in Egypt the importance when Thebes became of the later politicalcenter empire. He was the coupled with the sun-god. Re, and assumed character of a solar deity as Amon-Re.
to

"

A name used AMULETS. See Charms Amulets. AMERICANISM. to indicate and the Uberal tendencies of a type of Catholic preaching and teaching alleged to have been practiced AMUSEMENTS." All forms of pleasantoccupations, which are associated with in America mental or physical, by Father Isaac Thomas Hecker, the of the Pauhsts. relaxation from vocational activities or other serious founder The controversy arose several years after Hecker's death, and was due to pursuits. of the term, all kinds of French In the broadest sense advocacy of liberahsm based on a French translation of a life of Hecker. In 1899 Pope Leo play and recreation,especiallyof older children and adults are referred to. XIII. condemned the movement; and American In a narrower sense, be considered in amusements Catholic officials gave evidence that they were hghter or more may accord with the pope's declaration. The same frivolous than recreation, eral libinvolving less expenditure ideals later found expressionin of energy. end Modernism They have, however, the same (q.v.) for the normal individual, viz.,the recuperation SPENTAS." AMESHA A group of six divine of wearied bodily and mental capacities, or means time when cannot in of whiling away one figuresof the Zoroastrian reUgion acting as the engage attendants immediate and executives of Ormazd. "useful" pursuits. The association of amusements their relativelyslight Their names with idle enjoyment and suggest that they are attributes of the to demand on personified as high God energetic action has led many archangels "Good sinful. condemn them as essentially Thought," "Perfect Righteousness,""Desired Kingdom," Positive significance. "Holy Harmony," "Saving Health," and Amusements, even though abused, have a positiveand valuable function in "Immortality." some Ufe. It is true that one's dailywork, if it is wholeCODEX." A parchment manuand furnishes due opportunity for initiative, AMIATINUS, script does afford much containingthe Old and New Testaments in the genuinesatisfaction. Neverth"" "

"

"

15

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Anabaptists

is in definite absorbed worker relaxation and lighter pleasure. take the amusements Specificvalues. When to health, contribute of active play, they form diversions but also of furnishing not merely by way by bringing into action those parts of the body exercised by work. They restore not sufficiently ments employmental poise and spontaneityby furnishing the higher and which are less exacting upon wholesome Most unstable mental processes. more values upon amusements depend for their specific for the free the extent to which they are avenues ties expressionof various instincts. Instinctive activiand hence amusing by are generallysatisfying with serious pursuits. contrast There The appeal of low types of amusements. has always been a distinct tendency for commercial individual the over-worked interests to debauch in his normal quest for amusement by appealing to or exciting these impulses in their least desirable forms, as in various kinds of staged fights,the theatrical performance, the lewd dance, immoral and more recentlyby the indecent motion picture. and filthy that the coarse It is a mistake to assume is naturally more amusing than the clean and It is often lack of opportunity for the beautiful. latter that leads many people to turn to and acquire a taste for the former. The social and religious problem,. Social and workers cannot afford to ignore the normal religious If religion is to human craving for amusements. include pleasurable include the whole life it must serious diversions as well as emphasize the more of life. There is no more important responsibilities service to be rendered to any community than the forms careful planning and organizationof lighter of diversions. This service is increasingly necessary of the high tension under which account on many of the monotonous live and on account grind that communities fillsthe lives of many others. Most will rise to higher levels in their tastes for amusements if the latter are intelligently planned and A standard thus be set can properly carried out. will gradually affect for the better the up which commercialized social and forms. The religious be appreciated importance of all such efforts may ideals of our of life are when reflect that many we with the built up in connection most effectively occupations of leisure. Training in the rightuse of of the necessary leisure is regarded today as one ends of education. Irving King

theless,the
of

most

need

of periods

"

The a Anabaptist ideal was church, a pure community of saints or believers within the social in the world but not of the world,possessed of order, for scripturala passion for personalrighteousness, in fife and church and for the ness institutions, imitation of Christ. To reaUze this ideal the in the most literal Anabaptists apphed Sci'ipture to all phases of their Uves; rejected infant way and the source of baptism as contrary to Scripture, all kinds of evil;exercised a very rigiddiscipline as of keeping the church pure ; asserted the only means of the soul under the complete freedom Christ, the persecution;demanded repudiatingall religious and entire separation of church state, leaving each free to perform its appointed functions without interference from the other; and they refused to take an oath, hold civiloffice or bear arms.

"

much difference of this there was Some them. professed to have a illumination of the Spiritwhich direct and special refused to pay war constituted a new prophecy ;some stillfurther went taxes or interest on money; some ing establishand favored community of goods,actually houses; objectionto the death great communal were urged to penalty was common ; their members in productive employments only, refraining engage from keeping public houses or engaging in the liquorbusiness. Radical millenarianism was widely held and ultimatelywrecked the movement. Anabaptist views appeared in the circles around Luther and Zwingli and spread from these centers of Europe. The influence of the party much over is seen in the fact that every important reformer wrote against them, every creed drawn up in that and almost every period condemns government at time or another persecuted them. For a time one the movement threatened into its folds a to sweep goodly share of all the reformed peoples of Europe, but the dihgent polemic of the theologiansand the drastic persecutions inflicted by the church and and the state speedilyreduced it to insignificance teen in some placessuppressed it altogether. Within fifand then years it passed the zenith of its power, gradually died away almost to the vanishing point. be treated in four groups Anabaptists may Dutch. German, Swiss-Moravian, Italian and Radical views first appeared at Wittenberg in while Luther the Wartburg. He 1522 at was returned to Wittenberg and in a few powerfulsermons succeeded in turning the tide against them. versity of the ablest professors in the Unione Carlstadt, of Wittenberg, was forced to leave and henceforth Anabaptism was outlawed in Germany. ANABAPTISTS." (From the Greek through the well organized and was ruined in the Latin, "those who baptizeagain," "rebaptizers.") It was never of the 16th. and Peasants' War in 1525. Feeble I'emnants of radical reformers A group continued, named because they bapso tized but it was never subsequent centuries, again a force in Germany. The Swiss group their opponents charged) those was as decidedly the ablest and {rebaptized of moderate of all, of men most who had been christened. having a number due to dissatisfaction culture and marked The rise of the party was ability. Conrad Grebel and Felix Manz with the compromising and opportunistpohcies of the latter a Hebrew were university men, scholar of distinction. the leadingreformers. These leaders acknowledged Closely associated with several men of learning and abilityin that the scriptural them were a conception of a church was southern Germany, the most notable of whom were community of believers or saints walking in the Hiibfaith and fellowship of the gospel; but regardingthe and Balthaser Ludwig Hatzer, John Denck of this ideal as impossiblethey lowered attainment maier. Hatzer assisted in translating the Old text their standards in practice to a point where substantially from the Hebrew Testament into German Hiibthe whole of society could live comfortably some years before Luther took up this task. within the ample bosom for some of the church. While they maier was was a great preacher and years in the University of Ingolstadt. When rejected the Catholic conception of a universal a professor land Switzerchurch they set up national churches in which conditions persecution drove the Anabaptists from he proof membership were where to Moravia different not materially he followed them duced from those of the Catholic forth their peculiar of tracts setting church. Infant bapa number tism remained in views very ably. was continued, church discipline Socinian in their church and state The Italian group abeyance, the alliance between were largely was not dissolved and moral conditions were not Christology.Driven out of the country by persecution but never in the earlier years of in Poland greatly improved, especially they reassembled pered prostlie reform. again.

Beyond

opinion

among

"

"

AnacletuS

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

16

The Dutch strongly tinged Anabaptists were introduced among with radical millenariauism them After his imprisonment Hoffman. by Melchior this tendency burst into a fanatical flame in the city of Miinster in Westphalia where a kingdom of this kingdom, The excesses set up in 1534. was of religion, fixed a lasting committed in the name stigma on the Anabaptist cause, thoughthe party taken as a whole had desired nothing but a quiet of this catastrophe inoffensive hfe. The remnants Mennonwere gathered up and organized as ites (q.v.). pendents Early in the 17th. century some Enghsh Indewho were refugees in Holland accepted and thus founded certain Anabaptist views the as Enghsh Anabaptists, later known Baptists

(q.v.). Anabaptists
and

were an

never

entirely suppressed

existence under various formed names. a They never complete church unified movement. even or a denomination, nor crude and dangerous while Some of their views were others were centuries ahead of that day, and are the priceless modern of our treasures now among hfe. W. J. McGlothlin still maintain ANACLETUS.
"

and co-operating coveringallfieldsof human activity in the satisfaction of social needs. Anarchism hke Sociahsm (q.v.) privateownership of land, opposes but capitahstic production, the wage-system, unhke Sociahsm it would ehminate state control of economic factors. Modern anarchism began in France with Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) who advocated mutualism or an exchange of services, maintaining that "property is theft." Individualistic anarchism found its ablest expression in Germany, Max Stirner advocating the liberation of the individual from all social bonds. Michael Backunin the (1814-1876), a Russian, advocated annihilation of the existing order,and in that way has fathered revolutionary anarchism. AnarchistCommunism, as advocated by Prince Peter Kropotkin vidual's proposed a civic agreement by which the indineeds would all be guaranteed, education, art and recreation as well as food, clothing and shelter. Count Leo Tolstoi representeda Christian anarchism, seeking a basis for the anarchist theory of state and property in the teachingsof Jesus. ANASTASIUS."
one

The
"

name

of four

popes

and

antipope:
Anastasiusl.

398^01, who condemned


"

Origen-

The

name

of

one

pope

and

one

ism. AnastasiusII. 496-498,opposed Traducianism and sought to reunite the Eastern church with Rome. Anastasius III. 911-913, active in determining the ecclesiastical divisions of Germany. Anastasius IV. in 1153-1154, instrumental the restoration of the Roman pantheon. Anastasius,antipope,855,
" " "

antipope.
Anacletus I. Roman presbyter of the latter part of the 1st. century, asserted to be the 2nd. pope in succession to St. Peter. Anacletus 11. Antipope, 1130-1138.
" "

ANAHITA. waters, of Goddesses. ANALOGY. affirmations

Persian goddess of and of war. See fertility


"

fertilizing
Mother

ANATHEMA. A word occurring in Gr. and Lat., literally meaning a thing set apart. (1) In Gr, religionit signified a gift of gratitude or of a propitiationto the deity,such as portions of the similar. of war. The custom to fasten such gifts spoils was In cases where direct observation is impossible, to trees or pillars. From that anathema to came form of reasoning from some designateGod's absolute property to be dealt with analogy is almost inevitable. In the formation of religiousideas according to his justice. (2) In the Septuagint, the New Testament and in later church historythe analogy has played a largepart, the characteristics of invisible reahties being determined word ferring signifies "accursed," e.g., in I Cor. 16:22. by transIn the R.C. discipline the word is officially used as to the unseen realm certain qualities found

reasoning which makes concerning an object on the basis of other object more less or comparison with some
"

A form

of

of excommunication. in the visible world. Thus the character of God a formula has been pictured after the analogy of an earthly future hfe ANCESTOR WORSHIP," is represented in The rehgious placasovereign. The tion of spirits of deceased ancestors. images drawn from present experience. The most famous instance in Protestant The belief in the survival of the immaterial theology is Bishop Butler's "Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed almost universal at the earlier seems part of men to the Constitution and Course of Nature." And disembodied since stages of civiUzation. The have power term to work logically spirits good or evil they "analogy of faith" is used theomay to indicate the principle feared and courted much the divinities are. that all portions are as of revealed truth ought to be consistent, Various funeral ceremonies be explained only and to can the ground that they are intended to prevent the should on suggest that obscure always be passages understood in the light of fundamental doctrines. departed from infhcting injury on those they have In Roman CathoUc To conciliate the spirit a littlehouse theologythe unanimous teaching left behind. of the fathers of the church constitutes the standard erected for him at the place where sometimes was from which inferences may he was be derived by analogy, was buried, and the tombstone originally while Protestants insist on the unquestioned doctrines identical with the sacred stone in which a divinity of Scriptureas the norm. dwelt. Offeringsof food and drink at the grave The danger attending use of analogy is evident. would nourish the spirit and secure his favor,just It should always be employed with caution, and the sacrifices at the sanctuary secured the favor as of the divinity. No clear line can be drawn fore theremust always be estimated by or made to give way to the results of direct observation. the attitude of men towards the spirits between and their attitude towards the gods. Gerald Smith Birney ANAPHORA." however that of the father In the Greek Among the spirits hturgies, the most hallowed receive special attention part of the Eucharistic service, of the family would because he had been honored includingthe kiss of peace, prayers and gifts. during his lifetime. also that his interest in It was natural to suppose ANARCHISM." The would continue in the other world. if his descendants theory that men, unfettered Moreover since the fine between by external control, will obtain the gods and men it was not sharply marked was largest development of their faculties and that customary to assert in fact divine. In such of voluntary groups that the clan-ancestor was society would be a network

17

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Anglo-Catholic

exile speculation regarding superhuman subordinate to Yahweh underwent a very pronounced development as a result of contact ANCHORET ANCHORITE." with or (From a Or. Babylonia and Persia. Ezekiel's portrait word of the cherubim meaning to withdraw). The designation (1:5-14; 10:1-8) is typical of a class of early ascetics who withdrew of this tendency within from the Judaism. Later Jewish world holding that through isolation from its allurements it appears in the apocaas imagery,particularly lyptic the flesh and the devil; they overcame writings,is rich in its display of angelic with hermit The and Certain hierarchies. of these held (q.v.). caves beings synonymous positions tombs of the deserts of Egypt and Syria afforded of pre-eminence and received the name of archangels. seclusion for numbers of anchorets. Others See Asceticism. who were supposed to have fallen from their the demons, high estate were assigneda placeamong where they were punished with especialseverity. ANDOVER CONTROVERSY." But those whom A term dicating inthis fate had overtaken tively relawere the legal action brought 1888 ff.to secure few in number. The faithful stillconstituted the dismissal of five professors the ground that innumerable on an heavenly host whose duties were to assist God, particularly in his deahngs with men. they were bodied emviolatingthe theological principles in the charter of Andover viduals, They served as guardians of both nations and indiSeminary. The without formal case was ultimately dismissed they conveyed revelations and visions to favored decision. It is also used to indicate a controversy sometimes they were persons, agents of about the same time concerning the possibility punishment, and they interceded with God on of a "second behalf of the righteousor against the wicked. probation" after death for those who had had The in this hfetime never into an angelology of Judaism passed over tunity opporthe gospel. The to hear officials of the the Son of to attend Christianity. Angels were American Board of Commissioners Man at his appearing (Mark for Foreign 8:38), they were Missions (Congregational) guardians of mortals (Matt. 18:10), they rejoiced objected to this doctrine of the "larger hope," and sought to prevent the the repentance of the wicked over (Luke 15:10), missionaryappointment of anyone they revealed the law to Moses holding it. (Gal. 3:19), and Andover constant attendants upon the seer of the seminary championed the Uberal view. they were Book of Revelation. In later Christianity tinued they conANDREW AND of even to occupy PHILIP, BROTHERHOOD a position greater prominence OF. for which Judaism An interdenominational association of men, furnished the precedent. The elaborate angelology of Mohammedanism organized in 1888 in Reading, Pa., U.S.A., the sole is also largely Jewish in character. S. J. Case object, according to the constitution, being the of the kingdom of Christ among It men. spreaa ANGELUS." emphasizes personal work, the two rules of membership (1) A R.C. devotion in honor of and service. Each the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary, recited thrice being prayer chapter is connected with a local church which the members daily,at 6 a.m., 12 m., and 6 p.m. (2) The ringing in various serve rehgious and social capacities. of the bell in R.C. churches for the recitation of the The order has extended to many countries. devotion of the same of a name. (3) The name famous painting by J. F. Millet. ANDREW OF CRETE." Archbishop of Crete in the 8th. century; famous ANGER OF GOD. as a tion Anger is a primitive emopreacher and of hymns. He is honored associated with the instinct of saint in of resentment as a composer the Greek church. In the historyof rehgions, self-preservation. anger is frequentlyattributed to God. Primitive peoples ANDREW THE APOSTLE." One of the twelve think of their gods as subject to anger and revenge in naive O.T. apostlesof Jesus,and brother of Peter. anthropomorphic fashion. The writers freely referred to the anger of Yahweh, ANGEL DANCERS." A rehgioussect of Methodist opposed his will. The N.T. against those who founded in 1890 in New origin, writers spoke of the wrath of God coming on those Jersey,so called from a dance of religious Christian theology has regularly Christ. who reject come frenzypracticedto overthe devil. against sin, experiences anger taught that God but that His anger is not inconsistent with His love. FRA." Florentine ANGELICO, monk and See painter, 1387-1455; renowned in the history of ANGLICAN C H U R C H. Enqi^nd, Christian art. Church op.
to powers
" "

is impossibleto discover whether a human it, descent deified or whether been has ancestor divinityhas been claimed from an already existing father is one The worship of the common by men. the clan a unit. Traces of the bonds which make of ancestor worship are therefore found in almost societies. Among the nations which all patriarchal it a prominent part of their rehgion we have made the Romans, the Egyptians and the mention may In China and Japan in fact it may be Chinese. observed Since the worship at the present day. be performed by a male descendant the must is emphasized in all importance of having sons societies where ancestor worship is in vogue. H. P. Smith ANCHOR. On accoimt of its use in navigation, See 6:19. a symbol for security, as in Heb. Symbols.
cases
"

theisti
gods and
with his malevolent agents. In the earlier stages of Hebrew religion angels did not figureprominently, but during and subsequent the

no sharp distinction between of varying gradations,but where spirits monotheistic tendencies became operative the deitywas differentiated from his associates, supreme who to the subordinate were assigned position of this classification of superangels. Sometimes natural also apphed to the world of was powers demons thus giving rise to belief in both evil (q.v.), and good angels. In Zoroastriunism the supreme god, Ahura Mazda, surrounded himself with seven good angehc to assist in his benevolent powers designs,while the prince of evil powers, Ahriman, filledthe world

faiths made

"

ANGELS."
is

known

to

The term ANGLO-CATHOLIC" senger") angel (Greek, "mesappUed to a class of superhuman beings to the established church differentmonotheistic rehgions. Polycatholicity.

of

Belonging to or relating England which claims

Anglo-Israelism

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

18

ANGLO-ISRAELISM." The theory that the in the British empire as found Anglo-Saxon peoples, and in the U.S.A., are the descendants of the "lost ten tribes,"which comprised the kingdom of Israel. The modern founded movement was by Brothers about the close of the 18th. claims to have two milhon adherents in the The nations. two hypothesis, though to be impossible from ingenious,has been shown the standpoint of O.T. exegesisand anthropology. Richard

and itis probable that from this idea.

one

form of sacrificedeveloped II. P. Smith

century, and

ANIMATISM. A modified form of animism in which plants,animals and other objects of nature are personifiedbut are not believed to possess individual souls. Such beliefs are panied usually accomby magical practices,which later may into a cult as the objectsare deified. grow
"

OF THE." CONVERSION ANGLO-SAXONS, The Anglo-Saxons who to England from the came continent were devotees of Woden. They ejected the Celts who were but did not accept Christians, of Christianity their reUgion. The introduction came through the marriage of King Ethelbert (560-616) to Bertha, a Frankish Christian princess. in The first serious effort for their conversion was 596 when Gregory the Great, who had become interested in some boys on the slave market, sent Augustine of Canterbury at the head of a mission. anity, By Augustine's death Kent had accepted Christimade in Essex. Northand a beginning was umbria was brought under Christian influence by the marriage (625) of King Edwin to a Christian princess who took with her a missionary bishop. Wessex Christianized by missionaries of the was Northumbria old Celtic church. introduced the new rehgion to Mercia and Essex, and Kent took Sussex was it into East Angha. won through the labors of Wilfrid of York between 681 and 686. ANGRA MAINYU." See Ahbiman.

ANIMISM. (Latin anima, "soul") Behef in spiritual beings. This was the definition formulated by Tylor, the anthropologist. He found the beUef in different stages from the lowest tribes to high modern culture. "Animism in its full development,
"

ANICETUS." Pope, 154-165; bishop of Rome when Polycarp was put to death; also said to have been a martyr. ANICONISM." to the use The of attitude effective in opposition

cult. images in religious

ANIMAL MAGNETISM." ence, SciIn Christian^ "Animal untary magnetism is the voluntary or involaction of error i;x all its forms; it is the human antipode of divine Science." (Mary Baker Eddy in Science and Health With Key to the Scriptures,
p.

484.)

WORSHIP OF." In what call we ANIMALS, the lower stages of civilization men draw a very faint hne of demarkation between gods, animals, human and beings. Since the animals in many manifest cases superior intelligence, strength, or are. cunning,they are reverenced much as the spirits of the clan in what is called They become members Totemisra (q.v.) and the myths relate that an animal is ancestor of the Individual group. animals are provided with temples, are approached with prayer and offerings, have priestsappointed to wait upon them, and are treated with funeral honors when dead. celebrated of these The most divine animals the bull Apis in Egypt, but was and various Egypt also had sacred rams, crocodiles, kinds of birds. The deification of serpents has left traces in many mythologies and is still a part of African advanced religion. At a more stage of thought the gods receive human form but reveal their original animal incarnation by having animal associates riding animals or pets, like the eagle of Zeus or the owl of Athene. Mythological for this association by relating theory accounted that the divinity took the animal form for purposes of his own, like Zeus who became a bull in order to off Europa. This of course the reverses carry actual historical process. Eating the flesh of the divine animal would be of partaking of the divine power or grace, one way
"

belief in souls and in a future state, subordinate spirits." Two of biological groups problems it is thought influenced men of low levels of culture to this belief. One was the difference between a living body and a dead and the phenomena one of waking, sleep, death. The other group trance, disease, sprang from questions concerning those human shapes in dreams which appear and visions. To every thus man was probably attributed a life and a Both were phantom. regarded as separable from the body, the life at death and the phantom as appearing to people at a distance. The ghostsoul was the combination of the life and the phantom and constituted the soul or spirit among primitive people. This spirit Tylor defines as a ' 'thin, unsubstantial human image, in its nature a sort of film or shadow." It was the cause of vapour, hfe in the individual, was capable of leaving the body and flashing swiftlyfrom place to place,continued to exist after death, stillbearing the likeness of the body and was able to enter and act in the bodies of other men and animals. Herbert Spencer held a similar view and regarded animism the core of a variety of behefs and as customs, such as ancestor worship, transmigration of souls, witchcraft and other superstitions. of The later students tendency among some primitive rehgion is to limit the phenomena of animism but not to regard it as the to early man earliest stage. Thus holds Marett to a very tinction disno "pre-animistic"level,in which there was between the object and the spiritin it. In this pre-animism awe is felt for unusual nomena phesimply because they are unusual, not because they are signs of ghosts or spirits.Thus, ever the Malagasy "Whatever is great, whatamong exceeds the capacity of their understandings, they designateby the one convenient and comprehensive is Whatever appelation, andriamanitra. and and is useful called god." new extraordinary the bull-roarer excites awe for the natives Similarly It posof AustraUa by its noise and weirdness. sesses be called an intrinsic source of what may the rightto be regarded with awe, while in animism is derivatory. That is,in the latter case, it awe of a spirit. The phenomena is due to the presence that have to do with dream and trance, disease and of animism, according death, are the proper source to Marett. like Durkheim, regard animism Other scholars, of historic interest doctrine which is now as a and significance only and is identified especially lated with the work and period of Tylor who firstformuit. See Primitive of. Peoples, Religions been used animism has sometimes In philosophy synonymously with the ancient doctrine of hylozoism and with the modern conception of vitalism. the term tends to become But exclusively employed notion of spirit possession to designatethe primitive directed to of sacred objects and the ceremonies S. Ames of such spirits. Edward the placation

includes

the

ia controUing deities and

"

19

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Anthropopathism

ANNATES

or

first year'srevenue and in the Middle

first fruits or The ANNATS." of a benefice, paid to the pope, Ages claimed by bishops also.

The doctrine of the wicked or impenitent It arose as a protest againstthe teaching at death. of the eternal punishment of the unregenerate. in England vigorously defended White Edward the doctrine in the last half of the 19th. century.

ANNIHILATIONISM."

A February festival of the ANTHESTERIA." of Greece; it was mony originally a social cerereligion of the underground souls for the regulation obscured All-Souls' ritual but later was a primitive by absorption in the cult of Dionysius.
" "

complete extinction

of the

SAINT." The firstChristian monk ANTHONY, and father of monasticism; b. in Egypt about 250; said to have lived 105 years. The oldest OF." SAINT, ORDERS of St. orders adopted the name CathoUc monasticism. of They Anthony, the fomider founded at the time of the firstcrusade (1095were 1099) as the Hospitalers of St. Anthony. The order was for a time subject to the Benedictines. From 1284-1774 independent. In 1774 they were united with the Knights of Malta. they were

See Future

Life.

ANTHONY,

of the used to term ANNUNCIATION." (1) The of the birth of Jesus designate the announcement (2) The by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary. festival celebrating this, occurring on church March 25th. ORDERS OF
women

ANNUNCIATION,
name

of five R.C.
men.

orders,three for

The THE." and two

for

The appUcation of an unguent ANOINTING. for personal, social,medicinal, or religioususe. The use of oil or fat for anointing is universal and of immemorial antiquity; it was believed to be for nullifying efficacious both personal evils of of demons sickness and the power various kinds virtue and for conferringmysterious sacramental the subjects of it. It has been employed in on consecratingsacred objectsas stones and temples, and kings,as preparaas prophets,priests, tion persons for death extreme unction,and in completing oil acquires its the efficacy of baptism. The from animals possessing ous mysteripotency by origin with sacred objects,by by contact powers, or later by prayer. magical formulas,by blessing C. A. Beckwith The strict Arian party in the ANOMOIANS. adhered to the essential Arian controversy, which and the the Son between difference in essence
" " " " "

scription THEOLOGICAL." A deand characteristics of man. In systematic theology anthropology is the section containing the doctrines of man's original and its the fall of man creation and constitution, between the soul and the relationship consequences, Traditional and the body. theology taught that thus created in the image of God and was was man endowed with original righteousness. By the rebelled against God, exercise of his free will, man and in thereby losing his originalrighteousness, addition incurringphysical and moral disabiUties. that nature made human so The sin of Adam sinful, born in a state of original all his descendants sin, are and under divine condemnation which placesthem brings death as its penalty. Only through the logians Theobe saved. exercise of divine grace can man have held divergent views as to just what is included in the original"image of God," and of Adam's fall. to the precise consequences as The originof the soul and its relation to the body

ANTHROPOLOGY,

of the nature

Father.

See Arianism.

SAINT (ca. 1033-1109)." Mediaeval ANSELM, archbishop of Canterbury. At theologian and

twenty-seven,
in

he

entered

the

monastery

of

Bee

Normandy, three years later succeedingLanfranc abbot and under made as prior. In 1078 he was seat of learning the foremost liisrule Bee became consecrated archbishop in Europe. In 1093 he was of office being marked of Canterbury, his tenure Rufus over with King Wilham property by struggle investiture. and with Henry I. over and privileges
Anselm the canonized in 1494. was his attenapt of mediaeval scholasticism, with behef Christian consonant being to make He stated the ontological argument (q.v.) reason. which affirms that the reaUty of God is involved in In his greatest of the concept of God. the necessity Homo, he attempted a rational work, Cur Deus in terms of the (q.v.) explanationof the atonement prevalent feudalistic social structure, the death of Christ,the God-man, being a satisfaction to the for this uncomIn return honor of God. injured pelledsatisfaction God granted Christ the reward the believer from the penalty of sin. of releasing He was founder The designation applied livingbeings, human, lower animal or plant, which existed priorto the flood ascribed to the time ANTEDILUVIANS."
to

been variously interpreted,pre-existence, creationism,and traducianism (qq.v.) being the tion important theories. Recently the doctrine of evoluhas been influential in modifying the conception and development, and the traditional of man's origin sin are disappearand of original doctrines of Adam ing historical critical theology. Inductive from and of his of man, nature study of the psychological religiousaptitudes is increasinglysupplying the material for theology. The term "anthropology" is cal appliedto that branch of historinow more generally which by a study of the remains of investigation habitations, such as bones, tools, pre-historic men, of the habits of etc., and by careful observation extant tribes,attempts to primitive and savage throw lighton the originsof the race and on the have essential nature

ventionahzed

before civilization had conSee Fall of Man; Sin. Gerald Smith Birney The ANTHROPOMORPHISM." tendency to to functions characteristics and ascribe human inevitable As an forces of nature. deities or thinking, of the limitations of human consequence his own from ence experiuses analogies drawn man natural forces. In to describe the gods or of
man

humanity.

development of reUgions,anthropomorphism as a phase of nature-worship. In Christian historythe Audians of the 4th. century furnished a type of excessive anthropomorphism (q.v.) In soften modern theology the attempt is made_to
the
appears

of Noah. FATHERS." ANTE-NICENE Designation of antedated the Council of the Church Fathers who Nicaea, a.d. 325. See Fathers, Church. ANTERUS." Bishop of Rome, from to Jan. 236, honored by the R.C. church Nov.
as

the
use

the of anthropomorphism_by cruder forms terms, often_at the of abstract philosophic and intimacy. of rehgious warmth expense

ANTHROPOPATHISM."
human feelingsto considered by some

The
a

attribution of

235

Pope.

the non-human writers to be

environment;
factor in the

Anti-Christ

DICTIONARY
and

OF

RELIGION opponent

AND

ETHICS

20

demons development of ideas of spirits, gods.

nature-

of

ApoUinarianism Arianism,
advocate
a

physitism (qq.v.) an Augustinianism, and


criticism.

and Monoof freewill against champion of historical

ANTI-CHRIST." In Jewish and Christian religious thought the chief opponent of the Christ and, in consequence, of the Kingdom The of God. in the Jewish Apocalypses and figurefirst appears was appropriated by early Christianity. He was the same not as a Satan, but, though sometimes historical character often an supernatural being, was like some Roman Emperor who persecutedthe church. His downfall of the first to be one was results of the Messianic triumph. Until thus possessedof supernaturally defeated he seemed and capable of withstanding unconquerable power temporarily the Christ. ANTINOMIANISM." A word coined by Luther in his controversy with Agricola,designating the doctrine that the gospel or faith does entirely away with the old law, so that the Christian is in no sense subject to it. It originated as a protest againstthe elevation of an external regulationof hf e
as

one sively, or

ANTIPHON. A song or chant, sung responvoice or chorus alternating with the other the chorus answering the precentor.
"

ANTIPHONARY."

antiphons for
ANTIPOPE. who
was was

use

A book in the Roman

or

collection

of

liturgy.

A claimant of the papal chair elected canonically, and whose claim not officially ties recognized. The Catholic authori"

not

enumerate

twenty-nine antipopes.

superior to inwardly inspired spiritualUving.

There are evidences of an antinomian interpretation of Paulinism in N.T. times (II Pet. 3 : 16). Certain Gnostic sects interpretedtheir doctrine of the evil ing Durcharacter of matter in an antinomian way. in England antinomian the Civil War teaching The Antinomian developed in such sects as the Ranters. was a controversey of the Reformation Johann Agricola opposed controversy in which and Luther, the former claiming that Melanchthon the gospel and not the law is what inspiresmen of the more obscure sects to repentance. In some Antinomianism has led to charges of immorality and sensuous indulgence, e.g., Adamites, New

ANTISEMITISM." Antipathy to and persecution of Jewish peoples by Aryans, whether socially called since the appearance of a or economically,so pubhcation in Germany in 1880. Opposition to Jews dates from pre-Christiantimes,the beginning under Antiochus being the persecutions Epiphanes. When the Roman Christian an empire became attitude of opposition toward Jews was istic characterof many of the rulers and ecclesiastics, and of various accused crimes. In many they were civihzed countries deprived of civil they were such disabilities being removed in France rights, in 1791, in Great Britain in 1830 and in Germany in 1869. The modern the tendency to oppose Jews has taken the form of massacres in Russia and of social and civic ostracism in Austria and The has been marked movement Germany. by unjust accusations on the part of Anti-Semites and sometimes unreasonable the apologies on part of Jewish writers. ANTITRINITARIANISM." Opposition to, or denial of,the doctrine of the trinity. The doctrine of three persons in the godhead has irrational. as to seem frequentlybeen so interpreted the assumption that on Against such irrationality, it inheres inevitablyin the doctrine of the trinity, and have various men protested. Most groups the Socinians, the these are important among Deists,and the Unitarians. ANTONINUS PIUS." Roman
emperor,

Manichaeans, Beghards,
"

etc.

(qq.v.)

ANTINOMY. clusions, Mutually contradictory conbe rationally both of which proved; may but which cannot both be true. introduced Kant the term into philosophy,showing how the attempt to apply the categories of experience to transcendental reality involves antinomis, and thus precludes absolute demonstration. ANTIOCH. Cityin Asia Minor on the Orontes, founded by Seleucus Nicator about 300 B.C., which became the third largest city in the Roman empire. first evangehzed, according to the N.T. by It was Jerusalem later led by and was fugitives from Paul and Barnabas. first Here the behevers were called Christians (Acts 11 : 26). Christianity spread rapidly,and Chrysostom estimated the Christian population in his day at 100,000. It later was so-caUed Antiochian the seat of the school of
"

138-

161; under his pohcy of toleration the Christians enjoyed a considerable respite from persecution; during his reign the Gnostic controversy became The Apology of Justin Martyr (q.v.)was acute. addressed to him; possibly also that of Aristides.
heaven ANU. The god of ancient triad with associated in the supreme Ea (qq.v.).
"

Babylonia
EnUl and

theology (q.v.).
SYNOD OF." A ANTIOCH, synod convened in 341, and set forth an orthodox but of the Most deposed Athanasius. dealt with ecclesiastical matters. ANTIOCHIAN
or

which

APATHY.
or

"

Indifference

or

to insensibiUty
a

tion emo-

creed,
canons

Stoicism

passionate feeUng; (q.v.).

characteristic

of

school theological tendency, represented by prominent teachers, A

SCHOOL."

APHRAATES." A "Persian sage" who flourished throughout the 4th. century; the first strong writer attributed ten of the Syrian church to whom are homihes. of LITERATURE." A APOCALYPTIC group endeavor Christian Jewish and writings which of symbols and revelations to set forth by the use of his people from the oppression God's dehverance of their enemies, the certain triumph and joy of the righteous,and the general conditions of life after death. of this literature were Elements probably derived of early Semitic religious from the general stream

the center of whose influence was The at Antioch. first noted scholar was Lucian (see Ltjcian the historical treatment an Martyr) who advocated of scripture as opposed to Origen's allegorical method. Lucian's Arius followers were Among defenders and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the of Arianism (q.v.). Other representatives of the school, Eustathius, Diodorus, Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia were opponents of the doctrine. Arian Theodore became the great representative of Antiochan theology, being an

21

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

ApoUinaris of Laodicea

however, to have developed seems, It does the influence of Hellenistic culture. in the Old Testament not appear except in such as Zech.,chapters 9 to 14, and the book passages This latter is commonly of Daniel. regarded as the parent of the Uterature and sets forth God's certain deliverance of the Jews from the Syrian thought. It
under

sometimes included as a separate group between the Old Testament and the New Testament. They

regarded as possessed of the the canonical books. authority as See Canon. The Anghcan church uses the ApocrjTjha
are,
same

however^not

oppression.
Apocalypticism differs from prophetism in that it purports to be written by men long since dead, and it therefore (pesudonymously) represents in symbols. It does not coming events indistinctly moral and rehgiousinterpretation attempt explicit of current history,and is therefore of an esoteric character. Its claim to acceptance hes in its symbolical in visions by its of historyas seen exposition authors. It served to express the enmity and hopes of persecuted groups without exposing them to charges of disloyalty In a to the government. it portrayed revolution in the disguise of sense for Christian favorite medium a religion.It was writers in the second Christian century. The embodied material from apocalypses doubtless Jewish sources. Unlike those however, they do not look to political revolution. There is no standardization of symbol beyond the conventional separation of animals into those that do harm, like wolves, and those that are like sheep. The former, together serviceable, with birds of prey, are symbols of the oppressors, and the latter are symbols of the saints. The visions are usuallyattributed to angelsor to the "unveiling" of the divine plans to the author who represents himself as having been caught up into heaven, there to be given superhuman knowledge of the future. The imagination of the writers was strained quiteunreand the literature as a whole is confused and, with the exceptionof certain writingshke the Apocalypse of Baruch and the canonical Apocalypse of John, is without hterarydistinction. See EschaBook Enoch. op tology; The have chief Apocalyptic writings which been preserved to us outside the Bible are: The Shepherd of Hernias (about 125 a.d.);the Book of Enoch (100 B.C.-64 B.C.); the Slavonic Secrets of Enoch of Jubilees (about (4 B.C.-70 a.d.); Book 100 B.C.); the Assumption of Moses (about 100 b.c.) ; the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (before 200 A.D.); the Ascension of Isaiah (about 200 a.d.) ; the Apocalypse of Ezra (about 70 a.d.); the of Baruch the (50-100 a.d.); Apocalypse Sibylline Oracles (infinal form about 150 a.d.). Shailer Mathews APOCRYPHA. A term apphed to a group of religious writingsof the Hebrews which, while not regarded by the Jews as being fully were inspired, yet held in high esteem. These works are ascribed in many to well cases known characters in Hebrew history. They were literature written in the part of a considerable centuries immediately before or after Christ, and served to supplement the history and teaching of the Old Testament. They were incorporatedin the Septuagint and later in the Old Latin and the Vulgate editions of the Scripture. The Council of Trent (1546) recognizedas canonical the following: I and II Maccabees; Additions to Esther; History of Suzanna; Song of the Three Holy Children; Bel and the Dragon; Tobit; Judith; of Jesus, Apocalypse of Baruch; the Wisdom the son of Sirach, or the Wisdom Ecclesiasticus; of Solomon; but omitted 1st and 2nd Ezras (3rd and 4th in the Vulgate) and the Prayer of
^
"

in its lessons for edification but does not treat them as possessedof the same authorityas the canonical books. the Of Apocrypha the most important are Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon among the religious the writings; 1st Maccabees among historical. The other material is mostly of the character of haggadoth or stories organized for homiletic purposes. In the New Testament church there grew up a the very extensive literature which dealt with much same subjectsas those treated by the books which Testament gradually were shaped into the New See Canon. These books, however, never canon. have gained anything like the respect accorded to the Apocrypha of the Old Testament. The term " " is sometimes Apocrypha of the New Testament applied to them, but such use of the term is hardly and may to give a false impression justifiable serve that there was of the New a sort of second canon Testament, correspondingto the Apocrypha of the Old. This apocryphal material of the New Tes("Bment followed the same general classes as the New Testament. Thus we have (1) the various Gospels of the Hebrews, Egyptians,Peter,James, (ofPilate, Thomas, Arabic Gospel of the Childhood, of Joseph the Carpenter, of Jesus, Philip, of the Twelve others known Apostles, togetherwith fifteen or more to us only in fragments and mostly written to estabhsh heretical doctrine);(2) the Acts some (ofPaul and Thekla); (3) the Epistles(of Paul to the Laodiceans and the Corinthians); (4) Apocalypses (the most important being the Apocalypse of Peter); (5) Teachings (of Peter and of Paul). A vast hterature of the same general nature as the books of the New Testament canon appearedduring the first four Christian centuries. Shailer Mathews the APOCTASTASIS." A term derived from Gr. of Acts 3:21, meaning the final "restitution of all things." The is used as a basis for verse belief in the ultimate universalityof salvation. Sin is explained as ignorance or delinquency, and has correction. The doctrine punishment as found its chief exponents in Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Gregory of Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa, of Confessor Maximus and Scotus Erigena, some the mystics of the Middle Ages, certain sections of the Anabaptists,18th. century German rationalists, denomination. and in the modern Universalist and orthodox It has been opposed by the R.C. Church Protestantism. APOLLINARIANISM." trine docThe Christological taught by ApoUinaris the Younger, bishop of

said He Laodicea. hved about He 310-390. ideal humanity that it is impossible to combine and perfect deity in one personahty, and hence denied the complete humanity of Christ, saying that the Logos took the placeof the rational human soul in the historic Jesus. ApoUinarianismwas condemned by several local councils,and finally council of Constantinople, by the ecumenical381 a.d. of The name APOLLINARIS OF LAODICEA." father and son, both of whom taught men, rhetoric in Laodicea. ApoUinaris the Younger who hved about 310-390 was a friend of Athanasius of and a great theologian and writer, but most his peculiar lost. For been his writings have views see Apollinarianism. Christological
two

Manasses.
These used by eleven are included in the Bible now the Roman CathoUc church. In the Protestant editions of the Bible all fourteen are

Apollonius of Tyana
APOLLONIUS

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION
of

AND

ETHICS

22

A Neo-PythagoOF TYANA." philosopher and rehgious reformer of Tyana in Cappadocia, whose hfe approximately spanned
rean

an

sense.

appeal to supernaturalrevelation in a distinct is thus adapted to a monistic Christianity

the first Christian ascetic and was

century.

In

manner

of life he

vegetarian, wandering through

lands, teaching and being taught. He many studied medicine and his biographer,Philostratus, credits him with miraculous heahngs. Probably He he possessed psychotherapeutic power. shipped worin moral reform and advocated the sun social customs. His miracles and teaching have been compared by Hierocles (305 a.d.)and Voltaire with those of Christ with whom he was neous. contemporadivine been accorded He to have seems honors during the first three Christian centuries.
APOLOGETICS."

world- view. Stress is laid on reasonableness of rather than content miraculousness of origin. on Conservative often feel that this may theologians involve a betrayal of essential Christianity rather than its defense. 4. The vindication of Christianity in the light of historical criticism. Modern critical examination of the sources and the history of Christianityhas shown that biblical behefs are conditioned, historically and that Christianity is constantly in the of development. The idea of a static process for all religion authoritativelyorganized once to the conception of a growing and gives way
"

changing rehgion.
To meet this situation, distinct types of A two systematic defense of modern exist. The one seeks to conserve apologetic Christianity against all important objections. the authenticity and supernaturalauthority of the Apologeticsdefends the content of faith rather Bible in the face of criticism, than expounds the full rehgiousimport of doctrines. sometimes, however, luteness distinctly An ideally modifying traditional conceptions. The perfectdefense would estabhsh the absoand conclusions, of Christianity;but an apologistusually other type accepts critical methods is seeking to give to Christian behefs a positive and exhibits the vital function of Christianity in the history ing of which it is a part, so as to show its place in the culture dominating the age. By relatChristian doctrines to accepted philosophical or indispensable contribution to the welfare and for scientific theories, of humanity. the way The first type makes more apologetics prepares progress of such theories in the construction the positive fails to apprehend sweeping claims,but frequently use the full import of historical criticism. of theology. The trine The second development of Christian docdominated tions. is largely by apologeticconsideratype is calculated to win the approval of critical what Apologetics thus not only defends existing minds, but the conclusions reached have a somein tentative character not conducive to dogmatic behefs,but also aids a developingChristianity its task of leaveningand interpreting culture. assurance. 1. The Great Christian Apologetics II. The Problems Modern Apologetics. of in 1. The History. defense of early Christianity Any defense of Christianitymust give primary The consideration to the doctrines which occasion stantly against Judaism. earlyChristians were conrepresentation. compelled to argue against skepticalmisImportant examples of such doctrines difficulty. The of Evil,the the Existence of God, the Problem written as a are Gospels were historical argument for the divine power and prerogativeSupernatural,the Divinity of Christ,and the Life of Jesus. The christology of the early after Death. church Was In deahng with the difficulties which arise in shaped under the pressure of apologetic ing is a strikconnection with these doctrines,modern necessity. The Epistle to the Hebrews getics apoloattention to certain aspects must example of earlyapologetics. giveespecial 2. The vindication of Christianity of modern in the Grecothinking in order to satisfyinquiring Roman minds. three of these may be mentioned. Two or Empire. Persecution of Christians by the Roman and popular prejudiceagainst 1. Justice be done science. must to modern government them called forth defensive Justin On the one statements. hand, the assured results of scientific be frankly recognized, even Martyr and other Apologists (q.v.)of the 2nd. investigationmust if such recognition involves a revision of doctrine. tians, century vindicated the purity of the hves of Chrisand in addition commend of science must undertook On the other hand, the hmitations to the absolutely true as philosophy. be understood, and anti-rehgious dogmatism Christianity Origen (q.v.) in the 3rd. century elaborated a masquerading under scientific garb must be exposed. Christian In general, it may be said that science is a foe to philosophy consciously superior to any non-Christian produced unwarranted system. Augustine (q.v.) pretensions of theology rather than the most elaborate apologetic ful fruitwork conditioned to the verifiablefacts of Christianity. The by Greco-Roman culture in his City of God, which of recent in the fields of investigations years nish furof history so as to interpretedthe entire course psychology of rehgion and history of religion show the culmination in the material for a scientifically of the divine purpose much satisfactory over triumph of Cathohc paganism. Christianity apologetic. of the supernatural is 3. The rational vindication 2. A new interpretation of Christianity. After western of the tension between civilization became some theology and nominally relieving the main task of apologetics critical science. to was Christianized, Rehgious experience is psychologically establish harmonious behefs are historicaUy Christian and religious relations between natural, doctrines and rational to be natural was thinking. seen products of human philosophy. This undertaken in the natural as is found of God The elaborate scale by the represenan on tatives presence of Scholasticism in the supernatural. Rehgiously an as positively (q.v.). Revealed doctrine rather shown for its spiritual to be a necessary content is valuable was event supplement to natural is a This type of apologetic than for its metaphysical origin. There has been continued reason. in both Cathohcism and Protestantism to this day. general tendency to regard miracles as unusual such violation of It seeks to retain unimpaired the appeal to an events exphcable without any scientific protest. authoritative revelation. natural would tant ProtesThe best known laws as arouse rather than on treatise of this kind is Bishop Butler's famous content Stress is laid on spiritual theories of origin. The Bible is vindicated by the Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed to the rather than Constitution and Course of Nature (1736). God-reveahng quahty of its message In the 19th. century, Schleiermacher composition. The (q.v.) by a theory of miraculous of his the power and Hegel (q.v.), followed by numerous of Jesus is based on scholars, supremacy tian of Chrislife to compel worshipful adoration rather than on a completely rational interpretation gave thus virtually origin. There is a growing a doctrine of physical doctrines, ehminatingthe need
"
" " "

"

23

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

ApostolicCanons

theology recognizes only the apostasy of faith. regarded apostasy early Christian emperors criminal act, involving civil disabilities. In a as unity. 3. The primary emphasis in apologetics is post-Roman times apostates have been dealt with moral being the being laid on questions. Is Christianity by ecclesiastical law, excommunication demands of modern usual punishment. adequate to the enormous social and industrial full development? The An official of the early church of Christianity in this respect has not APOSTLE." significance Christian apologists are yet been reahzed. bringing appointed and "sent forth" by Christ to be an with power to work the resources of Christian ideaUsm, showing to light eyewitness to his resurrection, that Christianity is superior not only to other miracles,make converts, and organize churches. ethical programs, to the Twelve but also to the currentlyaccepted The word was applied originally standards of nominally Christian chosen Paul, by Jesus to be his messengers. people. The basis as here is not so much to vindicate the ideals difficulty however, claimed apostleshipon the same of Jesus as to prove that modern it was claimed by the Twelve, although his position Christianityhas the will and the power to embody in life. rested in appointment by the risen Christ and them In conclusion, it should be said that while the been universallyacknowledged not to have seems of our day with its critical understanding This more in the non-PauUne churches. apologetic general in the of current social of the term seems to have been extended use scientific, philosophical, and ideals is inevitably somewhat New Testament disturbing to those period to such persons as Matthias, who wish a complacent faith, the this very disturbance Barnabas, and others who apparently met of conventional attitudes is stimulating a more ship requirements of the title. Paul holds that apostleserious study of Christianityand is contributing the offices of the church was primary among to the vitaUzing of its doctrines and its ethics. and was the result of a charism. Gerald Smith The preciserelationshipof the apostlesto the Birney churches APOLOGIST." which be best seen can (1) One who writes in defense they founded of Christianity. (2) A designation of certain of at through the letters of Paul to the churches the Fathers of the church in the 2nd. century, chief Corinth and Phihppi. Their duties seem to have whom Justin Martyr, Aristides, and generaldirection, those of oversight were Melito, been largely among and the author of the Epistle to Diognetus. See rather than that of authoritative interference in
reluctance to draw a sharp line between the natural and the supernatural. The world is regarded as a The Apologists. church to affairs. At the same time Paul seems have beUeved that he had power to act in questions of discipline wherever faith itself was not involved. sador The fact that the apostleas a witnessingambaswas

APOLOGISTS." This word is usuallyemployed in a special sense to designate certain Christian leaders of the 2nd. century who wrote various treatises in defense of their religion. The earUest of the group addressed was an Quadratus, who Hadrian about at Athens apology to the emperor the year Another defensive 125 treatise a.d. from the pen of Aristides, Christian philosopher a of Athens, seems been written to have shortly before 150 a.d. At Rome found a Christianity vigorous champion in Justin, frequently called Justin Martyr, whose be literaryactivity may to 150 165 a.d. roughly assigned to the years His so-called First Apology made behalf of on to the Roman and his Dialogue Christianity emperor with Trypho defending the new religionagainst Jewish critics are His especially worthy of note. the to pupil, Tatian, also addressed an Oration Greeks allegingthe superior truth and antiquity of Christianity all Greek culture. Athenaover perhaps was an Athenian, directed an goras, who Marcus Aurelius and Comappeal to the emperors rnodus probably in the year 177 a.d. During the ninth decade of the 2nd. century Theophilus of Antioch behalf composed a vigorous apolgy on of Christians in three books addressed to a heathen called Autolychus. Minucius temporary conFelix, a Roman of Theophilus, set forth the superior merits of Christianity in a work modeled after the quent Subsedialogueform of Cicero's De natura deorum. writers such Irenaeus and Tertullian as are but they apologeticin their interests, similarly not usually are classed in this group. See Apologetics. S. J. Case APOSTASY." defection (1) In Greek literature, from a miUtary officer. (2) Hence used in Christian
or

constantlytravelingapparently seems

to

have resulted in the 2nd. centuryin the apphcation of the name apostleto a group of itinerant preachers, the preciseduties of whom not clearlyknown, are but whose status is sketched in The Teachingsof the Twelve Apostles. The Cathohc churches teach that there has been of bishops to whom and through whom a succession transmitted were by the laying on of hands the and authority of the early apostles which power of the give sole vahdity to the administration sacraments. See Apostolic Succession. Shailer Mathews APOSTLES' CREED." shortest and the The best known of the creeds, dating in its official form from about 500 a.d., but traceable in variant phrasing back to the so-called Roman Symbol in the 2nd. century. The tradition of apostolic be traced back of the 4th. century. origincannot See Crhbds and Articles op Faith. APOSTOLIC AGE." The designation of that period of the history of the Christian religion beginning with the death of Christ and ending with of the close of the 1st. century. The sources information Testament for the period are the New writings(exceptingII Peter and Jude), and certain extant non-canonical writings written about the close of the period but reflecting its conditions, as of Barnabas, Clement e.g., the Didache, the epistles of Rome, and Ignatius. For the functions of the officers of the period see Apostle; Bishop; Presbyter; Pastor; Deacon. APOSTOLIC BRETHREN." An

Prophet;

ics order of ascet-

of the faith, terminology for the abandonment disobedience to the recognizedauthority. Sometimes it took the form of heresy (q.v.); sometimes

the renunciation of faith under pressure of persecution. The R.C. church recognizes two special sorts of apostasy: of the monastic (a) abandonment life without of permission; and (6) abandonment clerical orders in the Protestant same way.

They arising in northern Italy about 1260. purported to five in apostolicpurity, emphasized held to apocalyptic ideas. They poverty and into conflict with the church and were forcibly came suppressed.
APOSTOLIC the 4th. CANONS." A Christian

of

century of unknown

writing authorship. It

Apostolic Church

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

24

in reproduces the catechetical teaching preserved the Didache and also reproducesthe ApostoUc (q.v.) Constitutions (q.v.). It contains also decrees of various synods and councils, notably that of Antioch The 341. number 85. They canons include a list of O.T. and N.T. books, but omit Revelation and add I and II Clement and the

of appetite. exaggerated protest against the power Antinomianism (q.v.)is an exaggerated neglect of their influence.
"

See Ethics.

ApostoUc Constitutions.
A APOSTOLIC DIRECTORY." CHURCH work purporting to be of apostolic origin, but coming from Egypt and dating from about the 3rd. century. It contains legal precepts, both ethical and ecclesiastical. APOSTOLIC A collection CONSTITUTIONS." of church teachings and decrees dating from the 3rd. century but attributed to Clement of Rome. They are arranged in eight books and are 85 in number. Although not widely accepted they have historical had a considerable influence and have value because preservinga pictureof the Christian life in the 3rd. century. They draw largely on the Didache (q.v.),and (q.v.),the Didascalia Hippolytus of Rome. APOSTOLIC DELEGATE." the Roman curia, delegatedas of A representative of a national president in or provincial or having papal jurisdiction council, ecclesiastical. Called also papal delegate. matters See Legate. APOSTOLIC church who were
"

APSE. semicircular or (1) Architecturally, a semioctagonal enclosure,with a domed covering, which the aisles or choir of usually terminated ancient basilicas, and which contained the altar and the bishop's seat. the (2) Ecclesiastically, end of the church containing the altar,no eastern
matter

what

the architectural

form

may

be.

Writers of the early with the apostles term of Rome, Barnabas, a applied to Clement Hermas, Ignatius, Polycarp and Papias.

FATHERS."

contemporaneous

APOSTOLIC SEE." A church founded by an apostle and thus claiming apostoUc authority; used to designatethe Church of Rome, and formerly used of the churches at Antioch,Ephesus, Alexandria and Jerusalem.

ST. THOMAS (1227-74)." Count of of Monte by the Benedictines Dominican in Naples (1243), a studied with Albertus in Cologne and Magnus Paris and himself became teacher dominant a (Cologne 1248, Paris 1252, Italy 1261, Paris 1269, Naples 1271). Blending church dogma with the AristoteUan science newly brought from Spain, Aquinas was opposed as a "modernist," but his cans profound theology became obhgatory for Dominiand Jesuits and in 1879 was for made normative the Church. Prolific with commentaries ture Scripon and Aristotle, he furnished encyclopedic constructions of aU knowledge in harmony with dogma in his Summa Catholicae fidei contra Gentiles (after 1261) and the Summa Theologiae (after 1265). mental fundaNatural he argues, demonstrates reason, man's like God's and truths existence ethical duty, but requires to complete and fect pertruth the revelation of Trinity, Incarnation, these Sacraments, Eschatology. Dealing with cannot higher truths, reason give demonstration but can be persuasive by showing the absence of contradiction. Aquinas broke with Augustinian intellectualism tradition and restored the Greek which gave primacy to the intellect. By his social ethics he retains a modern interest. He views the which is due to a social instinct state sary as a necescompletion in stage of Hfe leading to its own the church, the realm of grace. F. A. Christie

AQUINAS,

Aquino, educated Cassino, became

"

"

APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION." The doctrine the uninterrupted line of succession in the episcopacy from the apostlesto the present. The doctrine is maintained by the Roman, Greek and Anglican churches, the former two and the High Anglican church counting it essential to the vahdity of the ministry. See Order, Holy. of

ARABIA,
in extent, too

RELIGIONS

OF."

Arabia
to

is too

vast
a

variegatedin character unit. religious lasting

produce
informed.

well not For ancient times we are Our earliest sources South Arabic inscriptions. are is published, Of these a fair number more many of those stiU unpubUshed. The interpretation are serious differenceshas given rise to many at hand APOTHEOSIS." Deification: the practise of of opinion. They exhibit in general a fairlyhigh state of culture and to the rank exaltingrulers, heroes, or conquerors religion. Most of them are number of gods of gods, and offering divine honors, e.g.. to them a rehgious in character and name but do not present a system in various capacities, Emperor-worship (q.v.). of reUgion. The features exhibited are not unlike in a similarly APOTROPAISM." A technique of riddance for those of other Semitic religions (q.v.) deities are of civihzation. The state averting or overcoming evil. Among primitive advanced peoples apotropaic ceremonies are those m which ( Ishtar, the planet largely astral. 'Athtar under various unites to exorcize demons the group by such pracVenus) is masculine, as is the moon tises as or beating, carting away, Shams, the sun, is a goddess. El occurs boating away, names; Incense and shedding the blood of a victim, as in the case of frequently, mostly in proper names. Azazel (cf. Lev. 16th chapter). its use in the cult has its home, probably its origin, in South Arabia. tus APPETITE. The native sense of need in the For North Arabic peoples we have from Herodoscattered and physical organism, expressed in a craving for (111:8) down fragmentary Nowhere does their religion the satisfaction of corporeal wants ing information. and stimulatappear best effort to procure satisfaction. primitive. At only fragmentary Appetites are whoUy directed either toward remnants of rudimentary totemistic,animistic, as self-preservation hunger, but no discernible, etc., concepts are thirst, etc., or toward propagation of the species fetishistic, other ism. sexual desire. clear-cut system or phase of totemism or as Appetites are in themselves nonCrude rites are found, worship of stones, trees; moral, but their connection with pleasureand pain givesthem ethical significance.Where the behavior repugnant forms of sacrifice (human; animal by of a person is dominated by appetites the person drinking the blood and consuming, raw and fresh, unsocial and hence becomes immoral. possible shred). Progress is observable, e.g., Morality every in rites of affiliation or treaty: contractingparties involves control of appetitesin subordination to a each other's it end. Asceticism lick blood; mingle on actually (q.v.)is an approved rationally
=
"

25

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Aram

and in the set up as symbols, crude altars, thinking in the Mohammedan or mementos; mediaeval world generally. The mediaeval world substitute animal blood; dip fingerstogether,in all such rites disappear. The scented water; finally was a theological world, very different from the morning star is,as in the south,first a male deity, antique world of Aristotle. The problems of its thinkers are not the main problems of Aristotle and later under foreigninfluence a goddess, al-'Uzzah. the Greeks. They are theologicalproblems, the By 600 A.D. the cult of a number of gods is stillahve. the problem of the attributes in festivals connected with fairs and a especially problem of creation, of God, the problem of free will. These "truce of God," shrewdly developed by the miUionwere formulated aires of Mecca. The are by the Mu'tazilites late gods themselves given scientifically little thought or reverence; there is no theology in the 8th. and early in the 9th. century. These Mu'tazilites introduced into favored the use of reason worth for the more the najne. Even instead of the mere thinking, ance acceptgoddesses, AUat ("the goddess," fem. of Allah) Mohammedan and of revelational traditional and Manat, old worshipersfear after their formulae; al-'Uzzah, of death desuetude. they are the rationaUsts (but not freethinkers) shadowy, has Allah, somewhat minds no a cult,but enjoys in many curious,ill- Islam; with them begins the history of Arabic or defined supremacy. Mohammedan problems thus philosophy. The formulated the the polytheistic the problems that This that are means stage for engross well above Arabia is passing. Judaism and Christianityare as "philosophers"par excellence named the theologians; it is for the solution of these, as penetrating the peninsulafrom the north and from the South. Arabia creates Then with Mohammed not for mere historic or abstract scientific interest, that the Arabs handle of monotheism suitable for itself and him, a form more go to Aristotle and for a large part of Asia and Africa (see Mohammedanism) indeed,but with sovereignmastery; the reverently scheme of the writingsof these phiand thrusts out the older forms. losophers or framework is constructed wholly upon these problems. itself. PresentlyArabia is again divided against From this largerpoint of view Arabic philosophy rebels seize and hold Oman. Karmatian Kharigite is not a mere schismatics overspread Bahrein, the Yemen, and chapter in the historyof Aristotelianfor a space hold Mecca. ism, but a large section,perhaps the foremost ing Now, to the joyof expandsection in that chapter of human the thought, wherein straightlaced Wahhabite Christianity, orthodoxyof the Nejd, the Shi^te-colored South, it wrestles with the problems of monotheism, with the conception and understanding of a world given and the Hidjaz and Mecca, Sunnite with cosmopolitan for it by that monotheistic to it, constructed each other. nondescriptadmixtures,are fighting revealed religion which is the chief characteristic M. Sprenglinq ARABIC PHILOSOPHY." The thought throughout Europe and philosophical of mediaeval Western endeavor of the mediaeval Asia. Near East,Mohanunedan Beginning with the Mu'tazihtes,it of the "phiin its world- view and Arabic in its language. In its losophers" develops in the divergent currents and the kaldm theology of the Ash'arites, selves, narrowest sense, as used by writers in Arabic themand finds its apex in the genialGhazalt (1058-1111), the name is appliedto those men philosopher only who expounded Greek philosophy,especially only to settle back to the broad level of orthodox it all its limitations Ash'arite Aristotle with a neoplatonicvarnish. theology. With of the in the formulation half dozen names An even of outstanding "philosophers" goes beyond the Greeks of this type are stressed, and in manuals hauer) problemof causation (where it foreshadows Schopenand in Ghazalis keen critique of the function articles under the heading Arabic Arabian or brain (which of sense of Three perceptionand of the human Philosophy or Philosophy of Islam. and is nearer to Hume Kant than these are of the Eastern half of the Moslem world: anything in the only pure Arab of the lot (ca.850),at themselves). Nor would Europe before these men al-Kindt, of Arabic statement or near philosophy be complete Bagdad; al-Farabt,died at Aleppo 950; any without mention of Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Stna, 980-1037. The other trio is of the (1332-1406) and modern his philosophy of history, which prefigures West, Spain and North Africa: Ibn Bajja, died hammedan 1138 at Fez in Morocco; Ibn Tufail, a sort of evolutionary thought.--Sufism, (q.v.) i.e.,MoJean Jacques Rousseau of mediaeval mysticism demands separate treatment. Islam, died M. Sphbnglikg 1185 at Morocco; and finallyIbn Rushd, born of dismal under-world abode ARALU. The Five of 1126 in Cordova, died 1198 at Morocco.
stones
"

sophica

the dead in ancient Babylonia. well known in Europe in late mediaeval times; the latinized forms of their names (Alkindius GUAGE. LANARAMAIC Alfarabius, ARAMAEANS, ARAM, Avicenna, Avempace, Averroes),better known Occidentals even Aram is the name of a people,not of a to most today than their it is usually hint of the profound influence original applied to a locality forms, give some place. Where of the Aram of Damascus to a place name, they exerted on the thought of the Schoolmen joined Had Arabic philosophydone nothing more etc. than to two rivers, documents in written Their language appears and a few others to mediaeval give through these men from the 8th. century b.c. on. It is their language, more Europe a much complete Aristotle than it had, it would still deserve to be held by us in which marks them as one of the great groups chiefly, The drawbacks of a threefold of Semitic peoples which, as far as history reaches, gratefulmemory. Greek to Syriac to Arabic to Latin, are translation, pressing outward from desert Arabia toward fertile lands. Of the great layers through which it had to pass before reachingEurope, the surrounding offset by the fact that the selection of material are or they are the third,being preceded by groups and the manner of presentation better adapted the Assyro-Babylonians and the Amorites (Canaanwere to mediaeval ites). The fourth great layer are the Arabs, who understanding in the Mediterranean world than the original would have been. hold the field to the present. This latter consideration in the nomad should give pause to The home of the Aramaeans stage, those who would make is the all Arabic philosophy but a just before they appear in historical notices, passing phase in the history of AristoteUanism. haps Syrian desert. Thenoe, as early as 2000 B.C., perThis view, for long and until recently and farmers earher, they trouble merchants very generally held, is too narrow and unfair to retain a the lower Euphrates. Pushed too by difficulties on world's thought. within and behind their land they drift and press permanent place in the modern It does not take into account With Abraham the close relationship into the fertile lands roundabout. between the developmentof theological and philo- and Jacob they appear in Palestine (Deut. 26:5). these
were
" "

Aranyakas

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

26

By the 13th. century they are thoroughly at home Mesopotamia. to new Adaptability surroundings and great and traders are abilityas merchants outstanding characteristics. the units in Small, detached of the great push are absorbed by the earlier van settlers and adopt their language and as letters,
in Jacob-Israel did in Canaan. In the 8th. find kings in northern Syria, with some non-Semitic to changing from Canaanite names, Aramaic in their inscriptions. in Assyrian Presently, and Achaemenid-Persian becomes times, Aramaic the linguafranca of the Levant, and so remains in some measure, until Arabic Islam thrusts it into the Abraham-

In the Neolithic age archaeologyshows that men held a polydaemonistic system of beliefs similar to the rehgions of existing savages. Megalithic
monuments

throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, consisting of standing stones (menhirs), stone

century

we

background. creative; it is gods,beliefs, practices. They fallin with and foster the tendency toward syncretism. Then they cling,sometimes with strange tenacity, formations. to their syncretic At Harran of paganism survived to a curious form Moslem In days, well into the 8th. century a.d.
not

Religiously they do
name

appear

difficultto

Aramaean specifically

Christian times

Aramaean

came

to

mean

pagan,

early records of him written in that tongue. were Despite this, Aramaic (or Syriac, its chief literary dialect) became for centuries the chief spoken tongue and vehicle of eastern Judaism and Christianity. literary thrust out of the Graeco-Roman Nestorianism, world, became the dominant form of Christianity in Sassanian Persia and carried its religion and the Syriac tongue as far East as the heart of China. Monophysitism gained one of its chief strongholds in the Syriac-speaking churches. Arabic Islam presently reduced the sphere of Christian Syriac materially. But though severely circumscribed buffeted a millennium and and more by adverse with fortune,these people have clung to their own

though Jesus spoke Aramaic, and

the tenacity of old Harran. Aramaic And now Christians the borders m of Mesopotamia, Asia themselves tunate Minor, and Persia, calling by the unforof Assyrians, name are clamoring for recognition with a voice, which ARCHBISHOP." In the Roman Catholic church only adverse political constellations and the Armenian and massacres an archbishop is a bishop who has oversight of inaudible Christian Western several other bishopricsas well as charge of his to appeals make His duties include the callingand M. Speengling own. powers. ing presidover provincialcouncils,the oversight,with ARANYAKAS." The class the of a of the assent of the council, of his suffragans, name and the sacred books of India later than the Vedas and In the hearing of appeals from episcopalcourts. used Eastern church the archbishop has not always Brahmanas, by hermits who have given up the fife of householder and retired to the forest for metropolitan rank, and the title is more common. meditation and study. See Sacred Literatures. In the Lutheran church the metropoUtans of Sweden and Finland bear the title. In the Anglican ARCANI DISCIPLINA." The secret instruction church there are the archbishoprics of Canterbury and of York, and the jurisdiction regardingbaptism and the Lord's Supper which in is similar to that the early centuries of Christianity of the R.C. dignitaries.See Bishop. was given only to those who were baptized. The practicedated from the later 2nd. century. ARCHARCHDEACON, ARCHPRESBYTER, PRIEST. Officials in the early and mediaeval ARCHAEOLOGY." The science which from church, so called because of their superiorpositions the remains of human the groups to which industry and art seeks to they belonged. In the among the life and reconstruct Middle of to exercise concame siderable thought of the men Ages archdeacons former times. For the ages prior to the invention but since the 16th. century the power, of writing it is the only source of information in officehas declined in importance,givingway usually of mankind. times an to the office of vicar-general.In modern regard to the religion the EoUthic From and from archdeacon in the earlier the Protestant Anglican and age Paleolithic age (500,000b.c?) no evidences of religious Episcopal churches is an official charged with part ideas have yet been discovered. Ceremonial of the bishop's administration of a diocese. See burials are first found in the Acheulian epoch. Deacon; Presbyter; Priest. These existence of suggest belief in the continued and the dead ARCHDIOCESE." The the possibly worship of their spirits. territory under Where existed the animistic theory of an archbishop. a belief in spirits jurisdiction of the universe held by modern savages probably also existed. In the Magdalenian epoch (ca. head of several ARCHIMANDRITE." The 25,000 models and of men of animals and drawings monasteries of the same times B.C.) congregation, or someThese may of one have served stone and ivory appear. on largecommunity in the Greek church. The office dates from the 5th. century. uses. magical or other religious
,
"

tables (dolmens) and circles (cromlechs), stone mark the sanctuaries of this period. In the period subsequent to the invention of writingarchaeologyfurnishes additional material in the knowledge derived from and inscriptions from documents. In the Age of Bronze, as early 5000 B.C., hieroglyphic as invented in writing was Babyloniaand in Egypt, and from that time onward down to the beginning of the Christian era copious records were written in both scripts. The discovery of these documents and of numerous sacred objects excavators has made by modern the reconstruction possible of the Babylonian and of the Egyptian religions.See Assyria and Babylonia, Religion of. of; Egypt, Religion The religion of Canaan quest conpriorto the Hebrew has recently become known through the excavation of a number of the mounds of Palestine. It is seen to have been a primitive form of polydaemonism combined with the beginnings of polytheism. See Baal; Canaanites, Religion of. Archaeologythrows much lighton the popular of ancient Israel. It shows that the early religion histories of the Old Testament correct in accusare ing the Hebrews of adopting the high places of the Canaanites, serving their gods, and sacrificing children. It also confirms modern criticism of the Old Testament by showing that there was a gressive proideas during the development of religious centuries that followed the conquest. In the classical civilizations and in the Christian civilizations of Europe archaeology is an important aid in the study of the history of religion by the artistic expressionof religious ideas discovering in architecture,sculpture, painting, and minor sacred objects. Lewis B. Paton

27

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Arius

ECCLESIASTICAL." A tory deposiof historical value of records and documents church relative to any or religiouscommunity; also apphed to the documents themselves,e.g., the Vatican archives.

ARCHIVES,

one.

Thus

the substances,

there are two ultimate principlesin material substratum and the differentiating

ARCOSOLIUM. form of the tombs early Christians.

An arched recess, in the Roman catacombs


"

being
used

one

by

The ARHAT of (ARAHAT)." highest rank sainthood in early Buddhism,ascribed to one who has gained enlightenment and become perfect in the eight-fold path. A heresy,chiefly ARIANISM. associated with Christology, so designated from its chief exponent, Arius (q.v.), The origin a presbyterof Alexandria. of the teaching reverts to the tendency, appearing in Justin Martyr and Origen, to call the Logos "a second God," subordinate to the divine Father, in
"

the

interests

of monotheism.

At

the

council

of

Nicaea, 325, the orthodox party defended the consubstantiability {homoousios)of the Son with the Father in oppositionto the Arian positionthat the created by and essentially Son was different from human The soul stands between the the Father animal and (heteroousios or anomoios) though God, partaking in the sensibility, the orthodox umphed,perception and memory of the animal, and in the pre-existent.Though party trithe strugglewas still more bitter in the of God. Hence reason morality is a characteristic the councils of Nicaea and Constantinople. of humanity, and virtue consists in an equiUbrium period between In the post-Nicene period the watchbetween word and the animal reason elements, a mean of the Arian between two totle In poHtical theory Arisextremes. party was homoios, meaning tends "similar," Christ being given a representative argued that monarchical government of both genuine toward the maximum of virtue and happiness. function, and deprived at once In the Patristic period, Aristotle was attacked deity and humanity. A mediating party also whose watch appeared, called Semi-Arians (q.v.), by some, as Irenaeus and TertulUan, while others word was But the Alexandrians, homoiousios, meaning of "similar essence." ignoredhis works. especially During this period about eighteen councils were Clement, hailed him as a forerunner of Christ to the Hellenic world. convened, the various partiesanathematizing one Boethius, through his Latin another their metaphysicaldifferences, but version of a part of the Organon, introduced Aristotle over the western church. The Arabians to orthodoxy eventually triumphed at the council of notably appeared Avicenna and revived Aristotle in the Averroes Constantinople,381, and Arianism gradually disfrom the East. It was that form of 11th. and 12th. centuries. Through their influence the Teutonic barbarians Latin translations of and commentaries totle's ArisChristianity to which on and it persisted converted them until works were tian were introduced to Jewish and Chrisamong the 7th. century. See Christology. thinkers. Moses Maimonides, the Jewish first the the movement. At writer, continued ARISTOTLE AND ARISTOTELIANISM." church condemned Aristotle's physics (1209) and Greek his metaphysics (1215), but his system was too well Aristotle, philosopher,384-322 B.C., born hence called "the Stagirite." He was in fitted to Catholicism at Stagira, for that attitude to persist. Athens 367-347 the pupil of Plato, in Mitylene declared "precursor of Christ in as By 1300 he was tutor to Alexander 343-335 in the latter part of as things natural as John the Baptist was in matters the reign of Phihp, and again in Athens for 12 years of grace." The most whom Albertus Magnus (q.v.) followed Avicenna teaching in the Lyceum. significant facts were his relationship with Plato,which made he regarded as the best interpreterof Aristotle. his philosophical and with Alexander Albertus was the teacher of Thomas possible labor, Aquinas (q.v.), which enabled him for his to collect materials the greatest of the Catholic theologians. In him have Aristotehanism ecclesiasticized. The we libraryand data for his scientific work. the standpoint of literary form Aristotle's From dualism of Aristotle was carried over as a dualism works may and be classified as dialogues, between didactic, rationalism, the supernaturalism and rhetorical works; from that of subject-matter as church and the world. The hierarchical system natural science,primary philosophy or theology, of his concepts from universals logic, through classHis erudiand miscellaneous. tion ethics, history, concepts to particulars provided Aquinas with and literary the tools for vindicating the divine authorityof the production were encyclopaedic. is a philosophy of individual Aristotelianism Church's knowledge. The deductive method of his substances as opposed to the Platonic philosophy logicis the method of Catholicism in its theological of universal forms, the former and ecclesiastical pronouncements. emphasizing the natural and substantial as against the tendency of A. S. WoODBtrRNB the latter to the supernaturaland abstract. These ARIUS (256-336)."Presbyter of Alexandria of his substances heretic because concrete condemned comprise reahty, possessing who was as a attributes distributable into categories. Universals views concerning the substance of the Son. ness. As a man he was of good character and earnestare reallypredicatesof the particulars. The generative ordination four: a material of real being are After having preached and taught the subcauses which is passive, which is ideational, of the Son to the Father and maintaining cause a formal cause which stance subefficient cause is active, and a that he was of similar rather than the same an andria is purposive. These condemned final cause which four are he was by the Synod of Alexcondemned reduced to two by combining the last three into at (320-321),and subsequently

essence or form-giving idea, matter and idea the dynamic, while being the potentiality the combination is actuaUty. Substances of are three kinds, nature, man, and God. In man the is soul and the body is the differentiating essence material element. The Supreme Being is an and is supernaturalsubstance, exceptionto the rule, of pure form without matter. He is the consisting prime Mover, himself unmovable, the necessary result of the principleof causahty. He is pure thought, and is Himself the subject of his contemplation. The special sciences deal with groups of specific facts,deduced from primary principles. is a science of universals, or firstscience, Philosophy the subject-matter of which is God, and thus embraces all other principles and first cause. Aristotle's psychology was a theoretical duahsm of body (matter) and soul (essence), the former tion being capacity or potentiaUty,and the latter funcor actuality. His epistemology represented the human mind as a recipient but not a creator of ideas. It is a blank page, possessing the faculty for shaping ideas. ceptual. Knowledge is therefore con-

Ark

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

28

the the Council and banished. None of Nicaea less his view found followers and at times many gained control of the imperial court. (See ArianISM.) In the latter part of his lifeArius was recalled banishment from and would have been received back with honor into the church had he not died the day preceding that set for the service. the ARK. literature, (1) According to Hebrew of vessel built by Noah largefloating by command Yahweh, as a refuge from the deluge (Gen. 6:5 9:17). Comparative mythology furnishes parallel traditions in Indian Hterature where Manu plays the role assigned to Noah (Catapatha Brahmana, in and and Mahabharata Bhagavata Purana), is Babylonian hterature where the part of Noah assigned to Xisuthrus {Gilgamesh).(2) The
" "

ARMINIANISM AND ARMINIUS." The type of doctrine Arminius who taught by James studied at Geneva, Basle, and Leyden, and finally called to the chair of theology in the in 1603 was after his day University of Leyden soon very Arminianism. began to be termed Frequently, has been made to connote, however, the term besides the formally expressed tenets of Arminius, doctrinal from conceptions logically deducible His departures from the Reformed them. teaching ,inwhich he had been reared scarcely went beyond the rejection of unconditional election and irresistible In place of these features of the reigning grace. Calvinism he affirmed conditional election and man's freedom to accept or to reject divine overtures.
" "

hidden basket in the bulrushes in which Moses was until found (Exod. by the daughter of Pharaoh (Deut. 10:8), 3:12). (3) The ark of the covenant ark of the testimony (Exod. 25:16), or ark of the of acacia wood, revelation; a sacred chest made with and surmounted overlaid and lined with gold, cherubim. took the ark with two The Hebrews them in their travels, since it symboUzed for them in the presence of Yahweh. (4) The ark of the law is a chest used in Jewish synagogues as a repository for the scrolls of the Torah. (5) In the Ethiopian church, a chest which has been dedicated to serve altar. as an (6) Metaphorically used for the institution of church the divinely authorized as

salvation.
OF." A Synod caUed at Aries, ARLES, SYNOD in S.E. France Constantino in 314 by Emperor and to settle the dispute between the Catholics Donatists. of the It was thoroughly representative Western provinces,33 bishops being present. The prohibition of the rebaptisra of apostates with the Trinitarian formula was a decision against the Donatists. Three bishops must be present for an The episcopal ordination. majority of the 22 concerned the discipUne of clergy and laity, canons and were called forth by the necessityfelt by the church define its position since its imperial to recognition. See Donatism. CHURCH OF." A church kindred church in form, but independent in from the "orthodoxy" organization,and differing of the main bodies of the Eastern and Western churches in rejectingthe decrees of the Council of Chalcedon. Tradition traces back the introduction of Christianity into Armenia to a legendary mission of the to King Abgar, together with Apostle Thaddaeus supposed visits of Bartholomew, Simon, and Jude. There is no historical authority for this. The real origin of the Armenian church is to be attributed to the mission of Gregory the Illuminator in the 4th. century, which has been decorated ea,rly with much later legendary matter. Under his influence Christianity to be formally even came of Armenia. adopted as the national religion The breach with the Greek church was brought the about by to the opposition of the Armenians decision of Chalcedon (a.d.451), which they held to favour Nestorianism. In the year 535 the separation made final by the Council of Tiben, was anathematised which the Orthodox church and added "who crucified a monosophysite clause" was for us" to the Trisagion, i.e., to the doxology Frota the times of the "Holy, Holy, Holy," etc. earUest Turkish invasions the Armenian Christians have suffered cruel persecution, culminating in the of recent times. See also Monophysites. massacres F. Adeney Walter

ARMENIA,
Greek

to

the

followers of Arminius in the whom Uytenbogaert, Grotius, Limborch Episcopius, and were prominent of Remonstrants from the titleof acquired the name the document which they put forth in 1610, the after the death of Arminius. In the five year articles of this manifesto, while giving not a little emphasis to man's spiritual dependence, they rule out unconditional limited atonement, predestination, and irresistible grace, and speak of the doctrine of certain perseverance to inquiry. as open Later the positiveaffirmation of the possibility of strant falUng from grace became characteristic of Remonor Arminian as did also the repudiation teaching, of the notion of imputed or hereditaryguilt. So far as Netherlands the are concerned, Arminianism after the to its best very came soon death of the founder. indeed granted toleraIt was tion after the brief period of proscriptionwhich followed its condemnation by the Synod of Dort (1618-19 q.v.); but it was to find its most fruitful fields in other regions. Anglican high churchism it patronage in the time of Laud and again gave dist after the Stuart restoration. Through the Methoit made alliance with wherein movement, warm a evangehcal faith, it acquired specially effective means of dissemination. dered Support is renit, furthermore, by a consideration of the acterized extent its essential points of view charto which and the teaching of the early church later found lodgment in Lutheranism. C. Sheldon Henry ARNOLD OF BRESCIA." Ascetic and reformer, b. at Brescia in Italy, date unknown. He was educated for the priesthood, and became a pupil of Abelard. He was of worldly a vigorous opponent of corruption in the clergy and of temporal power the Curia. His maxims "Clerks who have were: who possess monks estates, bishops who hold fiefs, into conflict be saved." He came property, cannot with Pope Eugenius III, Emperor Frederick BarAs a result of the barossa, and Pope Adrian IV. and combined opposition of Frederick Adrian, Arnold was in 1155. put to death at Rome

The

immediate
"

Netherlands

among

"

MATTHEW ARNOLD, (1822-1888)." English educator, literary critic,poet and author; his works of a critical, liberal and on religionwere ethical character, and exercised considerable a Literature and Dogma, and God and the influence. books of his deaUng with Bible are two well-known religion. ORGANIC" A law regulating ARTICLES, THE pubhc worship in France, introduced by Napoleon, and to Protestantism comprising 44 articles relating 77 relative to Catholicism. the separationof church and The
state

"

law stood in 1905.

until

faith

FORTY-TWO." ARTICLES, adopted by the AngUcan

of A confession Church in 1552,

29

DICTIONARY
the so-called

OF

RELIGION These
the

AND

ETHICS

Aryan Religion

subsequentlyrevised
Nine Articles

into

Thirty-

(q.v.).

ARTICLES,
1571.

THIRTY-NINE." The official fession conof faith of the Anglican Church, adopted in England. See Church of

THIRTY-SEVEN." A form of the ARTICLES, arranged ia 37 articles in Belgic Confession (q.v.) 1531.

gathered under the general title of* the only gods and they are sky-father, not are anthropomorphic but vaguely conceived forces. The nature be called Aryans could still atheists in historic times by visitors who had a pantheon of personal gods with human characteristics. There been to have two seem great public ceremonies: of securing rain in summer one, a means mimetic when by a magic processionwith vessels
powers,
or

sky

of mead

or

water

moved

around

great fire with

THOMAS bishop (1353-1414)." ArchARUNDEL, of Canterbury; also filled the offices of bered archbishop of York and lord chancellor; rememtime. the fives of for his severe Then persecution of the Lollards, darkness at the autumn of the translation of the Bible into cattle and, stillmore and prohibition were potent,the lives of men ana given to revivify strengthen the sky powers. EngUsh. That of cosmic a dawning sense order, of a fate inevitable than the powers of element of their early world-view has been suggestedby Schrader and seems plausible in view of the development of several Aryan groups. There are no temples,and no organized priesthood, who know magic spells and incantations though men form the beginning of the later families of priests. About the hearth grow up affections and customs which raise it into divine status in almost all the To feed it, to keep it burning when Aryan groups. fire is difficult to make, to guard it from pollution becomes a are reUgious duty. The early loyalties An Indian religious tion reformaBlood ARYA to kin and is essential. to chief. SAMAJ. revenge established by Dayanand Sarasvati where, movement Hospitalitywas freelygiven, though, here as elsethe stranger and the beggar were in 1875. It is an more attempt to establish a purely feared than welcomed. dead were The buried in monotheistic cult founded on the Vedas, which are of the revelation of God the source at the or rough-hewn coffins at a "crossroads" as interpreted border of the common land. ethical teaching is of a The With the dead man and of all science. favorite possessions, were placedhis tools, high type. The Samaj is distinctlyIndian and weapons, meat, drink and in earliest times his wives and bitterly opposed to Christianity. It has been but less significant slaves. The practice of givinghuman victims to the successful, numerically more dead was than the Brahma Samaj (q.v.). earlygiven up, but the burial ceremonies of the historic Aryans show clearly that it was once The word Aryan is here RELIGION." the rule. After the burial came rites ARYAN purification which in water and a solemn feast. The dead were used to refer to the Indo-European race posed supin the parent stock of the peoples known to dwell in the earth but at stated times, at formed the home, at the grave, on the anniversaryof death, later historyas Teuton, Scandinavian, Slav, Greek, and Indian. the birthday and in the family ceremonies,food on Emerging Celt, Iranian Roman, offered to them the Baltic as a under the name of "fathers" from the stone age in territory near was or "grand-fathers." Such family rites were type fairlyhomogeneous people of cattle-raising very ing important not only to prevent the ghost from becomthey spread to form the cultural groups we know in life it from a a danger to the family but to save history. To write the story of their religious in that prehistoric period when they dwelt together wretched existence. There is sufficient evidence to held at and was suggest that a great public ceremony neighbors on a far-flungtract of woods as task. from the earth,were a precarious Using which all the dead came pasture land is necessarily the knowledge of the elements to all the common placated,fed and dismissed by public rites. Such and the Greek forms as the Celtic Samhain with specialattention eve branches of the old family, become and developwhich have stabilized Anthesteria be its continuation ment. to those may groups of origin and There is no indication of a heavenly abode nearest to the pointy remembering is man's way of the dead. of securing that everywhere religion They belong to the underworld; the and in relation to the life-values and life-security crossroads, the place of burial,was natural environment we dangerous. The representationof the especially attempt to picturethis may underworld powers in the form of a snake and the religion. primitive prehistoric in the form of ancestor idea of the return of an shows The early history of the various groups which coils by the hearth fire is fearless people, the "house-snake" them as a vigorous, life-loving, feasting, so common drinking and games Aryan peoples that it probably deUghting in fighting, among cult centers about the Their religious of chance. to the primitiveperiod. belongs that of the Aryans was On the whole the religion heavenly nature powers, the home fire and the of a confident, happy and successful people. The family. There is littleevidence of a cult of motherearth common to agricultural peoples. The sky gods are generous, placable powers of light and for morality. fife. There is no divine sanction of sun, its rain,its lightare the with its warmth There hands. how The Aryan took that into his own important things. It is easy to understand is no abject fear of dread powers and no quest for a eagerlythe herders of cattle in a land where known heaven to compensate for a frustrated life on earth. and unknown enemies prowled in darkness would a lifeof vigorand The Well-knit family and clan loyalties, rain welcome the dawning hght of heaven. ARVAL
was
more an

spoken spellsand finally extinguished the fire by emptying their vessels into it,the other, common to many peoples,an attempt to assist the powers of lightand warmth in their strugglewith cold and

BROTHERS." An ancient Roman to twelve members charged with and blessing certain ceremonies for the protection revival under In the religious of fields and crops. Augustus, the emperor secured election to the college and the functions of the Fratrea Arvales were larged enceremonies to include sacrificial on important household. occasions connected with the Imperial While performing important rehgious duties in the hood gave the prieststate, the presence of the emperors the nature of a select social club. limited priesthood
"

which

nature,

was

life to cattle and to men. The boisterous thunder-storm cleaving the oak with its lightning bolt is another power before which they must stand the sacred tree. in awe, and the oak, perhaps, was
meant

plentv under a Sky-God giving light,warmth, the race to land and herds developed and fertility
which
was

to

historyof human

factor in the the dominant become Haydon A. Eustace culture.

Ascension

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

30

As an astral deity Ishtar appeared as ASCENSION." of the body of the The passage as 'Ashtart. risen Christ into heaven. a war-goddess, being identified with the planet This ascension differs from assumption (q.v.) Venus, the leader of the stars,in Semitic and Greek cults. She was rather also the goddess of fruitfulness and in that it was of the body of the resurrection, her cult meant than a body untouched of sensuousness, a deification by that experience. This although this was the mainspring of the spiritualized as experience is referred to only in Acts 1:9, other tender human emotions. In the O.T. she appears references being to his resurrection. Mathews the feminine as Shailer counterpart of the Canaanitic baals in which the sexual aspect predominated. ASCETICISM." treatment (1) A methodical Goddesses. of the body as evil and opposed to spiritual welfare, See Mother ceUbacy flogging, involvingthe practiceof fasting, ASHUR. The and other more means. (2)Less or less disciplinary god of the Assyrian supreme of self- pantheon representedby a solar disc with wings. for the purpose specifically, self-discipline of and control the cultivation of spiritual quahties ASHVAGHOSHA." A Buddhist the personality. writer of the 1st. century a.d., the author of a life of Buddha, Asceticism is found in developed rather than the Buddha-chanla. less or primitive religions.It pre-supposes a more recognizing a organized philosophical dualism ASH WEDNESDAY." The first day of the strugglebetween body and spirit. It is therefore Lenten which to be distinguished from the painful practices period,forty days before Easter, so called from the ritual use of ashes as a symbol of repentinitiation and ritual methods adopted ance. accompany The ashes So far as secured are by primitivepeoples to secure success. by burning the from be traced, asceticism seems to have come palms used the previous year on Palm can Sunday. The day is observed Catholic It in the Roman and those of India. oriental religions, particularly Anglican churches. passed westward, assimilatinglocal practices in Greece, and above all Egypt. Alone among Persia, ASINARII. An the Hebrew the great reKgionsof the ancient world, epithet applied first to the became unless exception be Jews, and afterwards to the Christians, as system never ascetic, e.g., by continued Tacitus because they were said to worship an ass. made Uke the Nazarites who of groups in more Ad Nationes to maintain customs (See Tertullian: simpler nomadic 1, 14; Apologia ing the In 1856 a discovery was made on XVI). highlydeveloped civih'zations. The most outstandin t he Palatine of sketch scratched stone representing ascetic religion is probably Hinduism a (q.v.), devotees of which have from earHest days_ the victim having a man's body and an a crucifixion, sought ass's head, probably a 3rd. century travesty of the existences release from the cycle of successive of the crucifixion of Jesus,although it may be of Mithraic of the body by means through the purification origin. voluntary infliction of pain, or the practiceof some form of self-discipline. The methods ASOKA." of asceticism include the limitation Emperor of India (273-231 b.c.)." of food, He is chiefly because of his use of the royal known poverty, celibacyand austerities of various for the spread of Buddhism it is hoped to reduce the sorts. resources By such means by missionary body to subservience to the spiritand to acquire teaching to Ceylon, China, Thibet, Syria and the devoted to human not West. merit in heaven. Such methods service, are always Merciful, tolerant, his own as empire on the ethical basis they often tend to the suppression he estabhshed successful, rather than to the discipline of natural impulses. of kindlyrespect for the sanctityof all Uving things In consequence, the rightof the meanest the ascetic of the extreme thing to a full life. For type is liable to he is perhaps the spread of Buddhism abnormal as a religion psychical conditions,which sometimes in hysteria, themselves visions, the most important figurein history. express other neurasthenic or experiences. ASPERGES. the congreThe rite of sprinkling A development of the ascetic practicesin gation with holy water before the celebration of the to pagan while due in large measure Christianity, influences and survivals, in R.C. called the honor Mass the from furthered by the was High church, so given by the church to ceHbacy on the part of its first word of the verse, Ps. 51:7. priestsand nuns, as well as to its introduction of ardent fasts for all members The monasASPIRATION." An of the church. tery longing for the influential realization of a kind of life much of Cluny (q.v.), was particularly purer and higher in spreading ascetic practices, while the Irish penitential than one's ordinary attainments. desire to Rehgious aspiration is the earnest system, when introduced upon the Continent, or favor, or to possess experience God's presence impulse. gave it a new realities of the divine world. The discipline of one's self throughthe subjection inwardly the spiritual of physicalimpulses to moral control is the permaIt expresses itself in worship, prayer, consecration, nent value of ascetic practices.As such self-control, and often in specific discipUne, such as religious Moral aspirationconsists in the desire however, does not involve the premises of asceticism, asceticism. and is the motive it cannot See Hinduism, to realize ethical ideals, properly be so termed. power Mathews to Shailek religiouslyand living. Both Buddhism, Monasticism. genuine moral is an intensely personalvaluation morally aspiration ested disinterASGARD. contrasted with more of spiritual The dwelling-place as of the gods in ideals, Teutonic rehgion. of contemplating the good. ways
" " "
" "

ASHKENAZIM."

(From the Hebrew

name

in

Gen. 10:3.) A term used by the Jews to designate the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe and their
descendants. They differ in ritual and from the Sephardim. (qv.). in customs

A mediaeval dramatic OF THE." ASS, FEAST presentationto impress events of BibUcal history, of the such as the story of Balaam's ass, the flight holy family into Egypt. Generally of a burlesque character. ASSAM. from of the province of Eastern Part Assam in British India since 1895; N.E. of Bengal. 1826-1895 a separateprovince,
"

Hebrew of goddess of name origin, appearing in Babylonian as Ishtar, in Greek as Astarte, and in Phoenician

ASHTORETH."

Sumerian

Bengal and

31

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION
state of

AND

ETHICS

Assyria,Religion of
Sure of acceptance
cease

About Sh millions are Hindus, 1^ millions Muslims of The Hindus and 1 million inhabitants animists. know such by conversion though we Assam are which they were brought very littleof the process by and Sakti have been the cult of Vishnu in. The Hinduisrn. of Assamese predominant elements can Missionary work has been carried on by the Ameri-

certaintyas to God's favor. by God, the Christian could

to concern

about himself petty ecclesiastical penance.

Baptists since 1841


Pioneer Mission
"

and since 1891.

the

Assam

Frontier

of a sect of secret A member ASSASSIN. which murderers originated in Persia at the close of the Shi'ites. of the 11th. century as a branch The sect was operative in Persia and Syria for felt was nearly two hundred years, and its power In principle their beliefs during the Crusades. is corresponded with the Isma'ilites. The name from the derived from hashish,an intoxicant made juiceof hemp leaves which was given to the Assassins about to be sent on their mission when they were known of death. The leader was as Sheikh-al-Jabal, Old Man of the Mountains. or CLERGY." OF THE ASSEMBLIES FRENCH The quinquennial gatherings of the French clergy for the from the 16th. century to the Revolution appointment of the taxes exacted by the kings of France from the church, and for the transaction of other ecclesiastical business.

details of merit about or doctrine of personal The assurance was emphasized in oppositionto rehgious formahsm by the leaders of Pietism (q.v.)and by John has Wesley (q.v.). The basis of assurance been variously defined,emphasis being laid sometimes of God the promise of the Word on (Luther), sometimes the direct inner testimony of the on the divine on Holy Spirit(Wesley), and sometimes election (Calvin). At times the emotional ence experiof assurance has been so overemphasized The real to lead to the danger of fanaticism. as of the doctrine is in its affirmation of a significance with genuine personal experience of communion God in contrast formal to a mere profession of Gerald Smith Birney religion. ASSYRIA
"

AND

BABYLONIA,

RELIGION

OF.

the religion of Babythis was lonia Strictlyspeaking, and Assyria from the earliest times to the fall of the neo-Babylonian empire in 538 B.C., though in Babylonia it survived until the beginning

ASSEMBLY, ASSEMBLY,
Assembly. ASSIZE
at

GENERAL."

See

General

of the Christian Such writers as Herodotus era. and Berosus tell us a httle about it, but the principal form of information sources concerning it are the cuneiin such which have been found inscriptions in Mesopotamia. Babylonia, the large numbers mother the land of rehgious origins; country, was sembly. Asborrowed Assyria, developing later, largelyfrom

Babylonia.
WESTMINSTER." See minster West-

OF

CLARENDON."

council

vened con-

Clarendon, England in 1164 by Henry II, and who the English bishops compelled Thomas called the Constitutions to subscribe to 16 articles, of Clarendon designed to transfer the control (q.v.), of ecclesiastical affairs from Rome to England. The clergy refused to conform, and Henry had to

people and their gods. In Babylonia mingled, the Semites from Arabia, called called affinities, Akkadians, and a race of unknown Akkadians hair and Sumerians. The wore long shaved both head and face. beards; the Sumerians
1. The
races
"

two

lished Akkadians first in the land and estabwere The their Semitic gods at various centers. beardless Sumerians coming later worshiped these bearded gods, mingling, of course, in their worship Sumerian elements. some a land Babylonia was tory of city-states.From long before the dawn of histhe articles in 1172. renounce to the rise of Babylon, about 2100 B.C., one citytion another. ASSUMPTION." The of the cortransference state often succeeded During the dominaporeal of each, its deitysecured a degree of worship individual into heaven. body of some death Such translations are both without (as from subject cities. To the Babylonians the world to with which must full of spirits was men come according to Jewish Apocalyptic literature was true kind of Abraham, a Fundamentally their rehgion was Isaiah, Moses)' instead of death (as terms. but through the power of Enoch of polydemonism, of the cityin the case and Elijah); or after death. the In Christianity states the gods of a few places emerged from the only assumption that has of spirits and became into doctrine is that of Mary who after her the chief deities of great mass grown death was These Enlil of Nippur taken up into heaven bodily,according to the country. gods were both the Roman trine and Greek This doc(calledin Akkadian Bel), Anu of Erech, Enki of churches.^ Eridu (inAkkadian into dogma Ea), Nannar of Ur (inAkkadian although never formally made is universally (in sun-god, Shamash preached. Sin), and the Akkadian Sumerian Utu). In all the cities a mother goddess she was AUGUSTINIANS OF THE." also worshiped. By the Sumerians was ASSUMPTION, called the Akkadians generally A R.C. congregation,originating in France in 1845, given many names; and members in 1000 her Ishtar. having at present about During the pre-Babylonian periodthe various countries. worship of a weather god, Adad, and of a corn god, also introduced, apparently from the Dagan, were FEAST OF THE." A festival The West. ASSUMPTION, worship of these along with that of fixed that it persisted became celebratingthe bodily ascension to heaven of the so Nergal of Kutha of Babylonian history. It is Virgin Mary subsequent to her death. through the whole course observed in the Roman Church of Lagash and Some other deities, such as Ningirsu on Aug. 15th, and in the Greek church from Aug. 15th to 23rd inclusive. of Kish Zamama were widely worshiped tiU the smaller town rise of Babylon. Each (and there ASSURANCE. The inner conviction that one in Babylonia) had its deity. The larger were many deities. These subordinate had also many towns enjoys God's favor and has been forgivenand saved the principal often made through faith in Christ. were by differentiating In emancipating men from dependence on the varied from of epithets. They gods by means Catholic church, Luther insisted strongly on the period to period. A very popular vegetationdeity doctrine of inner assurance of salvation, known ^Ashnan,Ningishzida, whereby a was by various names last of these names believingChristian might know himself to be saved Dumuzi. The persisted and without Tammuz needing to consult a priest. Justification was Hebraized as (Ezek. 8:14). During included the creation of a by faith,he contended, the dynasty of Agade (2800-2600 b.c.) certain The
" "

Assyria,Religion of
deified kings were Sin is the best known

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

32

another myth represents the mother goddess,Nintu, has learned of this. The custom the secrets of jealous because man vowing that he shall not five forever. however, sporadically continued agriculture, by later was, 3. Temples and priesthoods. With such deities, dynasties. Most of the kings of the dynasty of Ur rate deified in their hfetime and elabofriendly yet capricious, the Babylonians and (2458-2341) were addressed to them. into relations. Several of the From Assyrians sought to come hymns were before the dawn of of history kings of Nisin and Larsa were deified;the name temples of brick were erected to the great Hammurapi of Babylon is sometimes artificial brick them, usually upon ceded preEach terraces. and the same temple, in addition to the shrine by the determinative for deity, of the deity for whom it was is true of a few kings of the Kassite dynasty (1750contained minor built, sanctuaries for other deities. To each temple was While all these spirits 1175 B.C.;. worshiped were attached a ziggurat, honored: or Anu, now as gods, three were especially stagedtower, to represent a mountain built a regarded as peak, and at Lagash Gudea regarded as god of heaven, Enlil (Bel), brazen sea, to represent the ocean. The temple was god of the land, and Enki (Ea), regarded as god of formed thus a kind of epitome of the world. into the deep. About 2500 b.c, they were In the temples the gods were served by elaborate priesthoods, triad representing air,earth, and water, which the a of which increased in complexity as continued to be reverenced as long as the religion organization time advanced, Schools for the training lasted. Enki of the (Ea) had also been regardedas the the When from time immemorial. priests existed in many god of wisdom temples. Here the art of writing was about 2100 B.C., and hymns taught,and the Uturgies city of Babylon became supreme, the its god, Marduk, began to be worshiped over employed in the services copied. The temples less owned whole of Babylonia, and, with his somewhat large estates, and their archives have in of account-tablets some cases yielded thousands prominent consort, Zarpanit, an offshoot of the which reveal many of the features of the economic to be old mother goddess Ishtar, he continued lifeof Babylonia. worshiped throughout the history. In time he 4. Liturgies and absorbed of both Bel (EnMl) and Ea, and hymns. The qualities Uturgies and hymns are of great interest since they reveal the myths in which they had been prominent were in their places. thoughts and conceptions of the worshipers. In reshaped in order to put Marduk the these compositions the gods are depicted in all their later became Nabu, god of Borsippa, who into Their might and greatness are patron of learning and eloquence, also came power. especially praised. The worshipers believed that the gods prominence after the rise of Babylon. During of Sin, the Kassite period a second triad consisting and were enjoyed being thus flattered, accordingly the moon, lenient to men. to be more The hymns Shamash, and Ishtar,representing disposed sun, formed. to Enhl and Venus, was In later times Adad, the him with the (Bel) connect especially and the violent storms thunderbolt weather god, was sometimes of Babylonia. put in place of Ishtar. One of them speaks of the thunder as his word, just Assyria emerged as a dependent state about the Hebrews 2100 B.C. and became as regarded thunder as the voice of independent about 1600 b.c. Yahweh. the head of In the hymns Nannar Its principaldeity was Ashur who was to (Sin) appears the Assyrian pantheon throughout the history. be very popular, and the appearance and movements of the moon He embodied dwelt upon the characteristics of the Assyrian in describing are him. The so-called penitentialpsalms were ployed emwarlike, ruthless, and cruel. nation,which was in times of trouble,national or personal. Ishtar of Nineveh was, at least in the later periods, find the Babylonian conception of sin his consort. In them and Adad also reverenced, Anu we were been in the main to have Bel and Ea, the other members of the first as were simply misfortune or triad. In later periods of the historyBabylonian the worshiper is wretched, he misery. Because have offended and Nergal. infers that he must Nabu some gods were introduced,especially deity. He 2. Relation of gods to men. The myths concernbe made assumes to ing that, if the deity can wretched these gods reveal something of their worshipers' appreciate how he is, the divine heart ideas of them will relent, and the anger and their relation to the world and that has caused his misfortune will pass away. No deep sense to men. of sin or According to one cycle of myths, both and irrigating water It is men conception of its inwardness is revealed. begotten by natural were that suffering for sin. The belief atones generation from gods and goddesses. The Babylonians assumed fond of cosmogonicmyths, or in the efficacyof intercession prevailed,and one were especially From myths that explained the originsof the world and god is often asked to intercede with another. its institutions. time immemorial sacrifices were In addition to those just alluded offered. About and of agri2500 B.C. they consisted of oxen, sheep,goats, lambs, to, which explain the origin of man culture, myths of the creation and the flood were fish, eagles,cranes, and the viands eaten by men. also in circulation time before 2000 As b.c. They appear to have been regarded as food for the advanced elaborated of creation for sin. a was myth gods rather than as having atoningefficacy into an epic of seven Tammuz. The for the universal characteristic cantos. It accounted 5. Ishtar and of Semitic religion the worship of the and for the earth was origin of the gods themselves and heavens mother by the conquest of a watery chaos by goddess Ishtar. The Semitic background of Babylonian religionenabled her influence to Marduk, god of Babylon. The kinship of gods and indicated in the myth of the begetting of with Sumerian it, although, blended permeate men, she was often called by Sumerian men names. by a god and goddess, and emphasized by goddesses, the deification of certain kings,as already noted,is Connected with her cult were primitivesexual rites, further which were perpetuated until the time of Herodotus emphasized in the Gilgamesh Epic, in which Bk. I. 199). Such rites were and in Gilgamesh and Engidu are defied, designed to secure (cf. which the goddess Ishtar offers herself in marriage abundant with the an offspring. Connected male and female ministers of to Gilgamesh. temples there were While the line between gods and men not the goddess whose function appears to have been to was could not of sterility. while the deities in the cure one men represent the divine powers cross, and sometimes consorted with men, nevertheless they They are recognized in the Code of Hammurapi, called by various The should become where wise and were as names. jealous lest men they are immortal have had a deleterious themselves. service of this goddess must In the Adapa myth as as Ea is said to have hed to Adapa lest he should eat influence Babylonian social fife. Closely upon the food that would make him connected wiljh the worship of the mother goddess immortal, and

during their lifetime. Naraminstance

"

"

"

"

33

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Astrology

that of her son (later husband) Dumuzi (Tama god of vegetation. As vegetation dies beheved die. The to down each year, Tammuz was mother goddess was thought to be in great sorrow An ancient myth of the loss of her son. account on recounted how on one such occasion she had forsaken world, the underthe upper world and gone down to Arallu, to bring him up to hfe again. At that time the earth had ceased. all procreativeaction on the whole During the time of the death of Tammuz land was filled with wailing, by the women. especially Elaborate rituals for a worship of wailing in the It contains temples has been preserved to us. such doleful repetitions as the following:
was

and of social justice. problems of social organization This


was

muz),

in part due

to

their conviction

that the

the part of men. gods demanded on righteousness In the myths the gods might lie to men and to one another, but nevertheless they punished human liars. It thus happens that in the Code of Hammurapi is made that,if a man has taken provision oath in the presence of a god, his unsupported an word shall be regarded as truth. In general ethics the Babylonians were abreast of other nations fully of the period. The less civilized Assyrians were more backward, though in privateethics they may not have fallen behind the Babylonians. George A. Barton ASTERISK. A utensil consisting of two crossed arches,either silver or golden,used in the Greek church to protect the eucharistic bread from the coveringveil.
"

The The

....

no vegetation longerlives; no vegetation longerhves; six times] [repeated husband no longerlives; my

lord of lord of

The lord Tammuz no longerlives; The lord of the dweUing no longerlives; The spouse of the lady of heaven no longer lives; The lord of Eturra no longerlives; The brother of the mother of the vine no longer lives. With such iteration the whole land was plunged into mourning. When itwas beUeved that Tammuz had risen again,in accordance with psychological law, the ecstatic joy was correspondingly great. The celebrated in festivals to these event was deities of fertility that festivals not always were
"

chaste, believed 6. Life afterdeath. ^Althoughit was that the god Tammuz rose annually from the dead, the Babylonians had no faith that men could share his fortunate fate. Their conception of the under-world is graphically set forth in the poem Ishtar's descent the underworld. The on to goddess is said to have determined to go
"

ASTROLOGY. A science which pretended to foretellevents in the affairsof earth by a knowledge of the nature and of the heavenly movements bodies. It was based upon the idea of an inevitable between the movements of the stars and relationship the hfe of man. Two main phases are to be distinguished, the Babylonian and the Roman. The supposed science had its origin in Babylon about 2400 B.C. The observed places of the heavenly bodies in relation to the observed happenings earth were on organizedinto a system of prognostication of the good or evil chances in any undertaking. On the other hand, unusual projected happenings or arrangements in the heavens were to mean certain favorable or unfavorable interpreted events for the governments of the various divisions of the known world. The chief gods, Anu, EnUl, and Ea, were assigneddivisions of the heavens ; the
"

rulinggods.Sin,Shamash, Marduk, Isthar, Ninib, identified with the moon, Nergal,and Nebo, were and planets. Their changes in relationship sun
taken to be the result of a divine planand the were inference followed that one who could understand the will of these divine rulers whose action produced good or illon earth would be able to foretelland to The religion of Persia and prepare for the event. the science of Greece revealed to Babylonia and Assyria the futility of this childish science and destroyed in its home land. astrology It was destined, however, to have a new lifein the Roman with all the Empire to which it came But it was glamor of an oriental wisdom. radically idea was added that the unichanged. The new verse is a vast organism in which every particle is involved with every other in a constant interplay of influences under fixed law. read this To a cosmic mechanism the characteristics of the old to the gods and of mythicalpersonages were assigned stars and constellations bearing their names, the divisions of the zodiac allotted to various sections of the earth and intricate interpretations made of the arrangements of the heavenly bodies accordingto time. The significance of the system was that in it seemed such a universe of ordered movement vidual. to forecast the fate and future of any indipossible the science of casting a Astrology was consulted for was horoscope and the astrologer infalUble guidance regardingany future event or ambition. By the attractiveness of its rehgious of Fatalism,by its emphasis on order philosophy and destiny,the pseudo-science quered completely conworld and maintained its sway the Roman side by side with the real science of astronomy into the Middle Ages. Probably its greatestservice was to prepare the of the stars, way, by knowledge of the movements for the genuine physical and astronomical sciences. A. Eustace Haydon

Unto Unto

the house of darkness, the dwelling of Irkalla the house whose enterer never out comes Along the way whose going has no return, Unto the house whose enterer is deprivedof light. Where dust is their food,their sustenance clay. Light they do not see, in darkness they dwell; of wings. They are 'lothed like birds with a covering Over the door and bolt the dust is spread. this cheerless world the dead departed with a happy resurrection. The tweKth tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic tells how wistfully the Babylonians longed for a more cheerful hereafter and for reunion with loved ones, but that such hope was The no granted them. epic in lines sums two their attitude as they contemplated up this prospect :
no

Into

hope of

I will sit all day and I will sit all day and The
many

weep! weep!
"

Babylonians believed in the existence of beside the gods spirits that were spirits
to
men.

hostile cranny;

These

demons

haunted

every

they brought diseases;they were ever believed that It was men. ready to leap upon they could be controlled by certain formulae, cially espeif these were uttered in connection with certain ceremonies. fulfil these functions long To incantation texts were and, no doubt compiled, often employed. It thus happens that Babylonian ceremonies merge off insensibly into magic. religious 7. Ethics. In spiteof the limitations of their the Babylonians, for such an religious conceptions earlyfolk, developed a comparativelyhigh ethical standard. code of Hammurapi, The well as as shows that they had solved fragmentsof earliercodes, with a fair degree of success of the initial many

Astruc, Jean

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

34

ASTRUC, JEAN." French R.C. scholar,1684dis1766; an eminent physician whose studies in eases
of the of the skin led him to an examination Levitical legislation regarding the clean and the unclean. This study led him to a critical investigation which resulted in an analysis of the Pentateuch into two documents the basis of the two divine on and Elohim. Yahweh names, for god used An early Aryan name originally by the Indian and Iranian branches of this race. In Iran it retained its meaning, forming Mazda part of the title of the great God, Ahura to mean (Ormazd) while in India the word came demon in the later rehgion. ASURA.
"

influence of Eusebius of Nicomedia and other Arians,Athanasius was exposed to the vascillations of the emperors' opinions, and five times was from his office, expelled though always permitted to His zeal and persuasiveexpositionof the return. Nicene Christologyled to his being honored the as "father of orthodoxy." ATHARVAVEDA." One of the four divisions of the Vedic scriptures, of charm, consisting largely incantation and Sacred See magic formulae. Scriptures. A disbelief in the existence of a in control of the universe. The word is often loosely employed as a term of who opprobrium to designate any one adversely criticizes current doctrines. Thus rates Soctheological modern was charged with atheism; and some thinkers who have repudiated the conceptions of theologicalanthropomorphism have been called atheists. Since atheism denotes a negativeattitude, it may be associated with agnosticism (q.v.);or it find expression in some antitheistic philosophy, may such as materialism or pancosmism. Atheism arises out of an adverse criticism of crude or anthropomorphic ideas in theology, and hence is a secondary rather than a primary religious attitude. The most important organized development of atheism occurred in India, where in the Sankya system in Buddhism, and in Jainism (qq.v.)religionwas interpretedin terms of selfrather than of dependence on salvation discipline from the gods. In modern times the development of modern science has led to attempts to explain the entire universe without reference to any divine in harmony with Being. But Agnosticism is more the spirit of science than is a developed atheism. Gerald Smith Birney ATHENAGORAS." of the Christian writer last quarter of the 2nd. century; wrote Greek two and of an the one treatises, apologetic nature other on the resurrection.
"

ATHEISM.

personalGod

divine figuresin early Vedic ASVINS. Two called "lords of the horses" and identified religion with the morning and evening stars.
"

ASYLUM.
persons

"

^An

inviolable

place of refuge
as

for

fleeing from

pursuit, such

run-away

defeated soldiers. Among or slaves, criminals primitive peoples totem centers, specificplaces whole villages and sometimes (O.T. cities of refuge, lands tombs serve as asylums. In Muhammadan of saints and are so regarded. Among mosques such as the Slavonic and some primitivereligions, such developed reUgions Teutonic,as well as among and those of the Greeks, Hebrews, Hindus as Romans, the sanctuary or temple was regardedas of these an asylum. On the conversion of some the right of asylum continued people to Christianity,
in connection with the church. It thus continued in England and France till the 16th. century and in Spain until the 19th. century. As to the genesis of the idea, Westermarck suggests the hypothesis that the deity like the man was under obhgation to shelter the one who had taken from being refuge in his home to avert the curse transferred to him. The fire god of early Iranian religion: ATAR. in developed Zoroassymbol of the purityof Ormazd
"

trianism. ATARGATIS." A Syrian Goddesses. Mother


"

goddess of fertihty.

See

ATAVISM. Lat. meaning ancestor, used


ancestor

biological term, derived from the or great-great-great-grandfather, to signify reversion to traits or characteristics of a grandparent or more remote
which have
not

Peninsula and mountain the on of the Chalcidian peninsula on the by Aegean Sea; designated "the Holy Mount" orthodox Greeks; a great center of Greek monasticism. The hbraries contain of its monasteries valuable manuscripts. many
"

ATHOS.

eastern

side

appeared in

the parent.

ATHANASIAN of the three CREED." One eccumenical creeds emphasizing details of the doctrine of the trinity, used in the Roman, officially Greek and Anglican churches. It is of Latin origin, probably in the 6th. century, although it bears of Athanasius. See Creeds (wrongly) the name Faith. Articles op AND SAINT ATHANASIUS, (293-373)."Bishop of Alexandria and theologian; took orders when very archdeacon He under Alexander of was young. Alexandria, and in 326 succeeded him as bishop. His tenure of office was of storm and stress owing one succeeded to the Arian controversy. Athanasius Alexander as the defender of orthodoxy against and SabeUianism, Arianism that Arianism declaring would lead to polytheism and that SabeUianism made impossible the unity of the Father and his Son. His interest in the reahty of salvation own led him to insist on the divinityof Christ. Thus the use of homoousios he defended (q.v.)against homoios homoiousios or (qq.v.). Owing to the

A term occurring frequently in the ATMAN. hterature of the religions of India, derived from the Skt.,an, found in the Rig Veda as tmdn, meaning "breath." The word acquired the meaning of of soul." One of the elements "the individual trine docthe teaching of the Upanishads is the Advaita the indithat atman brahman vidual i.e., (q.v.), soul is identified with the world soul.
"

of establishing ATONEMENT." The act or means God and man. In reconciliation between to the Christian theology it has reference chiefly work of Christ as accomplishingthis reconciUation. the reconciliation 1. In 'pre-Christian religion conditioned between was largely gods and man of the estrangement estimate of the cause an upon to the and the habilityof man between the two effects of divine displeasure. In the more primitive this estrangement is due to some types of religion neglect or insult which has been offered by some of the tribe to its deity. This might be a member ritual breaking of the taboo, the neglect of some tive, performance, disobedience of the god's representamethod of the usual In such cases etc. fice. would be a giftto the god as sacrireconciUation intended to all sacrifices were While not

35

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Atonement

held in bondage in Sheol. This of those of this involved an elaborate expositionof the descent of Christ into and varied from the the abode of the departed spirits, the god well as the of material for a feast in which as offering of both the Father and the Son in the to the sacrifice of a human being. participation might participate, the Divinity of Christ. lifein the different communities deceptionof Satan regarding As the religious The theory,however, was understood ingly increasbecause the requirementsof the gods became easily varied, of the practiceof the time. The aspersionwhich standardized with a subsequent Uabilityto increase in violations of the ritual. In the penito tential it cast upon the morality of God does not seem have occurred even to such outstanding leaders as of Babylon particularweight is prayers Origen, Augustine, Gregory, and Epiphanius, by given to neglectsof this character. the theory was whom held. The gods were regarded as reconciled by presenting The first attempt at systematizing the signifiwhich the priest accepted in behalf of the a gift cance of the death of Christ with other Christian mark deity. The acceptance of this gift would made the the completion of the reconciliation between doctrines,was (1033-1099) in by Anselm These of different his famous treatise Cur Deus Homo. In this work were gifts worehiper and the God. utilized the practicesof a feudal state as extent Anselm were adapted to sorts, and to some well as the concepts of the growing penitential the economic capacity of the worshiper, as well system. caused the break in The death of Christ he held made satisfaction of that which as to the nature relation between the worshiper and to the divine honor the friendly for the debt which humanity otherwise could never his god. have paid. Anselm educes In the Hebrew of the sacrifices no scriptural but religion authority for this satisfaction, many partook of the nature of confession of ritual sin both simply refers to what were evidently current ideas individual national. elaborate codes of in his social order. and The The reconciliation accomplished sacrificewhich developed in the Hebrew by the death of Christ is within the divine nature rehgionwere concerned itself as a prequisite God in the removal of hindrances to the of reconciliation between to his people. In most and man. in Jesus was reconciliation of Yahweh Humanity as represented enabled these infractions of divine law were ritual cases by the incarnate Son to pay not only and ceremonial, the debt which and the sacrifices ingly correspondwere humanity owed God, but since of ritual character. Jesus himself was sin and so was In the great Day of the not guiltyof any established not under obUgation to die, to make satisfaction Atonement, however, the sacrifices were of In return for this uncalled to the divine honor. in expiationof the national sin for the purpose entitled Yahweh for service on the part of Christ he was relations between re-establishing friendly from and the nation. the Father the right to exThe sins of the nation were tend posedly to ask a boon supbeUeved who forgivenessto certain persons placed on a scapegoat, which instead of him. being killed was driven into the wilderness. upon The Aijselmic theory in Christian religion. The world not universally 2. Atonement was adopted in which took its rise was by the Schoolmen, Christianity although it graduallyfound favor. everywhere A more marked by the practiceof sacrifice as a part of the pressingquestion was whether the death of Christ was in itself possessed of such worth as to between of establishing reconciliation process it the only conceivable grounds for God's forGod and make giveness It was man. natural, therefore,that of men, form of sacrificialvalue should be given to the whether some or (Duns Scotus) God several conceivable alternadeath of Christ,since aU Christians believed that chose to regard it among tives See Acceptireconciliation had been accomplished as by faith in possessed of such worth. him. absence of sacrifice in the new The religion lATION. after its separation from The the temple worship at extra-scriptural conception of satisfaction fitted in so admirably with the contemporary terms Jerusalem led to the rise of sacrificial as tices pracThus he of the European civilization that it continued of evaluating the death of Jesus. means hold to is representedby Paul as the sacrificial gift(Rom. for a very long period. In increasing sway the case of the Reformers the death of Christ came and not by man. 3:21), presented, by God himself, to be regarded as a satisfaction to the justiceof This analogy of sacrifice became frequently used God well as to his dignity. A substitutionary in the Bible, and the reconciliation which as was had of experience because men penal value was also discovered by which Christ already a matter cried "Abba, Father," was declared to have been the punishment due to beUeved to endure was made this point of view because of the death of Jesus Christ, i believers individually. From possible would Jesus actually bore the punishment which Strictlyspeaking, the death of Jesus does not he the requirements of actual sacrifice, otherwise have been borne by the elect and thus meet as The for God to forgive them. not offered on the altar and there was was no priest opened the way of his to receive the gift, there an offering also increasingly developed nor was conception of debt was and Jesus was the life by any regarded as having actually paid worshiper since his death was outgrowth of enmity rather than faith. The Epistle the debt which otherwise humanity must have paid. these difficulties An this generalfine undertakes variant from to the Hebrews to meet interesting and was in the theory of of development is to be seen a by showing that Jesus offered himself, to the effect that the death of Christ did high priestsuperiorin importance to those of the GxQl-ius, to Aaronic order. not change the attitude of God, but served The writers do not elaborate indicate that law could not be violated without some New Testament the sacrificial analogy in their exposition of the form of suffering. By this view the death of Christ and majesty of divine testified to the supremacy effect of the death of Christ on God, and this fact has given rise to a very considerable Kterature law without emphasizing the thought of satisfaction This in which effort is made to find a unifyingconception. to either the honor or the justiceof God. As a matter of fact, the church of the firstmillennium developed in the New theory was subsequently

expiate the
character

fault, the
very

number

were

numerous

"

"

made httle systematic use of the death of Christ, and its doctrine of forgiveness and salvation included no effort to expand the thought of the New Testament beyond the simple analogy of sacrifice. The that Christ's life was prevailingtheory was a ransom given to Satan in return for the souls of the patriarchs and other religious he persons whom

England theology. has Although the doctrine of the Atonement been never organized into a dogma comparable of Christ, with that of the Trinity and the person yet within orthodoxy the satisfaction theory in one from or another and the imputation of Christ's righteousness
have remained dominant. At the
same

time

Atonement, Day of
there have

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

36

been other

theories for the purpose

of

showing how the roconcihation or the at-one-ment has been accomphshed. It is necessary to speak of the moral influence theory, which first especially gained position by its formulation by Abelard. The various views of this type have in common the
belief that the reconcihation between and God man does not involve any propitiation of God or expiation of sin on the part of Christ. His hfe and death are examples calculated to stimulate and guide the beUever to the love of God and he died vicariously but not as a substitute. According to McLeod Campbell and other Scotch theologians, Christ sympathetically gathered an erringrace to his heart and died because of the for that race repentance which he made on^e Bushnell cross. taught that the death of Christ and' vicarious but not substitutionary was was a revelation of the divine love calculated to deepen faith and repentance. It is to be noticed that all these theories of the Atonement are, so to speak, ex 'post facto. Their tion champions have always started with the convicof the reconciliation as a matter of experience. The doctrine of the Atonement has been organized for the purpose of making it appear that such reconciliation is consonant with what to a seems both in theory and given period fundamental justice of these practice. The consequent crudities in some explanations are not their essential quaUty: viz., the unconquerable conviction that the God of law and that in the act of forgiveis also the God of love, ness he does not violate the moral order which he Shailer has established. Mathews

submitted to the Pope, such as the cases juridical Auditor Papae, Auditor Carrier ae, and the Auditor
of the Rota.

AUFKLAERUNG,

THE."

See Enlightenmbnt.

AUGSBURG of CONFESSION." A statement behef drawn up by Melanchthon, and presented to the Imperial diet at Augsburg in 1530 by a number of Protestant references the to princes. The Lord's Supper were subsequently modified by Melanchthon ism. to be less opposed to Calvinso as The two forms have been a source of division Lutherans, See Creeds Confessions and among Faith. OF RELIGIOUS The PEACE OF." AUGSBURG, of a council held in Augsburg, 1555 to outcome settle a religious The controversy in Germany. council decreed that all who adhered to the Augsburg whatever be the edition, to were Confession, be included as Protestants. It left to secular rulers the matter of control over rehgion in their own

territory. AUGSBURG,
AUGURY." INTERIM OF." See Interim.

See Divination.

ATONEMENT,
observed
on

OF." A Jewish hohday, DAY the tenth day of the month of Tishri

manded (corresponding approximately to October) comin the Bible (Lev. 23:26-32). Marking the conclusion of "the ten penitentialdays" of it is the most solenan day earnest self-examination, of the Jewish calendar, calUng for fasting and Its Uturgy is a sunset to sunset." prayer "from before confession soul-stirring God, deep and pleading for forgiveness and repentance, and Divine aid in striving for better things.
.

Harold F. Reinhart before the entrance to were penitents who early churches, where denied admission gathered to invoke the prayers of the faithful. ATRIUM.
"

An

open

court

biology, the cessation development and wasting away of an organ spiritual analogously, stagnation.
"

ATROPHY.

In

of the
or

parts

^A male Asiatic deityand counterpart ATTIS. of Cybele, the great mother. The Cybele-Atti: cult belongsto the group of Mystery Rehgions (q.v.).
"

trition imperfectcontheology, springing from imperfect The highest motive is the love of God, motives. and repentance springing therefrom is contrition. See Penance, Contrition. or

ATTRITION."

In R.C.

repentance

AUBURN DECLARATION." A declaration of of at Auburn, N.Y. faith made by representatives School party in the controversy between the New Schools New of the Presbyterian the Old and declaration included mentals fundaThe the church. and received the endorseof Calvinism ment General of the Assembly in 1868. See Presbyterianism. The name AUDITOR. of the Vatican court
"

appUed
who

to certain dignitaries hear and investigate

AUGUSTINE (354-430)." Aurelius Augustinus, of the most influential men in Christian history born in Tagaste, Numidia, a student in the higher schools of Carthage, early found in himself the conflict between his philosophic ideals and the For nine years he passion of his sensual nature. adhered to the Manichaean sect, attracted by their intellectual freedom and the simphcity of their explanationof evil from a warfare of two principles. He was at last by their capricious tions specularepelled and reduced baffled to a skepticism which his mind divided Made his wiU. as a sensuaUty teacher of literature in Milan in 384, his wavering felt the spell of the authoritative nature church administered At this as by the great Ambrose. lations time, too, Neo-platonism known through the transof Victorinus aided the solution of his from the spiritualproblem, emancipating him materiaUstic Neotheology of the Manichaeans. platonism and Christian truth were for him blended in one. Subdued also by the new ideal of monasticism he resolved to end his irregular marital ties and hve a cehbate life, resolution which later in his a idealized as a conversion. was Confessions Baptized (387) in Milan he returned to Africa,was ordained presbyter (390) and from 395 to his death was Bishop of Hippo, he and his clergyliving a common life of voluntary poverty after the monastic ideal. In this period under the influence of Paul's Epistles rehgionbecame for him the problem of reconciliation of the sinful heart and a merciful God. Augustine is in fact the first theologian to develop Paul's conception of ethical redemption as the work of irresistible grace an transforming the will. The controversy with Pelagius (412 ff.)sharpened his formulation of this and the conflict with schismatic tative Donatists intensified his conception of the authorichurch. F. A. Christie Augustine's theology. The influence of Neoplatonism in Augustine's religiousdevelopment into his Christian was strong, and was carried over experience as a profound mysticism. God is the only Being with independent existence. AU other beings derive whatever reahty they have from God. of existence is To be deprived of this divine source evil. Evil is thus defined as privationof good. Translated into Christian doctrine,this mysti-^ of sinful cism emphasized the inherent inability
one
^ "

37

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Religions of Australia,

told some good. Goodness must be created in 6,000 aborigineshave thus far been won Catholic be maintained and by combined Protestant effort. by God, and must by God's in man. These This creative divine sustaining power aboriginalpeoples are rapidly disappearing is prevenient (i.e., it acts as A century a result of the impact of civihzation. activityis grrace,which desire for salvation)and coin man there were in Queenssome a to create operating ago 200,000 aborigines land it strengthens the good purposes alone. Henry H. Walker (i.e., created by prevenient grace). Since the work of RELIGIONS be initiated by God, divine election is OF." Of all the AUSTRALIA, grace must the real ground of individual salvation. primitive peoples the hunting tribes of Australia lated opposed all conceptions form the most considerable illustrationof an isoAugustine vigorously of salvation by human merit (see Pelagianism), homogeneous group. They were formerlyhela to be the most and thus in But primitiveof peoples and to have a inspirationto Luther, gave mental tlie channels of grace with the sacracapacity intermediate between the highest ments identifying and ministrations of the Cathohc but a closer acquaintance Church, apes and civihzed man, with them has led to a revision of this opinion. he gave a to jjowerful rehgious reinforcement Catholicism. Gerald Birney Smith Living in a dry country, dependent on game, needing their problems far to hold together,they have met AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY." than was at first supposed. more skillfully Missionary Writers the mythology of the Australians to the Anglo-Saxons, sent by Gregory the Great in on the firstarchbishopof Canterbury He became to the unsystematic character 596. are constantlyreferring of their legends. They have no fixed genealogy where he died, 604 or 605. His work, organized the co-operation of a large number of the heavens, no to secure so as no recognized history, cycle of divine legends. But all this is as we of missionarymonks, was very successful in making should now formed transconverts, and many expect from the condition under which they have temples were pagan into Christian churches. From him dates developed. They could not produce a theologyany of Roman CathoUcism the estabhshment in England than the Africans. The earlier attempts to more and the supplanting of the old British church. what the people believed about the future set down the creation of the world and life, gods, spirits, AUGUSTINIAN." out of the indeed, in teasing statements (1) Pertaining to the life resulted, the natives but the statements for the most or were theology of Augustine (q.v.). (2) An part it is to misleading. As in all primitivereligions, exponent of the doctrines of Augustine. (3) Any ceremonies of the monastic orders and congregations and and not to intellectual one living customs formulations that we must turn for an explanation of according to the so-called Augustinian rule. The their rehgious life. Each behef of has his own man principleAugustinian order is the "hermits about any St. Augustine" or "Austin friars," founded in 1256, specific problem that is presented,but of our to which Luther belonged. The barefooted to their problems have not come Augusmany attention and hence they lack our doctrinal systems. tinians are reformed a congregation of the same order. It has been said that they do not beheve in immortality, for the reason that they do not have any AURICULAR CONFESSION." A private idea of mortality. In a world where every object to respond with a definite attitude acknowledgement of sin into the ear of a priest, in nature seems toward the people in it,there is no rrieaning to a prescribedby the R.C. church, on pain of the loss belief in immortality for there is nofdeath. of the privileges of membership in the church and times Someman man

to do any

Austrahan mother is said to carry the her back tillit decomposes and then on to carry the bones in her sleepingbag. Catholic III. in 1215 decreed that every Most of the features which characterize primitive Innocent confess at least once the rehgions in general are to be found among annually. The canonical age but the most of confession is seven remarkable Australians, ing distinguishyears. characteristics of their culture are in the initiation ceremonies AUSTERITIES." Acts of rigorousself-discipline which, indeed, occur ever}'in the interests of rehgiousor moral purity such as where but are developed more where. highly here than elseThe key to the ceremonies is to be found to involve serious hardships. See Asceticism. in the fact that the control of the life of the tribe MISSIONS TO." The is in the hands of the old men. Into the company AUSTRALIA, tion populaconsists of from 50,000 to 74,000 aborigines, of the old men the boys are brought with great and mystery, and ceremonies ca. lastingfor 5,000,000whites,and ca. 32,500 orientals. The secrecy London weeks or are Missionary Society'sefforts near Sydney carefully months, and even years, with the extinction of the tribes served, ended through with, the net result of which is to gone 1861. ca. AngUcans, Moravians, Presbyterians perpetuate the exact system then prevailing. Into and Lutherans initiated and have work in Queensland; Anglithis ceremony is ever no woman cans, accidental in Northern North-West death is or the penalty for an was Territorj^ and It was into the company. entrance Australia; Presbyteriansin Victoria;two German by a woman Societies in South Australia, the New South Wales even puni-shable by death to look upon the sacred made to in New wooden a Aboriginal Mission (interdenominational) bull-roarer, paddle which was South sound by being swung at the end of a string. The Wales; the Anglicans in the Torres Straits tribes ceremonies the different Austrahan made a population (Moalsland Mission,1907) among among not uniform but in all of them the initiate is given and South Sea Islanders, the latter are up of aborigines ous lessons and is treated to very strenutransplanted thither from Austraha. Anghcans, very solemn times and Wesleyans carry on work among rites. Sometimes out, somea tooth is knocked Presbyterians other ceremonial the Chinese Cathohcs there is circumcision or immigrants. The Roman have missions in West and North-West Austraha. operations. surgical Austrahan Missions combine The result of such a system is not difficultto see. evangelism with industrial training. The in the hands of one With the power entirely has aided group government of public in the support of schools and the estabhshment of and with an elaborate and effective method reservations. Natives are encouraged to own it is possibleto have a society that is education their be entirely ever static. No All almost own society can land, and are instructed as to its use.
was

Christian

burial.

Auricular

confession

first

an

proposed in lieu of public confession by Leo I. Lateran Council Fourth under (440-461). The

dead

baby

Authority but the Australian stable,


to it.

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION
the
a

AND

ETHICS

38

approached

very

closely

Holy Spiritto interpretscripturearight. As

An
out

feature of the lifehas been pointed interesting A hunting people lives by means by Dewey.

not and and of stimulations excitements has of drudgery. Thus learned to endure the monotony it arises that the people who have best succeeded in stabiUzing their social structure are most tolerant of new inventions in the form of the ritual of control. Novelty in the initiation is at a premium and nmch ingenuity is expended in the embellishment of the ceremonies. there is another Besides the initiation ceremony, that is noteworthy, feature of Australian religion ties Some authorinamely the development of totemism. of home consider that Austraha is the original this be true or not, the totemism, but whether ceremonies which are engaged in for the multiplication of the totem elaborate than elsewhere. more are These ceremonies include dances and, unhke the in by the women. initiations, they are participated Where the totem is an animal the magical increase in the supply of the animals is obtained by moulding a heap of sand into the form of the animal and various parts are thrown into the air by the participants. is more celebration of the fish totem The other parts of the and compUcated. The arms of the clan are pierced body of one of the members with bone daggers after which he descends into the water, his blood mingling with the fish and causing abundant an supply. Grass seeds scattered into the same the air serve for the grass totem. purpose Besides the usual dances which are common to the Australians have an primitivepeople in general, institutional dance called Corroboree, which may be a very solemn and serious ceremony, connected with for commemorative propitiatory rites or At times the women joinin these dances purposes. and occasionally they are characterized by license. Ellsworth Faris AUTHORITY." The right to declare what is obUgatory in beUef and practice and to enforce obedience to such declarations. In a looser sense, the abihty of a person to give expert judgment: the authority of a historian or a scientist in a as field where he has special knowledge. In the realm of rehgion,God, as creator of the has authority to declare what is world and of men rightand to enforce obedience to his decrees. Any law or utterance which can be proved to come from God is therefore authoritative. Different theories of authorityarise from different conceptionsof the agenciesthrough which God speaks. 1. The authority of inspiredscriptures. Oracles and words of inspiredprophets are regarded as of divine origin. In the more utterances highly collected in are organizedrehgionssuch utterances the form of sacred scriptures which the final are of appeal. This is pre-eminently true of court and Mohammedanism, where Judaism, Christianity, the authorityof scripture is based on a doctrine of
"

of fact the creeds and confessions of the branches of Protestantism guide the interpretation of scripture to a large extent, and in of church discipHnethese are authoritative. cases Historical critical study of the biblical writings introduces radical modifications in the traditional theories of inspiration and inevitably affects the notion of authority. See Biblical Criticism. 2. The authority rational principles. of a priori There are certain fundamental principles axioms or to which all thinkingmust conform. Mathematical relations and logical not to be evaded. are principles The authority of such fundamental ideas has been supported by appeal to a doctrine of innate ideas, mind. implanted in the human Kant's divinely critical philosophy made certain a prioriprinciples and he attempted to expound ethics regulative, and religion in terms of conformity to the dictates of these a priori categories. A rehgious philosophy may be organized on the basis of such rational principles.Confucius of living ance in accordemphasized the necessity (q.v.) with the rational order of "heaven." cism Stoi(q.v.) urged a life of rational unity with the divine order in the cosmos. Deism (q.v.) attempted to reduce rehgion to certain universal rational doctrines which all men must accept just because they are rational. A criticalexamination of the processes of reasoning reveals the weakness of too extensive an appeal to a priori convictions formed principles.Our are of experienceto so great an by the circumstances extent, that it has been found necessary to test ideas by critical examination rather than by reference to an underived a prioriauthority. Modern and more thinkingis thus more appealingto experimental testing rather than to "authoritative"
matter various
"

dogmas. 3. Authority in sponding political government. Corredoctrine of authoritycomto the religious ing from divine pronouncements is the theory of the "divine right" of kings. Hammurabi (q.v.) is pictured as receivinghis code of laws directly from the hands of the god Shamash. The emperor of Japan is the "Son of Heaven." Mediaeval that rulers politicaltheory generally assumed Protests were divinely commissioned. against poUticalarbitrariness appealed to certain divinely
"

specific inspiration.
The Roman Catholic church tative adds to the authori-

willed functions which the ruler was to fulfil. If he failed to fulfilthem, he forfeited the authoritj^ which belonged to these functions. The tion Declaraof Independence vindicates the revolt of the American colonies against England by an appeal and of Nature's God" to "the laws of Nature (see Law In modern of Nature). democracy poUtical authority is regarded as power delegated by the people to elected agents to be exercised for the common good; but the constant appeal to principles indicates that real authorityis conof justice ceived in something more stable than as consisting the will of an accidental majority. See Law cal; PolitiGerald Birney Justice. Smith

the dogma of the authoritative scriptures church. AUTOCEPHALI." Of According to this doctrine Christ officially a name self-headship; organized his church, estabhshing the apostlesas apphed to bishops in early Christian times who authoritative interpreters of Christian truth. recognizedno ecclesiastical superior. The bishops, of the apostles, continue as successors their authority,and according to the decision of AUTO DA FE." Portuguese for "Act of the the Vatican Council Faith." The of the ceremony in which cessor name (1870) the pope as the sucof Peter has authority to speak ex cathedra of the Inquisition the sentences in Spain against the mouthpiece of the church. as Cathohcism heretics were pubhcly announced, and the condemned insists that authoritative executed by secular authority. an were scripture requires persons authoritative interpreter in order to avoid error, an the church and AUTOMATISM." provides this. Protestantism (1) In ethics, the theory that man and the acts involuntarily, that therefore rejectedthe authority of the church, asserting his behavior is non-moral. abihty of every individual under the guidance of (2) In psychology,

39

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Aztecs,Religion of

action that is mentally determined where the subject is not conscious of the mental process. AUTONOMY.
"

Freedom

of action from external

control;a term employed by earlywriters for political but from the 17th. century applied also liberty, and reUgion. Kant AVIGNON." used the word to morals to City in the department of Vauthe facultyof the will to determine its own cluse,France, the residence of seven 1309mean popes, moral by the objects willed. laws, uninfluenced 1377, and of two anti-popes, 1378-1408; remained is commonly employed in opposition to The term as papal property until the French Revolution, 1791. heteronomy or subjectionto external authority.
AUXILIARY is appointed as than where more BISHOP." A R.C. bishop who auxiliaryto the diocesan in cases one bishop is required. AXIOM. (1) In logic and mathematics, a the propositionaccepted as self-evident without necessity of demonstration, and hence available for further deductions. (2) In epistemology, a that is regarded as necessary propositionor principle The truth, immediately known. going thoroughempiricist in epistemology is opposed to
"

is endowed with personal immortaUty; that a few choice souls enjoy fellowshipwith the Universal the gift of prophecy; and that and, in consequence, the world of ideas,souls,physicalforce,and corporeal emanations matter from God. are

figureof Buddhism.

An important divine the merciful savior of the associated with Amitabha present age he is closely he is generallygiven (q.v.). Among bodhisattvas in supreme rank as the active presence of the Buddha is the ruler of the western this world while Amitabha Paradise. As
"

AVALOKITESVARA."

regarding any
revival of the

truth

as

axiomatic.

THE GREAT." An American AWAKENING, developing in the third and fourth decades 18th. century, promoted by Jonathan Immoderate AVARICE. passionfor the tion Whitefield,and acquisi- Edwards, the Tennent brothers, and See Virtues and hoarding of wealth. others, in which thousands professed conversion, much emotionalism Vices. was manifested, the national consciousness stimulated, the moral tone of the A Hindu word for divine incarnaAVATAR. tion: nation uplifted, and theological controversy provoked. usually used to describe the coming of the
"

supreme

God

of the world AVE

in animal or human form in each and for the world's salvation.

age

AWE.
or

"

of feeling

reverence

actual involving

Lat. Hail Mary; (1) A salutaMARIA." tion the Virgin Mary founded Luke on 1:28, authorized expanded into a formal prayer officially by Pius v., 1568. (2) The appointed time for the when the Ave bell is rung, of the Ave Maria use the Aves (3) The rosary beads used to enumerate recited. as
to

potential dread induced by some object or Awe is an event suggesting sublime mystery. ness aspect of religious experiencedue to the consciousof contact with the divine.

RELIGION OF." At the time of AZTECS, the Spanish conquest of Mexico the rulingpeopleof the country were Tenochthe Aztec, whose capital, the site of the present Mexico was on titlan, City. The AVERROES." The Aztec were last of the great Arabic an imperialpeople,holding under learned their sway matics, the greater portion of the population of in mathephilosophers,1126-1198, was They had occupied this position law, medicine, philosophy and theology. central Mexico. brief time, having emerged from and but a relatively eminent as an advocate of Greek science, He was advanced Aristotle. commentator on Through Moses as a savagery, under the tutelageof the more exerted on Christian than two his influence was Maimonides peoples whom they superseded,not more of the Spaniards. or three centuries before the advent thought and he may be said to h ave introduced the of the Middle It is this fact of a relatively schoolmen recent acculturation Christian Ages to the which alone can which so characterized the theology for the paradoxicalAztec account AristoteUanism in its combination of savagery and refinement. Philosophy. of the period. See Arabic religion, of the most hideous Externally it is one collection of texts AVESTA. A containing religious developments of mankind, having been attended sacrifice upon sacred Uterature of the Zoroastrians. the preserved a scale probably by human elsewhere of the language and religion never It is the oldest memorial equalled and in forms horribly cruel by ceremonial branch of the Indo-Europeans. of the Iranian cannibalism,and by a monstrousness of imagery perhaps surpassingall others. Only a fragment has been preserved. The rest and and rituals as preserved in its prayers Internally, perished during the Greek, Mohammedan, which included is to us, in not a few of its ceremonies, Mongol invasions of Persia. Zoroastrianism the Parsis of India. best preservedtoday among baptism,confession and penance, and a conception The most (with of the devotional life,Aztec religion compares important texts are the Yasna of paganism texts grouped forms other its appendix the Vispered), liturgical favorably with most of and far surpasses The only explanation around the Gathas "hymns" (the oldest and most many. ceremonial this situation is that the more refined phases of sacred texts) ; the Vendidad, a priestly the religion derived from peoples of a finer code like Leviticus; the Yashts, hymns of praise were and more astrianism. and such peoples, already mature to the good spirits (in a later dialect). See Zoroculture, and in Yucatan neighboring decadent, dwelt regionsat the time of the discovery. The Aztec pantheon was AVICENNA motley, a polytheistic (980-1037)."An Arabian physician the author of and philosopher, versed in sciences, organized, however, accordingto a trulyremarkable resembles the which were calendric scheme which in many a Canon ways works, foremost among many ployed medical science, two commentaries on Aristotle, astrology of the Old World and Uke this was emon Aztec deities of divination. and a couple of encyclopedias. In his physical for purposes oriented and grouped with and of them most are psychologicalideas, there are evidences of lieved reference to this cosmico-temporalcycleof stations: beAristotehan He and Neoplatonic influence. over of the active and the maize-god,or lord of food and life, presiding that through the contact the noon hour, the death god over the midnight, passive inteUect the mind acquiredideas; that it
"

Ba

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

40

and the hours of dawn under Xiuhtecutli, and eve lord of fire, symbolizing the hearth of the world. Various other deities hold the intermediate positions, the exact number of which is uncertain, although there appear to have been in the dominant system twelve lords of the day and of the upper world, and nine of the night and of the lower world. The great gods of Aztec cult include a triad of high deities along with a secondary group of only Huitziloless importance. The tribal deity was state, pochtli,probably brought from the savage and known primarily as a war-god. It was to this sacrifices human deity that the most numerous ing of war-captiveswere made. Tezcatlipoca,"SmokMirror" (probably the sky),was the supreme he is identified with deity in a cosmic sense: and with the night-winds, phases of sun and moon, the quarter^ of heaven. The greater portionof

addressed to this god, are prayers Lord very good, very "invisible, impalpable compassionate, very noble, very precious." Quetzalcoatl is the third great deity, certainlya and also cosmical in character. pre-Aztec divinity, It is this deity who was the center of the remarkable
....

the finer Aztec

tales of a bearded white man to teach come law of life,persecuted, departing over the waters, but promising to return with a new reign of peace and purity. Tlaloc the rain-god and Chalchiuhtlicue the goddess of flowing waters are also of great cult importance; Xipe Totec, god of his vegetation was worshiped with frightful rites, victims beingflayedalive; but the most horrible the skeleton god figureof all was Mictlantecutli, of death, whose grim visage seems everywhere to have haunted the imaginations of the Aztec race. See Mexico, Religions H. B. Alexander of. the

B
head and with human ^The bird-like figure which symbolized for ancient Egypt the revivified soul or intelligence of the dead person. BA.
"

arms

BAAL,
word

common

having

"lord." of the deity was general. very able been innumerIn Canaan there seem to have Baalim whose worship, (pi.), gods of fertiUty, like that of their female counterparts, the Ashtacharacterized roth (Ishtars), was by the grossest sensualityand licentiousness. The Hebrew ets prophwere unsparing in their denunciation of these flourished on cults which the "high places" and "under every green tree." Such practices, common the world over, were to primitivereligion meant to abundant increase of field and garden as secure well as of flock and herd. of the local How many of personal names baals attained to the dignity we tribal or but even after they became cannot tell, city gods they continued to be addressed as Baal. So Melkart of Tyre remained the Tyrian Baal; the to us goddess of Byblos is known only as the baalat (fem.)Gubla and the Old Testament ets prophfound it exceedinglydifficult to keep the Israelites from applying this epithetto Yahweh. Both the Hittites and the Phoenicians worshiped baals of the skies. In Babylonia and a baal or addressed as bel,but AssjTia all of the gods were the bel par very early Enlil of Nippur became excellence. Later Marduk of Babylon attained the "elder known to this dignity and Enlil was as bel." D. D. Luckenbill BAALZEBUB." -See Beelzebub. See Behaism.

Different spellingsof a BEL. all of the Semitic dialects and of "possessor" or the general meaning title of the word as epithet The usage or

BEEL,

"

to

planati
and the BAETYLS.
"

in the temperaments of certain reactions following experiences of and temptation. distress, Sacred
stones
or

people doubt,

pillars.

BAHAISM."

See Behaism.

BAHYA BEN A Jewish philosopher JOSEPH." who flourished in Spain the firsthalf of the eleventh Halebabot" century. He was the author of "Hobot in (Duties of the Heart) a system of Jewish ethics, he moral which emphasized the spiritual and the legaland formal. cerity, Sinover aspects of religion humility; and repentance are presented as essential virtues; and the love of God the most as F. Reinhart the highest aim in life. Harold BAIUS (1513-1589). (OR DE BAY), MICHAEL versity Belgian R.C. theologian; chancellor of the Uniof Louvain, and leader of the anti-scholastic Baius is regarded as reaction of the 16th. century. condemned of Jansen, and was by a precursor Pius V. and Gregory XIII. for his ultra-Augustinian
"

tendencies. OR BALDAQUIN." (1) A stone, the high elevated over metal canopy, altar in largerR.C. churches,and usuallysupported but sometimes supported by chains. The by pillars, is from the Itahan baldacchino, the ItaUan name for Bagdad where the cloth of the canopy was name of See Ciborium. made. (2) Also the canopy preciouscloth carried in processionover the euchaBALDACHIN
or

wooden,

rist or

dignitary.
"

BAB, BABI, BABISM."


BABYLONIAN See Assyrian BACKSLIDING."

A god of lightand moral purity in BALDER. Norse mythology. His death through the trickery of Loki IS at once a symbol of the fading sumrner of the approaching beauty and lightand an omen of the world and the gods. doom HOSEA (1771-1852)." One of the BALLOU, in America, and the founders of UniversaUsm (q.v.) several of its tenets; founded lucid advocate most UniversaMst extensively in magazines, and wrote defense of its doctrines; opposed Calvinistic and

"

and

AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION. Babylonian Religion. The reversion


to wrong
or

sinful habits and


or

version, practisesafter reformation, conprofessionof reUgion. See Apostasy.

Calvinistic-Arminian cerned concontroversy was with the possibihtyof a permanent apostasy after conversion, the Calvinists on the ground of predestination supporting the negative view, while the Arminians declared that the freedom of the human will was sliding impaired by such a denial. Backhas led return to evil ways as a temporary Protestants to preach the need of renewal and many Modern sanctitication. psychologistsfind an exThe

views. legalistic
of Councils OF." COUNCILS BALTIMORE, the R.C. church in the U.S.A.,which have dealt with of doctrine, education, property, law, matters and and journals, discipline, sacraments, books convened societies. Plenary councils have secret There have also been ten in 1852, 1866, and 1884. councils provincial from

1829-1869.

41

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Baptism, Ethnic

male infant.) An artistic (Italian, the infant Jesus; especially figurerepresenting the doll-like image used in certain R.C. churches in connection of the with the liturgyand symboUsm Christmas to feast,and exposed from Christmas BAMBINO.
"

is in a crib or manger. The best known the Santissimo of the church of Santa Bambino Maria in Ara Coeli, Rome, to which miraculous powers are ascribed.

Epiphany

in the word of institution, water but from the Spirit in the adult conditioned by faith. In infants the Holy Spirit, by a mysterious working, excites faith that they truly beheve. All infants within the so church are saved, even if unbaptized; concerning those outside of the church is permitted to one

cherish hope.
6.

Reformed doctrine.

"

Baptism, conditioned

on

See Blessing to harm. power Cursing. official edict imposing AND (2) An certain duties,such as military gion. service,on a reofficial declaration (3) An by the R.C. church excludingoffenders from the privileges of the sacrament.
_

BAN. (1) A have superhuman


"

curse

or

denunciation

supposedto

is a sign and seal of the covenant of grace, faith, that is, of regeneration, and newness forgiveness, of fife. The mode, whether immersion,affusion, is indifferent. Baptism is not, however, or sprinkhng,
to salvation;for the non-elect it has necessary recent view disregards significance, yet the more the questionof election. Infant children of parents, the one or both of which are on professing Christians, of grace and of covenant ground of the Abrahamic the family as a rehgiousunit,have a right to baptism. It is an initiatory rite to church membership. Consecration of infants by baptism receives special No education. emphasis in relation to religious that an inner change is produced claim is advanced in any case it is not to be by this ceremony;
no

7. Anglican doctrine. ^Through baptism the sin removed, of original soul is regenerated, the guilt of eternal BANNS OR and the Holy Spiritbestowed. A germ A publication tion BANS." of intenfife is implanted in infants which when made ecclesiastically. to marry, they may later especially such an announceThe R.C. church stilldemands ment by their free will either developor neglect. This embraces and it is customary in the evangelical churches 8. Doctrine of Baptistchurches. Christian experience as three points: (1) personal of Great Britain and Germany, but is not a requirement of baptism; (2)immersion; essential prerequisite for a legalmarriage in Great Britain. an of infant baptism on the ground that it (3)rejection lacks a sure BANTU. See Africa, Religions tive apostolicsanction, that the rite is of; Primithat faith, Religions. meaningless except as a sign of personal to baptize in hope of later faith issues in frequent CHRISTIAN." A sacramental appliBAPTISM, cation disappointment, and that it introduces into the church of water to a person, whether by immersion, an incongruous, unregenerate element. of Christ, Others who hold this position are or Disciples affusion, sprinkhng. sion, a 1. In primitive (qq.v.). This was Dunkards, and Mennonites Christianity.Baptism, by immercharacteristic position of the Anabaptists. in the name in accordof Christ,was ance at first, 9. Doctrine of the Societyof Friends {Quakers). with earUer Jewish rites and the baptism of Baptism of which that of John, appointed only for a John, a symbol of purification. Later, for Paul wherein by a is wholly spiritual, and others it took on sacramental or a mystical time, was a figure, sin and rises vital union with Christ one puts away character,so that whereas it had been simply a to newness of life. Infant baptism is in no it was sense now symbol of changed inward disposition, binding,since it is to be referred to neither precept regarded as expressing the believer's union with but only to human nor Christ in his burial and resurrection. practiceof the scriptures tradition. C. A. Beckwith 2. Patristic theory. TertuUian attributed to the water of baptism a magical virtue derived from ETHNIC" There are two phasesof the presence of the Holy Spirit.Except for martyrs, BAPTISM, condition of salvation; the rite baptism in infancy and the baptisni of an baptism became indispensable adults which admitted if its benefits were to full social and religious lost,it could not be the usual fluid is water; hence arose privileges.In both cases repeated, a tendency to postpone the The rite of infant baptism,which had though blood, wine, oil,and honey are sometimes ceremony. form varies. Sprinkling,washing, used. The been advocated by Irenaeus but contested by Terthrice immersion referred by Origen to apostoHcusage. or (Thibet) pouring, immersion tulUan, was all be found. is usually The ceremony public Augustine prescribedinfant baptism on the ground may of kin and is performed by the father or one near that it removed sin,the condition without original the Teutons which infants could not be saved, and this theory as commonly, by a among or, more determined the practise of the church. priest(India,Iran, America, China, Japan, Celts, of infant baptism the 3. Scholastic and later teaching. Thomas Thibet, etc.). In the case Aquinas In its earliest is usually given at this time. iaught that baptism removes from adults original name the the rite was and actual sin,from infants only original use sin,that probably intended to remove contagion of the strange potenciesconnected with is,guiltbut not concupiscence. The Council of birth and to guard the child from dangers of the Trent, relying upon Augustine and Aquinas, threatened its life. It came world which demon affirmed that the effects of baptism are (1) release to frorn actual and original sin together with temporal also,by the addition of the naming ceremony, of the child, of the legitimacy include the recognition punishment due to sin; (2)impressing an indeUble its receptioninto the clan,its relation to the ancestral ship mark; (3) adoption as sons of God and memberto the protection of the line and admission in the church. of the member child became life. The a 4. The Eastern church. This church, requiring group
"
" " "

KRISHNA MOHUN BANNERJEA, (1813ISSS). Indian Christian leader and scholar,born tianity, a Hindu, a Brahmin by caste; converted to Chris1832; ordained as an AngHcan clergyman, in Sanskrit and 1839; became a recognizedauthority Hindu philosophy; presidentof the faculty of Arts, of Calcutta,1867-9. University
"

repeated.

"

"

"

"

"

threefold immersion, holds that hy baptism all sin is removed; without baptism children are not saved. 5. Lutheran of baptism, doctrine. The efficacy which confers forgiveness and grace, is not from the
a
"

kinship group.
either forms adult ceremonies are twofold, of societyor, into the responsibilities to peculiar of special in the case societies, religious rehgiousstatus or privileges.To the first class The

of admission

Baptism for the Dead

A DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

42

belong the worldwide ceremonies of initiation at adolescence when by social rites the youth is said to be "born or "twice-born,"as anew," "reborn," in Australia, Mexico, India, Iran. To the second ceremonies known class belong the group of religious Orphic, Great Mother, as the Mysteries (Eleusinian, Mithraic) where the idea of release from moral
evil was life and

involved and the candidate secured a new as gave such union with the Savior God the usual of immortal life. Water was assurance medium, though the cult of the Great Mother, of blood in the taurobohum use Cybele, made rites and in these (q.v.). In both the initiatory
it was

alone is baptism. They the civil war and CromwelHan time (1641-59). A strong connectional zation organiestablished with associations, was general general superintendency.After assembly, and the persecutionsunder Charles II. their churches wrecked by controversy and excessive disciphne were and of the survivors most became Unitarian. Under the influence of the evangeUcal revival a the remnant, reinforced by new converts, formed Connection New of General Baptists (1770) which engaged successfullyin all kinds of evangelical work until the amalgamation with Particular Baptists

(1640-41) that immersion

multiphed during

ceremonies higherreligious the candidate a new name. Common elements run (1) the removal

customary

to

give

(1891).
a Puritan congregationthat returned from Zeland (1616)several groups of convinced anti-pedobaptists

From

opment, through the whole develof a dangerous contagion (tabu, uncleanness, evil); (2) the admission to social status; (3) the acquiring of new powers. themselves side by maintain Magical elements side with the evolvingsocial values.

peaceably withdrew (1633 onward) until Calvinistic Baptistchurches had been formed in London. These Particular Baptists also prosperedduring the revolutionary period (1641of educated 60). A considerable number ministers Hatdon adopted their views and many held high members A. Eustace Like the General Baptists positionsin the army. tian An early ChrisDEAD." THE FOR BAPTISM of baptizinganother as the tive representa- they suffered severely under Charles I. Reacting custom and Socianism against Arminianism of them many of a candidate for baptism who had died before became hyper-Calvinistic and averse to evangeUsm. the orthodox Among receiving the ordinance. Though they did not co-operate in the evangehcal but heretical Christians it was early discontinued, revival of the eighteenthcentury, men like Ryland, tained mainand Montanists such the Marcionites as became imbued Fuller, Carey and HaU with its it. and able to liftthe denomination were spirit to a endeavor. high plane of missionary After years of VOW." A promise made BAPTISMAL by a partialco-operation Particular and General Baptists candidate about to receive baptism. The practise united in 1891. have a Enghsh Baptists now 2d. century, reference being dates back to the membership of about 500,000 and well equipped It is found in TertuUian, De Corona, chap. Ill; with ministers and institutions are contending The form is a renvmcistill a part of the R.C. ritual. nobly for civil and religious hberty and world wide ation of Satan, his works and his pomps. evangelization. The firstBaptist church in America founded was of BAPTISTERY." A a building or portion by Roger Wilhams, an educated Enghsh Separatist, the church, or a reservoir in the church set apart for in Massachusetts who, after a stormy career (1631administration of baptism. In the early church banished. ment 36), was Having established a settlethe immersion and baptistery was customary of the basis on on Narragansett Bay liberty included the basin and a room for the neophytes. of conscience he introduced behevers' baptism usually independently (1638) and organized a church. as Baptisteries, separate buildings, are tions of circular or polygonal form, containingthe addiHe became convinced that the ordinances soon of dressingrooms and a catechumen's room, had been lost in the great apostasy and could be is pracimmersion and sometimes Where a choir. tised restored only by special divine intervention. withstanding Notis a reservoir within the to-day the baptistery the defection of their leader the church; where baptism is by sprinklingthe place church persisted in a feeble way, but divided on the font. of the baptistery is taken by the baptismal question of the layingon of hands, those insisting it holdingalso to general redemption. Another upon BAPTISTS. characterized by A denomination founded church was at Newport (1641"44) insistence on behevers' baptism, democracy, liberty under John Clarke, an educated Enghshman, as of conscience,rejectionof infant baptism and all muiister. Calvinistic Baptistchurches were formed sacramentaUsm, and an effort to reproduce apostoUc in Massachusetts, Maine, Pennsylvania and South Carolina Christianity. (1662-83) with much oppositionfrom medieval In their main features they have ancient, the authorities; but by 1741 most of these had and John become ^teenth divided and feeble. The churches of the century antecedents. the Smyth, Cambridge Fellow, gathered a Separatist Philadelphia Association (1707 onward) were congregationat Gainsborough (1606). Persecution exception. Drawing recruits from New England drove them to Amsterdam and Wales its churches increased, and by missionary (1608). In 1609, after effort exerted an influence in the middle and southern controversy with the ministers of the older English church colonies. Rhode founded Island College was there,Smyth and his associates disowned and fostered by this body. The General Baptists their previous church estate, baptism and ordination, and behevers introduced as baptism anew prosperedin Rhode Island and Connecticut. and reorganized with Smyth as pastor. Smyth Baptists held aloof from the Great Awakening, afterward repudiated the transaction and was of converted but thousands soon Congregationahsts excommimicated turned Baptist and these Separate Baptistswon with the majority by Helwys, the and adhered to South. In Virginia, Murton Those who others. Regular and Separate Baptists, Helwys returned to England (1612) and founded having co-operated in a successful struggle for in entry. churches in London, Tiverton,Sahsbury and Cov1785. Widespread rehgious liberty, united Smyth and his associates sought fellowship revivals after the Revolution brought multitudes with the Mennonites. into their ranks. Both Rehgious enthusiasm and dearth parties had become by 1644
seven
^
"

Arminian

and

some

of the

former,

became

the first EngUsh advocates They were of liberty of conscience. Along with the Calvinistic anti-pedobaptists convinced they became

ministers caused hundreds of illiterates tarian. of educated Unito enter the ministryand a widespread aversion to form of organeducated ministers and to every ized work resulted. A few mindenominational

43

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Banutbite

churches in northern isters and southern and cities had supported Carey's work in India and when they learned that Judson and Rice on their had to India as Congregational missionaries way become to undertake Baptists (1812) were willing Rice returned their support. successful and was in organizinga number of local missionary societies and at last in securing a national Baptistconvention decided to meet (1814) which trienniaUy and State Board. Conventions were appointed a formed by friends of missions and education. institutions were founded Educational in the various Home Mission and Publication states. Societies grew of the Triennial Convention. out estabhshed in different Theological Seminaries were felt. parts of the country as the need became Baptists have Missionarjr rapidly increased in numbers, intelhgence,and equipment. They are harmonious themselves and becoming more among less polemical in relation to other evangelical Christians. There are now about 6,000,000 Baptists in America and about 7,000,000 in the world manifest their fellowship who by co-operating in the Baptist World Alliance. In the United States,all but about 350,000 of than 7,500,000Baptists are in the organithe more zations known the Northern as Baptist Convention (1,285,416), the Southern Baptist Convention and the Colored (3,113,355), Baptist organizations distinct bodies with (2,735,007). Other statistics of 1919 are: the Free Baptists(ca.65,000, vention Arminian, united with the Northern Baptist Conin the 2d. decade of the 20th. century); Free-Will Baptists (54,833, Arminian, practicing and anointing of the sick with oil); feet-washing General Baptists(33,466 Arminian); Old Two-SeedPredesiinarian in-the-SpiritBaptists (387,holding to the specific election of the seed of God to salvation and the seed of Satan to reprobation); Primitive (or "Hardshell") Baptists(80,311Hyper-

of the Sunday school have been its The "Philathea" movement (for women) was organized 1895 in the same church. "Philathea" is a Greek word, meaning "lovers of truth." Its general aim and methods the are those of the Baraca same as classes. Classes found in all organized on these principles are now Christianized countries,and are knit together in enthusiastic world wide Baraca-Philathea an Union of nearly one million members. Ira M. Price chief features. BARAITA
"

sessions regular

(aramaic: outside; plural:Baraitot). porated teachingof the Tannaim (seeTanna) not incorin the collection of the Mishna (q.v.).
See Mana.

BARAKA."

BARD. A class of poet-minstrelin the early Celtic world who combined the offices of singer, custodian of legal genealogist,historian, and have been closely knowledge. They may allied to the druids. Their satires were greatlyfeared since accredited with the power of killing they were by of such chanted spells. means
"

BARDESANES (154-222)." Gnostic preacher and writer;Persian by birth ; Edessa was the center of his labors. He taught a mixture of Chaldean and other elements. mythology, docetic Christology He has the credit of winning Edessa to Christianity. BARLAAM Greek and

jo ASAPH
romance

(OR JOSAPHAT).
of the seventh
or

"

reUgious

An eighth century, based on the story of Buddah. Indian prince named Joasaph is brought up in ignorance of all human at length suffering. When he perceivesit, he despairs, but is converted by an old monk named Barlaam. A
court

'

debate

on

calvinistic) {21,521)] SeparateBap; RegularBaptists tists (4,254)an organizationformed as a result of the Whitefield revival) ; Seventh Day Baptists(8,475, observing Saturday as the Sabbath) ; Six Principle Baptists(ca.400),holding as fundamentals ance, repentfaith, baptism,layingon of hands, resurrection of the body, eternal and United Baptists life), union in the South of "Old Lights" and a (22,097, "New A. H. Newman Lights").
The name (BAR-KOKHBA)." bar Coleba who Messiah as a acknowledged by many Jews, including Akiba ben Joseph, led the Jewish revolt against the Romans in 132 A.D. and for three years defied the power of Rome. His defeat was the occasion for the final and ruthless destruction of Jerusalem. of the commandment," the commandment to whom one i.e., the Jewish the term applies) apphed to boy of thirteen years of age, designating him as having reached the age of moral responsibility. On the first Sabbath after the thirteenth birthday,the bar mitzvah is called up to the Law, by which act, he formally for his own acts. accepts responsibility This occasion is observed as one of festivity by the family and the community. Harold F. Reinhart
"

Christianity follows,in which the representative of Christianity triumphs, appropriating for his the substance of the second-century argument
Apology of Aristides. This romance was very popular in the Middle Ages, and was translated into allthe languages of the west.
Edgar BARNABAS.
gave

J. Goodspeed

The surname to Joses,the Levite from


"

BAR-COCHBA given to Simon

in the New Testament He was referred era. the prophet, teacher (Acts 13:1) and apostle (Acts 14:14). He is traditionally reported to have founded the churches in Cyprus and in Milan. His of Hebrews and the Epistle authorship (Tertullian) of Barnabas is no longer accepted. He is said to have suffered martyrdom in Cyprus.
to
as

who Paul

occupied a

the apostles Cyprus (Acts 4:23) prominent place as a co-worker with

which

BAR

MITZVAH."

(Hebrew, "son

EPISTLE OF." An epistle in chapters, written in the first quarter of the 2nd. century by an Alexandrian. In Alexandria it was accepted as from the famous Barnabas, but it is at present thought to be anonymous. Its Sinaiticus shows that it was place in the Codex received as a sacred book by the ancient church in the East, but it was never so regarded in the West. It is counted among the ApostolicFathers. 21 GOSPEL OF." An apocryphal ten writof the Middle Ages (13th.-16th. century), in Itahan from a Mohammedan point of view, quite lacking in historic sense.

BARNABAS,

BARNABAS,

work

BIBLE CLASSES." modification of the word "Beracah," It was meaning "blessing" in II Chron. 20:26, firstgiven as a name Oct. 20, to a Bible class of men, Efficient class organiza1890, in Syracuse, N.Y. tion, adaptation of business principles to the Christian life and the study of the Bible at the "Baraca" is
a

BARACA-PHILATHEA

BARNABITE." A R.C. minor rehgious order called Clerks founded in Milan in 1530 originally Regular of the Congregation of St. Paul, but named of St. Barnabas Barbarites from the monastery given to them in 1538.

Barnes, Albert

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

44

ALBERT BARNES, (1798-1870)." American noted Presbyterian minister and author, especially for his commentaries which were of a popular type and had
an

had already elected. The ultimate effect of the strugglewas favorable to the papacy. Shailer Mathews BASIL THE GREAT (ca.330-379)."Bishop of Caesarea and one of "the Three Cappadocians," elder brother of Gregory of Nyssa. He collaborated with Gregory of Nazianzus in preparing a compilation of Origen's works, the Philocalia. Basil was defender of orthodoxy against Arianism. a zealous He advocated the ascetic ideal, and attained renown author. as a Cappadocian See preacher and Theology. BASILIANS. Monks or nuns observing the rule of Basil the Great. exclusive His rule became in the East so "Basilian" is virtually equivalentto a Greek Catholic monk, though a community was organized in France in the 19th. century and has a branch in Toronto, Canada.
"

extensive

sale.

CAESAR BARONIUS, (1538-1607)." Italian noted for the ecclesiastical history which cardinal, sincere he produced in 12 volumes which a was the from attempt to write history scientifically R.C. point of view. GEORGE BARROW, (1803-1881)." English traveller and author. He served the British and Foreign Bible Society in Russia and in Spain, and noted for his facility in acquiring languages was and his knowledge of the gypsies. HENRY (1847-1902)." BARROWS, JOHN ment American Congregationalist;organized the Parliaof of Religions in Chicago, 1893; president Oberlin College, 1899-1902; first lecturer in the Orient in the Barrows Lectureshipof the University of Chicago. of rods used in The small bundle of the Parsee sacred ceremonies rods may reUgion. represent the twigs of the sacred plant which were spread as an altar for the sacrificial offerings in ancient times. BARSOM. connection
"

with These

BASILICA. (1)In Athens a porticoin which the archon basileus (whence the name) presided. (2) A Roman hall of justiceof rectangularform divided into aisles and nave, and later adopted as by pillars of early church architecture. a form (3) A church in the form of the old basilica, to or cathedral or one which the Pope has given the name. (4) A legal code, code, beinga Greek adaptation of the Roman issued by Basil the Macedonean in 878, and in revision in 885.
"

BARTHOLOMEW." of

One

of the twelve

apostles
BASILIDES. A Gnostic teacher and writer, who lived in the reign of Hadrian (117-138) at Alexandria. is mentioned He in the writings of of Alexandria and Hippolytus. Irenaeus, Clement couched in His statement of the problem of evil was the concepts of Persian duaUsm. The solution is Gnosticism (q.v.).
"

Jesus, according to the Synoptic Usts. It is commonly supposed that he is to be identifiedwith Bartholomew Nathaniel, the name being a patronymic, that his name would be Nathaniel, son so

.of Tholomew. BARTHOLOMEW'S OF ST. DAY, MASSACRE On Aug. 24, 1572, St. Bartholomew's Day, was of Huguenots in France begun the great massacre of Catherine de Medici, queen at the instigation Mother of Charles IX. First Coligny (q.v.) was slain at his home, and then the massacre spread, the estimated number of the slain being from 10,000
"

BASIN. A vessel, with ordinarily of metal, used in the Jewish made early churches for ablutions.
"

and

sides, flaring and in ritual,

to

100,000.
"

BARUCH. Hebrew meaning (1) A name, of an associate of Jeremiah. "blessed," the name of an apocrjrphal (2) The name book, found in the the canonicity LXX, Vulgate, and Douai versions, of which is not accepted by Protestants. It is torian hisBRUNO BAUER, (1809-1882)." German variouslydated from the 3rd. to the 1st. centuries, and theologian. He It is composed of poorly integratedparts and B.C. taught in Berlin and dox evidence shows of plurality of authorship. See Bonn, 1834-1842, beginning his work as an orthoApoceypha. Hegelian. But his critical work, begun about destructive that in 1842 the governso ment 1840, was cancelled his hcense and he retired, COUNCIL OF spending BASEL, (1431-1449)." The of history and Council held in Basel which his remaining years writing works attempted to reform the Church in accordance with the decision of the theology. The merit of his critical work lay in its the Testament Council of Constance as (q.v.), to hold general attempt to interpretthe New and conmovements troversies. councils regularly nite at the expiration of certain defioutgrowth of vital religious periods. The Council was called in Basel in order to meet the problem of the Hussites,but hostility between it and the Pope immediately developed. It compelled Eugenius IV. to admit its authority,made abolished the compromises with the Hussite leaders, and other papal taxes. annates The Council spUt over helpingthe Greek Empire againstthe Turks, and the anti-papal section remaining in Basel suspended the Pope. In turn the Pope excommunicated the Council and summoned another at Ferrara (later removed to Council at Basel Florence). The elected an anti-Pope (Felix V.) who, however, and not recognized by the European powers, was Basel Council at subsequently resigned. The the cardinals thereupon elected Nicholas V. whom

Immersion in or cleansing BATH, BATHING. with water. The Levitical legislation emphasized the rehgious value of the cleanhness of the body, to be of ceremonial importance. so that bathing came See Lev. 16:4. such as Hinduism Other religions fication. have given the bath a place in the cult. See Puri"

BAUMGARTEN,
German
at

MICHAEL

(1812-1889)."

Protestant

ology theologian; professor of theRostock, 1850-1858, which chair he lost of the in 1865.

because founders

of his liberalism. He was one of the Deutscher Proieslantenverein

CHRISTIAN FERDINAND (1792BAUR, biblical criticand church historian, 1860). German In most of head of the so-called Tubingen school. his work he was losophy strongly influenced by the phihe applied to history. of Hegel, which pretation the Tendenz (tendency or bias)interThe result was of the New Testament books, to which
"

Baur

found the

key in

the

between the opposition

45

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Begging, Significance of

Petrinethe Pauline-Gentile Christianity and work While Baur's Jewish wing of the church. greatly stimulated the critical historical study of the New Testament, it was impaired by his too rigorousappHcation of his hypothesis. Edgar J. Goodspeed RICHARD (1615-1691)." English BAXTER, he was 1641-1660 puritan and theologian. From minister at Kidderminster, the place being transformed under his influence. He dechned the bishopric of Hereford in 1660,and in 1662 left the Anglican continued church. He to preach, but during his

persistently persecuted,especially George Jeffreys. Baxter voluminous best the known of his was a author, works being The Saints' Everlasting Rest. His theology was modified Calvinism, making a distinct
was

remaining years by Chief

Justice

THOMAS A (ca. 1 1 18-1 170)." EngUsh and archbishop of Canterbury. As Becket was chancellor, capable and efficient, ing earnthe friendshipof Henry II. When he became in he refused to be a tool of the archbishop 1162, King, and within a year trouble began. The conflict culminated in the Constitutions of Clarendon, 1164 (q.v.), Becket to which was compelled When he repudiated his promise, to subscribe. he fled to France, where with the assistance of the Alexander the struggle. III., he continued pope, In July 1170 a formal reconciUation effected was and Becket returned to England,but in December, he was murdered by royahsts. In 1172 the R.C. church canonized Becket and for a long time his shrine in Canterbury was the object of pious pilgrimages. chancellor

BECKET,

placefor

free grace.

VENERABLE." The first English BEDE, THE scholar of renown, PIERRE and author,672 or 673-735. (1647-1706)." French losopher phipriest and man of letters ; professor in Latin the Ecclesiastical History of the of philosophy He wrote at the Protestant University of Sedan until supEnglish Nation (Hisloriaecclesiastica gentis Anglopressed in 1682, and afterwards in Rotterdam. He ences. rum) which contains a few autobiographicalreferHe also wrote some treatises on science and was greater as a critic than as a constructive historical and thinker. His greatest work was number of commentaries and homia a considerable lies. critical dictionary. He translated the 4th. Gospel into AngloSaxon. BEADLE. An officer in the church of England, whose duties are the maintenance BEDLAM." of order in A contraction for "Bethlehem" churches and churchyards during service, attendance first opened in London hospital, as a priory for the the clergyin the vestry, as well as oversightover monks and nuns of the Star of Bethlehem in 1247. on certain matters of parish administration. In 1330 it was being used as a hospital,and by 1403 there were lunatics housed there. In some 1547 Henry VIII. gave it to the corporation of BEADS, USE OF." See Rosary. London as a hospitalfor the insane,so that it was fact that the beard is a distinguishing BEARD. The the firstsuch hospital in England and the second in feature of manhood is perhaps the reason is used figuratively for Europe. The word Bedlam for certain customs and beliefs which have arisen. confusion. primitive and some sophisticatedpeople Many HENRY WARD regard it as a Divine gift and therefore sacred. BEECHER, (1813-1897)." To pull it or to mutilate it was insult (II Sam. American an preacher, author and reformer; pastor of Plymouth 10:4). Its voluntary removal was a symbol of Congregational Church, Brooklyn, of the greatestpulpit mourning (Ezra 9:3). The savage thought that N.Y., 1847-1887; was one the possession of part of another's beard orators of America, preaching the love of God as the gave him magical power him. This idea hes behind of the Gospel. He leader of the over essence was a the scrupulous care of the beard on the part of the slavery question; and mediating party on Muslims. In certain sects of Christians it has in promoting a better understanding accomplished much been considered sinful to cut the beard. between England and the U.S.A. in those critical days. Though not a technical scholar in BEAST. from the 2nd. In Jewish of wide culture literature, a man specific sphere he was any and of great influence in transforming theological century B.C., in early Christian literature and in Islamic literature, a mythical monster, of dragonlike sympathies during his later years. which is the incarnation of opposition appearance, and His people. Such to God BEELZEBUB." and symbolism (Also written Baalzebub is probably derived from Babylonian mythology. Beelzebul.) A god, lord of flies, worshiped by the PhiUstines and consulted by idolatrous Hebrews. BEATIFICATION," In the R.C. church a papal In New Testament times the name was applied to declaration that the deceased under sideration the princeof the devils. conperson is worthy of limited homage, including the title of "Blessed." It is frequently a step RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE OF. BEGGING, toward canonization (q.v.). Beatification is of Poverty and asceticism have often been regarded kinds: two ideal conditions of the cultivation of spiritual (i)equipollent (or equivalent) which as life. To own springs from popular sympathy which the church property was to divert the attention is the outcome formal which of the from divine to earthly things. To indulge in the (ii) approves; decision to venerate church's the a on good things of life was to act contrary to the spirit person double ground of holiness of Ufe and miracles. of him who called for self-denial from his followers. It follows from this principle that the most religious BEATIFIC immediate VISION." An vision of persons practisedthe severest asceticism in an age God which is a portion of the future bliss of the that interpretedreligion in those terms, and they saved. The belief is founded such passages had of those who to live by the contributions on I Cor. 13:12, I John 3:2, Rev. 22:4. as respected them as saints. It was but a step from penniless saintship to saintly mendicancy. St. BEATITUDE." of supreme Francis of Assisi, the command (1) A condition accepting literally divested himself of his of Jesus to sellall possessions, happiness or blessedness. (2) The name applied to of the declarations of blessedness which Jesus any property and founded an order of brothers who, as made in the "Sermon the Mount" in Matt. mendicant on wanderers, sanctified begging as divinely 0:3-11 and Luke 6:20-22. ordained. In similar fashion the Brahman ascetic

BAYLE,

"

"

"

"

Beghards

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

46

expects to obtain provision for his bodily needs, and even maintains the theory a reforming Jainism of pubUc support for the devout. The beggar is of grace to the giver,for he provides a means a channel for almsgiving,and almsgiving accumulates merit against the day of reckoning that is to come. See Charity and Almsgiving. Henry K. Rowb BEGHARDS. Communities of lay brothers, mainly artisans, correspondingto the Beguines.(q.v.) The earliest records are of communities in Belgium in the first half of the 13th. century. As these associations dissolved, associated the name became with wandering mendicants through the similarity of the name with "beggar." The Beghards were vive persecuted by the secular clergy,and did not surthe 14th. century.
"

tine.
his
new

Babists joinedBeha'uUah and accepted Bible, Kilab-i-aqdas (the most holy book), which, influenced by Christian ideas of love and marks an advance Babism. justice, on In 1892 Beha'uUah died,having forestalled with curses any claimant,who might supplant him, as he had supplanted the Bab. His sons quarreledabout and interpretation.The minority party leadership began propaganda in America at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. American converts to the majorityparty. were soon won over They issue literature in English from Chicago, where the of building a great Bahai temple is planned. Americans scarcely understand fully certain Asiatic aspects of the new religion. Beha'uUah Most had
two

wives

and

concubine.

E. G.

Browne's

notes. The

hoods BEGUINES. 'The name of certain lay sisterin Germany and the Netherlands, of which called communities the correspondingmale are of these communities founder Beghards. The of Liege. Lambert de Begue (ca. 1187),a priest was differed from These communities regular orders taken were in that the vows not irrevocable. At the Reformation the orders were suppressed in countries. The existingbeguinages in Protestant in the Germany are almshouses for poor spinsters; like the originalcomNetherlands munities. they are more
"

versity Episode of the Bab (Cambridge Uniauthor's Press,1891),356-73, and the same Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion(1918), 154-64 and 193 should
not

Asiatic religionin origin BEHAISM. A new connected with Shi'ite Muhammadanism (q.v.). immediate Its two and antecedents, Babism Sheikhism, are clearly closelyrelated to that party of Shi'ites, whose hopes center in the succession of twelve Imams Imams. (sometimes ImamMahdis), in common parlance leaders in the ritual, to these people certain descendants of Mohammed are in whom the Godhead manifests itself to humanity. Of the twelve Imams recognized by this party the last took office in the year 260 of the Mohammedan Era 873-74 He disappeared a.d. and date of his mysteriously, and the manner death are not known. Many think him stillalive. To him Messianic,in part chiliastic, hopes attached themselves. the Mohammedan Accordingly as 1260 (1844 a.d.)approached, some men began year to look for a new with his return. era The new movement was inaugurated by Sheikh al-Ahsai (rehgious Elder) Ahmed (d. 1826) and his successor Kazim of Resht. They claimed to be in communication with the absent Imam and announced his return. Their followers, the Sheikhis, called them Babs, "gates" between humanity and the Imam. In 1260 AH (1844 a.d.) a young discipleof of Shiraz proclaimed himself Kazim, Ali Mohammed such a Bab. This is the originof what is now called Babism. His claims did not stop there. Influenced by followers of various ranks he became the Imam Mahdi. His unfinished book, the revelation inaugurating a new a new Beyan, was religion. Political claims led to his imprisonment. Armed risingsof his followers brought about his execution in 1850, and severe persecutionsof his adherents in Persia from that time forth. Mirza Yahya, entitled Subh-i-Ezel (Dawn of the Bab's successor. He fled with Eternity) was other leaders to Turkey. of propaganda Because in Persia they were of the removed in 1863 from Bagdad BEHISTUN." The name locaUty in to found the great rock inscriptions Persia where are Adrianople. There Yahya's elder and abler brother Husain Ali, entitled Behd'ullah (Splendor of Darius, important because of the fight they of God), in 1866-67 announced himself Messiah of throw upon the rehgious ideas of the Achaemenian to which rulers. See Zoroastrianism, new the Bab a dispensation, was a mere forerunner. The was following year Subh-i-Ezel to Acre in PalesSee Baal. banished to Cyprus, Beha'uUah BEL."
"

BEHAVIOR AND indicate respectivelya recently developed method of studying the psychology of animals and and the doctrines of consciousness and the men, organism which it involves. The method is to observe the responses of the be either organism to stimuli. The stimulus may experimentally set up or such as operates in the of ordinary experience. The significance of course the stimulus and the nature of the organism's reaction determined are by the inherited instincts of the organism and its previousexperience. In principle the method recognizes no difference between the behavior of the lower animals and man except that the latter may become much more complex and refined. No is taken of the findings of account and the concept of consciousness is introspection The ideal of the behaviorist completely discarded. is to make psychology as completely objectiveas is chemistry or physics. "Thinking" is identified by of the larynx, one investigatorwith movements pleasure and pain with the various contractions and relaxations. Behavior is indeed highly individuaUzed in man but intimate acquamtance with man's afford a past and his environment for understanding and even for predicting means his conduct. The whole organism thus becomes the subjectof inquiry. An action is not viewed as the function of any one less of a conscious part, much agent, soul or mind, but of the entire system of and muscles nerves as organized by inheritance and experience. The results achieved have the attraction of definiteness and co-ordination with other more developed sciences but the formulations admitted by its advocates to be very incomplete. are In so far as the term behaviorism represents a metaphysical theory it is on the side of materialism and mechanistic theory, but these implications have not been worked out beyond the negative attitude taken toward consciousness and any power of introspection. Such tendencies extreme ought not, however, to obscure the value of the method in the and determining capacities accomplishments of individuals and bringing many duct phenomena of conout of the realm of mystery and mere theory. Edward S. Ames BEHAVIORISM." See Behavior Behavand
terms

be overlooked. M. Sprengling BEHAVIORISM." These

47

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Benevolence

THE DRAGON." An apocryphal the Book of Daniel which identifies Daniel with Cyrus, and explainshis being cast into the lion's den because he destroyed a dragon which was an object of worship. BEL AND

Benedict the

supplement

to

reunion

Z77." 1334-1342, negotiated toward of the Greek and Latin churches;

of began the building


"

Calvinistic confession has become in Belgium and Holland,and of the Dutch Reformed church See Confessions Faith. in America. op

dating from 1561 which faith, the symbol of the Reformed churches

BELGIC of

CONFESSION."

a splendidpalace at Avignon where he lived. Benedict XIII. title assumed (1) The by Pedro de Luna, antipope, 1328-1422 1423. or From 1394 when he was elected by the cardinals until his death he persisted in keeping up the schism. (2) Pope, 1724-1730, made unsuccessful attempts to reform clerical morals, and was trator. adminisa weak

forms of the same word. is used as a common usually signifying a worthless or wicked noun, 1 : 15 this wicked power or thing. In Neh. person is personified, and this use is the basis for the identification of Belial with Antichrist or Satan which in the apocryphal literature and N.T., as occurs II Cor. 6: 15.

BELIAL,

BELIAR." Two In the O.T. the word

XIV. eminent an 1740-1758, was in his relations author, was friendly with the European sovereigns, and unsympathetic
"

Benedict

scholar and

toward the Jesuits. Benedict ZF." 1915-. BENEDICT OF NURSIA (ca.480- ca. 544)." The founder of western monastieism and framer of the Benedictine rule. Educated in Rome, he fled as a youth to a cave, a life of asceticism, following and meditation for three years. Disciples prayer, attracted to him, and he founded the famous were Monte at in His Cassino rule was monastery Italy. "conspicuous for its discretion," making scholarly reading and labor in the fields compulsory as well as the specific rehgious disciphne.

BELIEF."

See Faith.

ROBERT FRANCESCO BELLARMINE, Catholic ROMOLO (1542-1620)." Italian Roman ecclesiastic and theologian,a vigorous champion of ultramontanism and the greatest exponent of Catholicism He in the modem world. one was of the council in Galileo's first trial, his attitude BENEDICTINES." The monks who live in being judicial, claiming,however, that Copernican- accordan(!e with the rule of St. Benedict of Nursia ism should be presented as an hypothesis until scientifically (q.v.);also called Black Monks, owing to the color attested. He was a cardinal, theological of their habit. In 596 Augustine of Canterbury professorin Louvain and Rome, and archbishop of introduced the order into England. In 1846 it Capua. introduced into America. The Benedictines was in the conversion of the Teutonic accomplished much See Gongs BELLS. Bells. and the civilization of N.W. Europe, and in tribes, and learning. The order BELTANE. A Celtic midsummer festival for the spread of education and lay brothers as well as monks. the production of fertility. It required a freshly includes nuns kindled fire in which burned sacred tree were a the oak), an animal representative of the BENEDICTION." (1) In Evangelical churches (probably human victims. and formal intercession with God for his a solemn vegetation spiritand one or more such as is used at the conclusion of public The cuttingof mistletoe before the victims could be blessing, slain was rule of the ritual. Since the fire and invoked for a worship. (2) A blessing by one person of a rather on the fertility the another as the benediction symbols (tree, animal, man) were a son. the community of magical power element in the sacraments source brought (3)In R.C. usage, a liturgical these into contact with fields, or whereby the person object is purified, houses, and people consecrated to holy service by virtue or in various ways by jumping through the fire, sanctified, ing of the divine authority vested in the church. decoratingthe houses with branches,carryingburnthe fields, and brands or scatteringashes over BENEFICE. In canon law, the right to enjoy eating the flesh of the victims. certain ecclesiastical revenues by virtue of being BENEDICT. The name of fourteen popes, and the occupant of a church office which has been endowed of rendering certain specific account or on one antipope. of souls is services. In the Roman church the cure Benedict 7.-574-578. not condition of a benefice; in the Benedict 77 ."683-685. a necessary The law Benedict III. 855-858, was chosen by the clergy Anglican church this restriction is made. and people but for a time was the conditions for canonical appointment, not recognized by regulates the circumstances the Emperor, Louis II.,who appointed Anastasius by which the officeis vacated,and the rightsand obhgations of the benefice. as antipope. Benedict 77.- 900-903. lasted less BENEFIT OF THE A V. His pontificate CLERGY." Benedict 964. privilege accorded Middle when than two months he was to the clergy of the deposed by the Ages in could to all who England, and later extended Emperor Otto I. elected by Otto VI. Benedict read, of being tried for offences before the bishop's 972-974, was In some rather than the secular court. court the Great, but, on the emperor's death, was dered murit resulted in the miscarriageof justice. It cases by the people. elected by those abolished in the U.S.A. in 1790 and in England VII. Benedict was 974"983, was in 1827. who had driven out Benedict VI. 7777." 1012-1024. Benedict ing BENEVOLENCE. Benedict IX. Literally"willingor wish1033-1048, a nephew of Benedict to promote well" to others; an ethical purpose VIII. X. of others. the well-being Benedict deposed by 1058-1059, was sions Catholic The term into prominence in the discuscame Hildebrand, and is reckoned by some who were of the British Moralists authorities as an antipope. (q.v.), Benedict XI. 1303-1304, a scholar and author endeavoring to establish the foundations of moral of several commentaries. He obtained with conduct in native human impulses rather than peace declared of the papacy. France which had b"2ii an enemy in external authority.Benevolence was
" " " "

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Bentham, Jeremy
to be

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

48

of the human ing a natural capacity mind, leadto altruistic behavior. In Christian ethics, the ideal of charity love is employed to denote or such conduct, and Christian love is regarded as a divinelycreated attitude rather than as a natural impulse. By certain American (e.g., theologians Jonathan the is made Edwards) benevolence all morality flows. virtue, from which supreme Edv/ards defined it as "that habit or frame of mind wherein consists a dispositionto love being in identified with Christian general." This is readily love. In popular speech benevolence means giftsof social enterprises. to support religious or money Birney Smith Gerald

BEROSUS."

century

only

A Babylonian priest of the 4th. who wrote a History of Babylonia fragments of which have been preserved.
b.c.
"

BES.

demon-dispelling god

of

ancient

guarded the articles of the toilet and the friend of children. His task of warding off was evil spiritsprobably accounts for his grotesque head. shape, dwarf body, short legsand gorgon-like
Behavior BESTIALITY." appropriate to beasts and therefore degrading in character when found in human beings. The more primitivethe society, the more the disposition for men to manifest these in qualities.Bestiality appears a gluttonous abuse of the appetitefor food, wanton sexual practices and inhuman includingintercourse with beasts, of enemies. treatment BESTIARIES. Mediaeval treatises on animals in which human and moral characteristics are ascribed to them, whereby they are used as reUgious the devil, symbols for Christ,the soul,immortality, virtues and vices. See Symbolism.
"

Egypt who

BENTHAM,
Enghsh

JEREMY

(1748-1832)." Noted

writer on legal and moral subjects. He what is perhaps the most thorough-going gave which must analysisin existence of the principles guide individual conduct and legislation designed to See the maximum secure happiness for mankind.

Utilitarianism.
BERENGAR Scholar and ecclesiastic, OF TOURS." born and 1000 probably between 1010, d. 1088. He is noted for the prolonged controversy which he had with the church over the Eucharist, Berengar being discipUned because he refused to accept the doctrine of transubstantiation. GEORGE BERKELEY, (1685-1753) "Irish educated at Trinity bishop and philosopher; was Dubhn, and in 1713 took orders. In 1728 he went to America, intending to found a college in the Bermudas to train missionaries to the Indians,but not supported. After his return he was made was bishop of Cloyne, 1734. His writings include the New Theory of Vision,the Principles of Human Knowledge, and Dialogues. He is noted for his idealism which asserts that the theory of subjective edge only certain knowledge which we possess is knowlof our ideas. Berkeley himself denied the existence of a material world,holding that our ideas stimulated by direct divine activityare BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX

BET which

HAMIDRASH." adults

(Hebrew:
with Jewish

study.) School,in connection

house the synagog,

of in

study the

Law.
=

BET AND HILLEL BET SHAMMAL" (Bet Hebrew: house two of.) The great Rabbinic schools that flourished in Palestine during the founded 1st. century. They were respectively by Hillel and Shammai and in their many tions disputafollow their School of Hillel they masters, the being characterized by its moderation and that of Shammai by its severity. BETHLEHEMITES." Three Christian orders have carried the name: a 13th. century association in England of Dominican type; the Knights and who Hospitalersof the Blessed Mary of Bethlehem for a few brief months fought the Turks in the 15th. century; and a Central American order of Brothers founded at the close of the 17th. Bethlehem century and placed in charge of the hospital of in Guatemala. Mary of Bethlehem BETROTHAL." The
among act

(1090-1153)."

Mediaeval He entered preacher and monk. a Cistercian monastery and was appointedabbot of the Clairvaux monastery in 1115. To his intense zeal and added unusual irigorousdevotion were
became famous. He was drawn into ecclesiastical affairs where his powerfulinfluence resulted in the termination of the long papal schism by the abdication of the antipope in 1138, and in the election of a Cistercian in 1145. He was as than pope greater spiritually intellectually. Although no match for Abelard's in the controversywith him, his personalinfluence logic enabled him to triumph in the name of religion. His power lay in his zeal, and humility, faith, sincerity together with his administrative and oratorical which made him the embodiment of the ideal powers of mediaeval monachism. He wrote extensively various phases of Christian on life, many of his hymns occupying a cherished place in Christian
a as gifts

preacher,so that he

soon

accompanied
ceremonial. BETTING.

of pledgmg certain folks by

to
a

riage, mar-

religious

See Marriage. ^The act


over

of wagering some specific againstanother with reference issue. The uncertain is to an practice generally considered morally objectionable. See Gambling.
"

thing or

amount

hymnody.
CLUNY." of the tweKth Monk noted for his long poem of nearly century,especially thousand three Unes De contemptu mundi, in which is set forth the writer's conceptionof monastic hfe. The contains number of hues of a poem famous section was spiritualbeauty. The most translated by Neale as the hymn "Jerusalem the Golden." BERNARDINES." resuscitated The BERNARD OF

WILLIBALD man (1823-1900)." GerProtestant preacher and theologian; court ruhe, preacher and theologian; court preacher at Karls1856-1860; professor of practicaltheology in Halle, 1860-1900; theologian of the mediatingof the church school, championed the freedom His chief works state control. Das from were Leben Jesu, and Neutestamentliche Theologie.

BEYSCHLAG,

THEODORE (1519-1605)." French BEZA, theologian,educated in law and in Greek; practised law in Paris 1539-1548; united with Calvinistic church, Geneva, in 1548; occupied the chairs in Geneva and at Greek at Lausanne, 1549-1558 1558-1564, and in theology and Greek, 1564-1597. his sucthe death of Calvin in 1564 he became cessor He he held till1600. in office which position author of considerable activity, writing a was an defence of Calvin in the burning of Servetus, a works. biographyof Calvin and several theological On

of monks

by Bernard

Cistercian (q.v.)order of Clairvaux.

49

DICTIONARY
the New

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Bible

Christians

or

Bryanites

He also in Greek

editions of published
and Latin.

Testament

of the church's history. It is notegeneral course worthy, however, that the discussions concerning the canonicityof certain books do not affect those

GITA." erally which most essential to the historyof the The name of a poem, litare "The Lord's Song," which forms a part of the Hebrew and the Christian rehgions. See InspibaNew 6th. book of the Mahabharata and consists of Testament. (q.v.), tion; between Krishna and Arjuna. The a conversation Many of the writingswhich the Hebrew people did not beheve 200 B.C. and 200 a.d. date is between The Gita to "contain divine doctrines" were is the most widely used section of Hindu sacred gradually grouped into a third collection. To literature by the philosophically Hindus this belong some of the most valuable writings minded which of the present. Its fundamental religious down to us from the ancient past. So position have come is that any action which is performed in disregard of irnportantare they, that they are grouped in the the fruit of action is good. Duty done unselfishly Bible used by the Roman CathoKcs as a sort of intermediate will result in overcoming Karma known the Apocrypha canon as (q.v.). The (q.v.). l ife of this material active than Much added religious enjoinedin the Gita is more to the Greek was that of Buddhism Brahmanism. translation (LXX) of the Hebrew or At the same canon by the Jews time the Gita contains diverse elements, and its of Alexandria. Certain Roman Catholic scholars have undertaken to distinguish the authority which beteaching is not a unity. See Hinduism. longs to the Apocrypha from that which belongs to BHAKTI-MARGA." A Hindu for the the other volumes of the canon, but such distinction name Bhakti was stopped by the action of the Council of Trent, way of salvation by faith in a personalGod. has the sense of trustingdevotion to one who can April8, 1546, which directs the use of the Apocrypha of the Old Testament save. Fully half of the people of India are counted as ations Scripture. (For variof this theistic of followers in the Eastern Bibles see Canon.) as religion. See type Hinduism. 2. The Bible as finally the recognized serves as basis for the theology of the church. It is regarded The collection of sacred writings BIBLE. which by all branches of Christians as inspired that is to the basis of the Christian Religion. serves as otherwise would say, as revealingthe truth which 1. The Bible consists of two main portions, the not have been gained by man. In the controversy Old Testament and the New between Testament. The the Protestants and the Roman Catholics former written almost in the 16th. and 17th. centuries, in Hebrew, was the Bible became entirely in Daniel, basis of authority with the Protestants,comalthough there are a few pages, chiefly a parable written in Aramaic. The Old Testament with the authority of the Pope among was the selected from the mass literature because of Hebrew Catholics.* The necessityof such an ultiRoman mate its various writingswere court of appeal led the Protestant regarded as being inspired scholastics These to attribute to the Bible Uteral infallibility. by God. writings are organized in the It was, Bible in three parts Hebrew the Law, the Prophtreated in theology without regard to the ets, therefore, and the Writings. It is probable that each one historical origin of the books, or the historical of these three groups marks a periodin the selection of its meaning. As the Bible was understanding of the sacred writings, for the distinction between Protestants this element of very widely read among the collection of the Prophets and that of the Writings its authority became essential to Protestant ology, theis hard to draw, as there are historical books which was built up by a combination of passages in the former and propheticbooks in the latter. (In of Scripturechosen with littleor no regard to the Greek translation of the O.T. the Writings are their historical meaning. The Bible became the called Hagiographa or Sacred Writings.) of all religious source knowledge, and under the The exact date at which the canon of the Old influence of this new conception of its inspiration Testament closed is hard to state. The opinion it was was of theologies. appealed to by a great variety is now almost scholars that the universal among The Bible became, as its were, a set of divine oracles Book of Daniel and of the to be used as a source and support of theologies. very probably some The rise of the historical method Psalms, if not other material of the Sacred Writings, of the study of Hterature in the first half of the 19th. century had belong in the last two centuries before Christ. It would be natural,therefore, that there should be a profound influence in modifyingthis conception difference of opinion as to the acceptance of the Bible. some It began to be studied from the point of some of these books. A point in illustration of the origin not only of itsvarious books,but,also, of of this is to be seen in the controversy among the the various possibleportions of the books. This rabbis as to Esther. See Canon; Old Testament. historical inquiry resulted in a new of the appreciation The New Testament is composed of a group of Bible as a product and record of religious experience if not authorship. writings supposedly of apostolic origin, singularlyunified and progressing along selfconsistent hues. In this sense These, hke those writings which composed it may be used in the Old Testament, were selected from a considerable theologyas the record of a revelation of God in hterature. of the Old human Also, as in the case this experience. In the Old Testament some Testament, there was uncertainty as to the experience is interpreted largely through the of certain books admitted to be the New to medium of the history of the rise and fall of the right Testament Jewish By the middle of the 3rd. century, Testament from state; and in the New group. limited the point of view of the experience to however, these questions were of Jesus and those III John and Revelation Such a view gives James, Hebrews, II Peter, II, accepting him as the Messiah. the canonical those full recognition to the historical origin of the books; and among among admitted that were the Apocato the canon, never the historical development of the experilypse Scripture, ence of Peter,the teaching of the Twelve and the historical valuation of the various Apostles, the Epistles of Barnabas and Clement, the Acts of of God is set forth. concepts in which the experience The trustworthiness of the record is not confused Paul, and the Shepherd of Hermas. By the middle of the 5th. century the limits of the canon with questionsof literal infallibility and leads to a were closed in the West, but discussions as to certain better understanding of the Christian movement. continued in the East for Shailer Mathews books, notably Revelation, BIBLE CHRISTIANS OR BRYANITES." a A century longer. The influence which led to the and so the final constitution closingof the canon sect which offshoot of Methodism, founded was an of the Bible as a closed hterature, belongs to the by William O'Brien in Devonshire, England, in

BHAGAVAD,.

"

"

"

Bible

Societies

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

50

in his withdrawal in 1829. But resulting continued its identity,growing and the church expanding until in 1882, it numbered 300 ministers and scattered 34,000 members throughout the United States and the British Empire. In 1884 branch the Canadian joined in the union of all Methodist which was followed by a similar bodies, union in Austraha, and in 1907 by the absorption

the discovery of the correct text. Another of information upon the text is found in the old translations of the Scripture, the date of some of which hes further back than that of our oldest MSS. These often reflect a different original from that found in any MS. Still another source for the text is at hand in the quotations of the Old and New Testaments found m the writings of the early Church Fathers. The search for the answer of the parent church in the United Methodist to the second question church. yields Literary Criticism, commonly known as in distinction from the lower^or Higher Criticism, textual criticism. Here the critic aims to discover BIBLE SOCIETIES." Organizations for the translation and distributionof the Bible, in whole or everything that will throw lightupon the author's words. Is the writing under in parts. Among the the earUest societies were review poetry or Corporationfor the Promoting^and Propagating of prose? This is by no means always an easy or an the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New is it a England (1649), unimportant problem. If prose, mere matter-of-fact the Society for Promoting Christian annalistic record, or is it didactic, Knowledge founded and in 1698, and the Canstein Institute, homiletic When (q.v.), imaginative in character? founded it written and in Halle, 1710. under The largest what was circumstances? societyis the don, Was it all written at the same founded in LonBritish and Foreign Bible Society, time and by the same 1804,whose circulations have reached 1 1,000,000 hand, or is the writing a composite production? What sort of person the author, to what social, was copies of the Scripturesin a year, and whose total distributions exceed 300,000,000copies in over 500 pohtical or ecclesiastical group did he belong? What did he seek to accomplish by his ous languages and dialects. There have been numerpurpose and what means utterance did he employ to attain most societies. The European important association is the American American Bible Society, it? How much did he owe and to his predecessors, what was his influence upon of 31 kindred societies organized by representatives posterity? Most of the data with which the literary in 1816, whose annual circulation exceeds 2 million critic work are must in the literature itself to be found copies. which he is working. Evidence as to date wiU upon in allusions to contemporary events or BIBLICAL COMMISSION." A commission tablished often appear esto past history. Characteristics in 1902 by decree of Pope Leo XIII., comof vocabulary, posed of a committee of cardinals assisted by stylewill tell for or againstthe syntax, and literary include the duties of which theological consultors, unityof the writing. Consideration of the religious standards and aims will helpin dating a book and in the defence of Catholic exegesis, the decision of of Biblical criticism in dispute among matters determining questions of authorship and unity. Catholic scholars, and the occasional publication But there is also the necessity of pursuing a process of comparativecriticism. This will have to do first of studies on the Bible. with similar writings within the Hebrew Hterature BIBLICAL CRITICISM." does one Psalm compare The art of accurately itself. How with another, one code with determining the origin, or prophecy with another, or one purpose, and meaning of the Biblical Uterature. another? We must however, and go further afield, The function of criticism. ^The term cism" "critiinstitute comparisons between Hebrew Uterature and the idea of brings before the average Babylonian on the one man hand, and between and The aim of a justcriticism, Hebrew the other. captiousfault-finding. Egyptian Uterature on How do the legends in Genesis compare with the however, is to see a pieceof Uterature exactlyas it is and to estimate it without prejudice of any kind, corresponding myths and legends of Babylonia? favorable or unfavorable. How do the former owe The result of the process much to the latter? What of criticism may be increased appreciation rather is the difference between the psalms of Israel and than depreciation, and the greater the hterature those of Babylon? Does the Messianic prophecy under study the more of Israel owe certain is it that criticism its inspiration to the Messianism of will but enhance its value. BibUcal literature has do we Egypt? Only by such investigations come littleto fear and much of the value of the Bible. to gain through a thoroughly to a fuU appreciation scientificcriticism. J. M. Powis Smith Kinds BIBLICAL INTRODUCTION." This term is of criticism. The criticism of literature itself with two questions: (1) Is the text concerns now applied to the literary history of the Old and of the document New Testaments. preserved in its originalform? Since almost all theological science has to do with mean? The search for (2)What does the document the proper the answer to the first questionyields cism, Textual Critithe term understanding of the Scriptures sometimes called "Lower Criticism." Introduction Both wide field. might be made to cover a the Old and the New At the present time, however, we Testament offer a wide field mean by BibUcal for the pursuit of this science. Both that science which endeavors cover to disoriginated Introduction centuries ago and the originalmanuscripts the date and composition of the various BibUcal many have books. It then arranges the component long since disappeared. The oldest MS. of parts the Old Testament in their true historical sequence. tury Many of the books goes back only to the 9th. cenand of the New discovered be Testament to the 4th. to and are A.D., composite, they must of These oldest MSS. be carefullyanalyzed into their elements. century a.d. were certainly course from which these were This process, which is caUed the higher (better, preceded by other MSS. and there is no means of knowing how many criticism is simply the appUcacopied, Uterary or historical) times the process of copying had taken place. But tion to bibUcal literature of the methods which are used in the study of other ancient books. There copying is always attended by error. are in existence thousands of MSS. of the Biblical A question which now naturaUy suggests itself is whether Biblical Introduction variations. should be extended texts, representingalmost innumerable critic must The examine these minutely, determine include called Apocrypha. the books to The their relative ages and habitats,group them Catholic scholar will naturally Roman include them and estimate aright their contribution in his discussion, and from the pomt of view of accordingly, 1815. Mr.

O'Brien's

dictatorialness caused

sension, distoward
source

"

"

51.

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION
Old

AND

ETHICS
Biblical form

Biogenesis
when Theology,

be no doubt that can In practice,however, Protestant this is correct. scholars reaUzing the special importance of the canonical books usually confine their discussion H. P. Smith to them.

history there purelyliterary

Testament.

thus

understood, must
doctrine.

ever

the basis of Christian E. F. Scott

BIBLICAL

THEOLOGY."

considered Bible,

apart from

The theology of the the later theologyof

BIBLIOLATRY." Literally,book-worship; travagant exand uncritical devotion to the Bible as possessingdivine authority apart from a properly scientific estimate of its contents.

the church. BIDDING-PRAYER." made In the Anglican church. distinction was times no Until modern the prayer called because^ and the orthodox of Scripture between the teaching so preceding the sermon, the preacher bade the people pray foi' It was taken for granted that originally system of doctrine. the church, the king, royal family, etc. ous In thf the Bible was a harmoniwhole, constituting a single Lutheran tion church, a prayer for specific objects, so bodyof divine revelation;and that this revelacalled because the deacons bid the people pray for formulated had been accurately in the various these things. in the fight of and had to be understood creeds, it was them. At the Reformation perceived that the then prevaifing BIDDLE, JOHN (1615-1662)."Teacher, theologywas often at variance known with Scripture, the founder of and an attempt was made to revise author, and theologian; as several times imprisBut the it in conformity with Bible standards. English Unitarianism ; was oned for his heretical views. idea still persistedthat the teaching of the Bible and traditional dogma were the same. essentially Towards the end of the 18th. century this view began ALOIS EMANUEL BIEDERMANN, (1819studied The Bible was to undergo a modification. versity 1885). Swiss theologian, professor at the Uniwith a new a nd to was seen of Zurich,who elaborated a profound system feeling, belong literary to a different age and a different world of thought of theology on the basis of Hegelian monism. His from the later creeds. The creeds themselves chief work was Christliche Dogmatik. examined and aUowance were was historically, made for the manifold influences which had helped BIGAMY. (1) In criminal law, the marriage of stillassumed to mould them. But it was that the while the firstis living. (2) In canon a second spouse Bible contained coherent a system of revealed law, the marriage of a second wife after the death in which the Old and New Testaments truth, mented suppleaction which in the R.C. Church is of the first, an each other. Efforts were made to bring an impediment to holy orders. all the inspired writers into harmony, and thus to build up a scheme should correof doctrine which spond BIGOTRY. A stubborn adherence to a given with the teaching of Scripture. faithfully creed or party or ideal accompanied by an intolerant For a variety of reasons this conception of a attitude toward differingbeliefs,including biblical theology has now broken down. It is recognized unreasonableness the part of the adherent self, himon (1) that the Old and New Testaments, though and a disposition to coerce others to agreement. that between them related, are quite distinct;(2) The word meant religious hypocrisy in 16th. century fies a periodof several centuries, in which reUgious usage. ideas were that both largelytransformed; (3) Testaments comprise a number of different types of BIKSHU lower of the two (BIKKU)." The teaching; (4) that in both of them we must reckon in early Buddhism grades of disciples applied to one with influences from without, as well as with an who had entered upon the way that leads to the inner development. Biblical Theology is now higher state of the Arhat. under the two separate heads of treated, therefore, O.T. and N.T. theology. The theology of the BILO CATION." The hypothesis that a being Old Testament is viewed in its relation to the of body may have more than one location at the national life of Israel. The is traced out process time without same multiplicationof substance. whereby a primitiveform of religion was developed It is involved in the R.C. defense of the doctrine and purifiedby the ethical teaching of the great of the real presence of the body of Christ in the hardened into a legal prophets, and was latterly Eucharist. New Testament system. theology is likewise studied historically. The Gospel evidence is sifted, The celebration of the Mass twice BINATION." in order to discover the original of Jesus; message the same ministrant. The on day by the same then it is shown how this message understood in was R.C. permits binafion specifically only under the primitive church; how it was interpretedby circumstances. Paul; how it was re-stated by the Fourth evangelist exceptional and the author of Hebrews in terms of Alexandrian BINDING AND See Keys, LOOSING." thought. The old conception of a singlebody of Power op the. truth,revealed in the Bible and formulated in the creeds has thus disappeared. Modern enquiry seeks rather to do justiceto the different phases BIOGENESIS. A term no longerin use among of thought represented in each of the Testaments, used to express the view that Hving forms biologists and to the changes of outlook which found arise only from hving forms. The term arose can sion expresin the later history when of doctrine. "spontaneous generation" had its behevers. There is a sense, however, in which the theology Certain early experiments seemed to indicate that of the Bible still be regarded as a whole. in a completely lifelessand sealed solution organisms may When we apply the historical method would This was to the various called spontaneous appear. books of Scripture we lifebecome of certain'' generation, aware or "abiogenesis," as distinct from ideas (e.g., the Kingdom of God, the moral ment generation,or "biogenesis." With the improvelaw, eternal life, in connection forgivenessof sin) which were of technique, however, especially graduallydeveloped in the religion of Israel and with bacteriology, it was discovered that the "hfecame to their fruition in In order and that the "sealed" less" solution was not lifeless, Christianity. to apprehend these ideas in their Christian form it solution was not always sealed against certain IS necessary to trace them back to their roots in the has disappeared therefore, organisms. Abiogenesis,
" " "

"

peat

Biretta

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

52

and with as a doctrine based upon any observation, it this use of the term biogenesis. The term is also used as a synonym for evolution as appUed to the plant and animal kingdoms. See Evolution. John M. Coulter
"

BIRETTA. ^A square cap with three ridges on its upper surface worn the official cap of R.C. as ecclesiastics. The biretta for cardinals is red, for priests as a for bishops is purple or black, and faith black. About birth, as about universally associated religiousrites the desire to and behefs. The desire for children, and to insure the health and protect the mother future of the child,give rise to efforts to drive possible evils and bewitchments, to secure away dehvery, to bring to the child the protection easy for it the proper of good powers, to secure finally These various motives of fellow men. recognition have given occasion not only for important religious after child-birth, ceremonies, such as purification circumcision, baptism, but also to a great number of superstitions which are stillpresent in European such as faith in charms, dread of changefolklore, lings, all pagan stories of good fairies. In virtually there are goddesses whose especial charge religions is birth, and under whose protection expectant mothers are placed. The belief in defilement as an accompaniment of childbirth (cf Leviticus,chap. is rites, purificatory 13), hence callingfor especial form is rather frequent, although its more primitive the dread of witchcraft at this dangerous period. Among certain peoples mothers dying in childbirth were regarded as thereby made heroic,and special Belief in re-birth of honors were given them. quent, infants still-born or early dying is also not infrethere is held to and in some religions pagan be a speciallimbo for the souls of such, awaiting rebirth. is the rightto inheritance or to social Birthright station as a consequence of birth condition. Its most important forms are the rightsfollowingfrom

42. church Apparently each had community several bishops,both in the East {Didache 15) and in Rome (/ Clement 44, Hermas, Vision III. 5). Probably the name bishopwas apphed to an elder presiding over worship and distributing alms. in the 2nd. Early century a monarchic bishop is found at the head of a body of presbytersin Syria and Anatoha {Epistles of Ignatius)and by 150 a.d. in Rome. The bishop was soon acknowledged

guaranteed vehicle of the inherited divinely culties TertulMan),and 3rd. centurydiffi(Irenaeus, arising from persecution resulted
m

the

BIRTH, death, are

BIRTHRIGHT."

monarchic acceptance of the bishop's

in disauthority

legitimacy or illegitimacy; primogeniture, or of birth; the rightsof sex, male children seniority the rights recognition; commonly being given prior the social station of the parof rank, due to ents. peoples,including the ancient Among many classical peoples and modern some Orientals, depended upon recognitionof the child birthright by the father,who had, if he chose, the right to
of an unborn the child. Devotion or first-born child to sacrifice or to religious service is another parental right frequently recognized in H. B. Alexander religions. pagan
expose

beUeve BIRTHDAY." Those who in astrology and some others regard certain days as lucky and African tribes practise others unlucky. Certain infanticide of children born on unluckydays. With the horoscope and the elaborate astrology came arrangement of lucky and unlucky days based on the astrological signs evident on the day of birth; others. Hindus, Chinese and many as, e.g., among Among many peoples birthdays are celebrated as days embodying the idea of the renewal of life. Birthand gods are made occasions of martyrs, saints, mas Christof special celebration, e.g., the Christian observance of Rama's and the Hindu (q.v.)

his priesthoodby divine rightover souls. This meant a city with power over bishop a single at synods the bishop community, but by presiding of the provincialcapital became (3rd. century) a metropoUtan or archbishopwith growing jurisdiction over others, while synods of larger areas (Syria, Egypt,Italy)developed the higherrank of Patriarch for Alexandria, tension Antioch,Rome, Byzantium. Exof a to a diocese bishop'sjurisdiction when Teutonic invaders beyond the city came settled on the estates of a gau or county subordinated themselves to the bishop of the old Roman city which was the county seat, or (England and Germany) from the fact that the first bishops were missionaries serving a large area. All bishops at first were equal but by an historical process (presiding at synods, appeals, receptionof decisions) a which with the primacy of great centers arose 11th. century became for the Roman bishop in in fact an absolute monarchic theory and increasingly all western bishops. The episcopal power over constitution of the Cathohc church was renewed (1415), by the action of the Council of Constance but after the Council of Trent bishops tended to be of the Pope. This subordination to the deputies^ is increased by the modern separationsof papacy church and state. and the both the laity Originally a bishop. The clergyjoined in electing assumption by Teutonic kings of the right to confirm or even to appoint led to the Investiture dispute which ended (1122) with the provisionof election by the then chapter, excluding the laity. The pope installed in spiritualfunctions and the king in and property rights. However, in Cathohc pohtical countries the state has usuallyhad the right of and in Protestant German the states nomination to the governchapter elects one whose acceptibihty ment States was is assured. When the United a mission country nominations sent both by the were diocesan priests and the bishops of the province to the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. In 1908 the United States ceased to be a mission and the Apostolic Constitution of Pius X. placed in the control of the the choice of bishops virtually of State. Cardinal Secretary and in Deimaark The Lutheran reform, save superintendents. Calvin's Sweden, substituted ecclesiastic above church recognized no a pastor. churches of America In the Methodist bishops are san diocechosen by the General Conference, have no and are properly Superintendents. In power, Great Britain the title is not used by Wesleyans. Certain other Protestant bodies employ the term but shoot only in the Church of England and its American offis there an episcopaloffice resembhng that of Cathohc F. A. Christie history.
'

cipUneand

birthday.
BISHOP." The earliest officers of Christian churches called both presbyter (elder)and were bishop. In Acts 20:28 Paul addresses elders as bishops. Officers appointed by the apostles are called presbyters in Acts 15 :23, in / Clement bishops

An Arabic formula meaning "in BISMILLAH. in the Koran the name of Allah" which appears as the opening phrase of each section and is used by of each act of Moslems at the commencement of ceremonial. It is also used as a potent word ences in itselfto ward off evil influhaving efficacy power and to assure a safe beginning of every action.
"

53

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

filood

BLACK or any ART." The term "black art," or saints, holythingswas included in blasphemy which was of the In Muhammedan"black magic," is a traditional perversion punished rigorously. tinction classical "necromancy" ism, blasphemy includes contemptuous necromantia (meaning disspeaking of Mohamet, with the dead) being a guilty Muslim being considered by communication corruptedinto negromantia (asif from negro-, black), an apostate,his punishment being death. doubtless due to association with the conception of HELENA PETROVNA black art comprises all the devil as black. The BLAVATSKY, (1831forms of magic supposed to be due to collusion with 1891). Russian authoress who traveled extensively, and with Col. H. S. Alcott founded the Theosophical evil spirits, as well as proper; the term necromancy in New York in 1875. Her most important has even been applied to astrology. "Black magic" Society is an attempt at a systematic is contrasted with "white work, Isis Unveiled, magic" which includes of theosophy. See Thkosophy. innocent forms of wonder-working, such as legerdepresentation main and various forms of divination not deemed A condition of happiness BLESSEDNESS." to be due to intercourse with spirits. or which in Christian and theistic H. B. Alexander other felicity is associated with the divine favor upon BLACK A DEATH." religions or pestilence of Oriental the bubonic experience,whereas in ethical originresembhng in many jjresence in human particulars and non-theistic thought such as Buddhism it is from which, over plague,appearing in Italy (1348), related to the attainment of a right state of mind. trade routes, it rapidly spread into large areas of See Matt. 6:3-11; Dhamma'pada, ch. 15. of its mortality western Europe. In consequence estimated as high as fortyper cent of the variously AND CURSING" BLESSING The power of population and heaviest in Italy, France, and the spoken word seems to men at a certain stage of England great structural changes took place in of labor,wages society. With the scarcity rapidty thought to be something uncanny or as we should and the older aristocracy rose injuriousword is a curse, largely supwas planted say supernatural. The the helpful one Class interfrom the masses. ests a blessing. As thought became by one rising clear the theory was formed that the curse became more or pronounced, discontent acute, and of force because rife. Not and in the speaker was the efficiency was irreligion only were blessing moral tone of the clergyimpaired by the admission communion relations with a demon or or special into the priesthoodof the immature, untrained,and divinity. The demon might by the efTective form worldlyminded, but non-residence and pluralism, of words be bound to a physicalobject (Aladdin's secured the footing lamp) and obhged to do the bidding of its owner. seemingly necessary in this crisis, from which in later centuries it was But a curse, even if pronounced by a common difficult to so G. Mode inherent force. Peter dislodgethem. might work harm by its own man, and death had men near Magicians, priests, BLACK FAST." The most of cursing and rigorous form of blessing. Thus, especial power the austerity both fastingin R.C. history, of Isaac once relating the blessing given to Jacob, though to the food and time. Latterlythe rigorous requireintended for Esau, could not be reversed. ments When have been relaxed. is active in making the curse the divinity or blessing effective the form is usually that of a prayer. BLACK The for FATHERS." popular name Examples are not rare, however, in which the the congregationof the Fathers of the Holy Ghost the divinity rather than entreats speaker commands and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. him. The oath in which the witness invokes judicial is a on himself,in case he lies, vengeance BLACK The attached to FRIARS." name natural development from the curse. One of the Dominican monks in England because of the color earhest examples is the Hebrew formula: "God do of their garments. and more too if I do not do thus and so." to me so H. P. Smith BLACK of God and Church JEWS." The PRIESTLY.BLESSING, (Jewish.) In the Saints of Christ,composed chiefly of negroes who Jewish ritual, the Priestly (Num. 6:22-27) Blessing claim to be the descendants of the true Jews. is pronounced in the Synagog, according to the by the descendants orthodox, on certain holy-days BLACK for MONKS." The populardesignation of the old priests; or, according to the reform monks of the Benedictine order. Jews, by the Rabbi dismissingthe congregation at services. the close of some BLACK RUBRIC" The declaration which commands kneeling at the end of the order for the OF THE." See Future BLEST, ABODE Life, celebration of the Holy Communion in the Anglican Conceptions of the. church the black prayer-book, so called from lettersin which it was formerly printed. BLISS. ness. See Blessed"
" " " "

Supreme

happiness.

nuns

BLACK SISTERS." The name because of their black habit. BLACK SUNDAY." See

given to Alexian
See Alexians. BLOOD. of
"

significant as Religiously
means

the
a

basis
tainer con-

Passion

Sunday.

a relationship,

of

or conciliation,

of power. the Greek, to injureby From BLASPHEMY." The basic idea concerning blood is common blood is the life." speech; literally, defamatory speech;specifically,given in Deut. 12:23, "The less The spoken or written words insultingto God. or Consequently blood is everywhere more Levitical legislation prescribed the death penalty sacred,and its use sacramental. for blasphemy (Lev. 24:16),as did also the Roman Blood is universallyregarded as the bond of law. In England and the United States, it is (through Relationship is natural relationship. punishable by fine, imprisonment, or corporal birth) or artificial (through ceremony). In the punishment, but the law is seldom put into effect. latter case common to flow in the blood is made Formerly,blasphemy was defined so as to include veins of men by contact of fresh wounds, by two denial of certain orthodox Christian behefs, such men's drinking each other's blood, or by drinking the Trinity as and the authority of the Scriptures. blood drawn from a third source, making a bond as In France speaking against the Virgin Mary, the close as if it came through birth. Among primitives

Blood-Brotherhood

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

rA

this bond extends over the clan or tribe: one common BLUMHARDT, CHRISTOFF JOHANN (1805blood flows in the veins of every clan-member. 1880). Swiss pastor of unusual religious power, When tribesman is believed blood who in Arabs "Our the a slain, of divine healing possibihty say: Its social value Ues in the protechas been shed." through prayer, and who established and superintion tended of life imder conditions of nearly perpetual institute for religious an healingat Bad Boll. strife. He was of sincere and devout life, a man and exercised wide influence. The blood-feud is a consequence tionship. of blood relaWhen clansman is slain,a relative a him. to FRIEDRICH VON (familyor clansman) is bound BODELSCHWINGH, avenge This may involve and counter feuds (1831-1910). Influential Lutheran pastor, noted reprisals, for his vigorouspromotion of the work of the Inner arise which last generations. affect gods As a means of conciliation blood may school at Bethel in Mission, and for his theological to counteract (see Sacrifice); an exami)lein the human the rationalistic Prussia, founded sphere tendencies of the theological is that Australians drink each other's blood at a faculties in the universities. feast to settle difficulties. As sacred,blood may be (a) forbidden as food; before A name BODHISATTVA." or to consecrate a (b) eaten appliedin Buddhism ceremony to those who are destined for future Buddhahood. (India), or to givingtestimony, to provide an omen They are the great cosmic saviors who pass through sanctifyor make powerful a fetish (Africa). the ten stages leading to complete knowledge and A concomitant notion is that blood has potency, after successive existences accept at last the peace working beneficently or harmfully according to of essential Boddhahood. It See AvalgkiteSvara. circumstances. Its beneficent powers vary. imparts strength to the old (Australia);gives a BODY. The physicalpart of an organism, disvictor the life or courage of a slain enemy tinguished (Africa) ; from its bionomic its spiritual bestows on or ghosts (Odyssey, being. temporary power XI. 34 "f.); sustains the dead; and on several as organized from a priest The conception of a man modes of being is well-nighuniversal, confers of prophecy. It prevents and the physical power mode makes and averts the corpse or material (thebody of the living, cures disease, marriage fruitful, evil influences (India). Bathing with it (actually of the dead) being conceived as the bond, envelope, of the life, home from sin or defilement or or spirit, metaphorically)purifies soul, mind, or other contrasted modes with it. In primitive thought (Mithraism, Dyaks, East Indians; cf. many Christian and in early religious practicesthe distinction of hymns). material and of or restrictions immaterial does not Its perils clearly exist; appear in prohibitions its use. Some kinds are especially dangerous. the body is rarelyconceived as fixed in form, while upon of various elements The blood childbirth and of menstruation the added thereto to constitute ara themselves regarded as more are man or less supremely perilous. Usually, when blood is shed, a living it must be buried to protect the passer-by. Parents It is first with by the physicalsenses. perceptible look upon not it for a certain period after Plato that the distinction between the material may the birth of twins (Africa). The husband's soul is sharply drawn. blood, flesh and the immaterial the conception drunk at marriage, remains in the wife's veins and of a body from which Nevertheless, reveals and punishes sublimated life or soul can be disengaged, a more infidelity (India). George W. Gilmore temporarily as well as permanently, exists from the BLOOD-BROTHERHOOD." lowest savagery A fraternal bond culture. upward through human formed of the mingling of blood. idea of body and The influence of the disjunctive by the ceremony The conceptiongrew out of the primitiveconception soul has been one of the most profound both upon of kinship as necessarily ritual and speculation. The body as the house of See blood-relationship. Brotherhood. and externally; the soul requirespurification, internally with appetites, it calls for temperas endowed ate ascetic control, for castigation, or etc.; as BLOOD-COVENANT." A solemn agreement of life, subject to profound changes in the seasons into which two parties Have entered, sealed by it calls for ritual safeguards,often among savages each drinking, selves being infused with,or smearing themit demands burial for mutilations; as a corpse, with the blood of the other. See Covenant. and rites of allayingthe dead. Speculativelyit is difficultfor man totallyto separate the conception BLOOD-FEUD. ^A form of primitive justice of life from that of embodied life;hence arises the which the maltreated in or family of a murdered life attendingthe corpse, as among ideas of a partial individual assumed the responsibility of vengeance of incarnation the Egyptians; of bodilyresurrection; in kind upon the offender or his kin. It is found sublimated and reincarnation; of a transfigured or in especialvigor among the Semitic and Aryan ghostly, or phantasmal body; of astral, spiritual peoplesthough the Indo-Aryans seem early to have tion; bodies, etc. See Asceticism; Burial; Incarnathe blood-revenge stage. The outgrown growth Resurrection; Soul; Spirit. of more knit societies caused the adoption closely H. B. Alexander of the principleof wergeld (ransom) to a large (1575-1624)." German JAKOB BOEHME, tic. mysextent. When the state was established the firmly maker. His parents were a shoepeasants and he was right and responsibihty of blood-revenge passed and Bible study, reading of By prayer, into the hands of the king who, in the name of the of a mystical the spirit he acquired books, mystical the culprit. community, exacted on vengeance opposition in his visionary. He met with much Even the blood-feud had its strict rules and was a became source a day, but his works subsequently form of crude,though wasteful,justice. Friedrich of inspirationto such as great minds did not Schlegel,Hegel and ScheUing. Boehme guinity. BLOOD-RELATIONSHIP." See Consanorthodox though doctrines,aldepart from the current methods and mystical he used the allegorical
" " " " "

of BLOOD-REVENGE." in tribal The custom man whereby the next of kin of a murdered society is bound the murder to avenge by the death of the murderer of the murderer's tribe. or of one

interpretation.
"

BOETHUSIANS. the time of the in thought. to them


at

Jewish

sect

Saducees, and

flourishing related closel}'

55

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Bornholmers

A Christian community originatBoniface V. Pope, 619-625, influential in BOGOMILS. ing in Bulgaria,owing its name Bogumil Christianizing to a priest, England, creating Canterbury as a Metropohtan see. a (927-968). The beliefs of the Bogomils were dualism Marcion's of Manicha"an and fusion Boniface VI. Pope for 15 days in 896. Boniface VII." Pope, 984-985. gnosticism.Miracles,sacraments, and ceremonies He and broiled emasceticism was Boniface VIII." Fope, 1294-1303. were interpreted spiritually the papacy in a number of conflicts with Eastern movement spread over required. The and condemned in European nations by his arrogance Europe. The order was officially pomp. He was the author of the bull,Unum Sanctam In 1650 the Bogomils,having accommodated 1111. (q.v.). their doctrines to orthodoxy, were absorbed into Boniface IX. Pope, 1389-1404, was pohtically active and succeeded in restoring Roman order in the R.C. Church. fell during the the papal states. His pontificate A 15th. century time of the papal schism, and rival popes, Clement BOHEMIAN BRETHREN." radical reform than was VII. and Benedict sect committed to a more XIII., held office at Avignon. church the national of Bohemia from (Calixtine) which it sprang. SAINT BONIFACE, (680-754) ."Missionary From He the 9th. century the church in Bohemia to Germany, and proconsul of the Papacy. was intensely nationalistic (language, liturgy). was a Saxon by birth, a great scholar and preacher, The Hussite wars, 1419-1432,following His influence Huss' (q.v.) going as a missionary to Frisia in 716. and Prankish with the was death, voiced these national aspirations, large on both the German desire for religious Two reform. Martel The partiesresulted, churches. protection of Charles moderates contributed From 732-754 he to his success. (Calixtines, Utraquists), and radicals (Taborites). By accepting the Compacts (q.v.), was archbishop. In 754 he was murdered by the 1433,the former secured concessions (free preaching, Frisian pagans. for laity)and leadership. The Taborites cluded incup and irreconcilables(destroyed by Romanists BONIFATIUS-VEREIN." A society for the interests Utraquists,1434), and others whose tions protectionof R.C. interests in the Protestant secThe latter attached were supremely religious. of Germany. themselves the Chelcic Brethren. to Rejecting force, and living strictlyby the Gospel, they BOOK The OF COMMON DISCIPLINE." where retired,1457, to Kunwald, Lititz, they church to the book name on given organization assumed Unitas Fratrum Brethren. the name or in 1560. drawn by the Scotch Presbyterians up In 1467 they became an independent sect (Matthias A revised edition appeared in 1578. ordained 1494 the bishop by Waldenses). From and lost its idiosyncracies movement became BOOK book COMMON PRAYER." The OF sympathetictoward the intellectualand spiritual tendencies of the age (Universities, Reformation). containing the forms and modes of public service appointed by the Act of Uniformity, 1549, for use Bohemian Protestantism all but annihilated was in the established used church of England, and and Commenius during the Thirty Years War. with certain modifications by other Protestant Jablonsky preservedthe history and traditions of bodies. tillthe brotherhood the Brethren reconstituted
" " " "

was

and broadened by Moravian Brethren

Zinzendorf (q.v.). Henry

(q.v.),and
H. Walker

the One BOOK DEAD." OF THE of the sacred books of the religion of ancient Egypt, the contents of which are largelymagical formulae and charms. BOOK of Revelation, OF LIFE." In the Book destinies are human heavenly book in which The portrayed as being recorded. imagery is Oriental peoples who have picto many common tured
a

BOLLANDISTS." The Belgian Jesuits, who the publishersof the Acta Sanctorum (q.v.), named from John Bolland so (1596-1665), the Jesuit father who was of the principal organizers one of the work. The Belgian edition of the Acta Sanctorum has reached 63 volumes. They also the Analecta Bolperiodical, publish a quarterly landiana.
are

the

existence

of celestial books

or

tablets

containingthe wisdom of the gods and mythologies inhabitants. concerning the earth and its human HORATIUS BONAR, (1808-1889)."Scotch Such ideas may be paralleledfrom the religious and Presbyterianminister. He wfote hymn writer, of Babylonia,Egypt, Persia, literature India,China, several religious books, and edited several journals. Islam,and Judaism. prominent They are especially Many of his hymns are in common usage. in apocalyptic literature such as Enoch, Daniel,and Revelation. ST. BONAVENTURA, (1221-1274)." R.C. theologian. In 1243 he entered the Franciscan of WILLIAM BOOTH, (1829-1911)." Founder order,and by 1255 rose to the office of generalof the for the Salvation Army educated (q.v.). He was order. He of Roger Bacon was a contemporary the Methodist Connexion New ministry, and in and Thomas Aquinas, and stood in opposition to 1865 founded the Christian Mission for social rehef both. was prevented from By his orders Bacon in East London which subsequently developed at Oxford. His philosophy was Neolecturing (1876),into the Salvation Army of which Booth suffused with Platonism, and his theology was commander-in-chief until his death. was Platonic influence. He was canonized by Sixtus IV.
in 1482.

BOOTHS,
of nine Popes. Boniface I. Bishop of Rome, 418-422. Boniface//."Pope, 530-532. Boniface III. Pope, Feb.-Nov., 606, obtained from Emperor Phocas recognitionof the primacy of Rome. Boniface IV. Pope, 608-615, received from Phocas the Roman pantheon which was converted into a church. The
name
" " "

FEAST

OF."

See

Feast

of

nacles. Taber-

BONIFACE."

Danish BORNHOLMERS." A sect, pietistic island of Bornholm in named from the Danish of the the center the Baltic Sea, which became movement. It was the development of an evangelistic in Sweden movement (from 1846) which spread to Denmark where the leader, 1863-1877, was P. C. Trandberg.
so

BosBuet, Jacques

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

56

BOSSUET, (1627-1704). JACQUES BENIGNE French R.C. diyine, renowned orator as a pulpit and controversialist. His dominant was purpose to reunite Catholicism and Protestantism, but he to make too pedantic was a popular appeal. In between the quarrel Louis XIV. and the pope, he tried to support the papacy while opposing the
"

Jesuits.
In all parts of the world early careful to mark the limits of their lands. Where there were natural no markings, established as trees, stones, or waste places were artificial marks. Such boundaries were sacredly preserved and the boundary mark carried its own the transto inflict penalty upon gressor. magical power When gods arise such figures as Min, Hermes and Terminus have as their chief function the protecting of the boundaries In and roads. the places an annual ritual of re-establishing many markings was performed. Unknown dangers lurked at the boundaries Jack o' Lanterns, restless souls, witches at the cross-roads, where as especially, BOUNDARY."
were

peoples

"

"

boundaries

met.

The BOURIGNIANISM." doctrinal system of Mme. Antoinette Bourignon, a French visionary and mystic (1616-1680); a type of quietism in which spiritual ecstasy rather than cult or dogma is made paramount.

BRAHMA. As differentiated from Brahman is the personal creator god, known by many names, e.g., Hiranyagarbha, Prajapati,Narayana.
"

he He

literature he has an early Buddhist the important place as the supreme figureamong gods; he holds his position in the epics but in the later religious development recedes before the But see growing popularityof Vishnu and Shiva.

Piva.

forms In

one

of the Hindu

triad with

Vishnu

and

also Brahman. BRAHMAN. rence (1) A word of frequent occurin Indian reUgiousliterature. The etymology is uncertain,but most writers trace it to the root used in the neuter it refers brh, "to speak." When to power and when in the masculine to the or force, who one meaning of possesses the force. The the word has developed historically, (i) The spoken hymn, or prayer or magic formula. Then Then as (u) the power in that prayer or formula. it meant the sacrifice retired the hymn in the cult, in the sacrifice. When the ritual (in) the power developed, the sacrifice was regarded as the most came potent force in the world hence "brahman" to mean (iv)the cosmic force,or the world-soul. See Atman. of the highest (2) The designation of the four Indian castes. See India, Religions Philosophies and of.
"

commentaries The prose sacred Vedic texts of India. They are exegetical and speculative, giving detailed explanation of the sacrifices. BRAHMANAS. added to the
"

BRAHMANASPATI The (BRIAHASPATI) Lord of prayer; either the heavenly priest of the gods the personification and deification of the magical or of the brahmanical priesthood. power
"

BRAHMANISM." The religionelaborated by the Brahman the period of priesthood between Vedic Religion (q.v.) and the development of Hinduism (q.v.). Brahmanism and Hinduism terms The are often applied to the whole religious indiscriminately development of India after the Rig-Vedic period.

It is convenient to restrict the former to the earlier sacerdotal phases, the latter to the period when fers difpopular elements preponderated. Brahmanism from Vedic Religion because of the extreme which relegatedthe gods comphcation of its ritual, to a subordinate end in position and became an because of its lack of a itself;from Hinduism fervent devotion to a personal god, and because of its emphasis on knowledge and ritualistic works as the chief means of salvation. 1. Historical settingand date. The Punjab was no longer the center of civilization. Culture was centralized in the valleys of the Ganges and now Jumna. The period may be dated roughly between 1000 and 200 B.C.; but Brahmanism lingered on long after that, and the beginnings of Hinduism confuse the outlines. soon 2. Social background. ^In the fertile plains and enervating climate of the Ganges valley life became easier and more settled. The development of greater political solidation unity was accompanied by a conof the priesthood and its exaltation to a of social supremacy. Caste (qv.) and the position doctrines of karma and transmigration(q.v.) (q.v.) made their appearance; and with them a pessimistic attitude toward life and a negative ethical ideal. Asceticism became a prominent factor. As the spoken language changed, the hymns of the RigVeda became archaic and obscure. Interpretation became This, togetherwith the hymns, necessary. handed attention was down was orally. Minute One accent paid to accent and grammar. wrong this might vitiate a whole sacrifice. To master complicated science an education became necessary. Scholars gathered around famous teachers. There ensued a period of formalism and polemic; a recasting of received doctrines and elaboration of an minutae men to that of the period of the schoolparallel in Europe. A priestly theoryof the ideal life developed (the four Agramas), perhaps largely but stillof great influence on all later theoretical, (Religious Student) thought. (1)The Brahmacarin spent years (accordingto one theory, twelve years for each Veda) in the house of a teacher,Hving a and memorizing the sacred chaste,abstemious life, texts. (2) He returned home, married, and became Grhastha a (Householder); performed all the and social duties prescribed by priestly religious tradition. his hair turned grey, and he (3) When had a grown who might succeed him as head of son the family, he went, alone or with his wife, to a hermitagein the forest. There Hfe involved fewer and social duties,and left him freer for religious meditation the meaning of the ritual and of reUon abandoned then gion in general. (4) He any fixed abode and lived as a Sannyasi (one who completely Bhiksu the world) or (Beggar), renounces subsisting a wandering as solitarymendicant This is the ideal picture from entirelyon alms. A man the Brahman might pass point of view. from the first to the third or fourth stage, or remain permanently in the second. The theory applied only to the three higher castes, for the Qudras were excluded from a knowledge of always rigorously The K?atriyas and Vaigyas were the sacred texts. with a short term of studentship. doubtless, contented, texts All the Vedic except the 3. The texts. hymns of the Rig-Veda belong to Brahmanism. consists of hymns, mostly from the The Sama-Veda The YajurRig-Veda, set to elaborate music. consists of sacrificial formulae, mostly in Veda is made up, for the most The Atharva-Veda prose. Around the texts of all part, of magic charms. there grew body of explanation four Vedas a up with myths and and interpretation(interspersed long,rambUng texts in prose called Brahlegends), radical certain In speculativecircles manas.
" " "

57

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Brahmanism.

from the ritual itself to thought tended away and symbolical interpretationof allegorical the to speculation the inner meaning of the ritual, on and act (hymn and ritual). The of word power
an
.

this period From sacrifice became a cosmic power. izing This rationalthe Aranyakas (ForestBooks) come in the Upanishads, tendency culminated and divorced from the which became philosophical Brahmanas diffuse and unritual. The were so wieldy of felt for short summaries that need was the ritual. Further, in their interpretation they followed the order of the hymns in each Veda, not the hymns were used in the the order in which ritual. This summary given in the Sutras, was texts of almost algebraicbrevity. Of the authors for of certain Sutras it is said that they cared more short vowel than for the birth the saving of a single These texts fallinto three classes: (1)The of a son. aristocratic Crauta Sutras deal with the elaborate, sacrifices. (2) The Grihya Sutras deal with Soma the simplerhousehold ceremonies. (3)The Dharma to the gods and Sutras deal with the duties of men social and conanother. tain to one They are largely of the later law-books^. Each of the germs the four Vedas has its own Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, and Sutras. Further, as Brahman northern culture spread over India, divergence of of rituahstic details gave in the matter practice The schools rise to different schools for each Veda. differed littlein their fundamental but in the texts, and later texts the divergencies became Brahmanas four classes of priests, were very great. There Veda The Sutras of any one with each its Veda. giveonly the duties of one class of priests. This 4. Ritualistic Brahmanism. was tially essenand aristocratic. It centered around priestly ritual of extreme complexity demanding three a and a large expenditure. The priests, fires, many the same that of the as pantheon remained much The chief difference is in the supreme Rig-Veda. and the growing importance positionof Prajapati, much and of Vishnu Qiva (Rudra). There was more cosmological speculation. The significant the thing is the difference in attitude toward gods. The gods fall into the background. The of the priests, ritual and the power as controlling in the forces engendered by the are sacrifice, the foreground. The gods are Hke figuresin a puppet show managed by the priests. The whole sacrifice becomes a magical operation; the force verse; set in motion by it is the greatest in the uniit depends the welfare of the universe; on The gods the gods are obhgatory intermediators. but they have powers greater than those of men, must themselves perform sacrifices in order to gain would rise if the "The not their desires. sun priest did not sacrifice." "Verily there are two kinds of gods; for,indeed, the gods are the gods; studied and teach and the Brahmans who have sacred lore are the human gods. The sacrifice of these is divided into two kinds : oblations constitute the sacrifice to the gods; and giftsto the priests that to the human who have gods, the Brahmans studied and teach sacred lore." The reHgiousgoal slaughteredin the sacrifice. the dutiful performance of ceremonial The works. Brahmanism. 6. Popular Grihya and was The ritual itself was Dharma were chiefly entirelya personal matter. Sutras, the rites of which himself (with one There was state rehgion; there were no no temples performed by the householder idols. The benefit of the sacrifice accrued only for ceremonies directions or fire),give elaborate and of pregnancy to the man (and his family)who had it performed. beginning in the third month 5. Philosophical Brahmanism. Toward the reaching up to the time of burial: birth,namefices end of the Rig-Vedic periodan effort had been made marriage, burial,sacrigiving,tonsure, initiation, at the to find some the gods, and sort of unity behind for the departedancestors, ceremonies about behind the many forces of nature. This philoof houses,about cattle and ploughing, sophicalbuilding istic out of ritualthe first fruits,morning, evening, and midday tendency developed chiefly considerations. and guests, etc. A mysterious power emanated worship, duties to Brahmans from matters with the cult, espeeverything connected Marriage and the begettingof a son were cially from the hymn or prayer. male Since the sacno of extreme importance. If there were
. " " "

rifice
the its the

considered the greatest power in Brahman (the hymn and was employed to denote the immanent cosmic cosmological energy, the universe. in Prajapati became a power of the neuter Brahman. personal manifestation what The Upanishads tried to define more closely There this Brahman was. is, however, no one only vague, inconsistent gropsystem of philosophy, ings based on associative thinking rather than on controlled by the objectsof the thinkingrigorously that The final_ external world. answer given was is the same Brahman as Atman, the force within the soul. The of its vital energies, the body, the sum of the the essential doctrines Upanishads are following:(1) The individual soul is identical with soul. the world (2) The individual existence of the soul is for it a state of suffering. Coupled with and transmigration, this are the theories of karma view of life. (3) The individual and a pessimistic soul may be freed from its misery by union with the the world soul. This union is realized when with conscious of its identity individual soul becomes Brahman. Salvation is not, as in the Rig-Veda, material joys, but the life of enhanced a personal into the unified, merging of the individuality theistic panwhere Brahman individuahty is lost. admits of two interpretations: The first statement in (1) A complete identityof the two, a monism which the external world fades away to nothingness, becomes bears the illusion. (2) The Atman an relation to Brahman that the spark bears to same fire. The a predominant note is the second: pantheism which does not deny the world, vague the to it; Brahman, but Uttle attention pays ground. soul,and the salvation of the soul are in the foreis no for beUeving There good reason formulated that the doctrine of illusion was definitely it in the Upanishads. But if not formulated hovered the union the edge of consciousness as on and more with Brahman became more a mystical chief emphasis is For mok"a (release) process. laid on knowledge,not the accurate knowledge of the ritual or of the sacred texts, or a controlled of observation intellectual knowledge based on the material world, but a knowledge of the irmer, esoteric meaning of the sacred,revealed texts; and ate immedithis passed over into an intuitive, mystical, This trait is characteristic knowledge of Brahman. of all later Hindu thought. Some emphasis is laid on reUgiousworks, but only as a preparation, is true of asceticism, katharsis. The same as a worked into the theory of the which was over not all of priestly fourth A^rama. Asceticism was of it developed independently and origin. Much then amalgamated with priestly theory. Whenever and asceticism mysticism begin, conservative creed and dogma and social barriers begin to break down. the theory of transmigration From and from the animistic conception of the unity of of all life developed the idea of ahihsa (thesanctity all life) which largelymodified the old ritual by symbolic substitution of other thingsfor the animals
came

to

be

universe,the word magical potency)

Brahma

Samaj

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

58

descendants for the dead, the to perform ceremonies souls of the ancestors were jeopardized. Hence the for earlymarriage. Further,for a girl to necessity at puberty was be unmarried considered lent equivato the destruction of a Ufe. The details of the ceremonies invented not were by the Brahmans and imposed upon the people for their own dizement aggranthan were the Qaruta ceremonies. more any All were based on widespread popular beliefs and customs, but were elaborated by priestly ingenuity to a degree of complexity found nowhere else in the world. The priests,of course, did of utilize the tacit popular acknowledgment social their own priestly sanctity to estabUsh primacy. Popular Brahmanism, however, marks already what is so characteristic of Hinduism, the conservative of amalgamation between process priestly theory and popular beUefs and customs. W. E. Clark BRAHMA An eclectic theistic sysSAMAJ. tem founded in India in 1830. The founder was influenced by a comRam Mohan parative Roy, who was to organize a society study of religions which should conserve the best in Hindu thought, and be loyal to India and adopt the monotheism ethics of Christianity. second The great leader Debendra the society Nath Tagore under whom was based tended toward Indian theism a distinctly on Ramanuja's philosophy. The third leader was Keshub Chandra Sen, who attempted to establish universal theism with stillmore a more pronounced Christian the elements. Since emphasis on Keshub's death in 1884 the Samaj has lacked in leadership and vitaUty. The system is rationalistic and stresses the ethical and social sides of religion. It has exercised an influence altogether because out of proportionto its numerical strength, of the personnelof its membership. Unfortunately it has been hampered by divisions into sects.
"

the peoples of the East, especiallythe of breathing Hindus, that the ritualisticsignificance has received most conscious attention,a part of in hohness of the Hindu the discipline seeker consisting in regulated breathing,thought to be symbolic of the processes which sustain the life of the world, which is itself viewed the periodical as inbreathing and outbreathing of the spirit of
among

Brahm.

There
a

are

some

traces

in ancient

Greek

conception of a worldat least a breathing universe; and like idea is suggested in Ps. 33:6, a figuratively where the breath of the Lord is spoken of as creative, and Job 4 : 9, where it is spoken of as destructive. Undoubtedly the idea of the sanctity of breathingis associated also with the idea of speech, the instrument of prayer and supplicationand of while some sacred songs; notion of supernatural breath is associated with the propheticinbreathing of vapors (asof the Pythia at Delphi) and with the notion of prophesying to the winds (Ezek. 36:9), or of winds as being the vehicles of gods and spirits. See Inspiration; Soul; Spirit;Wind; Word.
H. B. Alexander BRETHREN." See

philosophy of atmosphere and

similar

Dunkards

(Progressive).
See Bohemian

BRETHREN,
Brethren. BRETHREN See Brothers BRETHREN Adamites.

BOHEMIAN."

OF
of the

COMMON THE Common Life. THE FREE

LIFE."

OF

SPIRIT."

See

BRETHREN,
Brethren.

MORAVIAN."

See

Moravian

BRETHREN,
Brethren.

PLYMOUTH."

See

Plymouth

DAVID BRAINERD, (1718-1747)." Missipnary of the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge of the Indians of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. He endured much hardship,and died after four years of heroic service from tuberculosis.

BRETHREN, BRETHREN,

RIVER." UNITED."

See River See

Brethren. ren. Breth-

United

BREAD,
Meals.

LITURGICAL

USE

OF."

See

Holy

STRIKING THE." BREAST, (1) An act, symbolic of penitence,performed in certain parts R.C. of the liturgy. (2) A symbol of mourning certain rehgious groups, among e.g., the Hindus.
"

Greek and Roman contains the daily services and prayers for the canonical hours. Its of the higher daily use is binding on all members communities. orders of clergyand of certain religious BREVIARY." In the book which churches,a liturgical In criminal law, the act of pledging, or an extorting presenting, receiving advantage giftby a person in the dischargeof pubhc duty BRIBERY.
"

or

BREATH. The breath as an certain type of behavior. Because to induce a image of life is natural and universal. Gen. 2:7, is only one of a of its anti-social character it is morally condemned. multitude of illustrations to be drawn from the lore of BRIDE. See Marriage. inevitably man many peoples showing how tion. typifies livingby the breathing which is its condiwords for soul, including classical See Marriage. BRIDEGROOM." Many and Hebrew examples (Hebrew ruah, nephesh, Latin The building of a passage BRIDGE. a across anima, spiritus,Greek psyche, pneuma), hark back to "breath" "wind" their original river was or as a dangerous work for early peoples and life to was meaning; while certain rites,such as the wellthought to requirethe sacrifice of human known Roman custom of the inhaling of the the river powers to give securityto the structure. last breath of a dying person as a boundary to be crossed by a bridge, (Vergil, A river, by a kinsman Aeneid iv. 684, and the idea of a bridge-passage religions others) point to a literal gave to many identification of the soul with the departing lifeThis is especially into the other world. noteworthy breath. In ritual the breath is often symbolized and in the eschatology of Persia and Islam. Bridges sacred. built direction of officials This is of under the as the t rue regarded were particularly religious American times evident in and breath which is the whom in Roman the Indians,among as early from the sacred pipe is Christian title of Pontifex mingles with the smoke applied to the chief viewed as a commingling of the life-breath of the priest. smoker with the life-breath of nature, while frequently SAINT." breathing upon the sick is thought to be BRIDGET, (1) (452-523),one of the It is, however, efficacious in restoring health. patron saints of Ireland,(2) (1302-1373), a cele" "

59

DICTIONARY
of the

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Bruno, Giordano

brated saint of Sweden, founder

Brigittines
series

STOPFORD AUGUSTUS BROOKE, (1832of letters, 1916). Enghsh minister and man a clergyman of the Anghcan church, 1857-1880,
"

BRIDGEWATER

TREATISES."

of

when

he became

Unitarian.

He

was

noted

as

Uterary critic. ness eight treatises "On the power, wisdom, and goodin Creation" pubhshed of God, as manifested BROTHERHOOD." A from the 8th earl in 12 vols., relationship of close so named in 1833-1836 mutual will a proregard and service arising from either of Bridgewater (died 1829), by whose vision natural kinship made for the writing and pubor membership in a common of 8,000 was lishing society
order. Unselfish social relations are normally developed in family hfe and these are widely used as analogies written statement BRIEF. (1) Legal, a condensed by which to describe and organize various social of the argument and the authorities to which A brotherhood is a group in which all the clesiastical, groups. appeal is made in a case brought to trial. (2) Ecmembers have of the Pope, less formal than equal standing and share equally a rescript in the rights and duties of the group. hoods BrotherBriefs. See Bulls and a bull. be organized for various religious and may AUGUSTUS (1841-1914). moral ends,ranging from mutual benefit associations BRIGGS, CHARLES for serving social need. to organizations Monastilogical American theologian,professorin Union Theocism (q.v.) is one of the most wide spreadforms of Seminary, New York, occupying the chairs brotherhood. In Christian history there religious of Hebrew, 1874-1891, Bibhcal theology, 1891have been which and symboUcs, have repudiated encyclopaedia many groups 1904, and theological sacerdotahsm and have estabUshed munities com1904-1914. religious Briggs was a Presbyterian,and was with the General Assembly for heresy cited before equal authority for all members. Such communities have preferred the because of views concerning the Bible growing out frequently Brothers Brethren (q.v.) to the name name or of his advocacy of Higher Criticism. Charged Church. modern In life there in 1893 suspended numerous are with heresy in 1892, he was fraternities with more less elaborate initiation or from the Presbyterian ministry. In 1899 he entered ceremonies where men themselves to promote of the Protestant Episcopal church. the priesthood pledge certain mutual interests. The mediaeval guilds works. the author of many He was theological often regarded as brotherhoods, and some were modern trades unions take the title, as, e.g., the ^A culture BRIGIT. goddess of the Irish Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. the patron in various places appears as Celts who is A wide variety of ritualistic ceremonies medicine, metal-work deity of learning,fertility, hood. found in connection with initiation into a brothershe fire. Under Christianity and of the domestic another's blood, Drinking or sucking one Saint Brigit. became blood ritual, consecration common by some taking parof a common ceremonial meal, and a mystic R.C. monastic A BRIGITTINES." order, introduction to the secrets and duties of the brotherhood about 1350 by St. Bridget of Sweden, and founded exercises are common means. by disciplinary which spread over Europe. There are nine existing Sisterhoods represent similar relationships among Holland Bavaria in (1), (1), England communities, women, e.g., the Sisters of Charity. of all women. and composed Spain (5), (2), Gerald Smith Birney A BROTHERS THE COMMON LIFE." OF The MORALISTS." BRITISH name given founded men by Gerard community of devout in England during the of philosophers to a number Groot his disciple Florentius (1340-1384) and 18th. century, who sought to find an independent It was an Radewyn. attempt to revive piety. in their foundation for morahty. The members of the community continued lived in a period when British morahsts The Thomas a vocations,and practised communism. of ethics was foundation the theological being of the community. By the Kempis was a member Rationalism. See discredited. They middle of the 17th. century it had ceased to exist. Deism; sought to estabUsh morahty in unquestionable of all is that it independent fashion by proving ROBERT (1550-1633)." A leader BROWNE, of self-evident external authority, growing out active first as a school Enghsh Separatists, among grounded considerations. Morahty was sometimes and later as a clergyman of the established teacher, in in the ultimate nature of things,and sometimes church. He protestedagainstepiscopalauthority, Hutcheson of intuition men. immediate the and formulated that theory of church government elaborated the doctrine of a distinct moral sense. subsequently developed into (Brownism) which Others laid stress on an innate feeUng of sympathy, and CongregationaUsm (q.v.). Independency (q.v.) Others, or originalimpulse to benevolence. an or BROWNIE." happinessIn Scottish mythology, a spirit again, emphasize the evident utility chief names to enter the of benevolent producing effect of morahty. The temperament imagined are Shaftsbury,Hutcheson, Cudworth, Mandeville, farm houses and do the work while the inhabitants cussions Their disSmith, and Bentham. are Butler, Adam asleep. of great value in stimulating a scientific were Smith Birney Gerald See Congregationalism. BROWNISM." study of ethics. of the
"

same.

or

"

"

ItaHan GIORDANO." philosopher, A party within the AngliCHURCH. BRUNO, can order He entered the Dominican that,influenced by the historical spirit ca. 1548-1600. of his views was account persecuted at 15, but on the Established Church on of Germany, defends and fled from Rome in 1576, going to Geneva, Paris, suited it flexible, Erastian grounds, seeks to make senters. disbroad to embrace London, Wittenberg, Prague, and in 1591 returning to the age, and sufficiently imprisoned of thought to Venice where the agents of the Inquisition It insists on absolute freedom burned After a long confinement, he was him. and speech, and opposes compulsory subscription It has had the distinguished leadership at the stake in 1600. He rejectedAristotelianism, to creeds. of Copernicus. of Arnold, Whateley, Maurice, Stanley, Kingsley, and accepted the heliocentric hypothesis He said the unity in the varyingphenomena Farrar,Henson, and others. BROAD church
"

Bryanites
of the

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

60

universe is God, who is not creator nor but soul of the world. This philosophy threatened Catholic to undermine doctrine, and therefore incurred the church's displeasure.

prime

mover

and effect. Within of cause the cognizable world and effect is supreme, the law of cause everything is Buddha's subjectto change,nothing is permanent. of the individual showed him analysis only five

skandhas, "aggregates" (matter, feelings,senseBRYANITES. Methodism.


"

See

Bible

Christians;

and pre-cQspositions, consciousness) perceptions, allof which are subject to change, are impermanent;

in them is nothing changeless and eternal. From this came the doctrine of anatta "no-soul." Does this denote an absolute and categorical denial of soul (any being in itself) does Buddha or any merely argue against the current animistic ideas of soul? The denial seems to denote only the denial of a permanent soul anywhere in the five aggregates; in them is to be found only that which is conditioned, produced, and therefore perishable. If there is be outside of them, BUDDHA." See Gautama. anything permanent it must not subjectto change and to the operation of cause istic and effect. Buddha BUDDHAGHOSA." writer of the A Buddhist repudiatesboth the materialattitude involvingan eternity for an individual fifth century a.d. work is the whose best known Visuddhi soul, and the nihilistic attitude which sees only Magga ("Path of Purity") in which he both conceptionsare heresy. of the complete annihilation; gives a concise statement of the significance "There is, O monks, a non-born, a non-becoming, a Buddhism of his period. If there were a non-caused. not, there non-created, would be no refugefor that which is born, becomes, BUDDHISM." The rehgion of a sect founded is created,is caused." This permanent something "The called Buddha by Siddhattha Gotama (later deal which can cannot be reached by speculation, EnUghtened.") only with the five aggregatesof the world of cause Beginning as the reUgion of a small group of and effect; all of it is to be attained only by the saint in monks in Magadha it graduallyspread over his state of mystic insight. India; thence to Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Cambodia, 3. The indeterminates. Constantlyrecurringin Tibet, China, Mongolia, Corea, and Japan. In the sermons references to the indeterminates India it failed to maintain and merged into are itself, Hinduism. (whether the world is eternal or not, whether the about world is infinite or not, whether the soul is the same 1. The Founder. born ^Buddha was man the body or different from it,whether 560 B.C. at Kapilavastu, northeast of Benares, in a as Such exists in any the foothills of the or not, after death) Himalayas. According to way, refused to answer as tradition he was the son of the chief of the Qakya resolutely questions Buddha not tending to edification, not having to do with as clan; was reared in luxury,but at the age of twenty"Just as hfe. the fundamentals of the religious nine abandoned home-life (leaving his wife and the great ocean has one taste only,the taste of salt, India at the time child)and became a Wanderer. fullof earnest, deeply religious souls seeking just so this doctrine and this (uscipUne have one was To Buddha taste only,the taste of dehverance." and wandered salvation; each preached and the impermathe most obvious thing about Mfe was of many. but one Buddha gathered disciples. was of objects, their constant flux and flow. Of the other contemporary sects only Jainism has By nence endured. For six years he sought help from cUnging to them, as a result of the forces set in motion Brahman in teachers and others with whom he came by good and bad acts, results rebirth in a some never enaing circle. There must be, he felt, contact, practiced the severest asceticism, but hism found no comfort. Then under the Bo-tree, "the permanent. Early Buddescape, something more austere not an tree of enUghtenment," the truth flashed into his was philosophy but a religion emotional filled with mind. For forty-five about the mysticism, the personal years he wandered in the same expressionof which is psychologically preaching salvation. country on his ministry, matter what the creed and theology. all reUgions, II. Essential Doctrines hism. BuddPrimitive no op ^ The 4. Nirvana. 1. The Four Noble Truths. The essentials permanent something, the of Buddha's summum bonum, the rehgious ideal is called teachings are best representedby the which canIt is a mysticalexperience Nirvana. not first sermon at Benares. First comes a statement word The be defined or described. of the Middle Path which avoids the two extremes means the going out of the fireof anger, of wrath, of habitual devotion to the pleasures of sensual hterally of greed, of desire. It is a state of passionlessness both of which are things and to self-mortification, in the present hfe. be attained even which "low and vulgar,ignoble, and fit only may unprofitable, of became of the saint after death was one for the worldly minded ' ' tion What Then follows the enunciaBuddha refused which about of the Four Noble Truths: (1) All individual the indeterminates course suited his disto speculate. Buddha, like Socrates, existence is misery. (2) The cause of this misery he talked, of was an to those with whom adept is tanha to objects' "thirst,"the attachment his doctrine as a medicine, at dialectic. He looked upon of becoming (3) The possibiUtyof release, sense. the who could cure unattached and passionless. (4) The Noble Eightfold upon himself as a physician If a man herent adPath consisting disease of individual existence. an was of Right Views, Right Aspirations, of one point of view about the world and the Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Mode of out himself with pointing contented soul Buddha Livelihood,Right Effort,Right Mindfulness, and with showing the plausibihtyof the the objections, Right Contemplation. cussion. 2. God, the soul, and the world. In this sermon oppositepointof view, the futihtyof any such disto his own he came hism Then there is no mention of God or of Soul. point of view, Early Buddwhich through which discarded allsuch speculations, did not know a personal God, a Creator and certain ethical principles Buddha did not deny the gods; but the lessness passionRuler. brought to a man he of mind whatever and contentment gods are merely higher and more powerful than Be reborn as a might believe about God, the world, and the soul. a by good deeds,may men; man, and must The teaching is a pragmaticethics, intenselypracthe gods pass away tical god, but at last even and metaphysical and human, not theological be reborn. Buddha emphasized the inevitability BUCER (orBUTZER), MARTIN (1491-1551)." German reformer and theologian, a contemporary and In 1548 he decUned supporter of Luther. to sign the ti-uce between tants the Catholics and Protesto flee to at Augsburg, whereupon he had England. He was given a chair in divinity at Cambridge, where he died ten years later.
" "

"

"

"

"

61

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Bulls and

Briefs

its general appeal and Hence like Brahmanism. Brahmanism ism outside of India. and Hindusuccess with the Indian too were closelybound up much social structure outside of to have success India. found 5. Ethics and mental discipline.Buddha which to his mind, and, certain ethical principles as history has shown, to millions of other minds, would work, would lead to the cessation of hatred and desire, craving and discontent. For the practice mental of these principles control was sary. necesBuddha, however, distrusted deeply the of the mind, and doubted the possibility mobility of entirely detachingoneself so long as one remained in contact with worldly things. He insisted on life monk essential to salvation. The as a an as thoughts are wayward and hard to control. On the least slackening of attention they jump from one object to another as monkeys leapfrom branch to branch. monkhood. Buddhist monkhood 6. The was which Buddha discarded. not based on asceticism, It gave and congenialseclusion for meditation in India mystic contemplation. There were many who abandoned became homelife, Wanderers, and of ascetics, formed groups but the Buddhists order was closelyorganized,with elaborate rules and a and therefore maintained bi-monthly confessional, itselfand grew at the expense of the looser ascetic
"
"

saints in

for mythological heavenly existences,


as a

the

conceptionof Nirvana

heaven, for the invention


"

groups. III. Mahayana Philosophical tions. Speculaand Later Buddhist thought, in characteristic Indian rational basis of a fashion, demanded belief. Within three centuries after Buddha's two or in the order which gave rise death came a split yana, to the two great schools of Hinayana and Mahathe Little and the Great Vehicles. On the one hand a body of conservatives clung to the thought that Buddha who had lived and struggled was a man and preached and entered permanently into Nirvana; that he lived on only in his teachings. The Radicals extended his lifeinto the past and future, worked out a theory of pre-existences and mythological and found at last in the conexistences, tinuity going through these lives a unity identical with the law or order of the whole cosmos. The Transcendentalists carrying this thought farther, analyzing every concept by a dialectic process, showing the contradiction involved in any finite concept (any concept involving a limitation which has an developing ideas of absolute antithesis), from relative Being, could Being as distinguished in the find no placefor this universal Buddhahood and placed it in the reahn of absolute visible cosmos literally emptiness, Being,in ^unyata. This means but does not, as has often been stated, mean vacuity and complete annihilation. Qunyata is neither Being nor from Non-being, as understood the point of view of common-sense realism, but transcends both. From the point of view of this synthesisthe phenomenal world has no meaning. in Ceylon, In Hinayana now Buddhism, found Burma, and Siam, which keeps close to the old naive realism of primitiveBuddhism, the ideal was "saint" who attained Nirvana himself the Arhat and entered into it permanently to come no more into the world. To the Mahayana this is a selfish ideal. The their ideal. He Bodhisattva became attains sainthood, but instead of entering into Nirvana continues to transmigrate in order to imitate the lifeof the Buddha, to become a Buddha in some future life, all men. The conto help save cept of karma was enlarged. Good karma, instead of helpingonly the one it was by whom acquired, could be transferred to others and help them. The was as a opened for the conception of Buddha way God manifestinghimself to men to by incarnations,
"

of hells. IV. Tantric Buddhism. By the 7th. century had approximated to Tantric A.p. Buddhism Hinduism. Magic played a largepart. Animistic soul concepts crept in. Asceticism and the acquisition of miraculous (coupled with mystical, powers magicalformulae and diagrams) were important for the attainment of Nirvana. Female as deities, and sexual elements counterpartsof the male deity, became prominent. V. Decline Buddhism of in India. Buddhism has been extinct in India since about 1200 a.d. For the cause to look not so much to external we are Buddhism persecution as to internal conditions. needed who would earnest, zealous monks preach morahty to the laymen, and by personal example the The monks keep precepts before their minds. became lax in their morality physical or plunged into metascholastic speculation and wrangling, thereby losingtheir hold on the people. VI. The Texts. hism In the 3rd. century b.c. Buddwas adopted as the state religion by AQoka, the Constantine of Buddhism, and a canon formed at a council held under taken to his auspices was Ceylon in a language not far removed from the original Magadhi. This canon (with perhaps later additions) has been preserved intact. In India the language of the texts changed as the spoken language changed, and when Sanskrit was freelyused as the common literary language, the texts were In the 1st. century put into Sanskrit. A.D. , at a council held by the greatScythian emperor As formed in Sanskrit. was Kanishka, a canon Buddhism and vanished from India this canon the later texts based on it were have lost. Some been preserved in Nepal; most are stillpreserved in Tibetan and Chinese translations. It is doubtful whether the Pali canon as a whole before represents the unified tradition of Buddhism the splitinto sects. Already in it scholastic and See India, mythological tendencies are evident. Religions ligions of, for statistics. See also China, Religions of; Japan, Religions of; Thibet, Reof: of. Korea, Religions W. E. Clark
" "

BUGENHAGEN,
German Luther

JOHANN

(1485-1558)."

Protestant reformer, a close friend of and Melanchthon. the Wittenberg was of his activity. He is remembered for his scene skill as an organizer, and for his assistance to Luther in translating the Bible.

BULLINGER, HEINRICH (1504-1575)." Swiss Reformer, a friend of Zwingli and Calvin, and
after the death of Zwingli his successor at Zurich. He was of the framers of the First and Second one Helvetic Confessions (q.v.) which reflecthis views on the Lord's Supper and predestination. BULL-ROARER." A flat piece of wood which, when makes a roaring rapidly on a string, swung sound like thunder. in many It is found in use parts of the world in the initiation ceremonies of primitivepeoples. Its nature is kept secret from the uninitiated to whom it represents the dread of its of the unknown spiritforces. Evidence and America from use comes Africa, Australia,

Melanesia.
BULLS AND BRIEFS." In the broadest sense the bull is any pontifical act authorized under seal of the pope, pertaining to the authority or of the Roman Church, whether dealing economy tion, with points of fact, or questionsof law, administraetc. The term is derived doctrine, discipline,
a

Bulls

and

Briefs

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

62

from the metal seal or bulla (inthe papalchancellery in almost always of lead),affixed to the document certification thereof. Besides this insigniaa bull also invariablyhas the titular formula of the pope, servorum semis Dei, and the papal Benevalete written in the form of a monogram. ogy terminolBefore the 6th. century no systematic ments used to classify the various kinds of docuwas which were issued by the papal chancellery. find many We Epistola, terms, such as Lillerae,

and an usually ending with the word Invocation, "Amen." A Valedictoryconcluding the bull was of early and permanent usage, generally in the when, as under the early popes, singular even the plural used in the first part of the was pronoun bull. The form of valedictoryat first varied,but since the pontificate of Hadrian valete" I the word "Benehas been fixed. Originally the word was written put, but was gradually abridged until it evolved into the papal Monogram in the time of Leo IX. The do not sign the bulls. The Precepum, popes Pagina, Scriptura, Decretum, Privilegium, is the signature. Dating. Under sives kinds of misAuctoritas. The three most particular papal monogram under the early popes Empire the popes used the consular were Synodical Letters, the later Roman the with and Decreta, i.e., Exeats or letters of credential, fasti to designate the year, calendar to of the papacy Kalends, Nones and Ides of the Roman authoritative pronouncements upon denote the month and day. When the consular and matters of administration discipline.These elections ceased in the middle of the 6th. century last constitute one of the most important sources the popes dated accordingto the year of the reigning of canon law. See Law, Canon. I (772-95) every From the time of Hadrian emperor at Constantinopleuntil the breach between the Iconoclastic what its character, the Greek and Latin churches over papal document, no matter after which they dated according called a bull. The Benedictine mediaevalists of Controversy(q.v.), was to the name and year of the Frank kings. the 17th. century divided all papal bulls into two the first pope to date according to his fication Hadrian I was categories "great" and "little" bulls. The classiof the popes own not a scientific one, for it rested not pontificate. Some clung, until was well down in the Middle Ages, to the chronological of the document, but wholly the substance upon its form. The former class comprisedthose practiceinaugurated by Constantine of dating by upon documents emanating from the papal chancellery the year of the indiction (q.v.). Gregory VII was III to this usage. which By the time of Clement complied with every detail of chancellery partial became salutation, invocation, (1187)dating by the years of the pontificate composition touching title, signature,dating, etc., and the style fixed. In the 15th. century Nicholas V introduced valedictory, the year of the incarnation as an additional date. or distinguishedby an composition of which was Hadrian I (772-95) initiated the system of doubleor rhythmic cadence (cursus) which was assonance to indicate the date of composition read aloud,as all bulls of impordating, one tance very effective when of a (scriptum)of the bull, the other to indicate the were promulgated, through the mouth date of publication. During the period of conflict ance inheritan papal legate (q.v.). This practicewas with the German the popes often schools of rhetoric. were from the ancient Roman emperors and frequently counter-popes "little" bulls lacked many of these diploThe matic refugeesfrom Rome As a precautionary measwere often being emitted without all of ure, opposed to them. insignia, in order to prevent the bulls of counter-popes them except the papal title and papal signature, confused those with of the lawful Bulls are pope, technically entitled being i.e.,monogram. Calixtus II (1119-24) suppressed the date of according to their opening words (as secular laws gether also in the Middle were Ages), as Ausculta Fili, scriptum and substituted designationof place towith date of publication. Unam Sanctam, etc. of "great"bulls what In the case is known as The history of papal bulls forms an important to concentric circles chapter in mediaeval palaeography and diplomatic. the Rota is also added, i.e., drawn Certain of the popes, notably Gregory I (590-604), with a cross through their center, the inner circle enclosingthe papal monogram, and a motto I (772-95),Nicholas Hadrian I (858-67), Leo IX in the zone from Scripture between the inner and (1049-54), Eugenius III (1145-53), Eugenius IV the outer circle. Beyond the papal seal and papal (1431-47),made permanent changes or introduced pensable other witness is absolutely indisno that the dates of their pontificates monogram, so new practices, of a buU. But in the to the authentication have served to periodizethe history of the papal of "great" bulls the seals of the papalchancellor case chancellery. The most important of these features and cardinals, at least those in Rome, were The early popes sometimes as follows: Name. are usually attached. The last "great" bull bearing the pleninamed themselves before, sometimes after the name tude lery, of the papal chancelof the diplomaticinsignia of the person addressed. No fixed practice obtained that pertainingto the Council of Trent in tillthe time of Nicholas I, with whom the usage of was 1564. estabUshed. first was putting the pope's name the time of Eugenius IV the tendency has From used title except earUest popes Title. The no of the term been "bull" to to restrict the use phrase episcopus,with or without the qualifying doctrine The ecclesiae Romanae. catholicae ecclesiae or important papal pronouncements upon and to appointments of cardinals and and discipline, word papa (pope) is only occasional before Gregory are the Great, who also introduced the title servus vorum serbishops. All other official acts of the pope to known as practically answer Briefs, which Dei, and the invariable titular formula of the "httle" bulls. Benedictine the Use designation of of the 9th. century. pope since the middle As these are said to proceed ex motu of the Salutation is rare before the 7th. century. propriosuch a called a Motus is not infrequently document Propri. The early popes sometimes spoke of themselves ments in the singular, in the plural; but the sometimes Finallyit is hardly necessary to add that all doculatter usage was rare except in addressingpatriarchal emanating from the papal chancellery are Westfall Thompson James written in Latin. bishops, metropohtans and great lay princes like
"

the Germanic kings. The tendency of succeeding for use of the first person centuries was singular, and from the time of Eugenius III no other usage is found. On the other hand, in addressingthe pope, Holiness' "Your the use of the pluralpronoun, the nature is the proper form. Depending upon of the bull there may be a Perpetual Clause (ad perpetvum rei m^moriam, or similar words),

gious (1628-1688)."English reliJOHN BUNYAN, author, born near Bedford, and reared in an served in the He atmosphere of Puritanism. in the civil war, 1645, his Parliamentary army him many figuresfor miUtary experience yielding His rehgious experience began his hterary work.

with

periodof

storm

and

stress

which

overtaxed

63

A DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Caird, Edward

When he joined came his nervous energy. peace the Baptist church, and soon began to preach. thrown into Bedford Five years later (1660) he was he remained 12 years. jail where During his imprisonment he wrote Grace Abounding (pub. 1666). In 1671 he was released,but was again incarcerated for a brief period in 1675. During the periods of imprisonment he wrote his immortal Pilgrim'sProgresswhich was pubUshed in 1678 and reached its tenth edition in 1685. In 1682 he published the Holy War, and in 1684 the second part of Pilgrim'sProgress. He is acknowledged as the of Christian literature. greatest allegorist BURIAL. The act of the interment of a dead which is usuallyan occasion for a religious rite. See Death Funeral Practices. and
"

Lepers, the
China Inland Peace

Leipzig Missionary Association,the


Mission (in Association.

Bhamo),

and the Missionary A. S. Woodbuene

BURNT OFFERING." A form of sacrificein which the whole of the victim is consumed the on altar. See Sacrifice. B U S H I D O .""Military-knight-ways." The code of moral action of the feudal retainers or of Japan from the 13th. to the close of the samurai 19th. centuries. The soul of the knight was loyalty but he was expected also to have the qualitiesof courage, fortitude,honor, rectitude, benevolence. Hia training was courtesy and intended to produce fightingvalor, physicaland moral courage. His ideal was honor rather than wealth the sword. or learning. His symbol was The spiritof old Japan, of loyalty to land and is embodied in Bushido. The word emperor, itselfis of comparatively modern coinage.

body, an

act

RELIGIONS MISSIONS OF AND Burma ing is a province of British India,includthe old independent kingdom of Burma and former British Burma. The total area is BUSHMEN OR about An aborigiBASJESMANS." nal 240,000 sq. miles which includes the Chin African folk,formerly of nomadic hills and Shan states. The population in 1911 was habits, the dwell in the less fertile parts of of whom remnant 12,115,217as against 10,490,624in 1901. Toward S. Africa. the north they have The Burmese mingled are of the Mongoloid type, and are with the Bantus. Their Since the coming of the British religionis an inferior gay and vivacious. indications of totemism. there has been quite an influx of Chinese,Telugus, type of animism with some and Tamils. About 65 per cent of the population HORACE other vernacuBUSHNELL, (1802-76)." American speak Burmese, but there are many lars in use. The indicates the theologian, pastor in Hartford,Conn. ,and influential degree of literacy writer on theological subjects. progress of education, the proportion being 22 per His work was to cent as compared with 6 per cent in India proper. prophetic of the change soon Protestant In religion, about 85 per cent of the people are theology,whereby appear in American the Calvinistic framework and the rigidmethod of 6 per cent animists, 3 per cent Hindus, Buddhists, besides proof-text argument were abandoned, and religious 31 per cent Muslims, 2 per cent Christians, convictions were derived from a study of Christian small numbers Jews of Sikhs, Jains,Zoroastrians, tian and Confucians. The Buddhism of Burma is Hlnaexperience. His most important works are Chrisideals of modern Buddhism Nurture, in which many (seeBuddhism) and has done much yana education to enlightenthe people as it has fostered education religious are anticipated;God in Christ, in which an experiential of the docand a comparatively high ethical standard. trine interpretation of the Trinity is substituted for metaphysical A largeproportion of the Christian population of Burma and The Vicarious Sacrifice, in which is comprised of Baptists and Roman disputation; the doctrine of penal substitution is rejected in Catholics. Catholics have had missionaries The Roman favor of the conception of redemptivesuffering and their in Burma for several centuries, on work French and ItaUan sions. God's part. misis divided between Protestant missions were begun in Burma in 1807 by the English Baptists, but the first (1692-1752)."Anghcan BUTLER, JOSEPH of the American mission that was bishop and philosopher. Beginning as a Presbypermanent terian, he joined the Church of England when a Baptistswho began work in Rangoon in 1813 under and eventuallybecame the leadershipof Adoniram Judson youth, entered the ministry (q.v.). Their wrote successful work has been among the hiU tribes, bishop of Durham. He most important works Christian ethics, but is best known because of the Karens and the Lahu. The mission on especially is progressing his great apologetic has a fine equipment and its work work, The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, ail classes. The Societyfor the Propagation to the Course and Constituiion amcng of the Gospel opened work This was of Deism in 1859 and has conducted (q.v.) a refutation of Nature. and the ground that the objections the Burmese on against revealed a strong work among missions at work be urged with equal cogency the Karens. Other Protestant against religion may Methodist are : the American Episcopal (since 1879), the whole constitution of nature and that design the English Wesleyan Methodists (since 1889), in the universe is argued by analogies between the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A., the Mission natural processes and admittedly rational acts. to the

BURMA,
"

TO.

CABALA." CAEDMON."

See Kabbala. The earUest Christian

religious matters,
stantine.

e.g.,

the

government

of

Con-

poet

of

losopher England, hved in the latter half of the 7th. century, (1835-1908)."Scotch phiCAIRD, EDWARD and wrote bibUcal and and theologian;brother of John Caird; in theologicalnarratives in in the in the vernacular. A hymn, which 1866 became vigorous verse professorof moral philosophy Bede translated into Latin, is extant in the Northwas umbrian universityof Glasgow, and from 1893-1906 In philosophy Christian and is the oldest known of Balliol College,Oxford. master dialect, of the hymn in a Germanic and theology he was a neo-HegeUan, and one language. The Eooluinfluential thinkers of his day. most embodies CAESAROPAPISM." That form of government tion of Theology in the Greek Philosophers in which the political ruler has supreme his conception of religious development. authorityin
.

Caird, John

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

64

crucified. (2) Any (1820-1898)."Scotch theologian the place where Jesus was of the crucifixion. 1862 appointed professorof sculptural portrayal divinityand in 1873 vice-chancellor and principal pretation interof Glasgow University. His theology is an CALVIN, JOHN (1509-1564)."Born at Noyon, in terms of HegeUanism. of Christianity Picardy,trained for law, converted to Protestantism about 1534 through unknown published influences,

CAIRD, JOHN

and

in philosopher;

CALIPH." CALIXTINES."

See Khalif.

an

annotated

edition

of Seneca's

De

Clementia

to

the 15th. A Hussite sect m demanded that laymen should be permitted to partake of the wine m the eucharist. See Utraquists; Bohemian Brethren.

century, which

CALIXTUS,
three popes. Calixtus
was
"

OR

CALLISTUS

"

The

name

of

I. 217-222, condemned SabeUius; opposed in office by Hippolytus ; the catacombs


"

of St. Calixtus were under his cemetery. excavated Calixtus II. 1119-1124, obtained a settlement cordat of the investiture controversy (q.v.)at the Conof Worms, 1122. Calixtus ///." 1455-1458. GEORGE CALIXTUS, theologian. In

Lutheran

of reconcihation he strove to a Western Christendom by eliminatingminor points and Protestants, of difference between Cathohcs

the effect

(1586-1656)." German troversy, syncretisticcon-

reformers. persecution of French Associated with Farel,he estabUshed in Geneva a theocratic church order notable for its consistory and of rigorous system discipline.Becoming unpopular in Geneva he temporarily (1538-1541) established himself in Strasburg where refugees from became lands acquainted with his many church service and system of theology. Returning to Geneva though countering vigorous opposition he was able to dominate the city,making it famed for its moral tone, educational and economic facilities, hundreds of preachers prosperity. Here trained for the Reformation were propaganda in western His most Europe and notably in France. important literaryproductions were Catechism, a the a Commentary on Romans, and the Institutes, last of which embody the principlesknown as Calvinism, through which its author has rendered his greatest service toward See Calvinism.
"

mitigate the

militant Protestantism. G. Mode Peter

CALVINISM. A name given, more narrowly, to the A sense of inner impulsion, interpreted to the system of doctrine, broadly, or, more of action, entire attitude towards Ufe, characteristic of those as a divine direction to imdertake a course Christians known, in contrast with the Protestant a lifework. specifically, 1. Vocational. Lutheran, as the Reformed, and one of whose most tation misinterpreBy an interesting illustrious teachers in the 16th. century was John of I Cor. 7:20 the idea arose that each man Calvin. was designatedby God to the Ufe work in which he John 1. Calvin's achievement. tion, Calvin, of the was engaged, hence the English word call or vocasecond as generation of Reformers, standing on the applied to one's occupation. The conception is doubtless one of great religious significance, shoulders of Luther (whom he delightedto honor), shared with Luther and all the Reformers the and is taking its placeas part of the modern rehgious trine fundamental endeavor artificial distinction obliterate the to standpoint of the Augustinian docof the underlying of grace. Out between the sacred and the secular. That farmers reUgious consciousness of which this doctrine is the expresand and are sion, carpenters, statesmen merchants,^ he had the genius to release a principleof needed in the kingdom of God as well as ministers and teachers, is a commonplace of modern religious Ufe which reinstituted healthy granulation in the diseased body of European: society and thus, as thinking. The endeavors that are being made to Mark Pattison The Europe." puts it, "saved develop wise vocational guidance and instruction vehicle by which this new have deep religious if the church was life-principle spread significance may Reformed Churches. the takes its part in the making of a sound human through Europe was "Calto be spoken of,accordingly, as They came society. vinistic" Churches it was of their own not a name 2. Religious. There two meanings of the are word that have become somewhat confused. It choosing and the complex of their points of view, take has always been felt that a person who is to underphilosophical, ethical, social, theological, economic, "Calvinism." as reUgious service should be divinelyappointed political, The creative of the church 2. Calvinism in its broad sense. (Acts 13 : 7). But as the organization of Calvinism has left a permanent mark not developed those alone could serve as ministers who energy had been "called" in regular order and by proper only on the thought of mankind, but on the social order of civilized peoples, the political organization authority. A minister is stillsaid to be called of lifeof communities. God and also called by the church. The practical of states, and the economic of the conception is that each person Taking its start in a readjustment of the religious significance its way first to a reformation of relation it worked should with of himself take account seriously reference to his opportunitiesfor service in the tirety morals,and thence to the reconstruction of the enthe source of life. It has been, for instance, world and should most carefullyconsider those liberties of the modern and guardian of the poUtical occupations which do not promise large financial the reward but do offer peculiar for benefiting world; and Max Weber has shown that even opportunities the growth of modern which makes mankind. capitalism By conference with friends and industrialism possiblehas its root in Calvinism. by prayer, he should seek to put himself in an that Protestantism set attitude to make It was his decision aright and to accept only in Calvinism the divine leading, which will come a complete world-system to him over as an against Romanism inner sense of obhgation. What istic is thus charactercapable of giving having in it an organific power of life. Accordingly to the entirety of the decision of Ufe work may form and energy also be true that "of all the developremarks in the decision to undertake all types of religious P. Hume Brown ments of Calvinism and the Church of Christianity, service. Theodore G. Scares alone bear the stamp of an absolute reUgion." Rome the From CALLISTUS." 3. Doctrinal See Calixtus. system of Calvinism. point of view of its doctrinal system, Calvinisni may either as theism come to its rights, CALVARY." be looked upon (1) The Anglicized form of the be and should Latin calvaria, equivalent to the Hebrew golgotha; in which case it is a world-view CALL.
"
" " " "

"

"

"

"

65

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Campanile

spoken of as "the five points comparison with other comprehensive not wholly accurately, of Calvinism." the reUgious relation in its They are really the Calvinistic or as obverse the five points of Remonstrantism. to it stands in case purest expression, in which be treated as the formative Though they cannot the other with contrast great religionsof the of Calvinism, however, they provide in world; or as the logicalexpositionof evangelical principles of its subtheir entirety a not unfair summary stantial it challengescomparison case rehgion, in which B. B. Warpield methods of conceiving Christianity. teaching. other with pretation interto its rights in a teleological Theism comes METHODISTS." A denominaCALVINISTIC tion to in which all that comes of the universe, of Welsh the outworking of God's aUorigin largely confined to Wales, as pass is explained combines the evangelicism of Methodism which to comprehensive plan, and is referred ultimately The with Calvinistic doctrine. the cause of all things. The beginnings of the the will of God as traceable to Rev. Griffith Jones movement of absolute are relation in its purity is one religious tion (1684-1761) The firstCalvinist Methodist associadependence on God, and is best expressedin a lifein dates from 1743,but not until 1795 was which an attitude of dependence on God, responsibility tion separaof England considered. In from the church is sustained in all and trust in Him to Him of ministers 1811 the body ordained the first group emotional and execuits activities, tive. intellectual, founded and in 1823 issued their confession, soul of evangeUcalism lies in utter on The church the Westminster Confession. The ment governdependenceon the grace or free mercy of God as the and Congregationali of Presbyterianism into is a combination of all the efficiency which enters only source in A vigorousmission is conducted salvation. All the revivals occurringin Wales since From N. India. 4. Fundamental of Calvinism. principle dists. each point of view alike the fundamental principle 1735, have originatedwith the Calvinistic MethoIn many is seen to reside in its profound sense of Calvinism respects it is the strongestchurch of churches of the in Wales. There are a number He of God and its reference of everything to Him. mined denomination in England, but the administrative without reserve, and is deterwho believes in God work is done in the Welsh to him, in all his that God shall be God assembly. There are vidual, about 190,000 communicants. thinking, feeling, doing,throughout all his indirelations,is a Calvinist. religious social, CAMALDOLESE." The name This is often,but not very felicitously, (from Campus expressedby saying that Calvinism is the pure embodiment pf Maldoli, near Arezzo, Italy,the site of their first of men, R.C. order the Lutheranism of predestination, the principle rehgious is, hermitage) of a as of justificait is added in contrast, of the principle outgrowth of a monastic reform by St. Romuald tion have by faith. Both the doctrines of predestination earlyin the 11th. century. The Camaldolese ideal written rule,but endeavor to practicean of faith,however, were no and of justification mon comthe entirety of originalProtestantism; asceticism of silence, to prayer, and labor,combining the claim at least of preserving solitude and community life. Their religious garb and Calvinists make and an ample is a white robe,scapular, statement. cowl,girdle, both alike in their only consistent cloak. There is also a similar order of Camaldolese Calvinism What represents is logicaltheoreally Florence. near centric thinking; a world- view, a religion, nims a soteriology, in which the vision of God in His glory PLATONISTS." A of CAMBRIDGE endeavor is to render to God rules all, and the one group of the latter and philosophical His rights in every sphere of thought and action. thinkers, theological of The formed half of the 17th. century, largely members Re5. Chief depositories of Calvinism. who set forth theological theologyis alreadygiven expressionin its Cambridge University, and Neodominated in the teaching of ZwingU. fundamental principles by Platonism systems Platonism. its first comprehensively systematic It received They opposed both the sacerdotalism of Laud, and the rationalistic doctrines of Hobbes; whose formulation, however, at the hands of Calvin, ize known day as Institutes of the Christian Religionremains until towere Latitudinarians; sought to harmonrevelation and reason; were mystical,tolerant of its chief classics. It has been embodied one and liberal. The best known of the group are Ralph since then,however, in a long series of important the whole predoctrinal treatises, have which Cudworth, Richard Cumberland, and Henry More. on served remarkable conformity to type. Among a those by the be named the latest of these may (1579-1623)." Scottish JOHN CAMERON, who American, Charles Hodge, and by the Netherlander, theologian,leader of a school of Calvinists, asserting Herman It has also found expression, modified the doctrine of predestination, Bavinck. the human will is entirely which have been that God's influence on in formal Confessions, naturally, moral. of the extension because particularlynumerous Churches of the Reformed through many nations, A section of the Scottish CAMERONIANS." the Church in each independent requiring an Cameron Covenanters influential of led by Richard (1648declaration of its faith. The most (q.v.) Helvetic these are the Second Confession, the 1680),which after 1690 became a separate church. to or fession They refused to take the oath of allegiance Conand the Westminster Heidelberg Catechism exercise civil functions. From 1743 they took the has the advantage of the last of which versy controReformed name Presbyterians; and in 1876 the having been prepared after the Arminian and of summing up thus the results of the majority united with the Free Church of Scotland. entire Reformed development. The CAMISARDS." Points" "Five 6. The designation of French of Calvinism." The against rebelled in 1702-1705 who Protestants Canons of the Synod of Dort contain the replyof the Churches made Louis XIV., assertingreligious liberty and civil Reformed to the "Remonstrance, five points against the Calvinistic system by on rightslost through the revocation of the Edict of led by and Excited the Dutch of the early 17th. century. Nantes. Arminians by persecution, frequently enthusiastic preachersthe Camisards istic They reassert over againstthis protest the Calvindoctrines of absolute predestination, fantastic ecstatic phenomena. particular developed irresistible grace, and redemption, total depravity,
considered in world- views;
. "
" "

the

perseverance
are

of the

saints.

These

of doctrine

accordingly very

commonly,

five heads but

CAMPANILE. church or town

"

A bell tower in connection with hall in Italy,usually detached

Campbell,

Alexander

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

66

famous are those from the church. Among the more in of St. Mark's, Venice, Giotto's at the Duomo and the leaningtower of Pisa. Florence, ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. (1788-1866)." Founder of the aenomination, Disciplesof Christ Thomas Campbell, and he were (q.v.). His father, in 1812 became Baptists, Presbyterians, originally denomination. the new and in 1830 formed They taught baptism unto repentance by immersion, the second advent of Christ, the abandonment imminent of of creeds, return to the primitiveChristianity a the New Testament, and church union on these

of hunger, the disposal of dead sacrificeto the deity, the kinsfolk,human desire for revenge, a ceremony of initiation, and various magical practisesof the sympathetic and is usually protective types. Cannibahsm regulatedby ceremonials, and probably endocannibahsm (the victim being a tribesman) is of

the impulse including

rehgiousorigin.
CANON. cally (1) The list of writings,ecclesiastiauthorized as constitutingthe Bible, (q.v.). (2) A findingof an ecclesiastical council regarding doctrine. See Law, Canon. or discipline (3) The order. rules of a religious (4) A list of canonized saints. (5)An ecclesiastical dignitarywho receives income for the conduct of services in cathedral or an churches. In the Roman church, canons collegiate five in a community as Canons Regular. In the Church of England the rule of ceUbacy has been removed, but the duties are the same. (6) The between the Sanctus and portion of the Mass the Lord's Prayer. (7) A class of hymns used in the Eastern church.
"

premises.
McLEOD (1800-1872)." JOHN CAMPBELL, of heretical convicted Theologian; was and expelled teachings concerning the Atonement from the Presbyterian ministry by the General Scottish

preached in His church. his work, The Nature to theology was of the Atonement, in which the current doctrine that the death of Christ rendered penal satisfaction denied. to God was Campbell held that Christ offered vicarious repentance on behalf of humanity and so satisfied God's justice. Assembly,
Glasgow
1830.
an

For

16

years

he

in contribution

undenominational

uring (BIBLICAL)." Canon, meaning "measthe term which first was rod," "rule," was appliedby Christians in the second half of the 4th. that collection of books which has the Christian church as Holy each Scripture. The through which processes book passedbefore it was recognizedas part of the divine libraryare too complex to be discussed in But we shall specify the epochs this connection. of those books seem in which certain groups first to been collected and regarded as sacred and have authoritative. The gradual growth of the Old Testament culminating at the Council of Jamnia at the close of the 1st. century a.d., and of the New Testament culminating for the West at the end of lowing the 4th. century a.d., and for the East in the folcentury, is one of the characteristic features of their formation. The Old Testament. I. The growth of the Canon be observed in the Old Testament may of the three groups of chronologically recognition it has been arranged. (1) The books into which the so-called five books of first collection embraces

CANON

century
been

a.d.

to

CAMPBELL,
Alexander.

THOMAS."

See

Campbell,

by recognized

CAMPBELLITES. Popular designationof the Disciplesof Christ (q.v.)because of the foionder, Alexander Campbell.
"

one

The CANAANITES." inhabitants of Canaan, of the ancient names of the land known today in the Tel el first appears as Syria. The name Tablets and is there used interchangeably Amarna the common with Amurru lonian Baby(Amorite-land), of the Westland from before designation Phoenicians called themselves The 2500 B.C. late and so did the Carthaginians as Canaanites, the 5th. century a.d. as The inhabitants of Canaan not a homogeneous were people. In most of the twenty-two passages of the of tlie Old Testament where the predecessors Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Israehtes are enumerated, the Amorites and Hittites termed the "Pentateuch." This Deuteronomy, Canaanites. hold prominent placesalongsideof the first publicly also called "the law" was group Tablets Similar testimony comes from the Amarna recognizedas sacred and authoritative by Ezra and and the Egyptian inscriptions which also show the forth Nehemiah, about 444 b.c. (in Neh. 8:9). Hencein this region of Indo-European elements. presence Jewish writers referred to "the law" as the and The cuneiform (Amarna of all the three sections hieroglyphic, firstand most highlyinspired Babylonian)and Old Testament records are our of the Old Testament. (2) The second collection chief Uterarysources for the study of Canaanite is "the Prophets," broken into two subdivisions: civilization. In addition we have the results of the (a) that covering historical material, Joshua, tion Exploraexcavations in Palestine (seePalestine Judges, (I and II) Samuel and (I and II) Kings, ' enable the to trace us story Fund), which 'the former prophets"; and called by Jewish writers, neolithic from the days when the Canaanites were (6) that embracing pippheticutterances, Isaiah, in dwellers. master For centuries Egypt was cave 'the Twelve (Hosea, Joel, Jeremiah, Ezekie?%"h(i Canaan and greatlyinfluenced its material develop"Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, ment, but in the growth of business and legalprocedure Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi) eight well as in mythological thinking, the as was reckoning. This group books, by Jewish influence of Babylonia was much about stronger. The authoritative 200 recognized as B.C., reUgion of the Canaanites was Baalism (seeBaal). and accorded an equal placeby side of "the law" as a D. D. Luckenbill second part of the Old Testament. (3) The third
" _ "

CANDELMAS. Church feast commemorating the presentation of Christ in the temple, celebrated Feb. 2nd. The Roman brating church regards it as celethe purification The of the Virgin Mary. is derived from the custom, introduced in the name 11th. century, of blessing the candles for the whole year on that day.
"

CANNIBALISM."

The

by human

beings, a

flesh eating of human practiseof multiple origin,

called "the Writings" and books was books not found all the Old Testament These in their order in the firstand second groups. Bible are, Psalms, Proverbs, Job, in the Hebrew Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and (I and II) Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah for the most These were Chronicles eleven books. in 132 B.C. as authoritative ^art probably recognized by Jesus the son of Sirach in the prefaceto the book in disbooks that were Those of Ecclesiasticus.
group

of

embraced

"

67

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Canon

(Biblical)

(Esther,Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastes) were finally recognizedas genuine and authoritative by the assembly of Palestinian Jews held at Jamnia, near Joppa, about 90 a.d. puted disThat Council by its public recognition of the books simply confirmed and fixed what had been already for a long time the opinion of leading Jewish writers. By that decision the full collection books was (Canon) of Old Testament informally closed embracing within its compass exactlythose Hebrew books now found in our Bibles and also in and Revised the (English) Authorized Versions of the Old Testament. collection of Old Testament This same books was regarded by Jesus and the apostlesas sacred and doubtless on the basis of the common authoritative, belief of that day. Even Jewish the books which, in some quarters, had been held in dispute, their way to full recognition. The gradually won of the church founders and fathers Christian accepted in full the decision of the learned rabbis of their day at the Council of Jamnia, and henceforth of the Hebrews the Old Testament was revered and quoted as Holy Scripture. See Old Testament. did and when II. The New Testament. How the books Testament now constitutingthe New become and take their place by the authoritative, side of those already embraced in the Old Testament?
"
"

pute in the times of Christ

Jesus,in his utterances, spoke with an authority which ranked with that claimed for the Old soon Testament. The ment Testaapostles and other New writers were influential and effective in so their works and words and lives that they secured the immediate attention,gradual obedience, and communities of of the Christian even reverence their day. Their letters and other writings were Christian read in the churches and assemblies, and were received with a degree of sacredness and divine attributed to them a authority that soon character. During the 2nd. and 3rd. centuries the be largely growth of the Christian church may attributed to the use which the pastors and evangelists made of these same writingsin their preaching and preachers and teachings. Early Christian teachers used a larger number of writings in their contained in the New church work than those now Testament. Early Christian writers,too, recognized varying grades of authority in the apostolic works in their day, thus verifying the current ity that the whole process of gaining authorstatement ment, was gradual. As in the case of the Old Testament Testathe so-called authority of the New books was a growth through several stages there was and centuries. And a difference, too, in the East and in the between the results seen West. first period in the East and the West 1. The extended from the close of the apostolic age to about of Paul (Romans, The thirteen epistles 220. A.D. I and II Corinthians,Galatians,Ephesians, PhilipI and II Thessalonians, I,II,and pians,Colossians, III Timothy, Titus and Philemon) and the four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) were received as sacred read in the churches and were find also Acts, and divine. In the same we group I Peter and I John all with their authority generally period recognized by a.d. 220. In this same also we find the followingwritings as a kind of candidates for admission to authority: The Apocalypse of Peter, Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, Shepherd of Hermes, Epistlesof Clement of Rome and of Barnabas, Acts of Paul and a second Epistle of the of Clement. read in some These were as churches,but failed to obtain generalrecognition equal to the books found in the first group.
"

2. In the second period (a.d.220-323) in the there seems been little progress in West to have of the books stillin dispute. The early recognition church fathers in general refer to those already recognized as accepted and authoritative,and probably under the influence of Origen, the greatest scholar in the East, add to their list the Epistleto the Hebrews, on the basis of its dependence on and with apostolic teachings in general agreement although not of apostolic authorship. The real in both sections of the country, tests now at work the East and the West, were ments (1) use of the docuin the churches and (2)apostolic authorship, (3) appeals to the teachings of those books as against the heresies of the day. That is,church usage and authorshiphelped fix the authorityof the them. books current among be desig3. The third period in the West nated may the last three quarters of the 4th. cenas tury. Several causes conspired to fix the limits to be regarded as of the books sacred: (a) the difference between them and other books was sized emphaby the persecutionsin which the destruction of those very sacred books was the chief aim. That fact stimulated their production, so that Constantine ordered through Eusebius fiftygreat Bibles now produced. (6) The Scriptures were being prepared as a whole and so limits thereto became a practicalquestion, (c) The preparation of creeds for the church demanded the fixing of the limits of the New There are many Testament. lists of the books of the New Testament which have come down to us from the 4th. century, but the first one with those of our to agree present (Western) New Testament that of Athanasius,a.d. 397. In the was Council of Carthage recogsame nized, year the Third approved and confirmed as its list (canon), the same books New Testament that we of the Western church have today. On the other hand, the churches in the East under the leadership of Origen and other great churchmen slower in recognizing the authority were of some of the New Testament writings. Origen to have seems recognized James, Jude, I Peter, I John, and Revelation,but barred II Peter and II and III John, while II and III John, Jude and Revelation refused recognition in Antioch and were the Syriac-speaking world the close of the to 4th. century. Origen refers to the Gospel of the Hebrews the Gospels of Peter and apologetically, James, the Acts of Paul, and givesquotations from Hermas and Barnabas as "Scripture," though he admits that Hermas not was accepted by all. It is, however, striking that Origen wrote no of the books not now on commentary part of any New Testament. Eusebius the historian our took a long step ahead in the settlement of the troublesome question. He made three lists of the books involved in the dispute: (1) those recognized and regarded as authoritative by all the Christian churches and leaders. These were the four Gospels, tion of Paul, I Peter,I John, and RevelaActs, Epistles which he would (2) Books (doubtfully). bar them: recognize though some James, Jude, II Peter, II and III John. (3) Books that he regarded as spurious: Acts of Paul, Shepherd of Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Teaching of the Twelve think, Apostles, and perhaps, as some

Revelation.
In the Western church during the 5th. century Augustine (430 a.d.) laid down certain rules by which the authoritative recognition the canonicity of the several books should be determined: (1) the books accepted and acknowledged by all the churches should be regarded as canonical; be not universally accepted should (2) books received by the subjected to two tests: (a) those
4.
" "

Canon

(Buddhist)

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

6ft

majority of the churches are to be acknowledged, (6)those received by the ApostoUc churches are to be preferredto those recognizedby onlya small number of churches of less authority, in other words, those not founded by the apostles. Augustine's applicationof these tests gave him precisely the books of our (Western) New Testament. Jerome New (a.d.420) also accepted the same Testament, the authority includingHebrews and Revelation, on earher and not because of the opinions of. writers, of his day. Augustine's opinion and Jerome's Latin Bible 'the Vulgate seemed to complete the crystallization of the Western of the canon
and
" "

down to us Scriptures have come Sanskrit. and Of these two, only the of Ceylon, Burma and Siam is complete. Pali canon It is called the Tripitaka or "three baskets" and consists of the Vinaya-Pitaka or Basket of Discipline, the Sutta-Pitaka Sermon Basket made or up of five divisions or nikayas (Digha, Majjhima, the Samyutta, Aaguttara, and Khudda), and Abhidhamma-Pitaka Basket of Higher Religion. or This canon, brought togetherprobably by the time in the 3rd. century B.C., was of Asoka the literature of the Hfnayana sect. The Mahayana form of the has an extensive literature but no authoritative religion in Pali
canon.

the written

General without the edict of any this before the middle of the 5th. Testament. century. See New III. Canons Churches. There Various op is no In universally accepted biblical canon. distinction from the Protestant canon of today the older churches adopted as their Scripturea collection of biblical books either with omissions therefrom Of those bodies mention or additions thereto. be made of only a few. can The 1. The Syrian Church. Syriac version of Scripture is found in two distinct classes of manuscripts, representing different rescensions. But they agree on the books found in their canon. Both classes omit II and III John, II Peter, Jude and Revelation, but contain all other books of the Western tions. without any apocryphal addicanon This version was also the source of the first Armenian which was later revised translation, from the N.T. Greek. The Egyptian versions 2. The Coptic Church. of the New Testament are two, the Sahidic (Thebaic) of upper Egypt, and the Bohairic (Memphitic) of lower Egypt. The former exists only in fragments today while the latter has been published entire. This is the canon of the Coptic church. It is identical in content with the canon of the Western This same lack is church, but omits Revelation. found in the fragments of the Sahidic translation. 3. The Eastern or Greek Church." We have seen the Eastern church of establishingas its canon Scripturethe Septuagint,togetherwith its quota of Wisdom of Solomon, Judith, apocryphal books: Tobit, History of Bel and the Dragon, History of of Sirach. Susanna, I and II Maccabees, Wisdom 4. The Roman Catholic Church. 'The power of tradition as well as the content led the authorities of the Roman church to determine by Council the limits of their sacred volume. had The church sanctified by long usage Jerome's primary translation of the Vulgate, except the Psalter which was Jerome's second revision of the Old Latin. No formal official decree of the Roman church had fixed the limits of the Bible. Disputes through centuries on the authorityof the apocryphal books were suddenly settled by a decree of the Council of that Trent, April 8, 1546. This edict determined in the canon of the Western church there should be included Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Book of Wisdom, to Eccleeiasticus, Baruch, Additions Daniel, I and II Maccabees, III and IV Esdras, books which had been revered by long usage in the church, and whose claim to recognitionhad been rejected by the churches in the generally early Christiancenturies. all the canons of other minor churches Practically based on one other of those already named. are or And within most even of them there was liberty allowed in the discussion of the comparative of the books authority already regarded as sacred. See Bible. Ira M. Price New Testament

Council, and

CANON

LAW."

See

Law, Canon.

"

ANGLICAN." The rules and regulations drawn ecclesiastical convocation in up by an 1603 and ratified by James I. in 1604, as the official expressionof English church law.

CANONS,

CANONS,
Canons.

APOSTOLIC"

See

Apostolic

"

COLLECTIONS ANCIENT." OF of conciUar decisions and papal decrees pertainingto church government. Collections

CANONS,

CANONS,
standards church. of

Rules or ECCLESIASTICAL." conduct or doctrine, fixed by the

"

CANONESS."

member

of

R.C.

secular

congregation under the rule of an abbess, and of obedience and chastity. governed by vows appointed by or Anglican, as devotion, and, in specific purposes, prayer, England, the celebration of marriage. The usual devotional hours are called matins turnes (includingnocand lauds), prime,tierce, sext,nones, vespers, and compline.
CANONICAL
canon or

the for

HOURS." Times rule of the church, Roman

"

CANONIZATION." The Greek and Roman churches is enrolled as a saint. person op; Beatification.
"

formal process in the by which a beatified See Saints, Veneration

sacred song. CANTICLE. (1) A non-metrical Usually adapted from the Scripturesand chanted, in church services. also as the known

(2) PI.

The

canonical
or

book

Song of Solomon

Song of

Songs.
CANTICLE More formal

pF

THE

BLESSED

VIRGIN."

designationof the Magnificat (q.v.).

The designationof collections CANTIONALE." of ecclesiastical music for the complete liturgyin and Bohemian the Lutheran Brethren services. The infliction by CAPITAL PUNISHMENT." constituted authorityof the death penalty legally for a specific crime. In the code of Hammurabi
a
"

collection of laws 'the death offences. penalty was imposed for many Progress made in the direction of mitigating has been steadily the barbarity of the methods of execution and of of crimes for which reducing the number capital punishment is inflicted. In the leading nations today the punishment is confined to murder and treason. See Penology. the earliest extant
"

CANON The language spoken (BUDDHIST)." by the founder of Buddhism was Magadhi but

CAPITALISM,
the

present method

ETHICS OF." of carrying on

Capitalism is industry and

09

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Capitalism,Ethics of

to political is subsidiary It is western or intricately Europe and in America. power involved in family prestige and social status. The with older methods of carryingon large class receives the successful business such as slavery or forced levies. It is capitalist enterprises, of family. It is also distinct contrasted also with sociaUsm, which in the form man irrespective known state socialism would in its ideals from the farmer class which, although basic as carry on industries through state resoui^es and credft. It owning property, gets little advantage from the collective process of modern is contrasted also with an industry and finance, agricultural system of farms which does small not large works hard at manual labor,gets littlegain through require any accumulation the labor of hired wage of resources. It signifies the accumulation workers, and does not of property realize the meaning of the power by private hands of a store of tools and be used to provide material which in combination. It is contrasted most resources can sharply with the wage-earning class, and equipment for manufacture which little and possesses pay wages of the United Great and salesmen until products laborers,managers States, Britain, property. (In and Germany the tendency to the accumuIn its actual operation, P'rance, are placed on the market. lation it operates of wealth in the hands of a few is so uniform largely through corporations. It as to imply that this tendency is part of the system, employs the great developmentof credit, by which, of though greatly aggravated in Great Britain by through the agency of banks, the resources of people and the earning power great numbers primogeniture. The richest two per cent in all of future generationsare these countries own all made than half available for a more considerably the wealth, the upper middle class,comprising present enterprise. It implies the wage system of capitalare the employers, in which the owners about oneeight per cent of the population,owns whereas assuming risks and taking profits, two third,leaving from one-thirtieth to one-eighteenth of workers, commonly known for the remaining four-fifths of the population.) salaried as groups and The attitude of the capitalist is not militancy stable workers, receive a relatively wage but no for its own and profits. It therefore tends to form sake,but as the builder of enterprise wage classes having a certain degreeof the owner of it .he resents any interference with his sharply marked of control and ownership, and hence interest in that both common rights normally desire opposes continuous and such recognition of any group lesssen his power. as industry (subject to prosperous he considers fair or even limitation of output by either group this He is willing to give what when liberal wages, but is likely the more of enhancing be to insist that he must seems profitablemethod but with conflicting the sole judge of what is fair. interests as to the shares prices) of total income which shall go to employers' profits 3. The capitalist is a competitive group. group It observes certain "rules of the game," and workers' wages respectively. strictly The ethics of capitalismmust be understood condemn to forgery, frauds of certain e.g., which In merchandizing signify not the ethics of all engaged in modern kinds,failure to keep contracts. it has made in recent years toward ards standindustry and business (the ethics of one group of progress these is treated under Labor of quality and uniformity of prices. But in Ethics Movement, caveat emptor op) but the ethics which the system tends to foster, large fields of operation,the maxim in the owning and standard of value is "what prevails. The logical managing class. particularly Individual members of the class may in various can get" or "what the traffic will bear" rather you than any assumed intrinsic value or any relation respects be governed by their membership in other to cost of production. In this point it has enlocal be mined deteror reUgious, political, countered groups by temperament or conviction to actions not oppositionin other groups, particularly when ideal. in accord with the capitalistic prices for various kinds of quasi-public is the carryservices have been in 1. The primary objectof capitalism e.g., railroad and gas rates ing of business and industryfor profit. It is not on question. Monopoly is in such cases a disturbing factor. the craftsman's interest in skill, the inventor's nor interest in discovery, 4. In dealing with labor,capitalismhas in the although these may be utilized It is not the avaricious seekingof wealth as means. past also preferred the competitive method, as contrasted with any method of collective bargaining. apart from the process of business; it is "making It has stood for the "open shop," which means Success from in not merely gettingmoney. money" vidual the capitalistic point of view is secured by building practicethat the employer bargains with the indibut the outstanding measure employee and not with the union to which up a great business, ness of success is not so much of the busithe efficiency an employee may theoretically belong. The its service to the public as it is the profits employer believes that in this way there is gjreater or incentive to individual efficiency. secured as shown in the annual balance sheet. It goes without scarcity Further,its conception,although not excluding saying that except in times of extraordinarj^ the spending of money of labor,the open, non-union or the bestowal i.e., shop, is highly luxuries, upon of it upon education and philanthropy, does not advantageous to the employer. The central idea is that 6. In relation to the pubUc at large, favor such uses. capitalism directly has adopted the underlying business enterprisefor profit is not to means a philosophy of Adam he will seel^his own Smith: if each man tious ostentareligion, interest, anything else leisure, art,science, the public good. if not the all-sufficient, promote, though unintentionally, display but is itself, at least the most important, end and value of life. Capitalism believes the present system to be the best yet devised for carryingon the world's industry of acquiring wealth, It is not merely the means and It believes that it is both prosperity is commerce. a fascinatingoccupation and, under ject of a free hand, subdependent upon givingcapitalism present-day conditions, the greatest source which of pubUc control over to a certain amount in comparison with politicsis of power banking, etc.,which operates to stabilize secondary interest and place. The logicaluse to railroads, make is to of the great bulk of wealth accumulated pricesand values. is the of capitalism it as 6. The use capital for expanding business and prevailing agency be can is impersonal. It industry. corporation. This but as it is organized the capital2. The class which best exemplifies held to legalresponsibility, istic it does ideal becomes for a singlepurpose, not onlyan active accumulative namely "for profit," but a property-ownmg class. As such it is, not admit other motives to enter into its conduct of class, interfere with profits. Both would class affairs which from such a propertied however, distinguished with whom in its relation to the pubhc and in its relation to as the British landed aristocracy prop-

business in
contrasted

erty

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Capitularies

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

70

the corporation frequently pursues workmen, varying widely from the views entertained policies directors stockholders. This or by individual impersonal attitude is of great importance in the of ethics of capitalism. It also explains much since the the public attitude toward corporations, public refuses to treat a corporation in the same has treat an individual who On the other hand, however, the very fact that the corporation is impersonal its operationsin the favors a stricter control over Jamios H. Tufts interest of public welfare.
way

he had to flee Germany and spent the last twelve years of his lifein Switzerland. THOMAS CARLYLE, (1795-1881)." Carlyle, like Coleridge, mediated to England and America the German of thought which produced current Transcendentalism and the interest in divine Immanence. At first a prey to skepticism, oppressed by the mechanistic view of the Universe, he reacted powerfully{Sartor Resartus, 1838) to Goethe's infused with conception of nature as deityand of each human will as an utterance of this divine nature. Despite his intense moral earnestness Carlyletends to speak of the divine will as Force, and his Heroes and Hero Worship, as well well as his historical as the strong works, glorifying wills that have shaped history,verge perilously the doctrine that might is right. Though dison trusting poHtical democracy he was a champion of oppressed workingmen with a bitter hostility to the laissez faire economists. He dealt with the social problem in Chartism (1829) and Past and Present (1843). F. A. Christie

in which

it would

and morals. feelings

CAPITULARIES." ing originatLegal enactments with the Merovingian and CarolingianKings, called from their divisions into chapters {capiso capitulariesincluded ecclesiastical tulae). The legislation emanating from the councils of bishops tians. and by royal approval made binding on all Chris-

THEOLOGY." CAPPADOCIAN Cappadocia in which inland province in Asia Minor an of the of Basil, one see was Caesarea,the episcopal Nazianzus and Nyssa were important towns. placesof no importance except as the centers of the of the two Gregorys. These three contemporaries bishoprics known are as "the three Cappadocians," their contribution to theologybeing the formulation of the Trinitarian doctrine in terms of three hypostases ousia (substance). The (persons) in one thus individualizations were "persons" of the trinity divine substance common to the three,the of one aim being to avoid tritheism and Sabellianism.
was

CARMATIANS."

See IsMA'iLis.

CARMELITES." R.C. A mendicant order, founded by Berthold, a crusader,on Mt. Carmel in the 12th. century,and called in England "White Friars" from the white mantle their worn over brown cloak. St. Theresa (q.v.) introduced drastic reforms into the order in the 16th. century, resulting in a division into the discalced or barefooted and calced or older branch, the former section being the active and numerous. more

CAPRICE.
purpose
or

CARO, JOSEPH (1488-1575)." Great Jewish and codifier, born in Spain, rabbi,mystic,talmudist, CAPUCHINS." A R.C. order of friars ing his originat- flourished in Palestine. His fame rests chiefly on in 1520 as an offshoot of the Franciscan order, Shulhan-'Aruk (set table), the latest and most authoritative code of rabbinic law. from their pointed hood (capuche). Their so named and purports to be a literal discipUneis rigorous,
BOOKS." books Four which peared apunder magne, the name of CharleA member of the highest official CARDINAL. forbiddingthe worship of images and pictures, but approving their use The cardinals form with works of art for as body in the R.C. church. and memorials. ornaments the College of Cardinals,the governing the pope body of the church, and elect a pope when there is CARTESIANISM." fixed by The The number of cardinals was philosophical system a vacancy. orders: with Descai'tes (q.v.), Sixtus V. 1586 at 70, divided into tjiree originating attempting with mathematical 14 and demonstrate mental fundaexactness to 6 cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, truths on the basis of indubitable facts of Nomination to the office is a cardinal deacons. the conscious self experience. These facts were papal function,as is also the installation service. nence be cannot (cogito, By decree of Urban VIII., 1630, the title of Emiergo sum) and the ideas which attached to the office. eliminated The existence of by critical doubt. was God is held to be necessary in order to account for of consciousness. VIRTUES." Those the content virtues which CARDINAL conduct. in human most deemed are necessary SYNODS OF." As the leading Plato named CARTHAGE, prudence, courage, temperance, and of distinguished city in northern Africa and the home justice. The R.C. church calls these natural and age virtues whom adds three theological was bishops,among faith, hope, and love. Cyprian,Carththe seat of a largenumber Vices. of Synods during was See Virtues and the firstsix centuries of the Christian era. Of these Synods the most important were those (1761-1834)." Pioneer mi^ CAREY, WILLIAM (251,252, 253, 255, 256) concerned with deciding sionary to India and Oriental scholar. In 1792 through his efforts the first Baptist missionary the attitude of the church to those who under persecution had lapsed from the faith; and those which societywas formed; and in 1793 he went to India. Bible dealt with translated the whole in into which in the He or arose as a part questions great and was for 30 years professor Donatist controversy (seeDonatism) (most impor26 Indian vernaculars, tant also of Oriental languages in Fort WilUam College. 401, 403, 404, 408, 418). Synods were held in connection with the Pelagian controversy. RUDOLPH CARLSTADT, ANDREAS, The BODENSTEIN VON Synod of 419 indicated the independent (1480-1541)." Protestant attitude of the African Church toward the Bishop of Reformer. Originallya follower of Aquinas and he became of Luther, but Rome. a defender Subsequent Synods (525, 535) dealt with Scholasticism, the relation of Arians to the Catholicchurch. to revolutionaryviews which gradually advanced Mathews After confUct with the state led to estrangement. Shailer observance of that of St. Francis.
"

An abrupt change of attitude, plan without adequate moral grounds.


"

CAROLINE in

790^791

"

71

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Catechism

CARTHUSIAN." An extremely vigorous R.C. order of monks, established in S. Italyby St. Bruno in 1086. An almost solitary life, poor food with no and scanty clothing, of and a vow meat, coarse silence are their characteristic rules. PETER CARTWRIGHT, (1785-1872)."A famous pioneerevangeUst in the Methodist Episcopal church in America, noted for his direct and of preaching. manner unsophisticated

"

in antithesis to the basing of moral life casuistry, attitude and intelligence rather than rules, and to the re-shapingof moral ideals in the very process of applying them, is alien to modern life. The method of legaldecisions forms its nearest present J. F. Crawford analogue.
on

CATACOMBS." of some Originallythe name low-lying hollows (catacumbae)along the Appian to designatethe subterranean passages Way, came excavated there and afterwards in other places by THOMAS the Roman Christians for burial places. They were CARTWRIGHT, (1535-1603)."English excavated in the 3rd. and early 4th. Puritan, who engaged in a long conflict with principally visited them in his boyhood centuries. St. Jerome Whitgift,in which he defended Presbyterianviews of church government as againstepiscopalianism. (ca. 354). By the end of the 4th. century they venerated and visited by pilgrims, and were were After the CASSIAN, JOHN (ca. 360-ca. 435)." Monk, repaired and restored by the popes. who founded monastic institutions at Marseilles, barbarian invasions and two they fell into disrepair the firstin Western in the 9th, century the bodies were for the most Europe. He was among and a feast in his honor was to other places. The catacombs canonized, long observed were part removed in Marseilles. He wrote two treatiseson monastic soon forgottenand remained so until 1578 when life. rediscovered. It should be accidentally they were observed that they were made not for concealment CASTE. A term but simplyas placesof burial, tians, the Chrisor refuge, applied to the division of of earlier times,preferring like the Romans societyinto exclusive classes, especially applicable
"

to India.

burial to cremation. CATECHETICAL

Edgar INSTRUCTION."

J. Goodspeed The cipline, dis-

The accident of birth determines place a man's in the social order. The basis of society is the endogamous group. Marriage outside the group is forbidden. Food or drink may not be received from members of lower castes or partaken of with them. Each caste forbids certain kinds of food. tion Occupais restricted, tional in a large measure, to the tradiof the caste. Each group claims a comone mon ancestor. In India, the Brahman castes occupy but a positionof unquestioned social supremacy, the invention is not due and fixation of caste
to priestly entirely aggrandizement. They,
as

the impartation of the includingespecially fundamentals of Christian doctrine, considered in the as preparationfor full participation necessary of the church. fellowship It has been the almost universal theory of the church that
a

person

should

possess

some

gent intelli-

sessing pos-

intermediators between as religious sanctity, and men gods, as sole custodians of the sacred tacitly recognizedas the highestmodels texts,were of ceremonial and racial purity.

appreciationof the meaning of Christian life and teaching before becoming a communicant. called The instruction given to the candidate was of impartation catechetical from the early method chumen as a cate(i.e., oral)and the candidate was known (q.v.). The body of instruction gradually
written form became fixed and in its elaborated called the catechism was (q.v.). G. Scares Theodore CATECHETICS." The science deahng with the children and new theory and practiceof instructing of Christian in the fundamentals converts faith; tionally tradicalled because has been the catechism so chetical employed. See also Catechism; CateInstruction; Catechumen.
"

The for caste is variia, earliest Sanskrit word "color." first line of demarkation that The was between the white Aryans and the dark-skinned Dravidians. basis of the system was The purity of blood, of ceremonial of social custom. practice, Then came a fixation of the loose division of the peopleinto priests (Brahmans) , warriors (Ksatriyas) , and menials tillersof the soil (Vaigyas), (Qiidras); of fundamental the CATECHISM. A in became and position occupation hereditary, summary for Christian doctrine intended for children and social scale depended on the nature of the occupation men; those uninstructed in the faith. See also Catechuand on purityof cult. Some of the twenty-four Catechetical Instruction. hundred tribal in origin, distinct castes are some tion instrucIn the earlydays of Christianity religious some national,some some occupational, religious, oral and so naturallytook the to change due to crossing was of blood,to migration, necessarily are the whole tion). of custom. formula will cover No one name teachingby oral repeticatechizing (literally, In order to elucidate the truth the teacher system. Caste does not tend to social or national method. would castes employ the question and answer are constantly forming. The unity. New and fixed as set question, This tended to become but changes slowly to rigid, system is not absolutely In the middle meet Expulsion from definite, accuratelystated answer. changes of social conditions.
means caste, for infringement of caste rules, plete com-

the acceptedform of impartingknowledge ages it was to came in all subjects. Thus the word catechism cast in the mean a body of elementary instruction form. Its present religious of applying general CASUISTRY." The art question and answer to date from the Reformation. actions. moral principles to particular (1)Broadly, use seems The instruction 1. Early Christian catechisms. casuistryis involved in all estimation of conduct in the early church under moral standards. (q.v.) (2)But the term is usually given to the catechimien concerned with his actual under limited to the settlement of doubtful was cases partly practical, fixed,authoritative standards, as in Jewish law, Christian living,and partly doctrinal,that he Puritan ethics,and especiallyCatholic practise, might be furnished with sound knowledge of the Teaching of the faith. The of fundamentals where authoritative moral prescriptions applied in Twelve the confessional made it necessary to seek judgment Apostles (see Didache), written in the 2nd. century, was pose. probably designed for this puron conduct specific by moral experts. (3) Such to involve three Subsequent trainingcame casuistry easily resulted in pernicious legalistic the of the most elements. One important was elaboration and evasion. the term Hence now which to be learned, was Creed (q.v.) Apostleis' usuallycarries a sinister reference. In thiy sense social excommunication. W. E. Clark
"

Catechism

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

72

church with fine in which form the catechism has continued explained, and believed. The to the insightearly realized that the Lord's Prayer is a present time. model of Christian aspiration, and based its teaching Calvin's Genevan Catechism (4) Westminster. with God upon the petitions was translated for the Scottish regardingfellowship Presbyterians.
"

The controversies of the century led to a demand central doctrine of salvation the meaning of sin that Chrisfor a more tian exact definition of Christian doctrine, teachers found and it necessary the Westminster to give careful this Assembly undertook this subject. The task. instruction on Two catechisms Decalogue was were published,the Larger useful for this purpose, as and the Shorter,in 1647, of which the latter is the thought to be especially each of the sins there forbidden could be presented celebrated. It is a most more elaborate statement of Calvinistic divinity.It contains 107 questions the as typical of a whole class of sins. Thus commandment and answers. the basis for was against murder Proceedingfrom the Scriptures it instruction regarding all sins arising from anger defines God, the Trinity,the eternal decrees,the the commandment the offices of Christ,the work of the Spiritin or vengeance, fall, againstadulteryfor all sins of the flesh, and so on. As the heathen redemption, effective calling, justification, adoption, tribes of central and northern and the benefits thereof. verted, conEurope were sanctification, Questions it was useful to be able to put the 39 to 82 deal with the commandments. Then very candidates follows the consideration of the for Christian fellowship through a of salvation way which and the doctrine of the sacraments. discipline emphasized the ethical meaning Questions 98 of their new faith. to 107 deal with the Lord's Prayer. The Creed is While these three elements of instruction were but is not explained. appended to the Catechism, employed during the Middle Ages, we do not know catechisms have been put forth (5) Numerous that they were from time to time by various Christian bodies and ever put into definite catechetical form before the Reformation. in the It was Most notable by individuals. the latter among indoctrinate endeavor logical is that of Isaac Watts. to Theodore people against theoG. Soaees that the catechism was error developed by the reformers. CATECHUMEN." A term applied in early The three elements 2. Protestant catechisms. to one who was Christianity receivinginstruction which bad been traditionally still employed were preparatory to baptism and membership in the used. The Creed the expression of faith. church. The word is now was sometimes used for one The recitation and explanation of the Law the is receiving instruction preparatory to conwho was firmation. of the obligation statement taken for the child by See also Catechisxm; Catechetical the sponsors and now to be assumed The Instruction. by him. Lord's Prayer was the means of securing from The first converts to Christianity Jews and were God the ability to keep the commands. Gentiles To these familiar with the Hebrew faith. The added and were the doctrine answers questions acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah was sufficient to upon of the sacraments. taken their incorporationin the Christian comwarrant Special care was munity. in the phrasing of these latter statements the When the gospel was as preached to the controversies who had no knowledge of the Old Testaregarding the sacraments were ment ticularly heathen parkeen. A very large number of catechisms to give them background it was necessary a appeared of which a few stand out as of chief period of instruction in the fundamentals of the faith before they could be baptized and accepted importance. (1) Luther's. Martin Luther attached the very Christians. Moreover as children of Christian families needed to the instruction of the young similar instruction. greatest importance There was in the Christian faith. For doctrinal reasons he therefore developed a class of novitiates who were the of order the traditional elements rearranged permitted to attend the services and to enjoy the Christian fellowshipbut were putting the Law firstin order to produce conviction not admitted to the of sin, then the Creed as the exposition of grace, then Lord's Supper, not even ance. being present at its observthe Lord's Prayer as the expression of Christian Inasmuch in a condition of as they were life. These followed were by the sacraments learners. tutelagethey were called catechumens or together with the exposition of confession and When the church was satisfied that they understood absolution. He in 1529 the articles of faith and were put forth his catechism tian living a worthy Chrisin two forms, the smaller and the larger. These life, they were permitted to take the solemn attained wide popularity and became soon ard standof allegiance to Christ and to receive Christian vow for the Lutheran church. baptism. church differed (2) Heidelberg. The Reformed the adoption of infant baptism and the With on some important points from the Lutheran, and acceptance of children into the church before they it was therefore that appropriate catewere had to capable of personal faith,the vows necessary chisnis should be The catechumenate prepared. Calvin published be taken by sponsors. thus in 1536 and another, the Genevan one Catechism, disappeared. Gradually, however, the ceremony of in 1545. But the great Reformed catechism of the confirmation was the vow developed, in which 16th. century was the Heidelberg, published in of allegiance taken personallyby the candidate was 1563. It was translated into many when attained he had sufficient maturity. The languages and is stillthe most popular catechism in the Reformed which reasons same formerly led to instruction faith. It is a of highly elaborated statement baptism now required similar instruction preceding creed and The child passing through doctrine, containing 129 questions before confirmation. and answers. It consists of three parts: (1) the be called a catethis period of preparation may chumen. sin and misery of man, (2) redemption by Christ, which includes the Creed and the sacraments, While the above statement to appliesespecially Life of the Christian,including the Catholic,Lutheran, and Anglican churches, a (3) the Thankful the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer. similar preparation is employed by other bodies included in (3) Anglican. A catechism before receivingchildren into full church membership, was the first Book of Common chumen. Prayer (1549) which without, however, the use of the term catefollowed the old order, the Creed, the Commandments, G. Scares Theodore and the Lord's Prayer, the order being justified as IMPERATIVE." A faith,duty, and aspiration. In 1604 CATEGORICAL phrase there was added a section upon the sacraments used Kant (q.v.) indicating the by Immanucl
turns
so

of this prayer.

The

greatlyupon

"

"

"

"

73

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Cathedral

Architecture

the direction of the nave and terminated the structure. A well known exponent of the type is St. Paul's at Rome, though the building as'we it todayis less than a century old. St. Clement's see CATENA. A series of quotationsfrom Patristic at Rome, though it too has been rebuilt, gives a and other acknowledged authorities to form a comfine impression of the early church because the mentary the Scripture elucidation of Christian atrium and old interior furnishings on or an are preserved. doctrine. The earliest known Those catena is that of not in full standing penitentsand persons converts Procopius (d.528). new might gather in the atrium and narthex. The within the congregation stood CATHARI. Puritans; the name in the left aisle or in galleries adopted by church, the women various reformingsects in the history of Christianity, above. The clergy officiated, facing the congregation the Albigenses,Waldenses New Manichaeans as at the altar table in the transept, or read the (q.v.). their Gospel and the Epistle from pulpits on sides near the transept end of the nave. respective CATHARINE." See Catherine. The throne cathedra of the bishop and lower benches for the inferior clergy were in the apse. CATHEDRA." for the seat There were (1) The Latin name such as adjoiningdependent buildings, throne of a bishop in the principal or church of his the baptistry and the dwellings of the clergy. of officialteaching The Christian East showed diocese;hence (2)A designation great variety in its of the church by the bishop. Thus ex cathedra Early Christian architecture. In the interior is applied to a formal pronouncement of the pope of Syria, where numbers vast of early churches, in the exercise of his cathoUc office, indicating, including some cathedrals,still remain, ruinous according to the decrees of the Vatican Council, and abandoned, the atrium might be omitted or the infallibility of such a pronouncement. changed to a court at the side of the church, and chambers beside the apse compensated for the CATHEDRAL." The church in which the bishop absence of the transept. In Egypt, too, transept has his throne and atrium which he the (Cathedra) and near were irregular and sanctuary resides. Its rank (episcopal, politan, metrothe axis appeared as a separate domed room on arch-episcopal, of the nave. to the dignity of patriarchal) corresponds the see to which he belongs. Without In form contrast to the longitudinal specified church, or and of which the above account or dimension,in addition to the sanctuary, choir, has been given, basilica, the cathedral possesses there developed contemporaneously the central an nave, episcopalseat in which the bishop officiates, attended by his chapter, type, especially characteristic of Armenia but best which constitutes his council, and upon which volves known deture. by its manifestation in Byzantine architecof souls exercised through a vicar the cure The great example is Hagia Sophia at chosen either from its own number outside. inner and or Constantinople. The atrium, outer The members of the chapter are called canons, built as in the longitudinal to narthex,and apse were each of which is assigned a stall. Of these canons feature was type; the distinguishing a huge domed central room residence is required for a fixed proportion of the that formed the body of the structure. In many tain Though the atrium later disappeared,the arrangeplaces ceryear, usually three months. ment ceremonies of the aisles about the central room reserved to the cathedral, are varied, cially espeand innumerable the administration of baptism. Its revenue, modifications of construction and decoration were provided by endowment introduced, this central type funds, is entirelydistinct remained standard for the territory from those of the cathedral parish. See Bishop; of the patriarch of Constantinople just as G. Mode Peter the longitudinaltype Canon; Chapter. did for the territoryof the Roman patriarch. CATHEDRAL ARCHITECTURE." Because of overseas Venice the connections at Meaning as it does a church which is the seat of a bishop, the eastern type is echoed in St. Mark's; and, for all word cathedral does not carry any definite implicatheir local pecuharities, the traditions of Roumania, tions to architecture. The same as Russia, and so forth,follow the Byzantine to the building may be a cathedral date and not at another. at one present day, though the great height and eccentric it make Thus, the history of cathedral architecture begins decoration of such a cathedral as Moscow the with that of the episcopate and with those scattered to analyze the ground plan to see necessary of which have derivation. we pre-Constantinian churches still more In Western enduring inadequate Europe the desire for more inadequate records and Under Constantine remains. drals and the development of ecclesiastical imposing cathebuildings many built in Italy,Palestine, and elsewhere. were two organization were important factors in the of them, their general evolution of architecture. basilica had posThe Though time has spared none sessed ally features were astical but a wooden therefore continuroof and was permanently retained in the ecclesiarchitecture of Western in need of repairand was Europe. An frequentlydestroyed obvious extensive open most the court atrium by fire. The frequently with a vaulting was about achievement the which made fountain in the center and colonnades of the Romanesque style, lennium. its appearance at the beginning of the second milsides,separated the place of worship from the corridor Northern street. Beyond the court -a transverse Italy (e.g.,Modena), the narthex such gave access to the body of the or two Bamberg), and Southern valley of the Rhine (e.g., aisle was church the regionof its fullest expansion. The set Here a wide middle France were nave. off by longitudinalcolonnades from Gothic was simply a continuation of the Romanesque and narrow ; lower side isles. The in it, latter had sloping lean-to however, the problems of vaultingwere much often visible more roofs, the carpentry of which was solved; it grew up in Northern successfully the interior, St. Denis, Notre Dame de Paris, and above the abutment of which France (e.g., etc.), on aisle beneath the clere-story carried forward into a great national stylein of the middle was rose to Spain and Italy and a gabled roof. At the end opposite the entrance England, spread southward the aisles were terminated aisle eastward to Cyprus. by a transverse Through the periods of the the heightof the middle aisle was Romanesque and the Gothic the clergy becoming transept or aisles,
" " " " " "

of the formal concepprioriabsolute supremacy tion of the ethicallyright. The ethical imperative is thus normative and a entirely formal principleof action with a function analogous to that of the categories in the realm of thinking.
a

and

at
"

-;-apse

rightangles to it. Beyond this a projection which was commonly semicircular, tinued con-

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Catherine

de* Medici

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

74

and more more numerous powerful. This reveals in itselfin the way their part of the church grew relative size. The transept, which originallyran the end of the nave, gradually advanced across toward the middle, leaving a long choir behind it; the transept even passed the middle at finally, times and the resultant choir was so long that in England a second easterly transept was introduced. Meanwhile the cult of the saints had led to the provision of countless subsidiary chapels, and in the Gothic cathedrals of France lady chapels ran all the way around the sanctuary proper. The Renaissance deflected the course abruptlj^ of architectural evolution in Western Europe. Imitation of classical the one hand, and on buildings, the of Byzantine doming, on the other, broke tradition. the virility of time-honored Only Baroque style, spread everywhere by the Society the of Jesus, e.g., even to Mexico, still retained of a creative tradition. But the vascillation spirit between modern ideals makes conflicting many cathedrals seem more a harmonious a medley than composition. At present, however, serious attempts are being made to build in an orderlyfashion on the solid foundations of the past, though there is much disagreement as to what past should be chosen. Shafley John MEDICI CATHERINE DE' (1519-1589)." Queen of France, was influential duringthe period of turmoil of the wars of religion (q.v.). She was a CathoUc, and resolved to keep down Protestants, murder of Coligny, and yet not utterly. The of St. Bartholomew's massacre Day Were results of her anti-Protestant policy. SAINT." There six saints are of this name in the Roman Cathohc calendar. The famous St. Catherine of Alexandria, who most are in the time of Maximus professed Christianity tortured on a wheel (308-314) for which she was and beheaded; and St. Catherine of Sienna (13471380),an ecstatic who received the stigmata.

CATHOLIC A

APOSTOLIC

CHURCH,

THE."

denomination growing out of a movement religious begun in England in 1830 and taking definite Certain persons form in 1835. associated by were their exercise of specialspiritual gifts and their Edward expulsion from other churches. Irving leader in this group, hence the name a (q.v.)was
to them, though repudiated was "Irvingites" applied by the group itself. They do not publishstatistics, all the claiming that the membership embraces services are baptized. Their highly liturgical, much emphasis being placed on symbolism. They are millenarians, believing that the church must make preparation for the millennium spiritual by

the maintenance and ministeries of all ordinances ordained Hence of God. they support a fourfold ministry of apostles,prophets, evangelists and has spread to the U.S.A., pastors. The movement Germany and Holland. CATHOLIC Church. CHURCH." See Roman Catholic

CATHOLIC An act passed EMANCIPATION." the British Parliament under the ministry of Wellington and Peel in 1829 by which the civil Cathohcs under which had Roman disabilities, suffered since the reign of Elizabeth, removed. were

by

CATHOLIC The EPISTLES." epistlesin the New Testament which addressed to general were readers in contradistinction from those addressed churches to specific or They include the persons. of James, two of Peter, three of John and epistle

Jude.

CATHERINE,

GREEK." Belonging or taining apperthe Greek designated church, officially the Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Oriental as Church.
to

CATHOLIC,

CATHOLICISM." A term applied CATHOLIC, and practices of the church to indicate that they are universally observed. CATHOLIC SOCIETIES." Aside from the The spread of Christianity monastic and clerical Orders numerous through the Roman (q.v.)and of different of medieval and modern Empire gave rise to a great number Congregations (q.v.) times, with their own behefs and practices. In no the Church of Rome has developed a complex of groups small measure, these were the outgrowth of attempts organizations, international,national ("Church of various philosophies and rehgions to appropriate Extension Society of the United States," etc.), element of Christianity. In opposing these for the cultivation some diocesan,or parochialin character, various groups, the church appealed the laity. to the Bible as of piety and charity, primarilyamong the expression of apostolicviews and confined to recent times, the authority. While in no sense After the bishops came to be regarded as the reprea remarkable development sentatives 19th. century witnessed of apostolic there grew up a sort of these organizations. teaching, of Bishops' Christianity, which described as Sodalities. tary VolunI. Confraternities, or was that which was held by all, and associations everywhere and always. canonically established This idea of a universal doctrine possessed by a controlled. They are of three sorts. ecclesiastically universal community of believers, as opposed to (1) Those cultivatingpersonal piety through Confraternities of Included here are veneration. sects, heresies and schisms which emphasized some doctrine or practice is the central element the "Holy Family," "Holy Ghost," "Holy Name," particular in Catholicism. "Holy Sacrament," "Sacred Heart,"and "Precious After the Reformation, catholic character was Blood"; of the Virgin ("Holy Rosary," "Our claimed by the Roman and Greek churches,as distinct Blessed Lady of Mt. Carmel," "Children of Mary," from the Protestant churches. In late years, etc.); of angels and saints ("St. Michael," "St. however, it has been claimed by the Anghcan Benedict," "St. Anthony of Padua," "St. Joseph," and Protestant Episcopal churches on the ground etc.). that they are the representatives of the historical, or engaging (2) Those manifestingzeal for souls, universal Christian Catholic tering church. churches in charity. Included here are Confraternities ministo the to the poor regard themselves as the true agents of saving grace Societies"); ("Purgatorial of which the sacraments the channels. conformists Nonare dying ("ofthe Agony of Christ") ; to the conversion of sinners ("of the Holy Heart of Jesus"); are regarded as schismatics,if not heretics. In Protestant the words indicate to instruction in the faith ("ofChristian Doctrine"); usage the universality and completeness of the Christian to family hfe ("of St. Francis Regis"); to church music system as distinct from variant theories. ("of St. Cecilia"); to temperance reform Shailer Mathews ("League of the Cross").
to doctrines
" " "

ing Belonging to or relatchurch, designated in its title as Church. the Holy Catholic ApostoUc and Roman

CATHOLIC,

ROMAN."

to the Roman

....

75

DICTIONARY

OF

RP^LIGION

AND

ETHICS

Celtic

Religion

(3) Those ministering to the needs of certain classes of society. Included here are Confraternities of Christian FamiUes"; such as the "Association "of the Holy Childhood" (missionary); "of the "of the Blessed Virgin" Child Jesus" (protective); and Sacristans"; (for priests);"of Mass-servers GeseUenvereine (forjourneymen);' "of St. Raphael" Arch-confraternities include (foremigrants), etc. and several Confraternities having* similar names and strong. They are numerous purposes. from Associations. II. Pious Distinguished lished, Confraternities in not being canonically estabthough approved by ecclesiastical authority, cluded and as being subject to milder regulations. Inde here are the Societies of "St. Vincent Paul" (reUefof poverty); "for the Propagation of the "League of the Sacred the Faith" (missionary); Childhood Heart" "Holy (intercessory); the
" "

the Jains, the rule did not apply to the laity and monks were always free to return to the life of the citizen. Ancient America also requiredcelibacy of the oflScialpriesthood, shamans and medicine
among
men.

Greek Platonist who CELSUS. A opposed in the latter half of the 2nd. century. Christianity The Uterary work of Celsus has disappeared except as voluminously and accuratelypreserved in evidentlysincere Origen'smasterly reply. He was of Christianity in attempting to show the inferiority
"

etc. League" (missionary), forbids membership in all strictly secret Rome and societies (Masons, Knights of Pythias, etc.), includingboth regards with suspicionorganizations

CathoUcs

and

Protestants.

Henry

H. Walker

CATHOLIKOS." head spiritual Nestorian

The title assumed by the of the Armenian church, and of the church. FIRST." See First

CAUSE,

Cause.

The patron saint of music CECILIA, SAINT." and the blind in the Catholic church, whose feast is celebrated 22nd. She Nov. was probably a Roman lady of musical talent who suffered martyrdom under Marcus Aurelius between 176 and 180. She has been a favorite subject for painters. CELESTINE." The name of five popes. and Celestine I.,422-432, opposed Nestorianism Pelagianism; the first pope to show interest in the churches of Great Britain. Celestine II.,1143-1144. Celestine III.,1191-1198. Celestine IV., 1241, died sixteen days after election. Celestine V., 1294, abdicated after five months, and was succeeded by Boniface VIII. who put him in prison where he died in 1296; canonized as St. Peter Celestine in 1313. CELIBACY from (CHRISTIAN)." Abstinence taken of the three vows by the marriage; one Catholic monk, and the rule binding also on a priesthood. Very earlyin the historyof the church the conceptionarose that the celibate state was more conducive to genuine piety than the married state. those who This gradually grew into a demand on cil The Counconducted ecclesiastical ministrations. of Trent (1545-1563) made celibacyabsolutely binding on all taking major orders or the monastic The various Protestant confessions expressly vow. repudiatecelibacyas binding on their ministry. Of the great CELIBACY (NON-CHRISTIAN)." has developed the celibate religions only Buddhism ideal in any parallelto Christianity. The way and Japan give it no native religions of China forbidden. It place. In Iran it was expressly entered Christian influence. Islam only under In India the ascetic and mendicant was expected first to have passed through the married state. Buddhism, however, developed orders of monks of celibacy and and nuns who under vows were celibate wherever this religion flourished such Influenced by Buddhism communities found. are the Taoist groups tude of China have acquired an attiof approval toward celibacy. In Buddhism,as

and he marshalled a very complete philosophy list of objectionsraised against Christianity the secret these were in that period. Chief among character of Christian and illegal if not shameful the of Christians; gatherings;the social inferiority ings; of Christian teachcrudity and lack of originality the impossibility of the deity of Jesus Christ; the demoniacal originof biblical theophanies; and of declaring the equality of men the fooUshness claimed to be loving. before a God impiously Shailer Mathews of CELTIC The Celts form one RELIGION." the great branches of the Indo-European peoples. by classical Greek writers They are firstmentioned who describe them as inhabiting central Europe. A portion of them moved south, enteringnorthern Italyand threateningRome itself390 B.C.; another later date, moved at a much southeastward, group, The greater and settled in Galatia in Asia Minor. body of them, however, went westward, settling in Gaul probably (France) and the British Isles, early in the firstmillennium before Christ. It was and British Celts that Julius Caesar with Galhc fought in his northern campaigns, and his notes references to these peoples. first extended are our Celtic languages are today spoken in Brittany (in France),and in parts of Wales, Ireland and Scotland. barbarous that of other 1. Religion. Like of the Celts was theism. polya pagan peoples,the religion Gallic images which have been preserved show that they venerated animals, or animal-gods, such as the boar, stag, bear, as is natural among a hunting people. Other images indicate veneration that the and it is assumed of trees and vegetation, was early important. worship of nature's fertility the Celtic temples were sacred groves, and among "corn-mothers" and "corndeities honored were maidens" associated with the productivity of the fields. Other important deities were merce gods of comand roads, of war, of poetry and eloquence, A notable cult was and of the world of the dead. fires that of the sky or sun-god, worshipped with baleand other rites in which fire was employed. With the insular Celts the sea-godwas naturally belief that the common a important, and it was beneath the sea or dead were conveyed to caverns Belief in life after to islands beyond the waters. and the death was strong in Celtic religion, very in myth honored of ancestral heroes were spirits of Celtic mythology are found and rite. Remains where the stories connected in the British Isles, chiefly with King Arthur and King Lear indicate divine or ancient Celtic divinities, that these were is true of the Irish saga heroes, heroes. The same Finn, or Fionn, and Cuchulainn. tic The most famous feature of Cel2. Druidism. the Druids The were rehgion is Druidism. and they of the Celtic peoples of antiquity, priests are supposed to have been divided into a number of that of the bards, of which was orders or ranks, one
to Greek
"

"

or

poets.

They

were

regarded not only as priests,

but also as sorfcerersand healers,and as teachers of the traditional religion. "To worship the gods, to do no evil,to exercise courage," are the maxims which they emphasized according to Diogenes

Cemetery

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

76

Laertius, while other classical writers ascribe to them teachingsas to the motions of the stars,form of the elements of the earth,and transformation Their crude science. rites,however, included a and hence Druidism cruel forms of human sacrifice, In unlawful made by the Roman was emperors. Ireland it was early replaced by Christianity. H. B. Alexander A place for the burial of the CEMETERY." dead, so called by the early Christians from the Greek word Originally meaning a sleeping-place. they were separate from churches, as in the case catacombs of the (q.v.). Churchyards (q.v.), later came to be used tillthe unsanitary conditions due to overcrowding them led to the settingapart of park-like enclosures for the purpose, the practise coimtries. teries Cemein European and American now have been used by oriental peoples, such as the Chinese and Turks, since ancient times.
"

of the three foundations mentioned above. any When personal experience is the source, we have assurance the source (q.v.). In Christianity of has usually been reUance on the word of certainty inspired Scripture. The critical historical study of sacred literature, however, has modified this basis of certainty, and more attention is now being given to experimental and rational grounds for belief. See Assurance; Doubt. Gerald Birney Smith CHAIR OF ST. PETER." The Papal office in the R.C. church, so designated because Peter is traditionally regarded as the founder. CHAITYA. A monument erected the over relics of a saint by the Jains and Buddhists. It also to mean shrine or relic depository came any and is used in a special to refer to the temples sense of these two religious groups.
"

Monks who live a community CENOBITES." life under with anchorites a or rule, in contrast hermits who withdrew from the world. See Mon-

CHAKRAVARTIN."

The

Hindu

term
or

designate
monarch.

world-conquering ruler

used to universal

container for burning incense also called thurible. religious ceremonials, CENSER.
"

in

CENSORSHIP. Official examination and regulation of manuscripts, books and plays intended for publication or production. Censorship of edict books harks back to Constantine's religious regarding the works of Arius, After the invention of the printingpress, the Catholic church exercised CHALDEANS. See Assyria strict regulation of literature. Benedict XIV. and more Babylonia, Religion created the congregationof the Index in 1753 whose of. duty is the censorshipof books for the guidance of CHALDEAN CHRISTIANS." all Catholics. and of See Nestorians. matter Censorship of news correspondence sent by mail or telegraph is an CHALICE. (1) A goblet-shaped cup, used in important aspect of the State's direction of military the observance of the Lord's Supper. (2) Sometimes operations. used metaphorically of the contents of the cup. CENSURE. astical -Disapprovalexpressed by ecclesiTHOMAS CHALMERS, authorityin the form of a publicreprimand, (1780-1847)."Scottish with or without added an Presbyterian preacherand theologian.He instituted penalty. ambitious an system of education and poor-relief in Glasgow which met with marked CERBERUS." In Hellenic legend, the dog which success; was an acted as sentinel at the entrance influential professor of moral to the realm of philosophy in St. Andrews and Edinburgh; a leader in the movement the dead in the underworld,frustrating all attempts for ecclesiastical freedom and the first moderator at escape, while permitting all to enter. of the Free Church of Scotland their withdrawal on from CEREMONY." the established church. He See Cult; CEREMONIAL, was a Ceremonies. well. Of the more scholar in economics than as Rites, Rituals and tion thirtyvolumes from his pen, the chief is his refutaCERES. The- grain-goddess of the old Roman of Hume's tutes objectionsto miracles. His InstiCalvinistic. religion. She is never a clearlyanthropomorphic of Theology were strictly of the growing crops. figurebut rather the spirit CHANCE. An unassignablecause of an event; CERINTHIANS." the cause CERINTHUS, an Cerinthus, being unknown, the fortuitous element itself chance is frequentlytreated as if it were earlyJewish Christian Gnostic,lived in Asia Minor a toward the close of the 1st. century a.d. Tradition real cause. In Greek mythology, chance (Tyche) makes him an Egyptian Jew who had studied under was a goddess. See Tychism. Philo of Alexandria before coming in contact with CHANCEL. That in a church Christianity. See Gnosticism. beyond space the nave and transepts reserved for the officiating CERTAINTY. An attitude of unquestioning and communion table. In Roman minister, choir, affirmation of a proposition churches the word "sanctuary" has largely or idea,making possible displaced decisive action. the word "chancel." In non-conformist churches, the chancel refers to a space railed off in front of the Certaintymay rest (1)on personalexperience or when investigation, as an eye-witnessis sure concerning pulpit. what he saw; self-evident or (2) on axiomatic propositions, the postulates APOSTOLIC" of mathematics The Roman curia as CHANCERY, of logic; (3) on the testimony of men or (q.v.). believed to have reUable information,as the conclusions of an expert. CHANGELING." child substituted for or A in folk-lore, Religiously, certaintyis urged because it makes put in the place of another; especially It may to have possible decisive consecration. rest on been substituted by the a child believed
" " " " " " " " " "

COUNCIL OF." The Fourth held in 451 for the purpose of drawing up dogma regarding the person of Christ. It was attended by six hundred Bishops, mostly from the Greek Church. The decision of the Council was to the effect that in Jesus Christ there two were natures, unmingled, but so united in the Jesus Christ,that neither nature one was person, affected. See Creed. Ecumenical Council

CHALCEDON,

77

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Charity and Almsgiving


sacraments

less cultured peoples weaklings or fairies. Among infants imbecile were regarded as non-human Scottish children substituted for beautiful children. impossible people believed such substitutions were after christening. The origin of the belief lies in liable to the the notion that infants are especially and fairy-folk. attacks of demons Chinese BOOK OF." A CHANGES, dating from the 12th. century B.C., the
on

imprinted on the soul by the


confirmation and

of

baptism,
which

ordination.
"

CHARISMATA.
were

Superhuman

powers

classic
taries commen-

which

are

ascribed

to Confucius.

"

WILLIAM ELLERY (1780-1842). CHANNING, American preacher and author, ordained to the ministry of the Federal St. CongregationalChurch, He developed strong anti-Calvinistic Boston, 1803. and anti-Trinitarian beliefs, and became the leader He also wrote of the Unitarian and movement. labored in behalf of the anti-slavery movement. See Unitarianism. A song or melody in church music, unmetrical such as the Psalms, verses those comprised of both recitative and rhythm. or See Music. CHANT.
"

adapted

to

CHANUKKA."

See Hantjkka.

CHAOS. (1) A condition of utter disorder and lawlessness in contrast to the conception of order and design expressed by the word "cosmos." See Cosmogony. (2) In Greek mythology the oldest of the gods,progenitorof Nox and Erebus.
"

CHAPEL. from a church, a As distinguished small to building devoted rehgious purposes; a place of worship not belonging to an established church; a small buildingused for worship attached to or a part of a church other building. The or word has also a number of derived uses.
"

held are Primitive persons. religionsnoticeably recognize the possession of superhuman powers on the part of medicine-men and the like. In the Hebrew such powers religion ascribed to the Spirit of Yahweh. Such were varied from ability to manufacture vessels powers of prophecy. Primitive Christians were to the gift the first to hold that the Holy Spiritcame upon all members of the messianic kingdom. According to Paul (I Cor. 12:18; Rom. 12:5-6; included those of Eph. 4:11) these charismata of tongues, the power to tongues, the interpretation work miracles, and also administration. They formed the basis of the organization in the establishment of the division of labor in the early church, since each office presupposed a charism (as of teaching,prophecy, evangelism). Not apostleship, all Christians had the same charism,although more than individual. to Paul one might come an of no moral value taught that charismata were without love,which he also described as a "fruit" of the Spirit. It is impossible to understand exactly the psychology of the charismata,or to know justwhen the Christians. they ceased to appear among Miraculous attributed to the Christians powers were for several centuries after the death of Christ. Similar of (especiallyof heahng and powers claimed "tongues") have been sporadically even into modern days. See Irving, Edward; Faith Shailer Mathews Healing; Tongues.
to

regarded by the early Christians as believer by the Holy Spirit. In most religions supernatural powers
be conferred
on

given

certain

CHAPLAIN. A minister whose office is the conduct of special services for some religious age, personthe state, the army, the navy, a publicinstitution etc. or a fraternal society,
"

CHAPLET. (1) A head dress, originally a garland or wreath. (2) One third of a rosary, i.e., 55 beads, used by R.CathoUcs in counting prayers.
"

See

Rosary.

CHAPTER." of the conventional (1) One divisions of a book of the Bible. (2) A group of church. clergyattached to a cathedral or collegiate (3) A local branch of a societyor fraternity. CHAPTER-HOUSE." assembles chapter (q.v.) The

place in which
business.

the

to conduct

CHARACTER." The sum of fundamental traits which individual from another. distinguish one In a moral sense the settled tastes and purposes of which determine his behavior. a person The formation of a rightcharacter is the primary aim of moral education. and religious This end is attained when certain habitual preferences are so well established that a person's response to any stimulus will be directed by them. This involves inner conviction as a cultivation of taste so that an to the right of certain ideals is present. A good character is attained when fidelity to good ideals is involves to be depended upon. Since such fidelity to a spiritual it is akin to reallegiance ligious imperative, faith and is reinforced by religious experience, Gerald Birney Smith INDELIBLE." An ineradicable CHARACTER, mark or trait declared by Catholic theologians to be

CHARITY AND ALMSGIVING (CHRISTIAN). The relief of the poor by gifts or organizedaid. The underlying motive to social relief is the spirit of goodwill. Almsgiving is theoretically but the expressionof the spirit of charity, but the with the motive. act has been confused the early Generosity was conspicuous among Christians. The gospel of Jesus was based on the of goodwill, and the apostle Paul frequently spirit exhorted to charity. The administration of charity compelled organizationin the church at Jerusalem. New Testament of teaching emphasized the spirit charity as the essential element, but almsgiving and was early recognized as meritorious very became Christian of highly approved. Much charitybecame vitiated by the selfish motives that the lay back of it,but we must not underestimate kindly sympathy that found expression through the gift. The Catholic church taught the obligation of charity,and encouraged right motives. Gifts the altars of the church, and were poured upon the The the administrators. bishops became of wealth that was amount given away through and to the church was enormous. Unfortunately the Middle Ages brought Uttle conception of the importance of estimating the effects of almsgivingupon the recipients.The donor with the benefits concerned almost exclusively was accruing to himself. He paid his doles to the poor, or built shrines and churches that he might victims of his The gain favor with Heaven. were unimportant. The result generosity relatively swarmed around the that thousands of paupers was doors of the monasteries, or infested the citylanes, The sanction of subsistence. begging for the means of of the church seemed to be given to this method friars set an the mendicant when gettinga living, but the friars themselves example in this respect,
"

Charity and

Almsgiving

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

78

to charity in their social noble expression a gave the poor and miserable. service among The church used poor funds for the aid of the Later more of this parish poor in their homes. and pubUc hospitals, aid was given in monasteries, institutions. The Reformation deprived the church of its property, and the support of the of much the public officials. The thrown on indigent was in cases of want had aided their members town guilds the raunicipaUtiesthemselves or sickness; now Private provisionfor the poor. began to make contributions had made possiblethe maintenance for a few in poverty, but the poor of small homes laws of England provided poorhouses in all the taken care of parishes. At first the inmates were but after a century of such without their own labor, found better to set the people experiments it was to work. In America provided by towns poorhouses were the number of local dependcounties as soon ents or as of in families. became too largeto be taken care In these public institutions children and adults, drunkards and imbeciles and cripples epileptics, herded together, and commonly placed under were who worked the of a contractor the irresponsible care benefit. By degrees it came inmates for his own advisable to separate the different classes of to seem estabUshed dependents. State institutions were of the insane and the feeble-minded. for the care The aged and children were placed in homes where they could be taken care of properly. Defectives sorted out, and given rational and deUnquentswere and The 19th. century brought new treatment. wiser conceptions of charity, and attempts of made to systematize the methods various kinds were and to co-ordinate pubUc in vogue in different places, and privatecharity. Current interest in charity as a subjectof study for its and the best means centers about its causes that It is well understood prevention and cure. almsgiving, though bringing satisfaction to the and should be is a hindrance to self-reliance, giver, resorted to in individual cases only as a temporary expedient. On the other hand without the large giftsof philanthropyit would be impossible to charitable agencies that the numerous on carry tianity. the modern of Chrisillustrate so beautifully spirit

agencies that give aid in the homes, that provide and medicines,and that plan various means nurses of prevention to check the growth of dependency. As in the days of primitiveChristianity, ecclesiastical of Christ,but charity stillexpresses the spirit of its ministrydepends increasingly the application the teaching of social science. See Charity on
Organizations. CHARITY Institutional asylums, and of AND Henry K. Rowe

ALMSGIVING (ETHNIC)." charity (hospitals, orphanages, the like)is and has been peculiarto

except as imitated under other systems Christianity times. Under in modern gions primitiverelireligion the only form of almsgiving common and considered obhgatory isthe hospitality characteristic
that considered due to clan or of many races or from home. It is not to totemic members away be forgottenthroughout, however, that "the milk kindness" has always been a factor of of human greateror lesser influence in life. exists for the For Egypt decisive evidence exercise of almsgiving as a religious duty in the uttered by the soul in "Negative Confession" to go the judgment hall: "I have allowed no man tomb the inscriptions hungry." Numerous carry "I gave bread to the hungry and clothes sentiment: to the naked." (Cf. Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian

chap, x.) Resurrection, Respecting Babylonia data are deficient. teachers stress benevolence as a Chinese religious qualityof the "perfectman," and obhgatory on all. Mencius and Confucius and emphasize wisdom in exercising this quality, the discrimination existence of which they both teach and assume. The former describes the Chinese phrase "charity another": the latter puts it of heart" by "love one
the four virtues and makes first among courtesy a part of the gift. Later teachers differ greatly of benevolent the application principles. respecting II. 53, 414; Tao Teh King, (Cf. Chinese Classics, Christie,Thirty Years XIII; Li Ki, XXXVIII; in the Manchu Ti, chaps. Capital,passim; Mo

XIV,

XV.)

in use for social uplift. methods A great many are Some of these, like housing plans, friendlyclubs, and social settlements are above the Une of charity, but they flow from the same spiritof goodwill. Children's aid societies are agencies that with one hand are preventingindigency and crime, and with the other are Ufting victims out of their misery. careful Relief agencies find it necessary to make where relief shall be to determine investigations given,whether in the home or at a publicinstitution, of aid and the the form and amount to decide on length of time for which it shall be given. It is an that temporary relief should be accepted principle the need, and then that large enough to cover by steps shall be taken to make relief unnecessary finding occupations for the individual or some member of the needy family. Relief in the home the feelings receive help, of these who must spares and it is a generalprinciple that the home shall not be broken up if it can be prevented, but it is often preferablethat the public authorities should take of the members charge of the case, and at least some of the family be transferred to public institutions. Co-operation between private and publicagencies is indispensable. charities as modern It is possible to classify

including asylums, homes, hospitals, institutional, most of which are cared for by and reformatories, such as the voluntary or private, pubUc authority; p. 41).

be worlds it would In the Greek and Roman base for benevolence. difficultto establish a religious took the form of public benevolences Private often included largess and entertainments, buildings of goods and money. frequently) (undiscriminating But Rehgion was often an affair of city or state. of wealth entailed the duty of generosity. possession and guildsdisregardedthe even corporations Still, sick, disabled, widows, and orphans. Claudius of sick slaves or forcingthem forbade abandonment This is indicative in a sinister out to starve. People of Ancient (Cf. Abbott, Common way. Rome, pp. 179 ff.) the Zoroastrianism places Benevolence among ( Yasna, XXXIII, four "energizing immortals" "Good Visparad, XV, 1 implies rehef Mind"). of the poor: "Place the needy with those without need." Parsis boast the absence of beggars in their community, and their charityto others is a proverb. set apart for The last ten days of the year are deeds of charity,religious banquets, ceremonials for the dead (cf.Vistasp Yast [XXIV], V, 36). Indian religions The (Brahmanism, Hinduisrn, Buddhism, Jainism) favor the ascetic or monastic fifeof absolute poverty and consequent dependence alms for bare subsistence. of the "religious" on to The sacred laws prescribe almsgiving,especially A constantly present the ascetic and to monks. of "merit" motive is acquisition by the donors. The result here and elsewhere under like conditions and above the ascetics is a plethoraof beggars over and monks (cf., e.g., Pratt, India and Its Faiths,

79

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Charms

and

Amulets

of the five pillars In Islam almsgiving is one the the faith, prescribed principallyunder and sadagah,"righteousterms ness" zakat,"cleansing," gious which indicate the reliterms sufficiently view of believers and founder of its relation It is, to donors. a prime duty, is coupled therefore, its wherewithal the with drawn from prayer, donor's superfluity yet involving the bestowal of something prized (cf.I Cor. 13:3), and is for the benefit of relatives, orphans,the poor, and travellers. (Quran, 2:40, 211, 216 f., 263; 23:4; 24:27; of
"

30:38; 64:17; 73:20; 98:4, etc.)


Geo. W. Gilmore OF." (1) The designation benevolent orders in the of mediaeval in period. (2) A lay order, founded 1540 in Grenada by John Ciudad (John of God), a devoted of to care Portuguese, which is especially exist about the sick. There 120 houses. now

CHARITY,

BROTHERS R.C. various

CHARITY ORGANIZATION." 1. History." Indiscriminate charity tends to pauperism. Its antidote is charity organization. Among the first this was Reverend Thomas Chalmers to see of giving, Glasgow. In his parish he was able to check almsand by friendly visitation of charityworkers to help the needy help themselves. zation Charityorganisince then has been based on that principle. A charity organization societyis not an agency of direct relief. It often co-ordinates such agenciesin a whole city,but its own object is to prevent and cure poverty. It gives aid only in an emergency. The experiments of Chalmers, supplemented by the investigations of Edward Denison in London, resulted in the organization of the CharityOrganization in 1869. This societywas SISTERS OF." The designation Society of London of CHARITY, unable to unite all the agencies of the metropolis, several R.C. female associations which undertake it Loped to do, but it has performed a valuable as the care of the poor and the sick; e.g., The Sisters service itself, and has been an impetus to similar of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, organized in in England and the United States. 1617 and operative in Europe and America; and organizations American The Sisters of Charity of St. Charles dating from societies, mostly after the London into existence in the seventies in the model, came 1626, and found in Europe. centers of population in the East. The first to be CHARLEMAGNE organizedthoroughly on the London of plan was that (742-814)." Sole monarch of Buffalo in 1877. In the fortyyears that followed the Franks in 771 Charlemagne extended Prankish similar societies were formed in the leadingcities of in Italy, Spain,Bavaria,Saxony and, Dec. 25, power the country, usuallyunder the name of the Charity 800, was crowned by the Pope in Rome as Emperor Organization Society or the Associated Charities. ("the central event of the Middle Ages," Bryce). of such organiCo-operationwas a cardinal principle zation, This renewal of the idea of the old empire made and it soon him head of Western produced a National Conference Europe both in state and of Charities and Corrections that became church affairs, with something of the a forum an emperor for discussion. character of supreme Charity organizationrests on the pontiff. He developed an following four principles:Pecuniary aid should efficient administrative system which united all in be given only in an emergency, after thorough or ing, to him, fostered arts and learnpersonalallegiance reveals need. investigationof conditions of opened schools and planned even a system grave should take the place of Friendly encouragement His largeideal gave an impress popular education. world though his work for civilizaalmsgiving in an effort to get an individual or to the mediaeval tion tween family to achieve self-support.Co-operation belapsed through the weakness of his successors. relief agenciesis essential to prevent duplication of effort and oversight. Discussion of problems CHARLES V. of Spain, (1500-1558)." and elected emperor public education to appreciate the value of of the Holy Roman Empire, 1519. He instruments in had to deal with the problems caused by the Protestant charityorganizationare necessary the effective alleviation of poverty. Reformation,as well as with the ambitions of of organization the kingdoms of Prance and of England. His first 2. Organization. The method and work may be summarized briefly. The membership the promulgation was important act as emperor of the society consists of those who Luther an outlaw. of the Edict of Worms, declaring tribute conto its maintenance. The members elect a His reignwas between marked by a constant struggle board of directors, who Protestants and Catholics ending in the Religious guide the administrative of this board Peace of Augsburg, 1555, whereby equal rights policy. An executive committee keeps in close touch with the superintendent and were granted Lutheran and R.C. princes. In 1556 district heads. There is a central office, with district he abdicated and entered a monastery. centers in the large cities. Sometimes the district has its own center A charm may be CHARMS AMULETS." AND organization,but it is highly desirable that all sections should be closely defined as a small portable object worn the on co-ordinated with the main office of the city orfor magico-religious ganization. person, or otherwise preserved, Since the success of charity organiderived from the Latin carmen The name, reasons. zation of its workers, depends on the efficiency (asong),is also often appliedto incantations, spells,

it is becoming increasingly necessary that they be well trained. For this purpose trainingschools of philanthropy have been organized in several cities. Workers trained thus visit frequently the among houses of the poor, give them friendly counsel and and expert assistance in meeting their difficulties, ences bring back their experiencesto the weekly conferof the society. On that occasion specific cases discussed on the basis of the facts elicited, are and The success of organizedcharity plans are formed. visitors. depends mainly on the abihty of its friendly They are unpaid workers, but in most cases they faithful to their self-imposed obligations. are but They are sometimes criticised as case-hardened, their sympathy as often needs restraint for the good of those whom they are trying to help. An important part of the task performed by the organization societyis the keeping of accucharity rate records of charity cases. The society is in with the various charitable agencies close contact in the city, and it keeps the records of its own visitors. By means of a card catalogue at the central office, and frequently a period of years kept over revised,it is possiblefor the society to keep well informed and to furnish information to other agencies that may be greatlyneeded as a basis for wise action. In addition to these services the societyis often able to aid and advise public officials and committees, to influence the community to provide social reforms and neighborhood improvements, such as playgrounds, and to supply information to who wish to give help where it is philanthropists needed. most Henry K. Rows

king

"

Charms and Amulets and


are

DICTIONARY
charms

OF

RELIGION
be

AND

ETHICS

80

passwords.
to

Such

verbal

must

uttered

whereas material charms effective, continuously effective without any action on be


"

the part of the wearer. Material 1. Classification charms, of charms. used specifically to bring good fortune or to transmit desirable quahties, called taHsmans, a word are is a material charm, of Arabic origin. An amulet whose purpose is to protect the wearer against real ness, or imagined dangers witchcraft,evil eye, sick"

etc. accidents, Occasionally, disease, however, will be employed for both these the same charm purposes. As
a

rule

the

for good luck,the secretly


"

talisman will be worn amulet openly to avert

artificialcharms is usually an important function of the professional magician. 6. Diffusionof charms. The of charms is use Wherever the belief in practicallyworld-wide. is especially witchcraft,evil eye, and demonism pronounced, there will usually be a corresponding and protective development of prophylactic charms. Man seldom nourishes a superstition without effective antidote for it. some devising HuTTON Webster CHARTERHOUSE." (1) A monastery of the Carthusian order; (2) a school, chapel and almshouse in London, Eng., founded in 1611 in a suppressed Carthusian monastery and in 1872 removed
"

evil. to Godalming, Surrey. 2. Kinds Talismans and amulets of charms. have been of many different kinds and formed of CHARTISTS." A 19th. century CHARTISM, different substances. Miss Freire-Marreco movement in Great Britain to extend the poUtical ates enumerthe followingclasses of objects,both natural power of the working classes. and used: Bad "stones harvests and as artificial, commonly very depression,following hard those of a curious shape or naturally upon the enactment of the Reform Bill of 1832, (especially caused the masses, perforatea),stone implements (celtsand arrowheads); great disappointment among curious vegetable growths, roots, leaves, who in 1838 drew up a program called the "People's Charter." It had six points manhood seeds,nuts; horns,teeth,claws,and other parts of suffrage, human animals and insects, hair and teeth, equal electoral districts, shells, vote by ballot,annual of the dead; medicinal substances;subrehcs stances parliaments, abolition of property, quahfications believed to have been extracted from the for membership in the House of Commons, and sick in magical cures; iron, members. As coercive gold, silver, rock-crystal,payment of parliamentary it was alum, salt,coral; red, blue, and white things; measures prepared to abstain from the use of excisableproducts, the bank, and to cause rings; representations of runs strings,threads, and on and animal forms, phallic human strikes. Petitions were emblems, representations to organize nation-wide of eyes, hands, horns, and crescents; sent to Parliament. Riots developed. A demonstration written in London beads, imported ornaments; charms, planned on a largescale (1848) from sacred writings, inscribed objects, proved a disappointment and the beginning of quotations and ornaments; medals, coins; obsolete weapons ing waning enthusiasm, which was hastened by revivrelics and mementos of holy persons and places, the Reform Bills of 1867 and 1885, prosperity, and dedicated things." and the Ballot Act of 1872. Peter portionsof offerings, G. Mode -In some 3. Choice of charms. the erronecases ous association of ideas, so CHARVAKAS." characteristic of See Lokayatas. primitive-mindedpeople, provides a sufficient the for choice of charms. CHASIDIM. explanation (1) A body of piousJews who Thus, the color of certain stones suggests flesh, hence garnets joinedwith the Hasmoneans (q.v.). (2) A pietistic and cornelians may be carried as amulets against reaction against Talmudic legalism,emphasizing skin diseases. This logical underlies magical Polish Jews of fallacy religious ecstasy, originating among other objects the 18th, century and now restricted to Southern practices (see Magic), But many because they are supto be used as charms Russia. come posed to contain magico-spiritual (seeMana). power Such power be ascribed to them because of CHASTITY." The state of refraining from se"ual may their mysterious properties. The fact that amber, relations so as to secure moral purity. or religious when The power of sexual passion has led to various rubbed, attracts light objects probably led to the notion that to look through amber beads attitudes. At one extreme it is positively religious and the special virtue attributed strengthensthe sight, worshiped (seePhallicism) ; at the other extreme it to iron was has been rigorouslysuppressed as the root of evil perhaps often based on observation of its magnetic qualities.Power be ascribed (see Concupiscence; Asceticism). In primitive may account of their rarity to other objects on beheved or unusual to thinking sexual activityis frequently have an occult influence on processes of nature shape, e.g., perforated stones and double walnuts or almonds. sacred or Again, association with some is or significant enterprises. Chastityin such cases powerful being or thing may give rise to charms. required,e.g., of a warrior before combat, or of a For tribe during planting season, of a candidate example, the detachable parts of certain or before It has animals, e.g., tusks of wild boars, lower jaw-bone religious ceremonies. commonly tufts of eagle-feather, of the tortoise, been demanded of religious officials who used be must are to gain their qualities.The lore of rehcs in Chrisclean in order to secure the favor of the tendom spiritually is similarly celibate explained(seeReli cs) Finally, gods. Vestal virgins and priests are examples. Asceticism any objectsupposed to be inhabited by a spirit may lays especial stress on and it is included in the vows of monks and properly be described as a charm; hence it is often chastity, between charms and so-called difficultto distinguish nuns. fetishes (see Fetishism), of chastityis While the religious interpretation charms. When the 4. Artificial and a development of the idea of tabu,moral supply of largely is limited,recourse natural charms will be had to social considerations have also had great influence. artificialsubstitutes. Of these, some models has proved to be the type of sexual are Monogamy of objects, such as the crosses and best fitted to develop loyalty, unselfish or representations relationship in European countries. figuresof the saints worn love, care for children and other virtues essential Others are objects containing some But monogamy is meaningless to social welfare. magical name such as Jewish amulets married or inscription, containing unless chastity is expected on the part of all unthe Pentateuch the Psalms natural from and The or verses jealousy of men persons. in the interests of Mohammedan amulets composed of texts from the has exalted chastityin women true that exclusive personal relationshipwhich Koran, Among primitive peoples the making of
"

"

"

"

,"?! love demands.


for

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION
to act

AND

ETHICS

Child-Marriage

have claimed in freedom not countenanced standard" the existing "double women. the emancipation of women of morality. With and the growing desire for consistencyin ethical for a stricter theory,there is an increasing pressure of terrible scourge The code of morals for men. sexual due almost entirely to illicit venereal disease, is an additional argument for chastity. relations, Gerald Smith Birney MARTIN (1522-1586)."German CHEMNITZ, tion theologianand reformer,prominent in the formulaof Concord. He and acceptance of the Formula in the Adiaphorist controversy (q.v.), participated and in polemics againstCrypto-Calvinism, Roman and the Jesuits. Catholicism Doctrinally he stood midway between Luther and Melanchthon.

Unfortunately, men
a

themselves Hence

The CHEMOSH." ites. See Moabites.

national

deityof

the Moab-

CHERUBIM." An order of spirits CHERUB, attendant the Divine presence. The cherub is on survival of ancient Hebrew mythology, derived a the Assyrian from the same source as winged bulls, of Phoenician the griffins art, and the Egyptian cherubim Sphinx. In the Old Testament appear bearers of Yahweh's throne as (Ps. 18:10: Ezek. 1:5 ff., 10:1 ff.)as guardians of His holiness in both capacities (Gen. 3 :24; I Kings 6 :23 ff.), or 37 :7 ff.). In Apocryphal literature (Exod. 25 : 18 ff., they form part of the ten "troops of angels" who mount guard on the throne of God's glory,"singing in the boundless lightwith small and tender songs voices" (Enoch 71:7; 2 Enoch 20:1^). The four "Uving creatures" of Rev. 4:6 ff. are a blend and seraphim (q.v.). of cherubim R. Gordon Alex. See Summum GOOD." CHIEF Bonum. A group of books written CHILAN BALAM. scribes of the Maya Indians of the native America embodying records of the ancient times previous to the coming of the Spaniards as well as The characters astrologyand medicine. "primitive the invention in which the books are written were of tlie Spanish monks.
"

by

The RELIGION OF." ence experiof social relations with the superhuman and conduct of boys and the consequent effects upon under twelve years of age. See also Religious girls Education. hood. ChildNature I. Theories as to the op (1) The doctrine oj natural depravityshuts childhood from out possibihty of genuine any has taken until the miracle of regeneration religion the church has often been place. In consequence, children a in young at great pains to stimulate consciousness of sin and a willingness to be saved in would be the hope that the required conversion secured. ReUef obtained from this difficulty was whereby by the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, it was held that the nature of the child was changed, education could be thus the process of religious effective. nature of religious (2) The doctrine of the positive the child has come to be very generally held,partly children the theological are on ground that all men of God and partly on the theory that there is a ndtural instinct for rehgion in man. According to this view, it is the task of religious education to develop in childhood a certain religious quality which is supposed to be alreadypresent at birth and which requiresappropriateculture. Looked (3) The theoryof instinctive behaviour. with the tendencies at biologically, a child is born

CHILDHOOD,

"

that have been developed tliroughthe long of racial fife. He is non-moral and his acts purely instinctive. The social group are, firstof all, the conditions of fife to which he belongsdetermines in which these instincts operate, developing some, and modifying others. MoraUty religion are social developments, restingon a complex play of of the instinct, representinggradual achievements be said to have a moral or The child cannot race. He has the common human nature reUgiousnature. less which in the process of livingacquiresmore or the highermoral and reUgioushabits of the group. II. iVlORALITY AND RELIGION SoCIAL HaBITS. AS of the strongest influences is one (1)Social suggestion geneity to which we are subject. Hence the homoof nations, of communities, of special groups It is almost inevitable that we do what of fanulies. for The child is a candidate others do. young human experienceand the natural way to achieve the paths that others set. experienceis by following called imitation but it is very This is sometimes much than conscious copying. It yieldsthe more satisfaction of ability to do the things that others Doubtless prayer, various acts of worship,and do. in religious exercises have their generalparticipation in this way. beginnings of the permitted and the non(2) A sense is an extension of social suggestionas the permitted child feels the approval or disapproval of his elders certain types of conduct. A very significant upon basis of religious experienceis found in the child's appreciation of God's approval and disapproval, imder wise leadership, hand in the one on resulting, and the genuine, if simple contrition, confession, of forgiveness, sense and, on the other hand, in joy in conscious well doing. of one's for the ways (3) An emotional prejudice gious result in very valuable moral and reliown group may achievements. be desirous Thus a child may of maintaining cleanlinessand modesty, of speaking ness, the truth,of performing acts of sympathetic kindof helping God in his good work in the world, because his own folk do that sort of thing. largely Stage Religion. III. The Personal op to be clear (1) The danger of precocity. It seems that earlyadolescence is the time when the habitual reUgion of childhood becomes personal. There is of life to the way an experienceof commitment which has hitherto been followed as a matter of This should not be called conversion but course. should be recognizedas a stage of religious progress childhood. But followingupon a genuine religious the experienceshould by no means be superinduced through social pressure and the creation of highly emotional situations. to be are (2) The elements of childhood religion found and in the glad conformity to the moral of the elders and of the church religious practices society;in a joy in the good world where God is and where so much kindness is to be experienced and exercised; in the happy and earnest assumption of the tasks that belong to the child as a co-operating Ideas of member in God's great family on earth. with corresponding God, of duty, of social living, these experiences, will be a natural part of childhood G. Soares Theodore religion.
range
"

"

"

"

The practiceof uniting CHILD-MARRIAGE." in formal marriage children under fifteen years of under fifteen with age, usuallythe marriage of a girl older man. an to exist is known As a custom child-marriage the primitive peoples, notably among among It is especially Australians Melanesians. and thought of as a prevalentin India,and is ordinarily than one-half of the total Hindu More custom. female populationof British India are married before
^

Chiliasm

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

82

while they are mere fifteen years of age, somet;|mes in India infants. Child-marriage is least common the Dra vidian and other native tribes which among uninfluenced have remained relatively by the caste In the western provincesthe system of the Hindus. girlremains at home with her parents until sexual commence maturity is reached; but in Bengal girls their married life at the age of nine years. In 1891 ineffectual attempt the British government made an that the age to check child-marriage by prescribing of legalmarriage should be not less than twelve The practice,however, continues and is years. supported by all the Hindu castes. A. Ellwood Charles CHILIASM. See Millenabianism.
"

of the Bible
and Milne and
was

was

lation
earlyyears
numbered.

completed by Morrison published in 1818. These

much labor spent in the distribution saw of tracts and booklets by Gutzlaff,Medhurst and others as far north as Manchuria. The beginning made of medical work was by Dr. Peter Parker at Canton At the time of the first Opium in 1835. War in 1842, however, Christianityhad nowhere soil. Although about fifty taken root in Chinese had been missionaries sent from England and could be America, only five or six converts

Canton, Amoy,
were

By the Treaty of Nanking (1842),the ports of Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai opened to foreign trade and residence,and

concluded and America two years later France the right to erect houses of worship I. Nestorian treatiesgiving and of these cities was in the ports. Each speedily Roman The history of Itinerant evangelization missions in China covers occupied by mission boards. a period of 1,300 years. carried on from these centers, but hostility was Discardingunconfirmed traditions of earlier evangelization, The number of continued. and petty persecution conceded that Nestorian it is now generally to nineteen, mission boards increased from seven missionaries reached China in 635 a.d., and were with about 169 missionaries on the ground, but at Their favorably received by the reigningemperor. of converts the end of fifty in the 9th. century, when influence was at its height years the total number hundred. above one not much edict compelled 3000 Christian hostile imperial was a 2. The middle period the period of expansion teachers to to return private life. Apparently recovered from this reverse, although as began in 1860,at the close of the war with the British they never thrown additional cities were Seven and French. found in as 30,000 Nestorian Christians were many and for the first time the to foreignresidence, China by the Franciscans as late as the middle of the open out 14th. century. rightwas conceded to travel with passports throughand the eighteen provinces.Both foreigners A brief but interesting period of missionary natives were also protectedin the "quiet profession begun in activityunder the Mongol Dynasty was tian and teaching" of the doctrines of the ChrisCorvino and the Franciscans, 1292 by John of Monte of Peking who even sent an under the Great Khan although the provinces of Shansi religion, not opened till 1876, and the four and Shensi were embassy to the Pope. But in 1368 the Mongol till a year later. Hunan Dynasty was overthrown, and, in the anarchy most westerly provinces In 1860, over the last to be occupied,in 1897. appeared. diswas that followed,the last traces of Christianity missionaries were hundred waitingin Shanghai one for the opening of these new hundred doors, and Tientsin Two years later a permanent lodgment societies. entered and Peking were under by numerous effected in the country by the Jesuits, was lished, and speedilyestabMedical and educational work was the famous Ricci (1583). Franciscans Matteo work grew rapidly after 1868. and woman's Dominicans 1,600 followed, and by 1664 over in five provinces. had however, although churches been established Throughout all this period, the common In 1724 the Emperor Yung Cheng issued an edict people were well disposed,the steady of both officials oppositionif not the open hostility strictly forbiddingany further propagation of the diminution. almost without and literati continued tained and for 130 years the church was only mainreligion, The most extravagant propaganda of misrepresentaSince the tion secretly by heroic endurance. carried on against the Christian religion. was rapid treaty of 1860 Catholic missions have made The culminating outbreak of this antagonism to all Their statistics for 1916 {Les Missions progress. the Boxer Uprising,brought this de Chine et da Japon, 1917) give a total of 1,800,000 foreigninfluences, Christians distributed over all the eighteenprovinces periodof slow but steadyexpansionto an end in 1900. had been accomplished from 1860-1900 much and Mongolia; a full half milhon of these are in How statistics lor 1898. the province of Chihli. Eleven societies are is indicated by the mission now to 80,000, hundred Christians had grown Of these the Lazarists have the largest The one at work. and the nineteen societies to fifty-three. number of adherents,the Jesuits coming second. Twentymale and female, were II. Protestant Missions. 1. The early missionaries, period. five hundred of be said to reach the field,aided The by twice the number period of beginnings may upon 1766 day-schools and from the coming of the first Protestant missionary, native helpers. There were of institutions in 1807, till the opening of the whole 105 higher learning. Foreign empire to numbered 190. the Rev. Robert missionary work in 1862. When physicians since the Boxer Uprising 3. The modern peri,od, Morrison, under appointment by the London fruitful. The and in 1900, has been significant in September, 1807, the Mission, reached Canton classes has resistance of the educated stubborn Chinese chances of Christianizing the seemed broken indeed. Neither residence work in remote down, and an attitude of receptiveness nor of friendUness toward western Chinese teaching,and even was permitted, and after a year territory has largelyreplaced the toward the missionaries, he was of driven to the Portuguese settlement old dislike. The sionaries of the work of the earliest misMacao. Most change has been due to several the disillusionment chief causes followingon the of necessity carried on at various was decree in 1905 aboUshthe imperial colonies Boxer Rebellion, where ports in the Malayan Archipelago of Chinese were to be found. Singapore,Malacca, ing the old system of education, the promise in throw 1908 of constitutional government, and the overoccupied Bangkok were Java, Penang and even The new in 1911. repubhc of the Manchus from time to time, and some was made, progress Missionary and was widely supportedby Christians. especiallyalong educational literary lines. aid in flood and famine work, in the national Red An Anglo-Chinese College was opened by Dr. and at the time of the pneumonic about in 1818, where Morrison in Malacca fifty Cross associations, sion. students finished their education; a half million plague,had produced a deep and favorable impresAs the firstexalted impulses of the revolution volumes also issued in Chinese. The transwere

CHINA,

TO." MISSIONS Missions. Catholic

"

"

"

"

""

"

83

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION
to

AND

ETHICS

China, Religions of

Yang is subdivided into an innumerable of good spiritscalled shen; Yin, new into numerous evil spiritscalled kwei. republicanconditions, men Man's began thoughtful to see that fresh moral impulse was finer qualities needed for new from his shen; his passionsand come times. from his kwei. The air of earth coarser qualities of these and other causes, As a consequence and is supposed to swarm with evil spirits was for wider influence on the part of the innumerable. Such opportunities religionas the Chinese had church have sprung side. Old separabefore the 6th. century b.c. consisted in the endeavor up on every tions and divisions, both national and denominato propitiatethese spirits. At tional, the basis of the have everywhere been breakingdown, and Chinese conception of life lies the Tao, or the union efforts, in educational and medical order of the universe. the orderly especially It embraces The revolution of the seasons. tional undenominalines,multiply year by year. Closelyconnected with work of the Y.M.C.A., especially this is a righthuman the order,Jin Tao, or the "Tao of among has been of great value, large government schools, to conduct Man."_ There was a proper way for man and its staff has increased five-fold within ten himself. Indeed the smooth working of the Central boards for united action are order of nature, the Tien Tao, depended upon how years. a feature of this modern order was followed correct human out periodthat promise to be of by men. the widest helpfulness. The so-called "Continuathis had led to the tion By the time of Confucius Committee" of the federated churches in the of a definite state religion. fucius, Conor^nization China while animated Edinburgh Conference, the new Medical by a high ethical purpose in no the the Board, the Christian Educational Association, reformer. He reverenced was sense a China Medical order of nature Missionary Association are all full as expressedin the Chinese empire of promise for the future. and religion. Even its burdensome all bodies Practically customs, such working in China now of an recognizethe primary need as the three years' mourning for the death Chinese of training ship the youth for the efficient leaderemperor, which suspended all business and even of a modern church. of marriages,were Already there are the consummation regarded by him beginnings of the "Chinese Christian Church" as expressions of proper feeling. He necessary which is wholly independent and endeavored unconnected in Chinese domestic and to secure denominational with any of the proper life the observance organization. The posipolitical tion forms, of the Christian community has been much proved the fostering imof proper and the preservation feeling, by the granting of full religious toleration, of ethical standards. Through the influence of the in a law of May, 1916,providingthat "the people of the forms of Chinese life Confucianists, therefore, the Republic of China shall have libertyto honor have been crystallized. The Tao of Man has been of religious Confucius, and liberty worship, which thought to be expressed entirelyin the Classics. shall be unrestricted, These have been studied to the neglectof all unrewith except in accordance lated law." This seemingly brings to an end the effort literature, they have been made the basis of of Confucianism state religion make and to to Chinese education, of examinations for the civil a and their teachingshave been dogmatically tianity. service, perpetuate the old discriminations.against Chrisimposed by the government upon the nation. This statistics for 1916 The result has been reached by gradual steps. (China Mission Yearbe 3. Historical development. About as follows: hundred briefly summarized hook) _may a Chih HwangOrganized congregations,3,880; communicants, y;earsafter Mencius the Tsin emperor, endeavored to destroy the literati and all their ti, 268,652; adherents, 526,108; Sunday school 165,282; contributions, scholars, $644,401 (Mex.); books; and Confucianism and its classics came near missionaries,5,338; Chinese workers, 20,460; to extermination along with the rest. The Tsin ordained The num330. soon bers djrnasty pastors,764; hospitals, however, to the Han, under gave place, of the foreignworkers are divided among which the teachingsof Confucius were the revived and leadingchurches as follows: China Inland Mission, revered. During both the earlier and later Han 943; Methodist,754; Anglican, periods(206 b.c. to 220 a.d.)Confucius was held in 976; Presbyterian, In 1 a.d. he was canonized "Duke as 621; Baptist, 534; Lutheran, 385; Congrega- high honor. Henry 284. Kingman tionalist, Ni, the all complete and illustrious." In the first part of the Han period,however, the commentaries OF." I. Confucianism Confucius were written by men who were to a CHINA, RELIGIONS upon takes its name from Confucius and (q.v.). It is a sysgreater or less degree under Taoist influence, tem of morals engrafted upon the nature rupted religion who, in the judgment of later generations,corwhich had existed in China from times primeval. the teachings of the master. In the reign of Wang the 1. The sacred books of Confucianism are books,said to be Mang (6-23 a.d.)some the Shu King, or "Book of History," more five Classics, ancient,were presented to the government. the Shi King, or "Book of Poetry," the / King or These differed from the corrupted commentaries. and application "Book of Changes" (explanations The books presentedwere to said to have been dug up. of divination of eightenigmaticdiagrams), mentaries They were called "Ancient Literature"; the compurposes Ch' un Ts'iu or "Spring and Autumn it Literature." "Modem In 57 a.d. Annals," and the Li Ki or "Book of Rites." All of these except ordained that sacrifices should be offered to was the last were Confucianism Confucius. In 165 a.d. compiled by Confucius. To the was finally five Classics four books and became are from Taoism a added, though these disentangled separate character. of a less authoritative are They are system. the Lun Yu or "Analects" fucius Confucianists were much opposed to Buddhism, (memorabilia of Conto strike of whose monastic orders seemed to them compiled by his pupils),the "Works Mencius" at the bases of Chinese life. Confucianism the Ta Hsiao or "Great Learning," glorified (q.v.), and the Chung Yung or "Doctrine of the Mean." that life and fostered all those institutions which These had been developed during the nation's longstruggle were compiled or written by disciples or followers of Confucius. for existence. In spiteof the growth of Buddhism 2. Fundamental and the frequent extension to it of imperialfavor, ceive conception. ^The Chinese conthe universe to have originated by generation the estimate of Confucius rose higher and higher as stA^led "the from two he was souls or breaths called Yang and Yin, time passed. In 492 a.d. Yang represents light, Sage.'' In 609 a.d. warmth, productivity,life, venerable Ni, the accomplished and the heavens; and be directed that a temple to him should Yin, darkness,cold,death, it was
to

began

and bribery and dishonesty fail, began themselves in their old forms under

and the earth.


number

manifest

the

"

"

China, Religions of

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

S4

erected at every seat of learning. In 659 he was styled "K'ung, the ancient Teacher, the perfect Yuan Sage." The emperor Tsung (713-766 a.d.) him the title "Accomplished and Sagacious gave King." Cheng Tsung (1068-1086 a.d.) advanced him to the title of "Emperor." Chu Hsi (1130-1200 a.d.) introduced a new of the Confucian departure into the interpretation classics. He refused to interpretone in one way
_

in another. His influence a sober interpretation of the Classical been books. His works have never translated into a European languageand are little known in the West, but his influence seems, on the whole, to have tended toward agnosticism. In 1907 the late Empress Dowager raised Confucius with to the first grade of worship, ranking him Shang-ti,the Supreme Spirit. 4. Pantheon, templesand ritiuil. The divinities of the Chinese Confucianism which state religion, has made fall into three classes. a part of itself, (1) There are those worshiped by the Emperor the spiritsof Heaven and Earth, the Imperial and the gods of the ground, and of millet Ancestors, On the night of the winter solstice the or com. Emperor (or President)offers the most important sacrifice to Heaven in a temple to the south of solstice, Peking,and on the night of the summer to the Earth in a temple to the north of that city. On both occasions he sacrifices also to his ancestors. Sacrifices are offered to corn gods and gods of the ground, in the spring and autumn, in a park to the southwest of the Tartar cityeither by the President his deputy. (2) Gods of the middle class are or the sun, and various famous who are believed men such to have introduced civilization, as Sheng Nung, the divine husbandman, and Sien-ts'an, the firstbreeder of silk worms. In this class of gods rulers of the past are worshiped; also Confucius, many than togetherwith his ancestors, and more In this class seventy exponents of his doctrine. find also the planet Jupiter,deities of clouds, we mountains rain, wind, and thunder,the ten principal of the empire,five ranges of hills, etc. (3) A third class of deities is worshiped by Mandarins. This includes the physiciansof olden time, a star in the Great Bear which is regarded as the patron of Classical studies,the Prince of the north pole, the god of fire, gods of walls and moats, the god of the eastern mountains (inShantung), gods of water and of storehouses, and many rain,of porcelainkilns, others. In the time of Confucius the worship of the
passage
was

and

another

way

the side of on accordingly

"

"

restricted to reverencing people was their ancestors, but they have not been content with this. All over China in villages and other localities they now have temples for the worship of mountains, streams, rocks, and patron divinities of all sorts. Images of these gods exist by tens of thousands. The altars consist of two or more which on tables, flower- vases, and pots in are placed wax candles, which sticks of incense are placed to burn. These is no offeringsexpress homage. There atoning sacrifice. The sacrifices are propiatoryrather than
common

expiatory. 5. Principles. (1) Foremost


"

the principles among is reverence for reverence the the Shen, or Soul of the for the chief deities menreverence universe,i.e., tioned and for ancestors who were believed to above, be possessed of a shen kindred to that of the universe; and institutions reverence, too, for all the good customs which had in China's past. grown up (2) According to Confucianism the five Classics contain and reveal all the binding principles of the Tao of man. All that conflicts with these is to be uprooted and discarded. Confucianism, when of Confucianism manifestations of
"

applied,is accordinglydogmatic and consistently intolerant. (3) Sin is recognized,but its punishment from is expected in this life. Reformation is required, but is believed to be within wrong-doing one's own (4) Confucius was a formalist. power. of self-control was admirable. His power He inculcated code of honor and exhibited urbanity and a rigid courtesy. In these respects he became an example to his followers. Confucianism as one has,accordingly, of its principal elaborate system an expressions, of etiquette and politeness. (5) Confucianism embraces also a high degree of ethical teaching. Confucius advocated kindness,rectitude, decorum, wisdom, and sincerity. He does not employ the word "lie," but he lays great stress upon sincerity. His motive of conduct of the was a negative form Golden Rule: which I do not wish others to "That others." put upon me, I also wish not to put upon He did not, however, believe in forgiving enemies, but advocated He blood revenge. thought that heaven with should not live under the same a man the murderer of his father. (6) Confucianism noble. It nature essentially as regards human has inculcated loyaltyand has upheld a high ethical standard,and has thus been of untold benefit to the China of the past. In spiteof its noble standards, to lack the ethical power to however, it seems the China which must create be, if that land is stillto have a mission in the world. rupted The overthrow of the Empire in 1912 interabout for a time the state religion which entwined but had in 1915 Confucianism itself, President of the Chinese Yuan Shi Kai, then the made Confucianism more Republic, once of the state. religion II. Taoism is a system of Chinese thought and hundred seven practicewhich, after existing years as a philosophy, developed,about eighteenhundred from years ago, into a religion. It takes its name the Chinese word Tao, "path," "road," "way." Early Chinamen spoke of l^ien Tao, "the Way of Heaven," contrasting it with Jen Tao, "the The former was holy,right; bright, Way of Man." Then the latter, omitting T'ien dark, perverse. they employed Tao alone to denote the summum which eludes the transis a word lator. bonum. Tao It seems the or at times to be "Nature" "Way the Universe goes." Tao was reverenced by all the early Chinese, and forms the basis of both Confucianism (q.v.)and Taoism. The founder of Taoism as a distinct system was and who born about 600 b.c, Lao-tze, who was He is beUeved hved to be about 80 years old. to be the author of the Tao Teh Ching, the oldest of He lived in the the sacred books of the Taoists. cated midst of increasing wealth and luxury, and advoand the simple life. To to nature return a the inexpressible the seemed him Tao Infinite, exalted spirit. To come greater than the most attain all virtue. Tao with to the into harmony was This harmony was, he believed,to be attained by quietism, living according to nature, selfcally radiLao-tze differed and meditation. effacement, from his younger contemporary, Confucius. Confucius taught a system of strict etiquette;he Lao-tze would would all life into a mould. run free from convention; to him the perfect set man His famous the primevalman. saying: man was "The Way (Tao) which can be walked is not the enduringand unchanging Way {Tao); the name ging is not the enduring and unchanthat can be named Name," expresses his transcendentahsm. For two hundred years the teachingsof Lao-tze undefined life a somewhat exerted upon Chinese influence. At least a few under this influence had sought through asceticism to return to primitive holiness. In the 4th. century b.c, Chuang-tze,
_

85

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

China, Religions of

ability a literary greater than that of Lao-tze and reinforced the philosophy himself,advocated He held the punctilious of the great founder. Confucianists up to ridicule and sought to commend the teachings of Lao-tze. Chuang-tze possessed of pure philosophic thought than greater power
Mith
any

He held that all human The fundamental most distinctions of our in the thought crumble away He thus sums hght of nature. up the whole duty of man : "Resolve your mental energy into abstraction, into inaction. Allow yourself your physicalenergy fall in with the natural order of phenomena, to without of self." The admitting the element deduction from this teaching was that all logical would come does nothing,an attitude if man right, that did not appeal to great numbers of practical Chinamen. influence did, however, Chuahg-tze's and by the next century the attract a following efforts of the Taoists to live in accord with Nature had led them to dabble in various doubtful arts in the hope of discovering Nature's hidden secrets. In particular, Taoists had come to believe that an island in the Yellow Sea produced a plant from which the elixir of life could be made elixir an which would immortality. The great procure Tsin emperor, Shih Hwang-ti (221-209 B.C.), ing desirpeopledesire to worship. this elixir, In the principal Taoist temples are numerous. patronized the Taoists,and, when he persecutedthe Confucianists and destroyed their hall of the temple stands an altar and a shrine. In the shrine is a venerable figurewith a long beard, books, the Taoists were spared. For the same the Han emperor Wu-ti (140-87 b.c.) was with folded reflect the features reason an hands, whose ardent supporter of the Taoists. Under the influence calm of contemplation. Canton in 1900 contained of such ideals the teachings of the great who serve in these ten such temples. The priests Lao-tze and Chuang-tze, while nominally thinkers, temples practiseexorcism, tell fortunes,and practise revered, fell into the background. They were they tell what days and chronomancy, i.e., understood times favorable for and unfavorable are by few. The Taoists became or largely any of magicians. monasteries Taoist a group undertaking. While every Taoists and Confucianists were survive to the few of them were once not, however, numerous, of the priestsnow clearly separated from one another until the 2nd. present. Most mingle freely the efforts of Under the later Hans in the common lifeof their fellows. century a.d. the Confucianists All this organization is the result of of Taoism to purify the teachings of their Master from Taoist corruptions, native Chinese opposition to Buddhism, a foreign combined with a growing self-consciousness of their own, as well as religion. It has, however, never appropriated the imitation of the recently introduced Buddhistic hopes of a future life. Faithful to native Buddhism, with an organizationChinese helped Taoism to become a real religion tendencies, its arts and teachings are confined to matters the present life. It possessed which concern a pantheon, wholly its own. doctrines of sanctity, it was fostered For centuries Taoists have secret a system of ethics which said would lead to sanctity, and votaries, saints, societies. Sometimes they have existed for the of contemplation or for the cultivation of and pupils. In 165 a.d, Chang hermits,teachers, purpose Sometimes they Tao-ling or Chang Ling, a man regarded as a saint mystic arts, such as exorcism. times Someand described as a miracle-worker, have been organized for political a distillerof the purposes. been ehxir of life, those formed have and a god-man, claimed for other reasons an exorcist, that Lao-tze had appearedto him and commissioned diverted to agitation politicalagitation. Such him to become He accordingly of the Taoists. usually has taken the form of opposition to the patriarch ingly, assumed and his descendants this position, dynasty of the time. These societies have, accordhold it to the present day. frequentlybeen prohibitedand broken up by In rivalry the government. with Buddhism, Taoism soon One of the latest of the societies developed and the Boxers, which the late Empress Dowager, a monastic was order,a system of temples,sacrifices, hundred Tsi Thsi, encouraged as a means of ridding China a priesthood. In the last seventeen of vicissitudes. of foreigners, the massacre it has thus precipitating experienced various years the year 1900. Under the Ch'i dynasty (479-502) temples and had under Buddhism III. Chinese Buddhism. monasteries constructed for them (q.v.) were the Chin had a historyof five hundred dynasty imperial patronage. Under years in India before The first authentic were A.D.) their establishments (5.56-580 destroyed its introduction into China. reached record that a knowledge of Buddhism along witJi those of the Buddhists,while under the China comes from the reign of Wu-ti of the Han was great Tang dynasty (618-907 a.d.) Taoism favored to such a degree that it is regarded by dynasty (140-87 B.C.). During his reign the Chinese penetrated to Tibet and the Caspian, and the state religion of the Tangs. It was some as also favored reportedto the Chang-k'ien, by the Sung emperors (906-1127), one of Wu-ti's generals, but persecuted by the Kin dynasty (1127-1235). emperor that he had heard that in India they Their magic arts commended them to the Mongols Feu-to (Buddha). worshiped a divine person, in Pamir a that under the Yuan Another so dynasty (1260-1368) they general, Hu Kui-ping, saw adored. who was the last two dynasties golden image of the same again flourished. Under person, imperialfavor has varied with different sovereigns. Possibly missionaries also followed in the wake of At the head of the Taoist the Chinese pantheon stands armies, for in 6 B.C. an ambassador Lao-tze,who is worshiped under the titleSan tsing, of the Massagatae with the aid of a Chinese scholar "The three Pure book into Chinese. Ones" title given him in translated a Buddhistic a

other Chinese

perceptions are

writer. relative.

"

Buddhism, which reverences Buddha under three aspects as past, present, and future. San tsingis the god of contemplation. Yu Hwang Shang-ti,"the preciousimperialgod," is worshiped He controls as the ruler of the physicaluniverse. human their can affairs; to him men express hopes and griefs. Magicians and alchemists have added other deities. The earth is said to consist of five constituent parts, metal, wood, water, fire, and earth, which are respectively representedin the heavens by Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Saturn. These planets, which are regarded as the sublimated of these earthlythings, essences are regardedas gods. Other stars are deified. The Great Bear comes in for a good degreeof worship, one part of it being thought to be the palace of a goddess, Tow-mu, another part of the god Kwei-sing. The god of of the sea, the mother of lightthunder, the spirit ning, the king of the sea, the lord of the tide,and other spirits able innumerare worshiped. Spirits many which preside over possiblecallingare every also invoked. In spiteof the fact that wealth and ers, honor are discountenanced by the great Taoist writno god is more eagerlyworshiped than Tasi-shin, the god of riches. In short,Taoism has absorbed into itself any the popular spirit or god whom

rivalry to

"

"

China,Religions of

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

86

official introduction of Buddhism into The China dates,however, from the reign of Ming-ti, The faith thus introduced what is 58-86 A.D. was known Buddhism. It was in many as Mahayama nally respects quite different from the simple faith origithat which as well as from taught by Gautama is still perpetuated among the southern Buddhists. stillthat existence is an Its fundamental tenets were to successive evil, that individuals are doomed reincarnations until they become sufficiently fect pertheir individuality to attain Nirvana by losing in Tag^thata, the substantial hypostasis of the and that the way to attain this perfection universe, the Noble, Eight-Fold, Middle But Path. was to this simple faith many thingshad been added. The lously Buddha, it was believed,had been miracuconceived and miraculously born without As an infant he had causing pain to his mother. behaved in a most miraculous way. Daevas (theold at his birth; they had attended gods) had rejoiced him throughout life. Into the system of belief there had been introduced a goddess, Abolokitesvara, in China as Kwan-yin, and a divine being, known Amitabha, called by the Chinese Amita, or Mi-to. belief in Boddhisattvas The was already a part and faith in heaven of it,as was hell as places different incarnations. of temf"orary sojourn between

This form of Buddhism had developed in northand northwestern India among Scythians and other tribes who of had come into India by way Parthian enced empire, and had been profoundlyinfluby ideas originally foreignto it. The progress of Buddhism in China was at first slow. While it does not demand that all who it does hold that accept it shall live a celibate life, such a life is the most and organizesmany perfect, monasteries and nunneries. withdrawal of The people from active married life was contrary to Chinese ideals, in which the duty of being economically tain productiveand of begettingchildren to mainthe reverence due to ancestors had perpetually for centuries been deeply ingrainedinto the national consciousness. Both Confucianism and Taoism and legal were (q.v.) ments impediopposed to Buddhism from were employed to prevent Chinese than two turies cenbecoming monks.^ For more after the introduction of Buddhism the orders were monastic kept alive by the influx of After the beginning of the later foreign monks. Tsin dynasty in 265 a.d. the opposing influences decree perweakened, and in 335 a.d. an imperial mitted the Chinese orders. to enter the monastic established monasteries in northern were Many nine-tenths of the people had in a China and soon become Buddhists. ism, sense Buddhism, Confucianand Taoism not mutually exclusive syswere tems, and the majority of the Chinese have from themselves that time counted members of all as three faiths, to gain whatever benefits each as so can bring. As neither Confucianism nor Taoism held out a hope of a future life. Buddhism supplied at this point a real lack. Although the imperial favor wavered, one favoringConfucianism emperor at the expense of Buddhism, another Taoism, and another veering again to Buddhism, and although the same emperor would at times veer from one faith to another, Buddhist monks multiplied rapidly and began to make pilgrimages to India. In .526 A.D. cessor Buddhidharma, the twenty-eighth sucof Gautama, and the first of the Buddhist ceremony. from India to China, arrived patriarchsto come and from that time China became the seat of the of the self by which a CHOICE." That power Buddhistic patriarchate. In 819 a.d. Hsien Tsung, of action, selection is made from alternative courses of the Tang dynasty, sent commissioners tive to escort a or ends, and involvinga comparison of relathings, Choice the selection values. is ethical when to the capital. Great supposed bone of the Buddha reverence was paid to the relic. A Confucianist, involves a moral evaluation of the alternatives.
em

strong protest against the whole has been often quoted. undertook to At different times Chinese emperors check the spread of Buddhism of perseby means cution. these for a time were While vigorously pushed, in the end the religion proved too strong to be repressed. Hindu The conception of the transmigrationof souls has never taken deep root in China. Chinese the other hand, have easily on gods and spirits, been transformed into Buddhas or Boddhisattvas, and the phrase "all the Buddhas" has become in northern Buddhism almost an equivalent to "all the spirits" "all the gods." In addition to these, or Buddhism two deities of northern have won a very largeplace in the Chinese form of the faith. They Amita are Kwin-yin and Mi-to (i.e., or Amitabha). Kwan-yin is the "goddess of mercy," who is believed to descend to hell to release spirits bound regularly She is worshiped now there. by a ritual which resembles a Christian liturgy. Indeed it strikingly is believed to have been borrowed from Christianity. It appears to have reached China at the time of the Tang dynasty in the 7th. century with Nestorianism, and to have been adapted in the time of the Mings in the 15th. century. The other deity,Mi-to or Amitabha, is a kind of Saviour Buddha. Originallyonly a form of Buddha, he has become in the minds of the people a practically god. He is believed to control the tsingtu, or "Pure Land," a Paradise supposed to be situated in the West, to gain which assures petual perbliss. Gradually there has grown the up doctrine that faith in Mi-to combined with the will insure entrance of his name into this repetition Paradise. Admission Land" tutes constito that "Pure salvation. result of this doctrine As a Chinese Buddhists will sit for hours repeating the word is supposed to contain the Mi-to, which elixirof life, which and to contain the magic power delivers from the circle of transmigration. It thus of faith and of happens that in China a religion of the name of a Saviour has been ritual repetitions substituted for the strenuous ethical endeavor which constituted taught by Gautama primitive Buddhism. Chinese have nothing to who While there are do with Buddhism, it may be said that truthfully Buddhism has penetrated the whole of Chinese life. There is no clearly marked line of distinction between and those of the the devotees of Buddhism of China. The other religions great majority of terms the people are on friendly with all three. In be a therefore,all China's millions may sense, Buddhism counted as Buddhists. has contributed and a conception to Chinese thought an eschatology it calls its devotees to attain heaven of the hereafter, and escape hell by frequentinvocations of Buddhas and Boddhisattvas, together with fastings and the leadingof a moral and it encourages pilgrimages, the whole and altruistic life. It has had on an elevatinginfluence on Chinese life. George A. Barton The system of knighthood in the CHIVALRY." of feudalism (10th.-14th.century) in which age aid knightly honor was pledged to protect women, the weak, and act magnanimously toward a quished vanfoe. Chivalry was recognized by the ture church from the time of the Crusades, the investielaborate church of the knight including an
Han

Yu, wrote

which procedure,

87

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Christian Science

services CHOIR. In most well-ordered religious of the ancient world the people responded to the trained priestsin the chanting of litanies, or a choir (chorus) of singers followed a leader or alternatelychanted psalms. The early Christian Church continued modified synagogue service of a psalm chanting. After the 4th. century, especially in monasteries, hear of choirs (schola cantarum), we who occupied a prominent place in church, which place is also called choir (from chorus or corona or chancel),the chorus forming a circle about the altar, separated from the people by a railing. J. N. Reagan CHRISM. (1)An unguent made of oUve oil and balm used as an anointing substance in the Or. and R.C. churches at baptism,confirmation, ordination and consecration services. Consecration of the chrism is performed by a bishop on Maundy day. Thursused for the (2) A designation sometimes olive oil employed in the administration of extreme
" "

the Congo in Africa,the West Indies, and in three countries in South America. The latest mission 260 foreign reportsshow some missionaries, many of whom are lay workers, engaged throughout this mission field, with a native communicant body of about The 7,000, and 450 native workers. Alliance puts unusual emphasis upon conventions, and local, and occasional national, district, regular, the means of promoting its evangehstic and as interests. Leaders in the Alliance have missionary been not especiallyprominent in the modern interdenominational and rehgious movement. James L. Barton CHRISTIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN ZION. A rehgious body organized in 1896 by John Alexander Dowie, laying stress on faith-healing, abstinence from pork and tobacco, and cultivating a strong religious community life. The sect is located at Zion City, 111.
"

unction. CHRISMON.
first two
appears
on

A formed of the monogram letters of the Greek word, Christos. It the tombs of some of the earlyChristians.
" "

CHRISTIAN CONNECTION." A of group Christians organizedby James O'Kelly (1735-1826) in North Carolina with tenets similar to those of the of Christ (q.v.). Disciples CHRISTIAN PEOPLES' SOCIETY Societies.

ENDEAVOR,
OF." See Young

YOUNG

CHRIST.

See Jesus

Christ; Messiah.

Peoples'

CHRISTADELPHIANS." A founded in sect 1848 by John Thomas, the tenets of which are conditional immortality, anti-trinimillenarianism, tarianism,and churches with neither organization
nor

ministry. Membership

(1919),2,922.
in

CHRISTENDOM." That part of the world which Christianity is the dominant reUgion. CHRISTENING."

CHRISTIAN SOCIETY FOR KNOWLEDGE, PROMOTING." A the society operated by Church of England to publishand distribute Bibles, Christian literature and tracts. It dates from 1698, and has been a great missionary agency in publishing books in various languages. CHRISTIAN REFORM CHURCH." A body of secessions from the Dutch Reformed consisting Church 1882. Its (q. v.) in 1822, 1857 and schools are in western Michigan. strongest CHRISTIAN of SCIENCE." A scientific system

The of Christian ceremony the ceremony when an infant is baptism, specifically baptized and named. CHRISTIAN. Ideallya person possessedof the moral and religious character of Jesus Christ. In ordinary usage, however, the term is used to denote more even a professedfollower of Christ or loosely who is associated with a Christian group one or Mohammedan. not a Jew, pagan or nation; i.e.,
"

discovered by metaphysical or spiritual healing, Mary Baker Eddy in the year 1866. Christian

CHRISTIAN AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE. A religious which has as its founder movement and president Albert B. Simpson. In 1879 the International Missionary Alliance and the Christian Alliance were incorporated. Later these separately two societies united in the Christian and Missionary headauarters in the Alliance. The national are 44th Street,New tabernacle at 8th Avenue ana the Hudson, York, and at Nyack Heights upon where is established the Nyack MissionaryInstitute, the educational of the Alliance and the center of its leaders. It mainofficial residence of many tains and orphanYork City various homes in New ages and also a training college. Membership,
"

9,625 (1919).
Doctrinal rehgious doctrines position. The especially prominent in the Alliance and upon which it puts constant emphasis are Gospel Evangelism, Personal Heahng, Baptism by Holiness, Divine Immersion, the Second Coming of Christ,and the and persons to all races Extension of Christianity with the purpose of offeringsalvation to every nation and individual in this generation. In 1887 at a convention at Foreign missions. Old Orchard, Maine, the AlUance announced its foreign mission policy. Since that date missions have been begun in Palestine, three provinces in India, six provincesin China, on the border of Tibet, the Soudan, and Aunam, Japan, PhilippineIslands,
" "

Science is so called because of its exact and scientific nature. It implies a correct and demonstrable knowledge of God; a systematizedand formulated knowledge of the divine Principleof being, which be apphed spiritually, since God is infinite must Spirit. It is Christian because it explains and unfolds the teachings of Jesus, whose knowledge and apprehension of God have been scientifically must correct, hence the teachings of Jesus are at Christian and scientific. once I. Discoverer Founder. and Mary Baker of Christian Eddy, the Discoverer and Founder Science,a gentlewoman of culture and refinement, born at Bow, near was Concord, New Hampshire, in 1821. She was of English and Scotch descent. Her ancestry was marked by sturdy devotion to Protestant and deep rehgious tendencies. liberty Her mother devout and spiritually was especially minded. relatives were Her immediate prosperous people of local prominence. She received a liberal favorite Her tutors. education, mainly under studies were natural philosophy,logic and moral She was science. instructed in Hebrew, Latin,and Greek by her brother, a graduate of Dartmouth made an honorary College. In 1903 she was tion. Revolumember of the Daughters of the American ethical and moral She was a fluent writer on and for a time earned her liveUhood through subjects and other contributions to newspapers her literary
"

periodicals.
As a child Mrs. Eddy took an unusual interest in religious subjectsand at the age of twelve she in recovered illness by turning to God from an

Christian

Science

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

88

voluntary religious association. The and is known The organized was as Her parents had been members of Christ, of that in Boston, Massachusetts, Scientist, it is more or as nection body for about fortyyears and she retained her confrequently called,The Church. therewith until the first Christian Science Mother The headquarters of this church church founded. established in Boston, where they continue at As was she were a woman young further developed and afterward the present time. maintained The organizationof the church an intense interest in religious and metaphysical subjects, and formation of its By-Laws were directlyunder the supervision of Mrs. causation. and includingmental and spiritual Eddy; today the Church which In February 1866 she sustained an injury Manual, as given by her, is the accepted and duly recognized constitution and law of The was pronounced fatal by her physician. In her Mother Church. extremity she turned to God, called for her Bible and opening it at the ninth chapter of Matthew, IV. The Tenets Christian op the Science she read the account Church. of Jesus' healing of the man The reUgioustenets of Christian Science, sick of the palsy. The clear realization of the as formulated by Mrs. Eddy, are as follows: 1. As adherents of the Christ came of Truth, we to her at that time take the inspired healing power Word of the Bible as our sufficient guide to eternal with such illumination and conviction that she Life. arose, dressed herself and walked into the adjoining 2. We acknowledgeand adore one and having disappeared. room, every trace of her injury supreme infinite God. After this experience she retired from society for We acknowledge His Son, one about three years, during which Christ; the Holy Ghost or divine Comforter; and period she read littlebut the Bible and finally in God's image and likeness. man a complete revelation of the Science of the teachings of Christ Jesus 3. We of sin in acknowledge God's forgiveness the destruction of sin and the spiritual unfolded to her and she began to teach and practice understanding
prayer.
as a

At an admitted church to early age she was membership in the Congregational Church tarian). church (Trini-

thus First Church

"

this Science for herself and others. II. Textbook. The Christian Science textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, written by Mary Baker Eddy during the years was immediately followingher discovery. It was first publishedin 1875 and was revised by the author at various times until 1910 when the latest change This book contains the complete statemade. ment was of Christian Science, its Principle and defining with the elucidation thereof. The rules, prayerful study of this book has not only healed thousands of its readers, but it has enabled them to heal others and so made it possiblefor them to fulfill the command of Christ Jesus to "heal the sick." Health Science and with Key to the Scriptures acknowledges only one God and that the All-good. It shows Christ Jesus to be the Way-shower, who be followed in every must act of Ufe if one is to merit the name of Christian. It awakens each student of its pages to the awful and deceptive of sin and of all evil. From nature to cover cover it stands for God and His laws; and all those who love this book are turned to a more appreciative, and intelligent consecrated, study of the Bible. It contains eighteen chapters, with the following and Eucharist; headings: I. Prayer; II. Atonement III. Marriage; IV. Christian Science versus V. Animal Spiritualism; Magnetism Unmasked; VI. Science, Theology, Medicine; VII. Physiology; VIII. Footsteps of Truth; IX. Creation;X. Science of Being; XI. Some Objections Answered; Science Practice; XIII. Teaching XII. Christian Christian Science;XIV. Recapitulation; XV. Genesis; XVI. The Apocalypse; XVII. Glossary; XVIII. Fruitage. The complete list of the published writings of Mary Baker Eddy is as follows: Science and Health vnth Key to the Scriptures; The People'sIdea of God spection (1886); Christian Healing (1886); Retroand Introspection (1891); Unity of Good (1891); Rudimental Divine Science (1891); No and Fes (1891); Church Manual (1895); Miscellaneous Writings(1883-1896); Christ and Christmas (1897); Christian Science versus Pantheism (1898); Pulpit and Press (1895); Messages to The Mother Church (1900, 1901, 1902); Poems (1910); The First Church of Christ, and Miscellany (1913). Scientist, These works may be found at all Christian Science and at most Public Libraries. Reading Rooms III. Church first ChrisThe Organization. tian Science church was founded by Mrs. Eddy in 1879 and was given a charter by the Commonwealth In 1892 she reorganized of Massachusetts. her
"

that casts out evil as unreal. But the belief in sin is punished so long as the belieflasts. the as _4.We acknowledge Jesus' atonement evidence of divine, efficacious Love, unfoldingman's unity with God through Christ Jesus the Wayis saved shower; and we acknowledge that man through Christ, through Truth, Life,and Love as demonstrated by the Galilean Prophet in healing the sick and overcoming sin and death. 5. We acknowledgethat the crucifixion of Jesus and his resurrection served to uplift faith to understand eternal Life,even the allness of Soul,Spirit, and the nothingness of matter. 6. And we solemnly promise to watch, and pray for that Mind also in Christ to be in us which was Jesus; to do unto others as we would have them do unto us; and to be merciful, and pure. just, Mary Baker Eddy The Mother Church has, at _V. Branches. this date, 1920, upwards of eighteen hundred branch churches societies. These and branches have their own democratic forms of government, Church subject to such By-Laws of The Mother churches as are applicable thereto. These are formed by loyal Christian Scientists in their own and conform to the requirements of the locaHties, laws of the states in which they are organized. The formingof a branch church in its own locality does not constitute it a branch of The Mother Church. After churches are formed in accordance with the state laws and the directions given in the Church Mother Manual, they must be recognized by The Mother Church before they become branches thereof. The affairs of The Mother Church are administered by its Board of Directors, which according to the laws of Massachusetts is a body of holding property, corporate, for the purpose
"

receiving grants, bequests,etc.


The Sunday services and Second Reader, Such services consist usuallya man of Scripturalreading, prayer, and the singing of hymns, followed by the reading of the Lessonis Lesson-Sermon Sermon The by the Readers. composed of Christian prepared by a Committee and it consists of selections from the Scientists, from the Christian Bible,with correlative passages Science textbook, Science and Health with Key to issued are the Scriptures. These Lesson-Sermons Science Publishing Christian quarterly by The of service is followed form same Society. The used in all Christian Lesson-Sermon and the same Science churches throughout the world.
are

VI. Church conducted

Services. First a and a woman.


"

by

"

89

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Christian Science

The midweek of Education services consist of testimonial of The or Mother by the Board form to classes and Church, authorizing them meetings held each Wednesday evening. At these take pupilsin Christian Science. relative of meetings there is reading from the Bible and corOnly one class, from the textbook,also prayer and not more than thirtypupils,is taught yearlyby passages monies each teacher. singingof hymns, followed by the giving of testiof the congregationof healing f) Practitioners. There by members are upwards of six thousand of Christian Science in this from sickness and sin. practitioners and other countries, in connection who devote their entire time Sunday Schools are conducted Church with The Mother and all branch churches, to the healingof disease and sin. They are usually those who have taken instruction from authorized where pupilsare received up to twenty years of age teachers and are qualified to do the healing work. and instructed in the simplermeanings of the truth concerning Christian Science. They are authorized to make a charge for their services equal to that of reputable physicians service is observed Communion in the branch in churches semi-annually, but no communion their respective localities. A service classifieddirectory Church. of Christian Science teachers, practitioners Mother is held in The Bread and wine and not used, the only outward are being nurses is published in The Christian Science Journal. ceremony in self-examination, Christian Science the kneelingof the congregation g) The Publishing Society, with God and prayer. silent communion We read operating under a deed of trust granted by Mrs. "Our under the provisionsof the in Science and Health: eth bread, 'which ComEddy and conducted from heaven,' is Truth. down Our cup is the By-Laws, publishes the current literature of The wine Our the inspirationof Love, the Mother The following the periodicals Church. cross. are drank which it issues: (1) The Christian Science Journal, and commended to draught our Master his followers." "It is the living the practical a monthly pubUcation ; (2) Christian Science Sentinel, Christ, Jesus 'the resurrection and Herold der Christian a weekly publication; (3) Der Truth, which makes follow him in deed. in German; (4) Le to all who the life' a monthly publication, Science, Obeying his demonstration Heraut de Christian Science, his precious a monthly publication, precepts, following in French; (5) The Christian Science Monitor, a shall at last we far as we apprehend it, so with ing him, in a full understand(6) The Christian Science Quarterly, dailynewspaper; rest, sit down for use in of the divine Principlewhich containing the Lesson-Sermons triumphs over Christian Science churches and societies and issued death" (pp.35, 31).
" " "

"

....

Mother Officers The Church The of tian follows: The Pastor Emeritus; The Chrisof Directors; President; First Science Board Reader; Clerk; and Treasurer. Reader; Second in consonance The Christian Science Board of Directors, with a By-Law of the Church Manual, is a selfbody, which elects the other officers perpetuating with the exceptionof the Readers, who are annually, elected by the Directors for a term of three years. Mother Church The financialsupportof The from its Publishing Society,as the result of comes of the to the pubUcations sales of and subscriptions Church; also from a per capita tax of one dollar tions and from voluntary contribu($1.00) per annum, from its membership. (A By-Law prohibits the numbering of the membership for publication, of Christian statistics regardingthe number so that no VII.
as
are

quarterly.
Christian Science Benevolent tion Associainstituted and is maintained by Christian Scientists under the generaldirection of The Mother Church. Its property is situated in Brookline,. at Massachusetts, and present consists of an administration buildingand two dormitories. It accommodate hundred and forty about one can now guests. The object of this institution is to receive Christian the sick and injured among Scientists, who come for restoration to health and for recuperation; and also for the instruction training of in the proper (who are Christian Scientists) nurses of the sick. care Terms. IX. Important Following is a list of some of the important terms used in the exposition of Christian Science. Animal magnetism as understood in Christian action of erroneous Science represents the mesmeric belief. Christian Science is the very antipode of or any mesmerism, hypnotism, mental suggestion, Animal of the allied occult or esoteric influences. and represents for all evil, magnetism isthe synonym beliefs and false concepts of humanity, the erroneous "Animal and collectively. magnetism individually is the voluntary or involuntary action of error in all its forms; it is the human antipode of divine

h) The
was

"

Scientists are available.) ^The By-Laws proActivities. VIII. Church vide for: a) A Board of Education,under whose direction to become pupils are instructed and authorized number The of Science. of Christian teachers class Normal teachers prepared is limited to one in three years. of thirtypupilstaught once
"

now numbering of Lectureship, b) A Board twenty-three members, who deliver free lectures under the Science the subject of Christian on Church and of the branch auspicesof The Mother These lectures throughout the world. organizations of correcting misapprehensions are for the purpose in regard to Christian Science and for presenting of its fundamental teachings. some quarters Committee on Publication,with headc) A in Boston, has representativesin all and large cities where Christian Science is known is to practiced. The duty of these committees in a Christian manner, impositionson the correct, public,in regard to Christian Science,which may in the dailypress or in circulated literature of appear

Science." and Health,p. 484.) (Science tian Atonem"nt. Atonement as understood in ChrisScience is defined by Mrs. Eddy in Science and is the exemphficaHealth as follows: "Atonement cation of man's unity with God, whereby man It Love. reflects divine Truth, Life, and to reconcile man therefore Christ's purpose was and Truth are God Love to God, not to man. with God's image and likeness. Man not at war exceed divine Love, and so atone for himself. cannot to error, for reconcile Truth Christ cannot Even irreconcilable. Jesus aided Truth and are error
"

in

any

sort.

sense

truer a to God by giving man man reconciling ings, of Jesus' teachof Love, the divine Principle

tian authorized Chrisbe read or purchased, literature may are to the generalpublic and are maintained open by all Christian Science churches. e) Teachers of Christian Science are those who have been granted certificates either by Mrs. Eddy

d) Free Reading Rooms, where


Science

redeems of Love man and this truer sense from the law of matter, sin and death,by the law (pp. 18-19). of Spirit," the law of divine Love" in Baptism. There is no baptismal ceremony sidered Baptism is conScience Church. the Christian by Christian Scientiststo be the spiritual
"

Christiad

Science

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

90

mind" he consePaul's "carnal in which and crates "fleshlymind," that experience of each individual, of thought and which seems to be but which has no real or substantial through purification himself, existence. deed, to God's service and makes daily progress in It is defined in Science his journey heavenward. Prayer. Christian Science teaches its adherents Rule and, in so doing, to obey to obey the Golden and Health as follows: "Our baptism is a purification mergence the laws of God and of the land. subChristian Scien"Purification by Spirit; tists from all error." endeavor to live in accordance with the injuncin Spirit." "The baptism of Spirit, tion of Paul to "pray without ceasing" and they washing the body of all the impuritiesof flesh, know that they have prayed arightin proportion as God and are in heart see that the pure signifies their prayers answered. The first chapter in Life and its demonstration" are approaching spiritual Science and Health is devoted to the subject of (pp.35, 581, 241). Christ. Brieflystated,as taught in Christian prayer and is preceded by the words of Christ Jesus in Mark and Matt. The "The divine manifestation 11:23-24 6:8. chapter Science,Christ means, follows: "The that reforms the of God, which comes as to the flesh to destroyincarnate opens prayer sinner and the sick is absolute God's spiritual, eternal heals faith that all "Christ expresses error." an to God with Messiah, The name is synonymous nature. a spiritual thingsare possible understanding unselfed love." which is taught,illustrated, of Him, an and alludes to the spiritualitj^ Later, on the same in the life of which and demonstrated "Thoughts unspoken page, are found these words: embodiment." to the divine Mind. Desire is Christ Jesus the was (Science are not unknown from trusting God and no loss can with the occur and Health, prayer; pp. 583, 333.) "In accordance with our be moulded that they may and Christian Science textbooks, the Bible, and Science desires, exalted before they take form in words and ^and in in Health with and Key to the Scriptures, and Health,p. 1.) deeds." members accord with all of Mrs. Eddy's teachings, (Science shall neither entertain a belief nor of this Church (For further meanings of ethical and religious in Christian used Science terms consult the that than one as even Christ, a belief in more signify Christ whereof the Scripture beareth testimony." writingsof Mary Baker Eddy, with Concordances, in Christian Science Reading Rooms and in public (ChurchManual, p. 42.) in Christian understood Error. Error libraries.) as In Miscellaneous Writings (p. 21) Mrs. Eddy Science is a belief in that which is untrue, or the "As the advance in spirituality, state of consciousness of one holding to such belief; writes: ages Christian Science will be seen to depart from the that which appears to be but is not; a departure in no wise from that which is true. "Error is a supposition trend of other Christian denominations that pleasureand pain,that intelligence, substance, except by increase of spirituality." The Christian Science Board Directors existent in matter. op Error is neither Mind are life,
" " " " " "

nor

one

CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM." The effort to combine the fundamental aims of Socialism with the that reUgious and .ethical convictions of Christianity. It was inevitable that so powerful a spiritual and Health, p. 472.) Socialism modern would movement God. as react The teaching of Christian Science always on absolute and invariable premise Christianityand produce individuals and movements starts from the one these of of the omnipresence, omnipotence, omniscience supporting or opposing it. But reactions have varied widely. the one and it renounces all that and only GOD, Where the conservative is contrary thereto European Churches, as evil, powerless, untrue. Catholic or the religious God is defined in Science and Health (p. 587), as Protestant, dominate Socialism has been anti-clerical and in follows: "The the all-knowing,allsituation. great I AM; and the Churches have and eternal; the main anti-religious, all-wise, all-loving seeing,all-acting, and immoral. opposed it as godless,destructive, Principle; Mind; Soul; Spirit: Life; Truth; Their from to protect the masses concern was Love; all substance; intelligence. Socialist influences. But no tian one can successfully Healing. The great difference between ChrisSociaUsm the working classes without Science and other religions is that Christian oppose among for Scientists rely entirelyupon means assentingto most of its criticism of the capitalistic spiritual social order and outbidding its practical as well as the sinful. healingthe sick and sorrowing, sincere religious but is divinely organizing efforts. Strong and This healing is not miraculous such as the Catholic Bishop Ketteler appears personalities, natural. Disease, being a mental concept, disand court the Protestant with the introduction of spiritual truth chaplain Stoecker in de Mun and Marc and its activities in the thought of the individual, Germany, and Count Sagnier in the competitive selfishness of and this is the result of the teaching and practice France, condemned of Christ and demanded of our Master as taught in the Scriptures. a capitalismin the name Powerful antisolidaristic social order. Christian Science teaches that heaven Heaven. more of workingmen, and is not a locality and is not limited to experiences socialistorganizations even thus created under religious On the contrary, Christian political beyond the grave. partieswere and radical have combined Science accepts the teaching of Jesus, that "the They leadership. medieval and with conservative modern aims kingdom of God is within you." The definition of interests and ideals. Socialists regard this kind of heaven,in /Scienceand Health (p. 587) is: "Harmony; that "Christian Socialism" with hostility, the reign of Spirit;government ple; believing by divine Princiits main aim is to protect the church rather than spirituahty; bUss; the atmosphere of Soul." Hell is defined in Science and Health (p.588),as: to free the people. "Mortal In Great Britain, Switzerland, America, and belief; error; lust; remorse; hatred; French Socialism, and selfProtestants, Christian sin; sickness; death; suffering among revenge; effects of sin; being frankly democratic, does not seek to hinder destruction; self-imposed agony; " but to propagate its ideas of Sociahsm that which 'worketh abomination the progress or maketh a lie.' victions within Mortal the Church. mind. A used term Sharing the essential conby Christian of Christianityand Socialism,Christian "the flesh opposed to Spirit, Scientists to mean mediators and act as the human mind Socialists can and evil in contradistinction to interpreters The early "Christian SociaUst" the two. the divine Mind, or Truth and good" (Science between and of F. D. formed in 1848 under the leadership to 114). It is regarded as equivalent Health, group,
" " " "

faculties. Error is the contradiction of Mind's Error is a belief without understanding. of Truth. It is Error is unreal because untrue. which is not." to be and seemeth (Science

p.

91

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Christianity

Maurice, Charles Kingsley and J. M. Ludlow, is Since 1880 the "Guild of St. Matthew" well known. Social Union" in the Church and the "Christian of of England, and nearly all the wider movements in have proved that Christianity the Free Churches Great Britain has been deeply affected by Christian have had no organized Socialism. In America we of equal popular strength, but the movements religious spread of diluted Socialist ideas among of the most fruitful religious leaders has been one influences of the last forty years. The phrase "Christian SociaUsm" was formerly used in a loose way to designateany radical social selves sympathies. To-day those who apply it to themindicate that they accept at least the substance of the Socialist platform. But Christian echo of orthodox Socialism. Socialism is not a mere Its Christian spirit ness. creates a distinctive consciousof Socialism. It is a pecuhar genus The Christian sense of lifeand personality of the sanctity and of the essential equalityof men re-enforces the SociaUst condemnation of the present social order. belief in the fatherhood of God, in The religious the fraternal solidarity of men, and in the ultimate social redemption of the race through Christ lends to the Socialist ideals. reUgiousqualities the followingpoints it is in conscious At within antagonism against tendencies prevailing the Socialist movement: (1) It sets a positive faith against the materialistic philosophy religious SociaUsm which has inherited from its European beginnings. (2) It believes in the value and social of the churches. possibiUties (3) It lays stress on factor in the salvation as a religious regeneration of society. (4) It accepts "economic determinism" but asserts the as a chief factor in social evolution, forces. of spiritual realityand independent power the influence of social environment, (5)It recognizes of the individual. but stillasserts the moral responsibility of the family (6) It stands for the sanctity and the radical Christian attitude on the question Walter Rauschenbusch of mtoxicants.
An association UNION." CHRISTIAN SOCIAL of Christian Socialists organized in England in 1889 Scott under the leadershipof Bishop Gore, Canon the Holland, and others, aiming to: (1) secure authority of Christian law in social matters; (2) of Christian ideals to current study the application social and economic problems; (3) hold up Jesus and the master of social wrong, Christ as the enemy of love and righteousness. CHRISTIAN UNION"

as Christianity

religion is

more

than
a

its

teachings and

institutions. It

is

reUgious-

See Union, CmjRCH.

CHURCHES UNION CHRISTIAN rately (more accuOF CHRIST CHURCHES INDEPENDENT tional interdenominaAn CHRISTIAN IN UNION)." body organized in the U.S. in 1863 primarily the or to protest against the preaching of politics ship emphasizing of doctrinal differences. Member-

13,692 (1919).
The CHURCH YEAR." CHRISTIAN YEAR or celebrations to be observed in calendar of religious the Christian church. Catholic and Anglican churches In the Roman the year begins with the first Sunday in Advent, which is so dated as to give four Advent Sundays calendar festivals are before Christmas. Other Epiphany, Easter,Ascension Day, and Whitsunday, the various Sundays being numbered according to of these Sundays. their distance l"efore or after one is the The CHRISTIANITY." religionwhich outgrowth of the life and work of Jesus Christ and
centers

about his personaUty.

historical movement from which teachings and institutions have the emerged in group life, i.e., churches. As a religion it illustrates the structural laws which condition all religiousdevelopment generally. It did not begin as a completed system of doctrines, standardized or a thoroughly body of but in a group practices, confessingfaith in its Founder. What it is has been developed from what it was, and this process is stiU in progress. Not Buddhism shows a largervarietyof form than even does Christianity, the religion which has become the dominant religion in Europe, the two Americas, and Australasia,and is markedly extending its influence in both Asia and Africa. I. History. pendent inde1. Historical Origins. Christianity as an had its rise in the group of Jews religion who in the second quarter of the Christian era that is,as as accepted Jesus of Nazareth Christj^ the one God had empowered by His resident whom the savior of His people and the to become spirit estabhsher of His kingdom (see Jesus Christ). This definition illustrates how thoroughlyJewish the movement in its original was stages. So far know to be found among as we only Jews were the immediate followers of Jesus. They accepted him fulfiU their national the one who would as reUgioushopes. After his death they preached his resurrection abandoning the and, without worship of the temple or the customs of pious Jews of their day, awaited his return from heaven for the establishment of the messianic kingdom. In the meantime to live according to the they undertook Thus this early teachingwhich he had given them. of the hopes and perpetuated not only many group of their Jewish practices contemporaries and their Hebrew also elements unconsciously progenitors, but, , of earlier Semitic religions which had been absorbed (seeKingdom of God; Messiah). by the Hebrews Yet it would be a mistake to thmk of primitive form of religioussyncretism. as Christianity a Various similaritieswhich have been pointedout between the early Christian hopes and those of other nations are not independent elements appropriated and combined in a system. They are rather the fruitageof the complex religious life from which the Jewish life of the 1st. religious The not century sprang. early Christians were conscious of any form of syncretism. It is doubtful whether they even knew the historical pedigree of their most characteristic hope. The significant fact is not the conceptions which they used to the value of Jesus,but rather that in the express midst of a definite historical situation they recognized Jesus as more than a prophet, as the divinely That endued Savior. current they should use inevitable. conceptions in such an evaluation was The precisecontent of their messianic conception, ity, while not without great influence in later Christianin many turned out to be less significant particulars than the fact that through it the early Christians made Jesus central in their reUgiousUfe. This simple Jewish evaluation of Jesus as Christ almost was immediately supplemented by other not from Hebrew conceptionswhich came reUgious of those who but from life. The Greek group acceptedJesus as Christ soon became propagandists non-Jewish people. Of these propagandists among know little or nothing, except of Paul and his we associates. immediate Western Christianity is to largelythe outgrowth of his activity. Thanks the cities on the northern coast of the his preaching, contained groups of Christians Mediterranean soon Jewish and who not predominantly Jewish. were had Gentile Christians believed that Jesus who
"

"

"

Christianity been put to death, and


return
as

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

92

efforts gave rise to endless controversy the theologians of the two great cities of Antioch and Alexandria, but resulted in catholic dogma ecumenical, i.e., concerning God and Christ. has been (5) Catholic Christianity commonly considered a process of Hellenizing the earher beliefs. It might with equal justicebe described the as result of the Christianizing of Hellenism. The however inevitable as men was described, process, possessed of the civilizationof Greece and Rome undertook co-ordinate their faith with to their culture. seek to modify They did not consciously their inherited faith but rather to seek effective provided. of the original How far this group born of ecoformulas of those who movement interpretation was nomic is not easy to state with accepted Jesus as the Christ and expected him to protest and purposes That Christians were return to do his Messianic work. ready to share their Theological accuracy. clear from the development, which began in the middle of the possessionswith each other seems with of Acts the of 2nd. confessions account defense century original (2:44,45; 4:34, 35), but such of faith, preserved intact and without serious was charity rather than economic munism. comgenerosity There is no evidence that the primitive modification the ancient formulas which we know firstin the old Roman Christians ever attempted or taught the reorganizasymbol, the main ancestor of tion the Apostles' Creed (q.v.). of the economic life. Their sense of the imminence of the return of the Messiah made economic (6) The growing regard for the mystery religions laid new which emphasis upon the simple practices superfluous. programs characterized the original group The expansion of the of Christians, 2. Influence of Hellenism. into an independent and wellChristian movement namely, the bath, or the baptism, and the common memorial meal. rounded the result of its expansion religionwas By the second or third generation these two rites had begun to acquire a significance non-Jewish peoples. Its further development among of their own of regeneration and of as an was expression largelyset by the Greek culture in very of the divine which practically all of its new members had been immortality due to the impartation nature. As the Christian reared. needs led to the revaluation Their religious religiondeveloped a beheved its members their restless philoof their acquired faith. With class, were increasingly sophicalpriestly these sacraand with the current ments beUef, to have the sole power of administering temperament in such way their blessings to assure to born of the mystery religions, that salvation was to as the recipient. Conditions in the for participating be accomplished by the impact of the divine essence Lord's Supper were also developed,and the lifeof the the human it was inevitable that upon essence, centered around the two sacshould seek doctrinal preHellenistic Christians raments. increasingly cision church was So important did baptism appear that from and guard it against all forms of interpretation the 2nd. century onward it seems istered to have been adminwith what were not in accordance regarded as but by pouring -and not only by immersion the beliefs of the originalor apostolicChristians. and its recipients not only adults were sprinkling, ception Beginning with the rise of the Stoic-Platonic conwho could make of the Word personal professionof faith but (Logos) as an equivalent in adult spoke. Gradually also infants for whom in Jewish thought, the some Hellenism for the Messiah of sacraments increased until seven the number were new religion rapidlyacclimated itself to the nondate at which this developentered. Jewish world into which it had successfully recognized. The precise ment reached is not to be fixed. See Sacraments. was the 2nd. century to the 5th. the movement From of characteristics which a number began to develop from the start has been a (7) Christianity to survive the destruction of the nations and were of moral ideals, it sprang. The portant religion imcivilization from which most although these ideals have of these characteristics are: generally been those recognized by the existing (churches), social order. There is no clear indication that the development of groups (1) The the Roman to transform of less affiliated, early church undertook or possessed of a sense more Empire as such, but its recognitionof the worth or universalityas distinct from the catholicity affected such social institutions of personalityindirectly under the control of cosmobeliefs of groups more of criminals,and cism; as slavery, treatment logicaland theosophical influences (see Gnostimarriage. The church,however, was not interested Docetism; and Heresy) from which sprang ciently in developing a public opinion or patriotismsuffinovel interpretationsof the original Christian ern See Catholic. faith in Jesus as the Son of God. strong to withstand the assaults of the northHeresies were the occasion of theology which peoples,and the moral idealism of the church was suffered in the general collapse of the empire before being systematic. apologetic and militarydecadence. born of economic literature. The ment Old Testa(2) Authoritative the religion 3. Christianity of European civilizo/from the earliest days regarded as divinely was was tion. At the start this new only a but there soon religion developed a collection of inspired, member of the large group of oriental humble other writingsclaiming Apostolic authorship and cults seeking recognitionin the Roman Empire. which put them on a par an inspiration so possessing decided It had, however, very advantages over See Canon with the Old Testament. (Biblical) Jewish it was them all. Like the the theistic, religion (3) The rise of the Bishop who was at once it was not ethnic and did not demand acceptance champion and expounder of the generallyaccepted bu.t cult. It promised salvation by the of the Hebrew and the head and therefore true Christian doctrine, union of the divine and the human, but was opposed also regardedas He was of his Christian group. of polytheism. It taught strongly to all forms character. priestly possessing immortality and the resurrection of the dead, but (4) The development of authoritative doctrines this in the way of to accomplish did not undertake successive synodsor other assem(seeII These between especially
" " "

had gone to heaven would of the world and saviour of those who acknowledged him as their Lord. For modern the early Greek, as for some Christians, literalness carried no intellectual difficulties. But time passed and Jesus did not return, confidence as fulfillment of the hope weakened, in the immediate marked and the tendency became to expect the parousia in a general way and to center attention of men the rescue from the power of death. upon Thus by the end of the 1st. century these Christian churches seem to have lost to a very conor siderable groups the expectationsof an imminent extent and have to given themselves to a practical return, and philosophical explanationof that faith and hope which the gospelof the risen Christ, the Son of God,
soon

conqueror

blies
express

Christians. These synods attempted to correctly in current philosophical and terms the significance of their inherited religious
of

faith.

below), by

93

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Christianity

church was furthered by the Romanization of the Christian movement. Centralization in church affairs grew steadily. The Bishop of Rome of the intellectuals. It had its vision of a better already and Stoicism it was of the Apostle Peter,from world, but unUke Platonism regarded as the successor anchored to a definite historical person, and was other causes (forgedDonation of Constantine, many thus prevented from becoming a mere Pseudo-Isidorean economic and political system of Decretals, thought. It taught the forgivenessof God, but needs,alliance of the Franks with papacy, persistent unlike all religions of its time did not undertake conviction that the Roman Empire continued) to placate the Deity by sacrifices, inherited such since He had imperial power survived as the revealed Himself Saviour. If to these charcalamities of the period between acteristics as Romulus Augustus there be added admitted and Charlemagne. zeal for Thereafter for several centuries an effort was made to an converts, philanthropy, morality, and a certain unify and Christianize degree of economic democracy, together with a Europe under the Holy Roman in Empire (q.v.), popular reputationfor the abihty to work miracles, which Emperor and Pope both were to represent it will not be difficult to see how Jesus Christ in Lord. as Christianity the Roman evitably (2) The effect of the social changes which ga/e Empire had the elements which inmade towards in the religious rise to the civiHzation of the Middle leadership Ages is also field. in the development of the religion. The creaseen tive This leadership social mind of Europe from the 9th. to the was gained,however, only after 12th. century was severe feudal. The struggle. The rise of the worship of the break-up of the Roman state organization established into brought the new movement emperor by Rome, together direct conflict with the state. with the incursion of armed foreigners For nearly three who held their hundred this conflict continued with intermittent land in militarytenure, and especially the attempt years but increasingly and extensive perseto build social solidarity the basis of reciprocal on grave cution. By the 4th. century, however, so far had it obligations between in the classes,all reappear that the Christians spread that Constantino lifeof the time. saw The most significant tration illusreligious constituted a group with political of such influence isto be seen not to be in the significapower tion and with his triumph over his rivals Christianity, ignored, given the death of Christ by Anselm (q.v.). The feudal system already a licensed religion, became, though also, however, involved the not strictly of the state,the church in a long struggle to decide who speaking the sole religion should From invest the bishop with his office and the land which religion of the emperor. Constantine's time, the developmentof the church was materially constituted the episcopalestate under the current affected by politics. political theory as to the Holy Roman Empire. This situation, Both Pope and emperor could claim to possess that commonly regarded as the conquest of the Roman The Empire by Christianity, was right. struggle ended with compromise contained in the Concordat of Christianity. quite as truly a Romanization of Worms ing (1122) accordThe institutional life of the Empire gave to which the bishop received his investiture great impetus to the development of church organization. for his temporaUties from the emperor and for his The benefice from the Pope. Bishop became a municipal figure if not an spiritual official. It was natural, therefore,that political (3) Primitive eschatology was transformed into methods and organizationshould be appropriated of future rewards in heaven, a well-rounded system This process future punishments in hell,and future penitential continued by the church. for centuries, and after the disintegration of the Roman time the concleansingin purgatory. At the same ception of salvation Roman Empire resulted in a transcendentahzed modified to meet this was Catholic Church. It Empire called the Roman readjusted eschatology,and morality was ingly increasthat this made is, ecclesiastical interest. however, noteworthy an shaping power of the imperial social mind was not clearly felt in the due to (4) Penitential systems, in largemeasure half of the empire where social affairs had the influence of Irish ecclesiastics, eastern had an effect in become ful life. Penance largelystatic. Even before the feardeveloping the church became very destruction wrought by the Arabian and the ascetic qualityof the reUgion invasion, systematized, the organizationof the Eastern became church was fixed in a desire to save never the soul thoroughly as systematized as that of the West, and had proFrom this attitude gressed by the mortification of the body. but slightly of mind, reinforced as it was beyond the results gained by by the fear of hell, the process of Hellenization. The lack of political there sprang vast a development of monasticism. and social development furnished no Monastic stimulus for estabUshments appeared over the entire the East to make tionally. western instituor not only the theologically Europe, where they became progress The break between home the two halves of the of those who sought salvation by retiring from but also the centers of empire was worldly lives and pleasures, complete by the 9th. century and ran and increasingly along the line of cleavage between the eastern and of learning. culture, western history. Thereafter CathoHc (5) Early in the Middle Ages the sacraments Christianity existed in two increased in number, the original were great branches, the Eastern being two, baptism littleaffected by the progress of the modern and world Lord's Supper, being supplemented by the and the Western or Roman sacraments of marriage, confirmation,ordination, being a distinct element in that addition these In main to and extreme became unction. The mass progress. penance, branches the Armenian, Coptic, Nestorian, were increasingly regarded as a true sacrifice performed and Maronite churches. at the altar. To partake of the bread and the 4. The effect wine was to partake of the real body and blood of of the fallof the Roman Empire. This was in (1)pessimism as to human seen Jesus into which the substance of the elements had nature, See expressed by Augustine in his teaching as to sin; been transformed in the miracle of the mass. of secondary elements on the religion, Transubstantiation. (2) the fixing Furthermore, during the for Middle between e.g., asceticism,worship of images, reverence Ages the line of demarcation the worship of the VirginMary; the clergy and the laity was martyrs, hagiology, sharply drawn, very with the body (3)the growth of power on the part of the bishops, and the church identified increasingly of the clergy. especiallythe Bishop of Rome, because of the of other social control. stimulated collapse increasingly (6) The intellectual life, 5. The Roman Catholic Church of the Middle by scholasticism and the foundation of universities, the classical Ages. (1) The development of an imperialistic was primarilyconcerned in assimilating
_
" "

the mysteries. It was universal but did not, like philosophy, make morality the exclusive property

Christianity

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

94

From each of the great a variety of ways. dominant social minds which have shaped Western civihzation have not only characteristic sprung needs, but also a geneticsuccession of doctrines. The origin of these doctrines liesin the revelation contained in the Bible, supplemented in Roman Catholicism by tradition and the decisions of the church feudal system, resulted in the rise of nationalities councils (now of the Pope, speaking ex of the term. in the modern and interpretedby the Fathers. with monarchs sense cathedra) in the western world transformation This was Orthodoxy as an inherited and continuously accompanied by wide-spread restlessness at the expanded system is to be traced back to the faith control of the Roman and beliefs of the earliest Christian groups. Church, which had for centuries Other but also a been not only the ecclesiastical, have been induced tianity, reUgious movements by Chrisof this new and others evolved by way of opposition pohtical institution. In consequence the Christians of the lands which to the growing mass social experience, of authoritative group beliefs; broke from had not become but their influence, far as it has been extended thoroughly Romanized so whose civilization had been those of the territory nonbeyond the immediate membership of some pendent orthodox built up on the Roman has been chiefly felt through their plan, and organized indegroup, Bible was The modification of those fundamental state churches. beliefs which the by them taken as the sole basis of authority. This movehas perpetuated. ment, generichistory of the movement which was not a break with Catholic theology, These may be briefly stated as follows: 1. The Bible. ^To all bodies of Christians the except in so far as it affected the ideas of the church, Under the Bible is of prunary is commonly known it as the Reformation. importance. Through the wisdom as Luther, of revelation as distinguished comes guidance of such profoundlyreUgiousmen formers, from that of nature. All creeds and confessions of Zwingli,Calvin, and the English and Scottish Rechurches carried forward a conthese new faith claim to be the exposition of its contents. The ception of reUgion which freed northern Christians Bible has been treated in a great variety of ways Church the Roman and emfrom dependence upon to the rationalism phasized ranging from practical bibliolatry the immediacy of the soul's relation with of the early19th. century. See Bible ; Inspiration. and justification 2. Theism. God Because of its loyaltyto the Bible, by faith alone. Secondary which had come form of Christianity has to play so largea role Christianity no consciously been abandoned. in Mediaeval was or Christianity largely pantheistic polytheistic.It has always opposed 7. Modern developments. Thus Christianityas anything approaching a mechanistic or impersonal the rehgion of Western view of the universe. This theistic view was torically hisEurope in the 16th. century passed into a new phase and began that process of grounded in the Hebrew religionand has given rise to the social differentiation which under the influence of the Graeco-Roman mind was order. At modern present the religiousworld developed into the generalconceptionof trinitarianbe roughly classified into Christian movement is that the one of which divine ism, the essence may Catholic hold to the one of those who substance exists in three personae: the groups Father, Son, church and Holy Spirit; that is to say, Christianity teaches (in turn broken into three general groups lics) God of the Roman, the Greek, and the Anglican Cathothat one into actual personal relations comes of so-called Protestant and the group with nature and man. sects It should be added that individuals but is a term does not mean a happy one) (although the term is by no means personae derived from the Roman holding to the including those Christians who courts, in which the same individual might appear in various personae, that Lordship of Jesus and endeavoring to embody the fundamental conceptions of older Christianity, is characters; e.g., in one law suit he might be a into self-determining father and in another See Trinity; have segregated themselves case son. Creed. Many of these groups are the survivals of groups. founded in the 16th. century. the Son of God, the Lord, the state churches 3. Jesus, the Christ, the Saviour. All these terms have essentially the This period of disunion was duringthe very marked and reached its climax in 17th. and 18th. centuries, same content, although springing from different social conceptions and national hopes. The comthe 19th. century. tion Recently there has set in a reacmon in them and element all was from excessive group-individualism, expressed in the away of Chalcedon and decrees of the Council there are strong tendencies toward co-operation (451 a.d.) denominations. federation of the more which Jesus significant recognizesin the historic individual, consubstantial with God See Church; Federation op Churches; Church Christ, a divine nature the Father and human consubstantial There is also a very widespread nonnature Union. a ecclesiastical Christianitythat finds expressionin with us, joined without confusion in one person. relation of the two Catholic individuals. The exact natures Content. able to state in a dogma. II. Chief Doctrinal was never Christianity has been successively attacked This Christology Doctrinally Christianityis the most complete Those opposed to it have, however, of all the world's reUgions. It has shown itself and defended. adaptable not only to the Semitic civilization from generallyrecognized the uniqueness of Jesus as a which it sprang and the classical in which it was divine example and saviour. The defense of the oped doctrine has largely consisted in the restatement first developed, but also to the more highly develindustrial civiUzation assumed of western from some philosophical Europe. positionof the It is at the present time making decided See "Christology; gains elements of the historic Christology. the Socinianism; Arianism; Unitarianism. peoples of Asia, and has thus become among 4. The church. most widely diffused and influential of all religious Christianity hke aU genuine of history. This extraordinary has had its social group, the church. The movements religions ment develophas been due not only to the efficiency in its largestvariations in the content of the Christian doctrine are to be found in the field of ecclesiology. organization resultingfrom its appropriation of the experience of a virilecivilization and its adoption On the one hand are those who hold that the Christian of the agencies most effective in successive stages community is the sole channel of grace which of political and such salvation is mental makes salvation possible, development, but also to the fundalimited to membership in the true church. On the teachingswhich characterize the movement other hand are those who hold that a church is a and which are capableof being institutionalized in
so
" " " " " " "

This intellectualheritagein so far as it survived. ism was subject to the control of the church and of church beliefs. completed the systematization 6. The rise of nationalistic Christianity.The transformation of Europe through the economic development which began with the rise of cities in of the the 12th. century, togetherwith the collapse

95

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Christians of St. John

voluntary grouping of those who have experienced regeneration. All groups, however, unite in holding that the church exists not only for the maintenance but also for the of worship and religious instruction, of the sacraments, observance the two universally recognizedbeing those of baptism and the Lord's
See Church. 5. Sin and the need of divine salvation. Since his day, the doctrine of sin as organized by Augustine has been the point of departure of the entire doctrine of salvation. According to this doctrine based that of Paul, the race was created perfect with upon the abihty to choose the good as well as the evil. this originalnature, while not By Adam's fall, corrupted that evil impulses so destroyed, was enslaved the will, that until the nature has been so the will is incapable regeneratedby the Holy Spirit of choosing the good, although free so to do. The emphasis of this doctrine has naturallyled to the insistence upon good works following regeneration. these demands In many standardized cases were which has sometimes into penitentialdiscipline, served to restrain moral development along social lines. 6. The Atonement, the death of Christ as a factor in the revelation of the divine forgiveness.Christianity sets forth God as loyalto both love and law. The ethical problem of how he could forgivethe sinner and yet maintain his moral order did not bulk in theologicalthinking until the time of Anselm (q.v.).Since that day the freedom of God to love has been repeatedlyset forth as made possible by the satisfaction which Jesus by his hfe and death rendered to God 'sdignity or his punitive justice or the of law. There is,however, no catholic sovereignty doctrine of the atonement comparable with that of of the death the Trinity. The religious significance of Christ has been set forth in various ways (e.g., vindication of law, substitutionary punishment, of sin, representativerepentance, condemnation moral influence). The persistent value of all such theories has been the exposition of the ethical character of God's love. The idea of the death of Christ as a sacrifice, in which his value was expressed both in New Testament times,has been perpetuated in church teaching and by the Roman Catholics in the sacrifice of the Mass (qv.). See Atonement. 7. Morality. The historyof Christian moraUty shows the development which is to be seen in the At the start it was hardly as a whole. religion of than that of current Judaism. In the course more time,however, the church itselfbegan the development intended to of its own which customs were set forth the new of the lifewhich was born mores of the divine spirit. The church has been a laboratory of social progress, and the moral ideals of the Christian groups of have always been in advance societyat large, although seldom so far in advance of a contemporary as to questionthe presuppositions social order. Thus in New times there Testament into the moral was no justiceof slavery, query which had always been a part of the social order. has none the less always insisted But Christianity the maintenance of moral standards so far as upon of its recently oped develand in consequence organized, interest in the teaching of Jesus has moved along of very decidedlyidealistic lines in the application of Jesus to the social order. the principles 8. Missionary zeal. The conviction that they have had the only authoritative revelation of God and the only assured way of salvation has always spurred Christians to an extension of their faith. than a This missionary zeal is something more The Christian church desire for proselj^ting. mere has regarded itself as possessedof a knowledge of under sacred obligation which it was the way of salvation, that others to share with the world at large,

Supper.

of the might also be saved from the consequence sin which has affected all human hfe. In original later days among Protestants the eschatological motive, if not weakened, has been at least suppleethical motive of sharing mentea by the social, have with those who a partial knowledge the full content of the blessings of the deeper knowledge and his salvation to be seen in Jesus Christ. III. Modern Tendencies Christianity. op Just because the Christian reUgion is not static but is a movement embracing .socialand cultural, it partakestoday as well as strictly religious ideals, of the great characteristics of the modern period. Christian doctrine to a considerable 1. The from the point of view extent is being reinterpreted See Science of modern science. in Its Relation That there is opposition to such Theology. to be denied, especially from cannot reinterpretation those who feel that the philosophical and scientific world- view found which expression in various dogmas of the church is an essential part of such dogmas, and from those who insist upon a literalistic But the last hundred years have of the Bible. use the part of decided movement on seen a very representativesof the leading Christian groups towards the acceptance of the results of scientific At the present time discovery. See Modernism. modernists the issue is less that of such among with consequent readaptation,than appropriation the fundamental strugglewith the impersonal and mechanistic of the universe and interpretations man's place therein. Christian movement is also being increasingly 2. The revaluated from the point of view of trines different philosophical systems. The historic doc' embodied to very largedegree elements both of Platonism and AristoteUanism. The rise of new ments philosophical systems has naturallyled to restateof fundamental values in addition, in the as task of answering the objections of those who hold to purely utilitarian or impersonal views of the world, with a philosophy of efficiency and force especially to which Nietzsche gave such vigorous expression. in a democratic 3. The place of Christianity The world order is yet to be fully determined. fact that any democracy as representedby AngloAmerican historyis to such a largeextent pohtical the outgrowth of church hfe justifies the hope that Christianity will be as significant in the growing democracy as it was in the imperialismof Rome the nationalities of and America. and Europe the conceptionof God as immanent J ^ Simultaneously, in nature and history resultingfrom a personal; of the forces of the cosmos interpretation given us finds helpful in the developing by science, analogies in democratic; conceptionof authorityas immanent time there exists a definite society. At the same and serious problem in the fact that the church, both in its organizationand in its theological concepts embodied and championed monarchy. once The democratizingof such teachingand conceptions will require no A small wisdom. large element of hope in the situation liesin the fact that religious leaders are emphasizing the hfe and teaching of formulas. Jesus rather than precision in theological tudes Loyalty to Jesus Christ is certain to develop attiwhich will not only conserve the fundamental values of the inherited doctrines and institutions, but will also stimulate humanity to organize a Christian democracy which will give rather than Mathews Shailer merely demand justice.

"

of God

"

"

"

i|"^

"

CHRISTIANS."

See Disciples

of

Christ.

CHRISTLA.NS OF ST. JOHN." due to of the Mandaeans (q.v.), John the Baptist.

A designation their honoring

Christians of St. Thomas

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

96

OF ST. THOMAS." The designation of the Nestorians in India,who hold to the tradition of Thomas' mission to India. apostolic

CHRISTIANS

dead were also supposedto revisit the earth,and in Scandinavia there are still distinct traces of this
The behef. mistletoe, probably a Celtic feature with a solstitial feast,perhaps and not connected the vegetation-spirit invoked to bless the represents coming year; the Christmas-tree is a German date. recent importation of relatively L. H. Gray The doctrinal expositionof CHRISTOLOGY." the nature of Jesus Christ and of his redemptive

CHRISTMAS CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS. AND The festival of Christ's Nativity, celebrated now of Dec. 25, and the center of a large number on of pagan popular customs, some origin. to 1. The date. No feast of the Nativity seems have been observed previous to the 4th. century, have who may except, perhaps, by the Basilidians, dence held it on Jan. 6 or Feb. 19-20. The earUest eviof its celebration (Ephraem Syrus, 373) points to Jan. 6 (now restricted to the feast of the Epiphany). Why this date was chosen is thus far uncertain (see Epiphany), but as Jan. 6 was also there was the feast of the baptism of Christ, danger and Christ's divine lest Adoptianist heresies creep in, be held from his baptism rather than from nature Luke 3:23 his Incarnation, especially as was sometimes held to imply that he was baptizedon feast his thirtieth birthday. Accordingly the first done shifted to Dec. 25. This was by was Pope Liberius in 353-54 (lessprobably by Pope observance the in 336), and from Rome Marcus nople introduced at ConstantiIt was spread to the East. between 378 and 388; at Antioch by 388; between 400 in Cappadocia by 383; at Alexandria stated that the date and 432 (here it is definitely had previously been Jan. 6) ; at Jerusalem certainly by 425-58; about 385 it was still by 635 (perhaps the old date Jan. 6); in Asia by 387; in Armenia
"
"

work.
is Christology

"

saviour of

nature

valuation of Jesus as a religious a theological cerning furnishing theory conthe redemptive work of Christ,and formulating assertions concerning the metaphysical Christ. The of following are typical
men,
"

theories.
1. Messianic Christology.Primitive Christians shared the Jewish conceptionthat salvation involves national

through

deUverance, which was to be consummated divinely authorized and empowered a word "Christ" deliverer. The properly means The questionin Acts 1 :6, "anointed" for this end. "Lord, dost thou at this time restore the kingdom indicates Israel?" this Jewish to expectation. must fulfilthis Jesus,as the divinelysent saviour, messianic hope. Since he had not established the kingdom during his hfe, the great consummation
was

future. Behef in in the near to be awaited Jesus as Messiah was grounded on the supernatural attestation of his mission during his life, his triumph death, his ascension to the righthand of God, over and his future coming in glory to usher in the messtillprevails. sianic 2. Reasons for the date. These are of two kinds: kingdom. The Apostles' Creed represents this interpretation, mentioning virginbirth, passion (a)based on a "plan of the ages"and (6)drawn from and death, resurrection, session at God's the Gospels. ascension, righthand, and future coming to judge the living (a) The "Plan of the Ages." According to the items have and the dead. These De Pascha usually been Computus, the first day of creation was when a March retained in subsequent Christologies, even 25, and as Christ is the Paschal Lamb born differentinterest appears. 1548 years after the Exodus, his nativity must March 2. Logos Christology.When have been at Passover of that year, i.e., 28, Christianity passed to the Hellenistic world, it encountered the date of creation of the sun. a different If,however, March Here the idea of an allthe first day of creation, and if 25 be taken as conception of salvation. "nativity"be regarded as referringto Christ's pervading control of the universe by divine Reason conception,the day of his birth would naturally (Logos)rather than that of a cosmic catastrophe dominant. be Dec. 25. cording acReUgious salvation consisted, was in "Hving according to the to the Stoics, (b) The Gospels. By a faultyexegesisof the would Logos." A Christian Hellenist, therefore, story of Zacharias in Luke, chap. 1 it is deduced that conceived after the Day of John the Baptist was naturallyvalue Christ in terms of the divine Logos. that Christ's the Logos, Justin Martyr identified Jesus with Atonement so (inthat year in Sept.), conception would be in March, and his nativity thereby makmg him the eternal divine being who and who It is also possible, in Dec. ap-" prophets and philosophers though not proved, inspired that the view that the Crucifixion of the "Paschal peared personally in Jesus. Since the Logos Lamb" also is the organizing divine force in the cosmos, took place on March ception 25, the date of his conlater of the Logos Christ in the work of and of the beginning of creation may participation creation was have influenced the choice of Dec. 25 for the feast of affirmed by Origen and others. But since Hellenic thought made a the Nativity. sharp contrast and the immaterial of Dec. the material cosmos between 3. Influenceof paganism. The fixing the Logos, who divine spirit, 25 by the "plan of the ages" caused the feast to participated actively coincide with the Mithraic festival in honour of the defined as subordinate in nature to in creation, was God. This subordination, inevitable the end the immutable "birthdayof the unconquered sun," i.e., and this coincidence when cosmic problems were of the winter solstice; was foremost,was the central affirmation of Arianism. furthered by the association of Christ with the sun. doubtless accidental, All this was 3. Incarnation Christology.Hellenistic reUgious though good use the Some have a made of it when it became known. thinking made sharp distinction between was and of evil, feast of the Saturnalia which was considered the source flesh, sought to connect the Roman Unked which to God. To overheld on Dec. 17 the spirit, man with Christmas, but this was come to the spirit different both in spirit and in origin. the flesh and give full dominion and was totally The essential to salvation. the SaturnaUa Much of the merriment apostle Paul set was characterizing of redemption through the forth the doctrine has,however, been transferred to Christmas,notably with of the Christian and games. the givingof gifts, The more Christ, mystical union feasting, important non-Christian customs connected with the whereby Christ, the divine Spirit,so took possession that the flesh lost its dominion. of man in origin. The Yule-feast festival are Teutonic Hellenistic translated into ideal the time the When this about of winter was celebrated was solstice, laid the Christmas and from this came cakes corruptible the yule-log, on terms, emphasis was In order to overcome nature. sacrifice "essence" of human for good crops in the (the survival of a transformation this corruption, of the At this time the spirits by etc. a metaphysical coming year),
" " "
"

"

"

07
the power
necessary.

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Chucius

(Chu Hsi)

of divine "essence" tions limitabelieved to be During the 19th. century the human was of the historical Jesus were made In the Nicene Christology Christ is savevident by iour he is "consubstantial because (of identical historical study. An attempt was made by the socalled Kenosis Christology to do justice to these while metaphysical nature) with the Father. ing By assumhe brought the divine transformhuman ing nature conservingthe traditionaldoctrine of the essentially of Jesus. This found "essence" into vital contact divine nature with human nature, expression the divine in the doctrine that in becoming man thereby deifyingit. The Nicene Creed affirms the carnation. Christ laid aside (kenosis)his divine attributes, metaphysical deity of Christ and his genuine incontroversies reassuming them at the resurrection. In the human SubsequentChristological there is latent or potential due to attempts to define exactly the relation life of Jesus,therefore, were between these two His contradictory divinity. We may thus worship Jesus as God. metaphysically is the revelation of the See "natures" in one historical person, Jesus. or humiliation self-abnegation of God in his purpose to save men. Nestorianism EutychianApollinarianism utter self-giving ; ; rationalistic form of revelation Christology A more Monophysitism; ism; Chalcedon, Council of; and in Unitarianism, m onothelitism is found in Socinianism In the Greek Orthodox Church, to this day, the where the teachings and the life of Jesus are portrayed of God's will, but the is dominant. It finds its incarnation Christology as trulyrepresentative of the puzzles connected with the doctrine practical completion in the sacraments metaphysical set aside. Jesus is a of a divine "nature" are church, whereby the saving potency of the divine is mediated endowed It is fundamental to needy man. essence genuinely human by person exceptionally to the sacramental cism, CatholiGod to teach and live the truth. systemof Roman and has entered tant through rituahstic usage When, as is the case with much modern Protesity. profoundly into the devotion of Western Christianthinking, the valuation of Jesus consists in of the elements transmutation of the The his faith in God, estimatinghis rehgiousexperience, of the miracle with God, his growing appreheneucharist in the Mass is a repetition his communion sion his human of the incarnation. of his mission, and consecration there is to the point of death, 4. Atonement Christology. In the Latin church to that mission even during the Middle Ages, salvation was interpreted no second concept, such as Messiah, or Logos, or divine nature, with which to equate primarilyin terms of reconciliation between God and pre-existent merits divine condemnation. The with the the sinner who The Jesus. problems connected logical be one God thus disappear, and the signifisaviour must who and older Christology can cance propitiate make the of Jesus is set forth directlyin terms of pardon possible. Christ thus becomes God and man, mediator between He reveals God his experience of God. to us. rendering to God will enable God He initiates in us a such atoning work to forgive. He enables us to trust God. as God. Jesus is able to act and speak on man's with He evokes As man, life of communion our adoration. Such the conceptions are behalf;as divine he can offer the infinite efficacy worshipful of his atoning work for all mankind. For fuller take the place of the which in these Christologies Atonement. former metaphysical discussion. See Jesus Christ. see details, made Gerald Smith 6. Revelation Christology.Luther Birney ance assurSuch favor central in salvation. of God's CHRISTOPHORUS" Pope 903-904. assurance springsfrom a revelation of the gracious attitude of God. While this is secured partly by The greatJOHN (.344-407)." CHRYSOSTOM, est in the Bible, and partly trust in the promise of God of ancient preachers, a brilliant pupil of the Libanius in Antioch, a lawyer, then a monk by the reassuring effect of the sacraments, it is pagan potently and personallyeffective in the revelation (367),deacon (381),presbyter (386),Patriarch of in the lifeand the death of of God's loving purpose Constantinople(397). His puritan attacks on Luther While Jesus. never questioned the truth court luxury gave opportunity to his ecclesiastical and while in his of the Chalcedonian Theophilus of Alexandria, to conspire with Christology, rival, doctrine of the communicatio idiomatum the Empress Eudoxia for his banishment (q.v.)he (403). Restored to appease the people, he was employed the scholastic conception of essence, his again able interest nevertheless exiled to Armenia lay in securing God's favor(404)and in 407 to the Caucasus, attitude rather than in an impartation of the from the final hardships. As a theologianhe dying Thus in Protestantism the theological illustrates the grammatical exegesisand practical divine "nature." of Christ has discussion of the "natures" ethical emphasis of the Antioch school. been for the most scholastic perpetuaF. A. Christie tion part a mere In recent times of traditional controversies. CHTHONIAN See Earth Gods. DEITIES." of the fact that there is a general frank recognition formula Chinese CHUANG-TSE." the Chalcedonian A employs concepts quite religious philosopher and that a of the later 4th. century B.C. He is best to modern interests, religious foreign this described as an absolute idealist, vital Christology is not to be derived from developing the of Greek metaphysics. system of intuitive mysticism of Lao-tse (q.v.). exposition with this vital The Tao is the ultimate reality. This impersonal Schleiermaeher,in accordance of Jesus in terms of a defined the significance Absolute gives rise to God and the transformations interest, spiritual the Great Jesus was of being we know the phenomenal as perfect God-consciousness. with the life self and the Tao world. Man's true one are one. Mystic whose conscious life was tual God. This God-consciousness of was nor unique, Hence not works of charity, duty, nor intellecimderived tuted and constifrom human knowledge but intuition only is the way to the sources, any inherent divinity in him. and to the complete life. real knowledge of reality an inaction Ritschlian Tlw He says: "Repose, tranquility, stillness, theology (q.v.) defined the in terms of revelation-value.these are the levels of the universe,the ultimate of Jesus exclusively significance In the personal life of the historical of Tao." Subjectiveand objectiveare perfection and man's life are is revealed. Jesus God's lovingattitude toward men of appearances one, the world In Jesus alone do we find an absolutely in the obliterating (Also convincing embraced unity of Tao. Jesus is divine in of divine love. manifestation of. Chuang-tze.) See China, Religions in him; but the metaphysical the sense that God meets us CHUCIUS ated conception of a divine "nature" is repudi(CHU HSI) (1130-1200 a.d.)." A the Jesus' real power. commentator Chinese philosopher and on as beinginadequate to express
.
" " "

"

Chuntokyo

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

of of the New canon Testament, and the presacred classics. He is the chief representative eminence of the Roman church in the West. the influential Sing-li philosophy. It has the involves ideals Catholic all these of but the rational dualism Christianity of or spiritual appearance Catholics do with the exception that the eastern The "Great Ultimate" is Li, is always supreme. church. which acts upon not recognizethe primacy of the Roman the universal principle or reason The another principleKH, a material base, to produce history of the church after the separation entiated of the eastern halves of the empire the cosmos. Under the influence of Li are differand western heaven in the churches nomenalis one of little progress (yang),earth (yin),and the pheamong The world composed of the five elements. decided the east, and development among very rational principleconstitutes the law or order of The the churches of the west. See Christianity. moral nature of man. and is the intelligent, churches of the west, both consciouslyand under nature to this inner True moral life consists in obedience the leadershipof Rome, gradually evolved sort a which nature of transcendentalized Roman spiritual partakes of the universal Empire, which like There is no reason. recognition of a personal its predecessorcentered around Rome, and in the miracles or immortality. of the Catholic church Roman God, spirits, preserved many elements of the Roman significant empire. But See Korea, Religions CHUNTOKYO." op. orthodox in both the east and the west Christianity insisted that salvation was possibleonly through An organizedgroup CHURCH the work of the Catholic church, to which alone was (CHRISTIAN)." of baptized believers in Jesus Christ which exists for of the sacraments. given charge of the administration of worship, the administration of the the purpose and of preaching, The Middle in the west sacraments, the maintenance saw

tive
Ages

noteworthy

reUgiousand moral education.


In the the New of those who societies Testament we in various
see

the

rise of the

attempt to establish a conjunction of the church and state in the Holy Roman Empire, but despite
of such the power as Gregory VII. and popes of emperors and popes as the rivalry Innocent III., the effort well as of bishops and feudal lords made Empire. Roman unsuccessful. See Holy

and baptism as the loyal followers of Jesus. These in their earlystages had very little tion organizagroups to beyond the elders or bishops, who seem have been sometimes appointed by an apostle. tain Jewish and did not undertake to mainThey were a religiouslife independent of the Jewish faith as institutionalized in the temple and synagogue. who As the movement gathered members not Jews, it became increasingly independent were to be known from Judaism, and the groups came those from their dominant quality as Christians, believe in Christ. The who organization of the but by the early Gentile churches was very simple, to have end of the 1st. century the bishop seems gradually acquiredpre-eminence, both as the one who was the guardian of the true teaching,and as the specialrepresentative of God to the church which he presided. over tion Economic forces may have assistedin the formaof these groups, but it is inaccurate to speak the majority of of them as proletarian. Doubtless their members slaves and poor workingmen, were who also contained but these early churches those_ ence possessed wealth and social standing. The influsomewhat of the collegia resembling (bodies but the prevailing also felt, the later guilds) was rather motives leadingto membership were religious that they evidence is no than economic. There

Gospel

placeshad accepted professed themselves through

Catholic During the Middle Ages the Roman completed (except conception of the church was of the Pope speaking ex that the infallibility cathedra was not made dogma). This conceptionis
in brief: united together for the profes"A body of men sion Christian faith and by participaof the same tion in the same sacraments, under the governance of local pastors, more especiallyof the Roman sole Vicar of Christ on Earth." Pontiff,

by Christ, through

is determined of this church their sucthe Apostles and cessors, of their appointthe regularity and upon ment depends the vahdity of the sacraments. of this divine establishment,the In consequence Catholic Roman theologians regard the church there arises as superior to civil power whenever character. dispute over matters of religious The

government

in who

were

communistic.
The

centuries which immediately followed the tered scatthese communities death of the apostlessaw basin around the Mediterranean growing another. It was into closer relationships with one cities in the smaller that the churches natural around churches should gradually themselves group and it was in some also natural that in metropolis, such grouping the lines of the Roman imperial there administration should be followed. Thus of which the bishoprics, sprang up the metropolitan chief in the east were Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch,Ephesus, and later Constantinople; and Rome. These in the west large metropolitan churches,however, were not united into a complete ecumenical councils were organization,although held which supposedly representedthe entire body of fact, however, no of churches. As a matter fair representationof the more council had any distant churches. By the 3rd. century we can see the development of the idea of the Catholic church, of Catholic of an authoritadogma, of the power of the bishop,
_

national movements the rise of the new of Christians there appeared groups broke with the imperial idea and organized development of state churches, each with its own the great theological system which had grown up during the Middle Ages. These state churches in and control the religious thought turn attempted to lifeof the various states in which they were ized, organfound themselves and in consequence soon forced to take action against those who were regardedby them as heretical. On the continent rule succeeded of Europe the state churches as a With

Europe

until very recent times in maintaining a high degree the of conformity. In England, however, where democratic than on the more history was political conformity continent, the attempt to enforce with increasing met opposition. A succession of in England separated themselves especially groups from the established church,and gave rise to various These in turn tended to non-conforming churches. until there developed today's general subdivide situation in the United States and Great Britain. bidden has not only forthe democratic In America spirit the existence of a state church, but has organizations, brought about absolute freedom in religious and the conception of the church a as unit has disappeared in denominations.

Through

ever, howall this process of subdivision, tained. the fundamental function of a church is maincarries on church The worship, rehgious

99

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Church

of

England

the administration of be value with whatever they may tain Churches of all sorts mainthought to contain. have of which special a ministry,members functions which are recognizedby most states,but who are not of uniform status, varying accordingto from priests the conceptions of any given church to preach. to laymen chosen there is at the Speaking generally,therefore, present time a two-fold conception of the church. church and that One holds that there is a Cathohc tianity. this should be co-extensive with organized ChrisOn the other side is the view of those who local body, and is strictly hold that a church a of spiritthat the true unity of the church is one ual See fellowship with Christ. Christianity; Shailer Mathews Bishop; Deacon. and moral

education, and

sacraments

ARMY. An nection organization in conof England, founded the Church by Carhle,1882, which conducts (1)evanthe through lay workers among (2) social work unemployed and deUnquent classes, in the form of labor homes, employment bureaus, lodging houses, cheap food depots, old clothes' depots, dispensariesand an extensive emigration CHURCH with Rev. Wilson geUstic work
"

system.
CONGRESS." An annual CHURCH of the clergyand laityof the Church of discuss rehgiousand ethical questions. conference

England

to

The church established CHURCH OF ENGLAND." mined in England with relations to the state deterat by parliament since the breach with Rome the Reformation. 1. Origin and continuity. Christianity was introduced into Britain at least as early as the 3rd. then of the century, probably from Gaul, and was oriental rather than the Roman ing type. The comof the English,drivingthe Britons before them, almost extinguished it in the South; but it continued until the British to flourish in the North coalesced with the differences, Church, after some missionary church which Augustine had introduced There is difference of opinion in the year 597. polemical writers on the question of the among continuityof the church in spite of successive constitutional and changes. national,theological, its identity The Anglo-CathoUcs (q.v.)maintain and modern mediaeval times, throughout primitive, while some Protestants Schaff) confine the (e.g., of England" to the period title "Church subsequent under This questo the settlement Henry VIII. tion for it is metaphysical rather than historical, has been the nature of identity. There turns on of the doctrine and discipUne continuityin much in well as in the religious life of Christianity as Cathohc, England from the first; so that the Roman churches Anglican, Methodist, and Nonconformist less sucof today may all be regarded as more or cessors to the Mediaeval Church, like the divisions of a river at its delta. But the Anglican Church holds the cathedrals, parish churches, and other ecclesiastical national property, including tithes, and, with the exception of the Roman Cathohcs, deviates least from ancient custom. 2. Establishment. After the breach with Rome under Henry VIII. , again under Elizabeth, the church which less connected or was always more the state, came under its direct control, with its "Supreme acknowledging the sovereign as Governor." The Prayer Book with its doctrine and ritual has been authorised by parUament and cannot be altered without that authority. The bishops and some other church are dignitaries appointed nominallyby the sovereign,really by the prime
" "

The church minister. courts are subordinate to of the civil government. law courts The clergy enjoy the fruits of the tithes, except where these have been ahenated, and also of lands and other vested in the hands of the "Ecclesinow astical properties board of officials under a Commissioners," the state authority. Most of the bishops have of Lords. seats in the House The Archbishop of Canterbury ranks as the first subject in the realm, above all the nobility. In the coronation of the King, and other state functions,such as that of Chaplain of the House of Commons, it is only clergy of England who conduct the requisite of the Church rehgious services. and administration. The 3. Order Anglican church is Episcopal in its government, recognizing the three orders of bishop,presbyter (orpriest), and deacon. There two are at archbishops, one The bishops archCanterbury and the other at York. presideat convocations of the clergyin their respective provinces, but the establishment has and deprived the convocations of legislative power transferred it to ParUament. England is geographically divided into parishes, the incumbents of which have the rights and duties of "corporations," be said that the unit of the church is so that it may rather than the diocese. the parish, The presentation of patrons, most to hvings is in the hands of whom laymen and are although land-holders, and other bodies have the bishops, universities, of some of them. Under the "Enabling presentation of self-management are Act," 1920, new powers A National conferred. tuted Assemblyhas been constiand the laityadmitted to mcreased bility. responsiChurch matters to be managed by the are Council elected by an annual church meeting parochial of parishioners who are members of the C. of E. 4. Ritual. The ritual of the Church of Elngland is laid down in the "Book of Common Prayer," last revised in the reign of Charles II,according as the worship is conducted to which liturgically. The rubric and prayers are based on pre-reformation of service,largely modified forms by Protestant divines so as to exclude distinctively Roman Catholic doctrines and practices. In spiteof this fact, large latitude is observed,the "advanced," or "ritualistic," "cathohc" or clergy reverting in a considerable while the "Evangelical" degree to ancient practices, clergyadhere to simplerforms of worship,although all use the same Prayer Book. 5. Doctrine. The authorized doctrine of the Church of England isthat of the whole content of the defmed Prayer Book, but it is more especially by the 39 Articles and the homilies. The articles were based on the Augsburg Confession and are due to Lutheran that of Melanchthon in parinfluence, ticular, but somewhat modified by Calvinism of a mild type. They base their authorityon Scripture and the three Creeds. Anghcan divines of the 17th. ity authorcentury and later have also attached some Fathers of the firstfour centuries. to the Church In point of fact the clergy enjoy great hberty of belief and teaching, the Evangelicals holdingby the Articles and taking the Bible as almost their sole more authority,while the Anglo-Catholics make of the ritualistic part of the Prayer Book and revive ideas and practices formally repudiatedas Roman. Some of the latter also accept principles known as Church" "Broad both in bibhcal criticism and in and social questions. There regard to political are some High Church sociahsts. All baptized citizens of the 6. Communicants. nation who have undergone the rite of confirmation to the communion by their bishop have a right to come in their own parishor district church unless inhibited by the incumbent for immoral conduct. As a matter of fact many clergyadmit to the rite
" " " "

Church

of

England

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

100

other denominations. from who come whom Some they keep a roll of communicants in private from time to time. endeavor to meet and this is a voluntary arrangement But not be said that practically universal. It may the is open. Therefore communion it is impossibleto furnish any statistics of the communicants in the of a AngUcan church correspondingto the members mate Free church. to estiAttempts have been made the number at by counting the attendance the Easter Communion; but, though this is by far the best attended occasion,necessarilysome habitual attendants would not be present. A rough calculation suggests that the communicants in the Church of England are about equal in number to those of the Nonconformist churches. bury 7. Synods. The two convocations of Canterand York meet for the to advise legislation church, which, however, can only be enforced by Diocesan synods discuss their own ParHament. local affairs and deal with practicalquestions of church of the work and the spiritualconcerns diocese. administrative have no They power. The "Church Congress" is a voluntary association in meeting annually to hear addresses and engage discussions on the religious problems of the time. Once ten a Pan-Anglican synod is years every assembled, representativeof all branches of the church This throughout the world. AngUcan also is wholly voluntary and advisory. Actual administrative authority rests locally with the parishclergyactingthrough the Councils mentioned above. No. 3, and in the several dioceses with their
persons
" " "

"Provided" that is the AngUcan and other denominational schools were granted an equal share of aid from the rates with the Non-Provided or Council Schools. These acts gave rise to "passive resistance" on the part of people who refused to for reUgious teaching of which rates pay they Walter F. Adeney disapproved.
" "

CHURCH OF GOD." The title assumed by several independent reUgious bodies holding to precisedoctrinal views which prevent them from desiringfeUowship with the largerdenominations. The most important with membership (in1919) are the Church of God in Jesus Christ (Adventist)(3,457 of God members); the Church (Dunkers) (929 of God members) ; the Church (EvangeUstic) (12,012members) ; the Church of God and Saints of Christ (a colored body) (3,311members); the Church of God as Organized by Christ (227 members) of God in N. A., General Eldership ; the Church similar to the Dunkers) (25,847 (doctrinally

members).
CHURCH OF IRELAND." The Episcopal church in Ireland which was the established state church until 1871 when it was disestabUshed under the " Irish Church Act." CHURCH OF THE LIVING GOD." A smaU of colored Christians in the United States, tian Chriscomprising,in 1919, two smaller bodies Workers for Fellowship (13,050 members) ; and General Assembly, Apostolic (1,000 members).
sect
"

bishops.
The main 8. Finance. support of the clergy is derived from the tithes which are rent charges all the land of the country, where they have not on The holder been commuted by a capital payment. tithes of corn, hay, and of the "great tithes," i.e., wool, is designated "rector" of his parish. At the which had been held Reformation, tithes of parishes by the monasteries amounting to about one-third of the whole were given to court favourites and other laymen as privateproperty, an action known "the great pillage."The new holders of these as tithes became "lay rectors," and the spiritual was charge of the parishesconcerned given to Thus therefore called "vicars." clergy who were it has come about that the clergyman of one parish is a "rector," and the clergyman of another a "vicar." nance In addition to the tithes for the maintethere of the clergyand other church expenses in land,administered are by the properties, chiefly ecclesiastical commissioners, moneys from "Queen Anne's Bounty," various local endowments, pew in some rents churches, and offertories at the services. The higher education is mainly 9. Education. in the hands of the Church of England, although and undenominational there are some nonconformist schools. Most of the secondary schools receiving government grants are under pubUc control and undenominational. In the early 19th. century the Church of England provided elementary schools, commonly known as "National Schools," in which it gave its own and at teachings, type of religious the same time "British Schools" were provided by the supporters of undenominational teachings. religious The Education Act of 1870 created school boards for building and maintaining schools all the country at the pubUc expense except that a over small charge was made the parents. In 1876 on school attendance made was compulsory, and in 1891 free. At the same time grants of public funds were made of of the Church to the managers schools. In England and other denominational in London 1902 and 1903 in the country the
"
" " "

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND." The Presbyterian church in Scotland which was made the established church by the Act of Union of 1707. CHURCH
EARDS.

OF

THE

BRETHREN."

See

DuN-

CHURCH New

OF

THE

NEW
of.

JERUSALEM."

See

Jerusalem, Church
CHURCH FEDERATION."
or

The

process

of

bringingtogether local

denominationally organized

bodies of Christians. Such federation differs from organic union in that the federatingbodies their respective existence. maintain Thus, in the of local churches, the members case the constituting receive members constituent bodies may of their as faith and order and make contributions to their own denominational respective work, although arrangements vary in the different local federated churches. of local reUgious groups Federation is most monly comwhere the competo be found in small towns tition between number of Protestant a considerable churches has been deemed and expensivefinanciaUy inefficient spiritually. In a somewhat more general sense, itis customary to speak of the church federations of different towns. of the different the co-operation By this is meant denominations under more less organized central or in certain tasks,generally evangeUstic management social. It is more or however, to speak common, bodies as Federal Councils or of such co-operating Church See Federal Council Federations. of Christ Churches THE of in America. Shailer Mathews CHURCH GOVERNMENT." The theory and practice of ecclesiastical organization. See also Minister Pastoral and Ministry; Theology; Order; Bishops; Priests; Deacons. three forms of church There are essentially in use, each claiming to follow the government

primitive practice.

101

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Circumcision the provisi3n" prop^rldy,; pf


"

ment TestaEpiscopal. It is held that the New recognizes three orders of the clergy: (1) are men Deacons, who generally young serving kind of apprenticeshipand limited in authority a of church. when in the even a charge (2) Priests, clergyin charge of parishes, exercising largepowers, (3) Bishops, having oversight of a considerable the entire district being known number of parishes, diocese. The as a bishops have the sole right of 1.
"

church and church necessities for the services and order.


" ,
,

tne' maintenance
;
:
.

of
.

v,

The ceremony of OF WOMEN." thanksgiving after the birth of a child,the genesis of which the Levitical purification was ceremony (Lev. 12:6).
CHURCHING CHURCHYARD." (1) The enclosed piece of the ground adjacent to a church; (2) technically, burial ground within the enclosure. CIBORrUM. the host. CIRCUIT." See Station. The
person
"

ordination
OP

Church;

and of confirmation. Greek Orthodox

See Roman

Church;

lic CathoChurch

CIRCUMCISION." A ritualisticaUy significant of the male surgical operation for the removal prepuce, or two operations on the female genitals. The of practicing circumcision custom is almost non-Semites in America, universal, except among known and observed Europe and Asia. It was the ancient Egyptians, the Hebrews, the among TERIANISM. American 3. Congregational.'Upon the theory that each Mohammedans, some Indians, and some African and Polynesian peoples. There are local church is a all self-governinginstitution, many methods of performing the rite, which var}^ settled by the vote of the members. surgical matters are from the above definition, but their purposes on the ordained ministers but have no Preachers as are whole are substantially the same. governmental authority. Deacons are elected from 1. Subjectsof circumcision. The the laity as associates of the minister in the spiritual age at which ately leadership of the congregation. Congregational the rite was performed was almost always immedibefore or at puberty; but among the Hebrews churches are loosely organized into associations, it was set for male children on the eighth day after conventions, congresses, etc., but retain complete and his household Abraham cised circumpendency. birth. Indewere independence. See Congregationalism; Yahweh's as Theodore G. Scares adults, except Ishmael, when established (Gen. 17:23-27). Whenever covenant was ."The ORDER ecclesiastical constitution a CHURCH foreignerwished to join with Israel in the observance of the passover of a German (Exod. 12:48), or to a state, which usually makes he was of the agreement of the State church with intermarry with Israelites, statement obliged to be circumcised the Lutheran a (Gen. 34:14-24). It was reproach Confessions, followed by various for an Israelite to remain uncircumcised ecclesiastical regulations. (Josh.5:9). Extra-Israelitish peoples such the Philistines as called "the uncircumcised" PEACE CHURCH UNION." An 31:4; (I Sam. organization were founded and Judg. 14:3). consisting of a board of trustees cision 2. Reasons miUion dollars by Andrew with two endowed Though circumfor circumcision. distinctive mark of Jews, it was of which is to interest the stricted rewas a Carnegie, the purpose Its office is at in international churches nearly every other people to certain peace. among and York City. ancient Egyptians, priests 70 Fifth Ave., New classes, e.g., among warriors had to accept the rite; in Madagascar REGISTER." A church book which CHURCH today circumcision is required of a soldier or an official. In the early church the Judaizers declared of accounts, but be a book of liturgies, or may the book in which are registered it,and the Gentiles denied it,as a necessary preusuallydesignating requisite and in the for church membership; births, baptisms,marriages,funerals, removals, and council the Gentiles won their case records of discipline. sometimes (Acts 15:1, 5, peoples the legaland social 28, 29). Among some is conditioned on circumcision, See Union, Church. status CHURCH UNION." of a man as African the Turks and Malays. Some among and from society, tribes exclude the uncircumcised WARDEN." In the Episcopal CHURCH churches the United admit no one either to their councils or to the rights in the British Empire and duties are the care of the of inheritance unless he has submitted to the rite. a lay officialwhose States,
" " "

England. The and Greek Anglican church, the Roman CathoUc,and other of the eastern churches have a rank (notorder)known as the Metropolitan superior has wider territorial jurisdiction or Archbishop, who number of dioceses generally comand governs a prised in a major poUtical unit. The Roman lic Cathochurch completes the hierarchical system with the pope, who is the ruler of the entire church. A modified form of episcopacy is maintained by the Methodist Episcopal churches in the United States,in which a body of bishops is elected to the work of the denomination, each bishop supervise of being assignedfrom time to time to the oversight But he has no diocesan certain groups of churches. do the bishops constitute a separate allocation nor order of clergy. 2. Presbyterial.This is an attempt to reproduce Testament the practicesof the New churches in of elders. Distinction which there was a plurality who is now between the teachingelder, is made the ordained minister and preacher, and the ruling elders who are laymen selected by the congregation in leadership. They together confor their ability stitute decide matters the Session and of ecclesiastical The whole denomination business. is organized in a series of ecclesiastical bodies having and judicial the Presbytery,the legislation powers, Synod, and the General Assembly. See Presby"

(1) An
an

by four pillars, over

arch altar.

supported canopy, ing (2) A vessel contain-

CIRCUMAMBULATION."

walking around times). When


indicates done

an

object or
circuit

practice of (usuallythree
sun-wise
reverence.

the

is made

respect, loyalty and

it The

oppositecircuit is of ill-omen and when deliberately indicates ill-will and disrespect. The practice differs from the magic circle in that there to be no idea of protecting the objectinvolved. seems It was the Hindus, Celts especially common among and Greco-Romans though found also in America
and the Semites. While no certain statement be made as to its originit is probable that it is connected with the observation of the movement of the sun.
among
can

Circumcision, Feast
"3.'Theories
more

of the

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

102

of-iki vrigin. These are numerous. plausibletheories are: (1) a sanitary for marriage, (3) con))i*oviis6h,-'"(3X a'prepfi^tio^ o' the generaiive*^owers, 8e?!rit,'on (4)a condition of social and legalstanding, (5) a tribal distinction, community, (7) mark (6) initiation into a Hebrew of Israel's covenant relation to Yahweh, (8) sacrifice circumcision is rarely to a tribal deity. Female connected with any religious observance.
"

he Tl

CIRCUMCISION,
observed on circumcision

Ira M. Price FEAST OF THE." A festival Jan. 1st. in commemoration of the of Jesus.

CISTERCIANS." A R.C. monastic order, also known the Grey or White as Monks, dating from 1098 when founded a monastery Robert, a Benedictine, at Cistercium. Rapid development ensued because of the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux often whence members of the order are (q.v.), known Bernardines. A rigidobservance of the as Benedictine rule was the 12th. prescribed. From to the 15th. centuries the Cistercians were most and influential. The rise of the mendicant numerous orders involved the decline of Cistercian influence. There stillexist about 100 monasteries of the order. CITY-GOD. Athens. CITY technical MISSIONS."
sense

"

A
a

patron deity of

deity who was regardedas the over particularcity as Athena

The

term

is used

in

the organizedco-operative signify of a group of churches usuallyof the same activity communion of a city, of a city and its suburbs, or or along educational,philanthropic, ecclesiastical, rehgioushues. City Missions are differentiated from the work of an individual citychurch, in that there are representative of a group of churches, ideallyall the and of a given communion of a city its churches in being municipal Missions suburbs; from Home rather than national in its field of service;and from Church Federations in that usually they are denominational, though often, broadly cathoUc in spirit and non-sectarian in much of the work which they undertake.
to

not has In others it is used in a more restricted sense to refer only to certain ministries of mercy, ameliorative efforts in behalf of the poor in unfortunate, particularly giVA. See Shiva. or public institutions. This is frequently its use in CLAIRVOYANCE." Terms Inner the Episcopal Church. In Lutheran CLAIRAUDIENCE, usage has about the same connotation connected with Mission as spirituahsm (q.v.), indicating (q.v.) of the and City Missions is to hear and to see disembodied spirits CityMissions,as here defined, power used in the narrow dead. to include only benevolent sense charitable work. or ASSIZE OF." See Assize have grown out of a op City Mission organizations CLARENDON, Clarendon. certain and attendant municipal consciousness of community sense responsibilitythe recognition CONSTITUTIONS See that there are social problems peculiar OF." to great CLARENDON, of Constitutions Clarendon. cities which will not of yieldto rural methods content social distreatment. Poverty, irrehgion and FREEMAN bred in the laissez faire atmosphere are JAMES (1810-1888)." CLARKE, which has been carried over Unitarian from country village Influential American preacher and in a broad into the complex growing city where economic cosscholar,who interpretedreligion interested in applying well-beingand respectabiUtyon the one hand and mopohtan spiritand was misery and crime on the other,each seeks its own Christianityto social problems, e.g., the slavery Great and the work is Ten place and where the checks and restraints, problem. His best known individual sense of the obHgations of neighborliness Religions. of the country villagemay The be found. not NEWTON of organized social effort to meet CLARKE, WILLIAM (1841-1912)." necessity pecuUar American being recognized. Success in Baptist theologian;an influential exponent cityconditions is now of liberal orthodoxy, giving to traditional the desire and City Missions is dependent upon consistent with of the churches doctrines spiritual of a given communion to interpretations ability
some

In

denominations

the

term

acquired this technical

meaning.

associate in co-operative undertakings in behalf of the rehgious hfe of the city. Denominational City Mission organizations into being about fifty began to come years ago in found to that social compunction which response expression a few years later in organized charity and stilllater in the social and social settlements service of the municipahty itself. The entrance of other agenciesinto the field has modified from time to time the distinctive task of the denominational City Mission organization. The evolution of City Missions during the past generation has been essentiallyas follows: in palUativeand remedial efforts in behalf of the very needs are now ing met to an increaspoor whose physical table charidegree by the municipahty or by special organizations:in redemptive effort to reach and the "fallen," and out," the "Flotsam the "down Jetsam" of societyespecially through Rescue Halls denominationa interand Homes which are now an on quitelargely ties communibasis; in churching new be kept that the institutions of rehgion may to the requirements of rapidly growing communities, up although such church activityoccupies smaller part of the attention of the a relatively in the older and larger City Mission organizations tianizing cities than formerly; in Americanizing and Chrisnew-Americans especiallythrough the mother-tongue of a particular people,largelya the in checking development of recent years; where they rout of the churches from communities needed is impracmost but where self-support are ticable and local leadei'ship inadequate a work which City Mission organizationshave not many Several denominations are ing spendyet undertaken. considerable in organized City Mission sums work. These the tasks of denominational are City Mission undertaken in the attempt organizations, to objectify the principles taught by Jesus Christ and to reincarnate his spiritin intimate,direct, social, educational,and philanthropic ministries. cils Through interdenominational City Mission CounChurch "the twin sins of overFederations lapping or and neglect" in City Mission work are and in a few instances two or more being overcome been denominations have brought into definite Church shall Federations co-operation. When ministries become have effective certain more performed by City Missions will be undertaken Sears Hatch in a largerfellowship. Charles
"

"

103

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Clergy

modern and

ing knowledge. His literary stylewas charmwritingsspiritually inspiring. His most important works are Outline of Christian Theology, and The Christian Doctrine of God. his In certain Reformed CLASSIS. churches, an ecclesiastical court, comprising ministers and ruling
"

to the Greeks, The Who Tutor, The Miscellanies, is the Rich Man that can be Saved? and the (now-

correspondingto a Presbyterianpresbytery elders, and a having a status between consistory and synod.
CLASS-MEETING." A feature of Methodism

Outlines. He left Alexandria in a.d. 203 and lost) died between 211 and 216. a.d. Edgar J. Goodspeed CLEMENT OF ROME (ca.a.d. 40-97)." The third head of the Roman church, author of Epistle of the Church at Rome to the Church at Corinth, written about a.d. 95 to restore order in the Corinthian church, in which oppositionto the authority of the church officers had developed. CLEMENTINE LITERATURE." Writings ascribed to Clement of Rome, purporting to represent Petrine teaching as Clement said to be a was of Peter. The hterature includes the sodisciple called Second Epistleof Clement, two Epistles on the Epistleto James, the Homilies and Virginity, and the Apostolic Constitutions. Recognitions,
"

whereby a congregation is divided into groups or each with a class-leader who has the oversight classes, welfare of the members of the spiritual of his class. The meetings of the class are designed to promote rehgious development and to give opportunity for maintaining discipUne.
CLEAN AND Purification. UNCLEAN." See Defilement

CLERGY. A within the Christian group Church appointed and usuallyordained particularly Stoic philosopher CLEANTHES." of the 3rd. to conduct public worship, administer the sacraments, to Zeno leader of the and carry on in general the work of the successor as century b.c; school. A magnificenthymn to Zeus church. reveals his See Order, Holy. See Stoicism. religious Strictly speaking, the early Christian Churches power. had no clergyand laity, but all Christians possessed The name CLEMENT." of 14 popes and 2 antiin the presence of approach to God, equal privilege tributed although differing according to the divinely disF"opes. Clement //.- Pope, 1046-1047. gifts. See Charismata. Clement III."Fope, 1187-1191. On the basis of these gifts officialswhose were business was Clement I v." Pope, 1265-1268. the spiritual tion development and educaClement V. the of others in the local groups of Christians. Pope, 1305-1314, removed These came to be known papal seat to Avignon, 1309. as Bishops or Presbyters, VI. and Deacons, as well as Apostles,Teachers, and Clement for unity ^Pope, 1342-1352,strove with the Armenian Evangehsts. By the 2nd. century, the influence church; proclaimed a crusade of the Old Testament in 1343. priesthoodand the universal VII. Clement tion world resulted priesthood in the Graeco-Roman Antipope, d. 1394. His elecin the separation of those in 1378 in opposition to Urban VI. began performing specific duties in the church the great schism in the west. from the rest of the church Clement F//." Pope, 1523-1534, had been istic charactermembers, and they began to assume and the powers of priests. As dress,insignia, practically papal administrator under Leo X., but himself a weak, narrow the CathoUc He made was churches, both Greek and especially no pope. the Roman, developed, the distinction between the strong effort to deal with the Reformation, and that is, the laity the English increased. The during his reign the schism between clergyand others, and Roman churches occurred. to be regarded as constituting clergycame an order, Clement entrance to which was F///." Antipope, 1425-1429. conditioned upon the divine election through the church and the possession Clement VIII." Pope, 1592-1605, obtained the of readmission transmitted of Jesuits who had been expelledfrom of through the succession grace France. the revised edition Bishops from the Apostles. Privilegeswere corded acDuring his pontificate them of the Vulgate was ture completed and Catholic literaEmperor and through by the Roman the Middle Ages they constituted an estate distinct Bruno's execution expanded. Giordano was from that of the nobiUty on the one in his reign. side and the town's people on Clement IX." the other. Pope, 1667-1669. They were exempt from the jurisdiction Clement Z." Pope, 1670-1676. of the laity and were possessed Clement XI. of various other privileges.They were divided Pope, 1700-1721, a scholar,and of letters; the higher clergy,including all man promulgated the Bull, Unigenitus into two classes, in 1713 againstJansenism. ing includBishops and Priests;and the lower clergy, Clement XII. acolytes,exorcists and other minor officials. Pope, 1730-1740,sought reunion with the Greek church; encouraged art and literaIn the Roman Cathohc ture. Church, the clergy is still further divided into the regular clergy or monks Clement XIII." who are in holy orders, and the secular clergy, which Pope, 1758-1769. demerit A7F." includes the priests who have parishesand are not Pope, 1769-1774, sigticd the brief in 1773 by which the Jesuit order was solved. in any monastic order. disof the In the Protestant churches,the position clergy with relation to other church members CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA varies somewhat. In the Anglican Church, the (ca.a.d. 150and teacher of Origen, are 215). Pupil of Pantaenus regarded holyorders are preservedand the clergy dist, leading Christian scholar and writer,head of the as priests. In the Lutheran, Reformed, Methocatechetical school Alexandria. A at convert bodies, Baptist and other dissenting religious from paganism, Clement of orders beyond the official there is no recognition was widely read in Greek well Christian and Jewish in as certain and as act of appointing a man literature, (or woman exhibited remarkable minister and pastor. as hospitahty to truth wherever denominations), to serve he found it. He sought to relate Christianity to Generally such persons are formally inducted into the best elements in philosophy and in this way Like ministers in holy office after examination. did much to prepare the way for Christian theology. orders they are regarded in law as possessing certain His principal works The were Hortatory Address legal rights, marriage, as, for example, of celebrating
AND
" "
" " " "

Clericalism

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

104

but
set

in the eyes

of the churches of the church

are

simply laymen

apart for the performance of certain duties in


life. Shailer

the furtherance

Mathews The pohcy of controUing and administeringthe essential functions of social and pohtical life by the clergy as officials of the CODEX EPHRAEMI RESCRIPTUS." A 5th. church. divinely authorized form of ecclesiasticism,century parchment manuscript in uncial letters, is an extreme Clericahsm of and all secular forms containingthe Old and New Testaments originally discrediting distrusting belief in Greek, but becoming dilapidated and probably the social organization. Starting from faded by the 12th. century. Many leaves of the that the church is the supreme authority ordained parchment were lost and the rest reinscribed with a by God, clericalism is inclined to sacrifice all other Greek version of treatises of Ephraem the Syrian, considerations to that of ecclesiastical supremacy. contains various scatthat the manuscript now social and political life has developed tered Since modern so ism the basis of religious portions of its originalcontents, mostly of on freedom, clericalso largely and the New has been regarded as an obstructive force, Testament, in a text curiously mixed. has received sinister meaning. If, the name a SINAITICUS." A 4th. century parchCODEX ment however, the premisesof ecclesiasticism be admitted, of consistent way clericahsm is only an especially manuscript of great textual excellence of the in Greek, found and Testaments Old New of the church. by securingthe supremacy St. Catherine's Tischendorf at Convent, Mt. ment, REGULAR." The name CLERKS given by the Sinai,in 1859, and includingwith the Old Testasomewhat R.C. church to clerics who are engaged in the regular now fragmentary, certain apocryphal to the time conform clerical duties and at the same writings; and with the New Testament, the Epistle rule of a community. of Barnabas and part of the Shepherd of

CLERICALISM."

Theodore De Beze (Beza) from 1562-81. It contains the gospels (Matt., John, Luke, Mark), the end of III John (Latin only), and most of Acts and Latin. in Greek Its text is the erratic type It is now known in the library Western. of the as University of Cambridge.

Hernias.

the enclosing wall of Originally, A 4th. century parchVATICANUS." within the CODEX ment a rehgioushouse; then, the monastery within the quadrilateral area manuscript (so called from having belonged enclosure; latterly, since the end of the 15th. century to the Vatican a rehgious house about which the buildings are provided with a Library),containing except for a few gaps, especially grouped, and which is customarily at the beginning and end, the Old and New covered ambulatory connectingthe various buildings. in Greek, in a text of remarkable Testaments excellence. CLOVIS (ca. 466-511)." King of the Franks, who married Clotilda, a Burgundian Christian TAYLOR SAMUEL (1772-1834). COLERIDGE, princess. By her influence Clovis was baptized as English poet and philosopher,who exercised a 496, and with him 3000 Christian,Christmas a wide influence on thinking early in the the protector of the church, religious Franks. He became CLOISTER.
"
"

and

in 511

convoked

the council of Orleans.

A R.C. order OF." of the monastery at Cluny. The Cluny Monastery was founded in 910 by William I. the Pious. From 910 to 1157 Cluny and was ruled by a succession of strong men, was GASPARD DE (1519-1572)." COLIGNY, the mainspring of religiousvitality in Europe. French admiral and Huguenot leader; strove to of houses adopted the manner Several Benedictine obtain religious hberty; was killed in the massacre Benedictines. But Cluniac hence the name life, of St. Bartholomew's day (q.v.). the order is in every respect independent. The rise orders effected the of the Cistercians and mendicant COLLECT." (1) A brief prayer, frequently had become of the Cluny order,which decadence one zeal. It was solved only one dissentence, supphcating for some wealthy and had lost its religious or AngHcan blessing. (2) In the Roman specific in 1790. before the reading the prayer which comes liturgies, Theologian, born, of the Gospel and Epistlefor the day, so designated COCCEITJS, JOHANNES." because it epitomizesor collectstheir teaching. In Bremen, August 9, 1603, died, Leyden, 1669.

CLUNY,

presidedover

CONGREGATION by the abbot

the stimulus of German Under 19th. century. idealistic philosophy he expounded rehgion on the and rational principles in contradistinction basis of moral to the appeal to external authority, and liberalizing of and thus aided in the vitalizing Christian ideals.

fessor Prohe became career 1650, after a distinguished works He published of Theology at Leyden. the Hebrew important, a on language and, more treatise upon theology in which he set forth the Federal Theology (q.v.). so-called Covenant or CODEX A manuscript in book form of large round characters (uncial); used particularlyin Testament New manuscripts.
"

COLLECTIVISM."

See Socialism.

law

APOSTOLIC" of persons the task. Hence common apostles of Jesus, conceived

COLLEGE,
meant

group

Coite^iumin Roman co-operatingin a application to the


as an

authoritative

body.
CARDINALS. the R.C. -In OF COLLEGE church the council or senate which is composed of six cardinal bishops, fifty cardinal priests and The cardinals elect the fourteen cardinal deacons. the ecclesiastical administration continue pope, during an interregnum,and act as the papal advisory body. Also called the Sacred College. OR COLLOQIUM." conference for the discussion of there are points of matters, where

CODEX ALEXANDRINUS." A 5th. century Greek parchment manuscript,so called from having once belonged to the patriarchateof Alexandria. and the Testaments It contains the Old and New worth. of Clements in a text of moderate Epistles CODEX CODEX AMIATINUS."
"

See

Codex. Amiatintjs,

COLLOQUY

manuscript

A 6th. century parchment BEZAE. called from so having belonged to

formal (1) An intheological

differencQ.

105

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Comte, August
thus differsfrom Marxian collective ownership of

(2) A term formerly used in the Reformed Genevan COLUMBA,


From 563 Picts,and he was Abbot SAINT
a

for classis church.

or

presbytery individuals. Communism


sociahsm
which holds
to

capital.
(521-597)." Irish monk. missionary to the Scots and
of lona. Communistic experiments have always been less in evidence since primitiveciviUzation or and communistic have been elaborated programs writers since Plato. Most notable among by many such writers in modern times have been Babeuf during the French Revolution, Robert Owen, Lenine. Various have attempts at communism been made by mendicant orders,reUgious bodies hke the Brethren of the Free Spirit (13th.century), Adamites in Bohemia baptists (15th. century), the Anaof Munster, Moravians, Shakers. Jerusalem said that the primitive It is sometimes church practicedcommunism, but such a description is misleading. The societywas not economic and their "having things in common" rather was of excessive voluntary charity doubtless form a due to their expectation of the immediate return Shailer of Christ. Mathews
'

more

who
was

SAINT COLUMBAN, (543-615)." Irish monk, preached in France, Switzerland and Italy. He
a

classical scholar and writer.

COMFORT." That which conduces toward a condition of freedom from physical or psychical toward the of satisfaction felt need. pain or a of comReHgion is variouslyconceived as a source fort with God. through fellowship COMMANDMENTS." the Hebrew (1) In Decalogue. rehgion, see (2) Of the Roman church, six commandments, including observance of mass and church festivals, of the fasts, of auricular of communion at least once a confession, year, at Easter,support of pastors and observance preferably of church regulations in marriage. (3) In the Greek of the church, nine precepts are demanded faithful. COMMENIUS. See Bohemian Brethren.

"

COMMISSIONS,
R.C.
canon

which consists of gathering from studying reUgions world-wide sources apparently similar forms, beliefs and customs under and IDIOMATUM." COMMUNICATIO munication "Compresenting them of the attributes"; in Lutheran theology certain static groupings or rubrics arranged in a the statement of the Christological doctrine which supposed order of development. Its chief service to the religious sciences was declares that the propertiesof either nature to show the necessity may of a better method. All broad be transmitted to the other in the divine-human generalizations abandoned when students to realize Christ. The doctrine was were came employed to support the that every form and religionand every religious theory of the omnipresence of Christ's human nature belief must be studied in its own in connection with the eucharist. peculiarcultural and geneticsetting. See Science Religion. of COMMUNION." gious (1) An interchange of reliCOMPLACENC Y." Self-satisfaction. In thought and emotion. (2) The ordinance of the Lord's supper the celebration of it. (3) A theology,satisfaction with or approval of a person or Love of its inherent virtue. sect of Christians, or object on account or holding to a common group of complacency, e.g., that of God for Christ has been doctrinal or ecclesiastical standard,as the AngUcan contrasted with love of compassion, e.g., that of communion. (4) In the R.C. church, an antiphon recited by the priestafter the ablutions following God for sinners. the celebration of
mass.

ECCLESIASTICAL." In the church ecclesiastical bodies, estabUshed by law for the exercise of specific offices committed to them, either ecclesiastical or theological.

An agreement consummated trant Basel,Nov. 1536,by which recalciBohemians accorded the rightto administer were of a the Communion in both kinds, assured strict exercise of discipline the clergy over paore and guaranteed in respect to temporalities, especially a more tent generous provisionof preaching by compepriests.
"

COMPACTATA.

at the Council

of

COMPARATIVE

RELIGION."

method

of

COMMUNION,

HOLY."

See Lord's

Supper.

COMMUNION OF SAINTS." One of the of faith expressed in the Apostles' affirmations Creed. it is interpreted In Catholicism to mean a spiritual fellowshipincluding,not only believers on earth, but also the souls in purgatory and the saints in heaven. Real reciprocity is possible agreement individuals in this all-inclusive sphere. between COMPROMISE." (1) An adjustment of a disconcessions on the of mutual Living persons may benefit those who have departed, by means such When and may invoke aid from the saints. In Protestantan ism part of the parties concerned. the conception is usually so explained as to adjustment involves the rehnquishment of principles, exclude definite deeds or rites directed toward it may unethical. Hence the become (2) popularly, one's action which throws departed. suspicion on ethical motives. (3) In ecclesiastical law, the COMMUNION WITH THE DEAD." See transfer of a legalright, the rightof nomination as tion of the rightof elecNecromancy. to a benefice; or the commitment of cardinals to a sub-committee. by the college THE COMMUNION WITH DEITY." See AUGUST losopher, (1798-1857)."French phiCOMTE, Mysticism; Prayer; Sacrifice. of Positivism the founder (q.v.). His of social and COMMUNISM. A theory chief works the Positive Philosophy, the nomic ecowere which substitutes for the right Positive Polity,the Posilivist Catechism, and the organization of private property ownership by the community expression of Subjective Synthesis. The religious his system is the Religionof Humanity in which and distributes products of labor equally among
"

COMPLIN." last R.C. canonical The hour, so-called since the 6th. century. As Prime was their the monks' morning prayer. Complin was It consists of the General Confession, night prayer. lucis "Te Absolution, three psalms, the hymn ante demittis," terminum," the canticle "Nunc the evening and oration. It is sometimes as sung service in Church instead of Vespers.

Conception

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION
German

AND

ETHICS

106

collective humanity is worshiped as the "Great Being," and an elaborate ritual is enjoinedembodying various successive consecrations vidual to service for humanity. of the inoi-

states (1824-39),Austria (1855, repealed 1870), Spain (1523, 1640, 1737, 1753, 1851, 1860, Shailer Mathews 1904).

CONCUBINAGE."

tioned sancCohabitation, legally

CONCEPTION,
Immaculate

THE Conception.

IMMACULATE."

See

A CONCEPTUALISM." pounded logical theory exas a mediating position by Abelard (q.v.) stated nominahsm and between realism, which that concepts or general ideas have an existence in the mind though there is no correlative existence in ments reaUty, and that these concepts are the instruof knowledge. CONCLAVE." (1) A meeting of a group of in secrecy or privacy. (2) The sacred when assembled for collegeof cardinals, especially the election of a pope. (3) Also the apartment in is kept locked which which the cardinals convene until the election is complete, a custom dating from 1274. persons The collective documents BOOK OF." of the Lutheran comprising the confession, the Augscreeds, burg Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian the Confession, the Apology of the same, Small Schmalkald the Large and chisms CateArticles, of Concord. of Luther and the Formula

and woman not or not, of a man vaUdly married Such cohabitation was (seeNe Tbmere). countenanced in the O.T. as well as among the Greeks and Romans, and even Christians among tillthe Middle Ages, though clandestine marriage condemned was as early as the time of Ignatius the time the Catholic Church Martyr. From began to impose celibacyon the clergy, any cleric's cohabitation with a woman considered was cubinage. con-

CONCUPISCENCE." Inordinate sexual sion, paswhich Augustine and various R.C. theologians considered evidence of the depravity of human other scholastic nature. writers Aquinas and desire in employed the term to connote sensuous the broader sense.

CONCORD,

and

(1) The doctrine of Augustine Calvin that man, previous to his fall, was served prein spiritual perfectionby the aid of God. of the co-operationof God the or (2) The theory First Cause with second causes in the processes of and history. nature
A scholastic term CONDIGNITY." indicating that with supernaturalaid man may Uve in such a
way
as

CONCURSUS."

The most FORMULA OF." plete comof the Lutheran confessions, promulgated in 1580 with a view to uniting the various parties embittered within Lutheranism who had become by doctrinal dissension. It consists of two parts, the each of twelve Epitome and the Solid Declaration, the first making a statement of, and the sections, Lutheran second giving the argument for, doctrines. Faith. See Confession of

CONCORD,

to

merit

eternal

life.

Used, in
a

contrast

to

which congruity (q.v.) for meritorious

denotes

natural

capacity

Uving.

CONCORDANCE." An alphabetical ment arrangethe of the words used in any work, especially in which each all the occurs. Bible,showing passages This was firstdone for the Latin Vulgate in a.d. 1244. of the Old Testament There are excellent concordances in Hebrew (Davidson, Bagster, Mandelkern) and in Greek (Hatch-Redpath) and of the New toric in Greek Testament (Moulton-Geden). The hisconcordance of the EngUsh Bible is that of Alexander Cruden (first ed., 1738) but Young's Analytical Concordance (1879-84) and Strong's Exhaustive Concordance modern (1894) are more Edgar J. Goodspeed EngUsh works.
_

CONDITIONAL IMMORTALITY." The view that immortality is not possessedby all by virtue of their humanity, but that it is possibleonly for those who have acquired certain spiritual powers and characteristics due to divine salvation. See Future of. Life, Conceptions CONDUCT." Activityor behavior judged by social standards, and moral thus rendering a or liable to approval or disapproval. See person Ethics. CONFERENCE." In
or

Protestant

churches,an

cussion laymen or both for disof church or deliberation concerningmatters business or theology. In the R.C. church the name applies to a conference of priests. In Methodist polity it designates the official assemblies of the church, e.g., the General Conference.

assembly of ministers

CONCORDAT.

"

formal

agreement

or

treaty CONFESSION."
The
a

between

the Pope of Rome intended to formulate to the disputed a decision as Catholic Church in the sovereign's rightsof the Roman
some

sovereign and

acknowledgment, either
person

country.
The oldest of such agreements is the Concordat of Worms (September 23, 1122) drawn between Henry V. and Pope Calixtus, by which there was ended the so-called War of Investiture. Perhaps the most celebrated of such Concordats is that drawn by Napoleon I. and Pius VII. (1801). chief provisionsof the seventeen The articles of this agreement those making the Roman were Catholic Church amenable the to civil regulations, the Church's claims to property sold relinquishing during the Revolution, assuring it support from the State, and of bishops. reducing the number remained This Concordat in force until its repeal by the French Republic in 1905. Concordats have been made all by practically most European nations. The were important those with Bavaria (1817), Prussia (1821), other

entitled to hear,of sinful or criminal action. annual confession was In the Hebrew an religion required on the Day of Atonement by the chief whereat individuals were also enjoined to priest, the confess. In New Testament confession is mentioned. although only occasionally enjoined, With the development of church fession condiscipline, became of securing recognizedas a means remission of post-baptismal and the church presins, scribed whereby the penitentscould (q.v.) penance accompUsh reconciliation. Today the R.C. church demands the confession of "mortal" sins. It is not necessary to confess "venial" sins although religious lead the penitentvoluntarily devotion may to do so. The canonical age for beginningconfession is In the Eastern church confession is obligaseven. tory. The Lutheran and Anglican churches teach that suffices, public confession and absolution although auricular confession is still practised
to or privately publicly

107

DICTIONARY
the

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Confession

of Faith

positionof the ecumenical creeds,have published frequentlyin very considerable detail their theological positions. CONFESSION OF formal FAITH." A and 1. Early dissenting confessions.The oldest of the important confessions beUefs of is doubtless that of systematic organizationof the religious Christian group for definingits purpose the Waldenses and determining a (the 14th. century and possibly its membership. of other confessions well as a number ear her), as issued subsequently The term is also used for the simple avowal of the most by the same group, faith in God or Christ, and in this sense is antecedent important of which is that of the Waldensian Confession of what may to the organization in 1855. in 1655, reaffirmed In 1431 properly be called In a more which a creed. sense set particular appeared the Confessio Taboritarum martyrs were said to be confessors in that they testified pubUcly forth the extreme This positionof the Hussites. in turn was followed by thirty-four to their faith in Jesus through their death. Bohemian fessions conof faith,perhaps the most Technicallyspeaking confessions of faith differ important of from the creeds in that they belong to particular which are the so-caUed First Bohemian Confession rather than to Christians generally, include presented to George, Margrave of Brandenburg in groups than is regarded as indispensable for salvation, 1532 (resivedin 1535), and the Second Bohemian more and are not used in pubUc worship. In most and cases Confession (1575) in which both Lutherans Calvinists addressed to milian Maxithey have been the result of controversy born of agreed. It was the separation of some less dissatisfied II. more or 2. Lutheran confessions.Among the Lutherans group from a parent body, and are intended to make there have been a series of confessional pubUcations. in plain the position of the newly formed group distinction from it that of the body from which In 1529 appeared the fifteen articles of the Marburg Conference drawn separated. by Luther and intended to up define the position of the German reformers as Generally speaking, however, confessions as distinct from the creeds are the result of the Reformation over againstthat of Zwingh. The Marburg Articles later enlarged and presented to the Lutheran and the consequent organizationof State were and Churches princes as the Seventeen Articles of Schwabach. subsequent independent groups. followed They have been made a basis for church discipline, These in turn were by the Articles of and naturally were carried into very considerable T organ (1530), also put out by Luther and Melanchamong

Church.

certain adherents of See Confessional.

High

Anglican

eral
"

"

detail. Various and thon. In 1530 at the Diet of Augsburg Melanchthon divisions both of the Greek Latin churches have also issued confessions. in the name of the reformers drew the up, and I. The Greek Church. While the Greek Saxon elector and other German princespresented Church has never V. the great confession which to Charles drawn up a creed beyond those to was of the Ecumenical become the basis of Lutheranism. cumstances This Augsburg Councils, under various cirdifferent sections of the church have Confessionis in two parts. In the first the chief doctrinal positionsof the Lutherans are stated in set forth in some detail their teaching. The first of these is that drawn and in the second part is the at twenty-one articles, up in 1453 by Gennadius the request of Sultan Mohammed condemnation II. It contains articles of abuses in the in seven Church. Roman This confession was subsequently twenty articles and seven arguments for the truth of Christianity. After the Reformation in 1540, the edition being period modified by Melanchthon Greek known confessions were hke the of them in which is there as made, some a movement Variata, towards formulas regardingthe Lord's Supper which that of Cyril Lucar (1629)in favor of the Calvinist would while others like that of Peter not be too hostile to the Calvinists. position, Mogilas The (1640-43) are During the pohticaland ecclesiastical struggles opposed to Protestantism. of the 16th. and latter work together with the Answers 17th. centuries the Lutheran of Jeremiah (1576) and the Confession of Dositheus (1672) churches produced a number of doctrinalstatements, constitute for the of which the most important probably is the Formula the standards authoritative orthodox which doctrine,although the Full Catechism of of Concord (q.v.), appeared in 1577 as the of several other attempts at unity. This Philaret has successor replaced the confession of Peter Formula authoritative in most Mogilas in Russia. of Concord became of the German Other eastern churches have issued a number troversy constates, but as the theological of confessions approving or rejecting did not cease it was followed by the Nassau various doctrinal churches. was developments in the Greek or Roman Confession (1578) which crypto-Calvinist II. The Roman Church. Cathohc The Roman (q.v.). This was opposed by the Saxon Visitation also Church issued in 1564 a Profession of the Tridentine confessions have Articles (1586). Lutheran of Denmark, Faith which was been drawn made authoritative through all the by the churches up ans Lutherchurch. It consists of twelve articles which explain Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary. American the creeds, the decrees of the Council of Trent, accept the Augsburg Confession, generally and various other teachingsof the Roman Church. the unchanged form. preferring 3. Refor7nedConfessions. The earhest reformed The Roman Catechism (1566) is less a confession confession was than a syllabus intended to assist the clergyin their the Sixty-sevenArticles of Zurich issued by ZwingU Catholic in These of the Roman correspond 1523. teaching. Other summaries to the theses of Luther, but served more in a way doctrine appeared during the 16th. and 17th. centuries. directly as a basis for subsequent confessional issued a formulas. The most In 1532 a Synod at Berne formulations by important modern intended to the Roman Cathohc Church voluminous was doubtless the are statement, which to preaching of the give direction and content Syllabusof Errors issued by Pius IX. in 1864,which opinions pastors. In 1530 Zwingh issued a confession of gave in compact form the various modern had which been condemned faith to Emperor Charles V., and in 1531 his Brief by the Pope; the Decrees of the Vatican Council issued in 1870 which and Clear Expositionof Christian Faith to Francis I.
"

"

"

forth the fundamental positionof the church regardingthe Catholic faith;and the Papal Syllabus of Pius X. in 1907 which set forth the positionof
set

of France.
East Friesland
those of early reformed confessions were (1528) and the Four Cities (Tetrato Charles V. drawn politana) up for presentation at the Diet of Augsburg. Subsequently various cities hke Basel, Miihlhausen, Lausanne, Zurich Other

the church relative to modernism. III. The Bodies Various of Protestants, while almost without exceptionaccepting the gen-

Confession

of Faith

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

108

issued The New Hampshire Confessionwas church. issued confessions. In 1536 appearedat Basel the used in the north than in 1833 and is more ments of the grand docuFirst Helvetic Confession,one generally is not issued the the PhiladelphiaConfession. Its Calvinism of reformed faith. In 1552 was that of the latter. Free-will Baptist as so extreme ConfessioRhaetica which attempted to give some churches have issued various declarations and conin Switzerland. fessions sort of imity to the Protestant movement fession settingforth the Arminian rather than the In 1566 appeared the Second Helvetic ConCalvinistictheology. drawn by Henry Bullinger,one of the up 4. Anglican Confessions. After the separation greatestof the Protestant confessions. It consists of England from Rome, under Henry of the Church the entire field of of thirty chapters and covers which and ecclesiastical interest. VIII.,the King issued in 1536 Ten Articles, theological did not oppose the Catholic doctrines,although Calvinist confessions of faith resemble The somewhat under the influence of Lutheranism. formed fundamentally the Zwinglian, but present the reThe faith from the point of view of Calvin's following year appeared the Institute of a Christian Man, or Bishops* Book in which The number of these confessions is large tory purgasystem. of them of national import. Many and some was repudiatedand salvation declared to are Christ. merits the of In 1539 on depend solely the product of State churches,the most tant imporare which attached a heavy of them being the Gallican Confession (1559); appeared the Six Articles, doctrines. berg Formula penalty of violation of the Cathohc Helvetic Consensus (1675); the HeidelThe King's Book, 1543, repudiated the Pope, but Catechism (1563); the BelgicConfession(1561); again reaflfirmed the Catholic doctrine. The First the Canons of the Synod of Dort (1619) which organized authorized in 1549 the five points of Calvinism in opposition Book of Common Prayer was and is Lutheran as to the Arminians regards the Lord's Supper. (seeFive Articles); the Scotch Confession(1560); and the Westminister Confession From that time on the process of reformation moved toward the Calvinistic view of the Lord's Supper. (1646^7).This last confession was first submitted and the Forty-two Articles In 1553 the Catechism^ December 1646 without, and in April to ParUament scription. submitted to the clergy for subIt consists of thirty-tlu-ee of Religion were 1647 with proof texts. It is probIn the reaction imder Mary, the gains ably chapterseach with several subdivisions. made of the Calvinthe most complete presentation by the reformed faith were temporarily lost. istic doctrine. With the Westminster Confession On the accession of EMzabeth, the church's doctrine should be joined the Larger and the Shorter Catechism was pubhshed in the Catechism in 1570, and in 1571 of the Confeswhich reproduce the generalteaching sion appeareda revision of the Articles of Faith,known the Thirty-nineArticles. These The Westminster in catechetical form. as sion ConfesThirty-nine the doctrinal the Prayer Book Articles and has been adopted by the Presbyterianchurches are basis of the AnglicanChurch in England and the throughout England and America, and has never Church in the United States byterian Protestant Episcopal been seriously modified,although in 1902 the Presof America. Because of their history Church in the United States of America they represent no single but, unlike theological movement, passed a Declaratory Statement regarding certain of both the Lutheran with phases the confessions and those dealing the of its articles, particularly Reform of wide variety of theological characteristic of the Churches, are susceptible thought more byterian in interpretation.Speaking generally, The United Pres17th. than of the 20th. century. however, be said that the Thirty-nineArticles tend it may of America Church and the Cumberland Calvinistic point of view than to express a more Church have issued their own what somePresbyterian modified editions of the Westminster Confession. does the Book of Common Prayer. Articles. The 5. Methodist Arminian ment moveSpace will not permit a detailed discussion of confessions of other Calvinist groups. It will be in the organized its beliefs most effectually which led to famous the Synod of Dort enough to mention a few of the most important. protest Churches ment the c) CongregationalConfessions. Browne's State(q.v.). Among the early Methodist standards of doctrine issued consisted fundamental of of Congregational Principles(1582) was of a catechism. in the form Testament and Congregationalism John Wesley'sNotes on the New of his sermons. issued a number of local confessions, in London and Mr. Welsey never the first series the Thirty-nine or Amsterdam, and New England. Of these, repudiated the Prayer Book perhaps the Articles of the Church of England, and his work Cambridge Platform of Church Doctrines (1648) is the most important for New was quence never predominantly theological. In conseEngland, and the Savoy the Methodist movement Declaration (1658)for Great Britain. The Congregalays emphasis tional denomination immediate and in America at the present time more experience of God upon has no authoritative confession, but the National has always been less interested in formal orthodoxy Council of Congregational Churches issued in 1865 than in the spreading of the Gospel and the conversion of sinners. Declaration of Faith in some detail. This was a Church followed by the Oberlin Declaration of 1871, the When the Methodist was organized creed drawn held in Baltimore, in America, a convention was missioners by a body of twenty-five comup in 1883, a Union issued in December Statement pline 24, 1784, and at that time the first Disciof the Methodist EpiscopalChurch was adopted. 1906, and the Kansas City Creed in 1913. constitutes one element of the theohad an authoritaThis Discipline logical tive 6) Baptistchurches have never creed but have drawn Church confession of the Methodist number of conwhich a fessions up of faith chieflyfor the purpose his Notes on the New of fixing also includes Wesley's sermons, of the Thirty-nine relations in Associations. Not mention the Articles of to Testament,twenty-five confessions earUer of the Anabaptists and of England, which, however, were the the Church Mennonites which all possibility of a rituaUstic considerable revised so as to remove probably won in the 16th. and 17th. centuries, numbers in the Anglican or Roman the oldest sense. interpretation Various branches of the Methodist Baptist confession is that of the Seven Churches in Church, such which appeared in 1644. London Protestant and the Free Methodist From that time as the Methodist of Baptistchurches articles of faith, but speaking the great movement their own have on was Calvinistic in theology. The fession generally as regards church zation organithey differ more Philadelphia Conwhich was Shailer than doctrine. Mathews adopted in 1742 as the basis of the is practically the Philadelphia Association Westminster CONFESSIONAL." Confession modified to meet the BapProperly an enclosed seat tist and the where the priest' hears confession through a grill position relative to the sacraments
"
" "

109

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Confucius

confess to Almighty God," etc. In the early The word touching the other person. Antiochene and Alexandrine also what goes on in the confessional, the celebrant liturgies, namely and the sacrament It is found in of penance began the Mass with such a G.C. confession, (q.v.). the Roman Missal since the 11th. century,and is in Many points in the early history of confession controverted. are present R.C. frequentuse. pubUc and for grave Originally developed along lines of safety, offences, penance and confession has CONFLICT OF DUTIES." See Duty. universaUty. Annual secrecy been required in the West since the Fourth Council of the Lateran In countries CONFORMITY." such (1215),and is preUminary to the as land EngEaster dutyof receiving and Germany where there is a state church, Annual Holy Communion. confession is a minimum See Non-Conformity. to that church. adherence demand, supplemented in those parisheswhich daily communion by -urge advice to confess ordinarily CONFRATERNITIES." brotherhoods once a week. Religious The Protestant reformers made private confession church, usually or associations in the R.C. and usually substituted therefor a public composed of laymen who, with ecclesiastical oi^tional, tion, sancUnder the leadership of E. B. undertake educational general confession. some philanthropic, work. The earliest type was the Pusey private confession has been revived in many or religious of England since the brotherhood in the 8th. monastic parishes of the Anglican communion middle of the 19th. century. The confraternities opment develare a attempt to century. Modern make confession and absolution (q.v.) trade of mediaeval prerequisites guilds which were to the receptionof the Eucharist in the Church of the patronage of a saint. See Catholic under Societies. England is unauthorized. Advantages claimed for confession include a CONFUCIANISM." See China, Religions new contrition, humility, beginning, self-knowledge, of. and the modern tendency to consult the sincerity, CONFUCIUS expert. Protestants say that the confessional is not (551-478 B.C.). (K'UNG-FU-TSE) renowned One of the most teachers of China. requiredby Scripture,lessens the power of selfdirection, Living in the periodof distress when the ancient destroysmoral autonomy, and makes he devoted his feudalism was possiblea secret and ultimatelyforeigncontrol in breaking down private and in poUtical affairs. If the priest as to the task of bringingpeace to the empire. energies He held, judge gives the benefit of the ethical doubt (see His life was comparatively uneventful. with distinction, Probabilism), there is danger of lowering the public offices in his native state standard. and was itinerant advisor of neighboring provan inces Roman but finding the rulers unwillingto follow his legislation punishes solicitationwithin the confessional, invaUdates the and he retired from public life and devoted suggestions ordinarily absolution of a partner in guilt. Civil law safeguards himself to the collection and editingof the ancient the secret of the confessional. records with of showing how the the purpose W. W. Rockwell. virtuous rulers of the past had secured peace and The died defeated and discouraged CONFESSIONALISM." He disposition to prosperity to China. exalt a creed or a confession of faith as the standard of all his efforts by the apparent futility of Christian faith. to help his native land. Over two centuries later the Han dynasty recognizedthe value of his political CONFESSOR." (1) In the ancient church, a philosophy and exalted him to the position of he has held for over teacher of China which two martyr or one who confessed his faith in the face of thousand years. tain ceron persecution. (2) An appellationbestowed of the past, as Edward the Confessor. His system is typical of the naturalism of Chinese holy men are (3) A R.C. priestwho has power to administer the thought. Heaven, nature and man a solidarity of penance. sacrament in which every unit must peculiar perform its own function of the whole. the harmony to secure Virtue is natural and human CONFIRMATION." A word of two-fold signifiis good. With nature cance: families properly ordered through self-controland (1)In the Roman Cathohc, Greek, Lutheran, Anglican, and other churches it is an initiatory knowledge the states would be properly governed. and The emperor should be a sage appointed by Heaven rite,consistingof the impositionof hands because of his virtue whose by bishop, priest, or example and correct pastor, implying a prayer strengtheningof the soul by the Holy Spirit. performance of duty would keep the whole realm In the Greek and Roman churches it is the second of human affairs in harmony with the cosmic order of the sacraments administered Destiny. (q.v.), or by anointing under the control of Tien, Heaven secured with holy chrism in conjunction with a formula life are Peace and equihbriura in human of consecration. It imprints an indelible mark of the social whole knowing and by each member the recipient's soul. In the Greek church it doing the duty belonging to his status. Evil upon follows baptism in the same in the Roman is a disturbance of order and is overcome by a service, the church after an interval of about In ten years. return to propriety. Duty is elaborated on the Protestant churches employing the rite it is postof ruler and subject, poned basis of the five relationships until the fourteenth or sixteenth year when and wife, elder and parent and child, husband mandments, Comthe candidate, after instruction in the Ten brother,friend and friend. The supreme younger which seems the Creed, and the the Lord's Prayer, virtue is jin,humanity or benevolence to include justice, love,loyalty, reverence, simple duties connected with the church, renews courage, fucius' in Conassumed for himself the baptismal vows filial It is explained by his pietyand righteousness. and "Do not men" is for full communion. love all and words: "Jiii is to now prepared sponsors, wish done to not is conveyed in confirmation What do to others what exact divine gift you would is a question which receives various answers. knowledge yourself." He laid great stress upon also the assent of but it was the pragmatic knowledge of social (2) Confirmation signifies He was the election them. duties and how to perforin agnostic constituted authorities by which of bishops is ratified by the church. regarding the supernatural, indifferent to the C. A. Beckwith rites of religion, spirits, prayer and immortality. formula of General fession, The supreme ConCONFITEOR." A blessedness and the complete life are so-called from the beginning word, "I and to be found by faithful performance this-worldly

without
covers

"

Congregation

A DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS There

110

of social duties in whatever status the individual of is found. "The is the incarnation holy man in the service of humanity ' ' (Knox ) righteousness Confucius looked As a professed conservative back to the good old ways of the peaceful past when the rulers of China acted as the earthly and of the cosmic law embodiment were examples from this Two to men. great results followed emphasis after the Han dynasty the classics the sacred books of public education and became established. the divine right of virtuous rulers was exalted to divine rank and The sage himself was has through the centuries received both public A. Eustace Haydon and private worship.
. .
"

iftythousand.

are

schools for eighttraining


"

students. theological

There

II. Congregationalism Continent. on the few Congregational in Gerchurches many, a are

Hungary,

Norway,

Poland,

Portugal,

Switzerland. Holland churches,Sweden more hundred thousand one

has nearly a score of free than a thousand with over


in

III.
1.

members. Congregationalism
"

America.

"

History. ^A portion of the "separatist" of church at Leyden emigrated to Plymouth, Scrooby Mass., in 1620, and were designatedas "Pilgrims." The Massachusetts "Puritans" Bay Colonists who left England (1628) for religious reasons, yet
" " "

with CONGREGATION." (1) An assembly of people,whether organized or not, for worship and Levitical the religious instruction. (2) Under law, the whole assembly of Israel. (3) In the R.C. of high clerics charged church (a) a committee the congrewith the conduct of church business,as gation of cardinals, of bishops in (b) a committee which conference the agenda, (c) a a arranges order bound but not by religious rule, by a common Scotch name vows. (4) The given the whole Reforming party in the second half of the 16th. the "Lords as century, their leaders being known of the Congregation."

no

intention

of

rupture

with

the

mother

church,influenced by the Plymouth church founded churches in Salem Congregational (1629), Boston and in neighboringtowns before 1640. Two (1630),
other

colonies went' out from these: the Connecticut Thomas Hooker (1634-1636),the Haven New colony under John Davenport (1638). In the Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay colonies 1664 and 1693 respectivelysuffrage was until_ fication restrictedto church members. In the early identiof church and state arose the "Half- Way Covenant" (q.v.) by which for more than a century reckoned "unregenerate" persons were as many church members. By 1700 Congregationalchurches had spread over nearly the whole of New England. CONGREGATIONAL SINGING." In the firsthalf of the 19th. century, by an arrangeSinging in ment which assembled with the Presbyterian the whole congregation participates; church, few churches element of worship common to the history were an organized west of the Hudson river; this of Christianity, dissolved in 1852 and the formation although the council of Laodicea agreement was of (4th.century) forbade it. rapidly increased, Congregational churches mostly in the northern states, until (1918) they of form As a number CONGREGATIONALISM." 6,050 with 808,415 members. church 2. Fellowship. This is expressed in local councils, polity this is defined by two principles: of the local church; (2) the right conferences associations state (1) autonomy (semi-annual), and duty of fellowship and an with sister churches. Chief (annual),the national council (biennial), churches international council (occasional).There are also sharing the same general features are ministerial the Christian connecassociations. In the tion, Congregationalists, Baptists, past twentyand Universalfive years great of Christ, Disciples Unitarians, gainshave been made in co-operative interest in social reforms, centrahzing the term ists. More designates the specifically activity, and activity control of missionary organizations, of the first mentioned of these and defining history denominational chief agent consciousness. The a Christian bodies. 1. Origin in this movement Council has been the National Congregationalism. 1. English is composed of representative which and several History. After delegates of "Separatist"and "Puritan" the churches. Its aim is to foster the unity of the beginning in 1526, Robert movements, churches and to promote their common interests and formed in Norwich Brown a church (1580). Soon tional other churches were organized at Gloucester, work in national "international and interdenominaafter, relations." Bury St. Edmunds, London, and Gainsborough The grated and 3. Missions. Scrooby (1606). The two last emimissionaryinterests of the (1602), in 1606 and 1608 respectively denomination cared for: in foreign fields by to Amsterdam are Board the American of Commissioners for Foreign the Scrooby church removing again to Leyden in Missions With 1609. (1810); in the home field through the varying fortunes of toleration, persecution, and again of toleration, under the "Act of Congregational Education Society (1816), the Toleration" Mission Society (1826); Congregational Home (1688), the Separatists of Great Britain who became gradually the Congregational Sunday School and Pubhshing Congregationahsts tion distinctive features attained independence. The Missionary AssociaSociety(1832); the American of their history (1846); the Congregational Building Society are (1)the definitionof their poUty of Ministerial Board and doctrine in distinction from the Presbyterians; (1853); and the Congregational Relief (1907). (2) the leavening of their reUgious life by experience ology derived the Methodist 4. Theology and Creeds. Three types of thefrom revival; (3) a have appeared: (1) the Colonial,to about modification of individualistic in favor of a social in denominational Calvinistic; (2) The New England theology temper, resulting consciousness, 1750 modified by from 1750 to 1900 Calvinistic, municipal reform, and missionaryextension. (q.v.) and Arminianism; 2. Fellowship and Missions. Fellowship is (3) transition to the historical fostered by County Unions, the Congregational scientific method. Corresponding to these types, creedal expressions have been formulated: Union of Scotland (1) the of (1812), of Ireland (1829), tion Cambridge Synod (1648) and the Savoy DeclaraEngland and Wales (1833) with its Declaration of the Westminster Faith (declaratory (1680), embodying substantially only). Foreign missionarywork is under the London two Confession; (2) the Burial Hill Confession societies, Missionary (1795) and the Colonial Missionary (1836); its (1865) and the Commission Creed (1883); (3) the insular work is under the Church and Home Kansas City Creed (1913). Several controversies have Britain 6. Controversies. in Great Missionary societies. Churches and her dependencies number about six thousand disturbed the churches: (1) the witchcraft delusion

colonyunder

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

with

membership of about

seven

hundred

and

(1688-1692);'(2) the Half- Way

Covenant

(q.v.);

Ill

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Conscience

England theology (q.v.); (4) the (3) the New Universalist and Unitarian controversy (1780-1825); Horace Bushnell (1842(5) the controversy over 1870); (6) the Andover controversy (1882-1893). 6. Education. CongregationaUsm has from the first fostered education,founding Harvard College (1636) and Yale College (1701), following these than fortyother colleges with more and universities, seminaries in the United eight theological States, besides many and seminaries in foreign colleges C. A. Beckwith lands,
"

Assemblies of conferences or for purposes of deliberation discussion. and The Church name Congress is given to such gatheringsof the Church of England the Protestant or Episcopalchurch of the U.S.A. Catholic Congresses are R.C. gatherings,usually Such national in character. religiouscongresses usuallymake ecclesiastical or theological pronouncements for the body which they represent.
"

CONGRESSES.

representative persons

CONGRUISM." of the divine co-operationof the CONGRUITY."

The
grace

effectivetheory that the ness is conditioned by the

recipient. (1) A
term

in scholastic

ology the-

to indicating the natural capacity of man acquiremerit, in contrast to the merit achieved by supernatural aid (condignity, q.v.). (2) The later scholastic doctrine that human nature

whom a performed during pregnancy ceremony determines which of the husbands of the mother is to be considered, for all social purposes, the as father of the child. Consanguinity, then, is not the decisive factor in the formation of necessarily is an impedirelationships.Too close consanguinity ment to marriageaccording to various religious and civil regulations. See Marriage. HuTTON Webster CONSCIENCE." The perception of moral distinctions accompanied by the feelingof jiersonal is morally right. to do what obligation There is no more elusive word in the vocabulary of ethics. The actual existence of the sentiment of moral obhgationis admitted as a fact of experience; but the explanationsand applications of this sentiment are so various as to cause perplexity. I. Historical Conceptions op Conscience. 1. The religious conceptionof an invisible and the mysterious power or presence watching over enforcement of what is morally right is characteristic of primitivethinking. Tribal or family obUgations thus surrounded are by the dread of what may occur if these are not fulfilled. Conscience is developed when the sense of inner obUgation binds one. It is thought of as the voice of God in the soul. frequently Socrates spoke of the demon within him whose guidance he must foUow. Many Christian teachers have regarded conscience as a divinely implanted
"

faculty.
2 The scholastic definition between distinguished synderesis (by which is meant a generalrecognition of the authority of moral law), and consdentia, which acts of acknowledges the duty of specific
.

has of itself a meritorious fitness for the grace of God, and is able to perform certain lower ethical actions. rather loosely-definedpoUty. Occasionally, since the middle of the 18th. century, a group of ecclesiastical units, more closely interrelated through some form of general authority,than is admissible in a called a purely congregational poUty, has been Connexion. used to designate This term has been hke that under the headship circle of societies, a of John Wesley, which lacked the status of a church however, it has been Quite as frequently, proper. incorporated into the title of an independent referred to the New nection Conchurch. Thus we are of General New Baptists,the Methodist nexion. ConConnexion, and the Wesleyan Methodist H. C. Sheldon
name a

moral CONNEXIONALISM." The

obedience.

Out

of

this distinction

arose

dealt with "cases of conscience," the discussion of duty in coni.e., crete instances where circumstances are pecuUar. 3. Intuitionist theories assume to conscience be an innate faculty of moral judgment. Some exponents have gone so far as to regard conscience as inherentlycapable of determining what is right in each instance. Conscience would thus be infaUible. Others have held to a general native of moral obhgation, but have admitted that sense conscience must be educated like any other faculty of judgment. See Moral Sense. 4. Empirical theories seek to explain conscience the acquired knowledge that certain acts or as attitudes are visited with disapproval and punishment, while others are approved and rewarded. When the fact of social sympathy is taken into conCONON." sideration, Pope, 686-687. this acquired knowledge may come ERCOLE CONSALVI, by emotional and imitative processes, so that its (1757-1824)." Italian rational character may be lost sightof because of the cardinal and statesman ; secretary of the conclave at of emotion. and secretary It may like a divine the outbreak of the French revolution, seem power inward He proved his ability of state to Pius VII. be traced in as a voice; but its genesis can human diplomat and organizer in securing the restitution experience. the States of the church. II. The of and in reorganizing Principal Facts. 1. The existence of a feeUng of obUgation is CONSANGUINITY." The undeniable. term Such feehng is indispensable to highapplied to all whether hcit or minded we as blood-relationships, illicit, Hving. The great loyalties which artificial relationadmire ship it. It is desirable that a man an distinguishedfrom affinity, presuppose created by adoption, sponsorship, or intermarriage should feel uneasy in the presence of duty unfulfilled, and that he should feel pleasureat duty performed. the married (excluding that between This is the fact of conscience. comprehensive than affinityis Why mankind should persons). More is no be established be so constituted as to experiencethis feeling by common kinship, which may for and no less mysterious than is the reason The more membership in a clan or other similar group. L. H. Morgan, was American the anthropologist, any other emotional reaction. various peoples, such first to show that among 2. So far as the content cerned, of conscience is conthe Red Indians, the AustraUans, and the Polyit seems the product of social to be largely as nesians, are distinguished, sympathy and social regulation. The child,both degrees of relationship but as ties between cipline, not as ties between individuals, by sympathetic imitation and as a result of dissocial classes or where to is emotionally and mentally committed sanguinity congenerations. Even is recognized,it may for littleor count certain attitudes. Thus the precise dictates of different social conscience differ widely among nothing unless sociallyratified. Rivers instances Todas of India, the case of the polyandr"us For example, blood feuds are almost among groups.
"

of

casuistry (q.v.)which Catholic^

Conscientiousness

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS formal

112

in some communities, and are in others. vigorously condemned 3. The recognitionof imperfectionsin existing moral standards suggests a higher morality than of a The conscience that of prevaihng custom. and thoughtful individual may earnest particularly in the interest lead to a defiance of existing customs of an ideal. In such conscience case a points social sympathy, suggestingreligious beyond mere loyaltyto a higher order. 4. A religious interpretation of life brings conscience into relation with the divine wUl, and of moralitywith superthus invests the loyalties human significance. Popular questions concerning conscience should be answered in the light of the facts. Since the moral consciousness is demonstrably of our content derived from experience, conscience is not infallible. be educated;it is always Conscience not only may the product of education. A man ought always to foUow conscience, but ought equally to make that he does not sure identify conscience with

sacred religiously

ratification of measures. Reformed consistory corresponds to the session in Presbyterian polity. (3) The French Reformed consistory correspondsto the presbytery in a presbyterial body. (4) The Lutheran is officially consistory appointed by the state. (5)An has jurisdiction in a diocese. Anglican consistory
convenes

for

(2) The

Dutch

row (1) The alleviation of sordisappointment; used also to denote the the act of bringing consolation, or reUgion agencj' an being frequently (2)A compensation for agency. loss or sacrifice. The evening meal of Monks was decreed by the synod of Angers (453)to be a consolation for the loss of sisters, mothers and friends.

CONSOLATION."
or

mere

inherited emotion

which

his

reason

criticizes.

of the empirical character of moral recognition ness judgments would obviate the dogmatic stubbornThe of many "conscientious objectors."In any "conscience" should not be so isolated as to of moral ideas which prevent the modifications
case

enlargingexperienceought
CONSCIENTIOUSNESS." of conscience, or

to

bring.
Birnet Smith tates dic-

Gerald

Loyalty to the faithfulness to duty.

OF COUNCIL CONSTANCE, (Nov. 5, 1414" Apr. 22, 1418). The second and possiblythe most cils important of the various so-called reforming Counsummoned of the 15th. century. It was by and the Emperor Sigismund to Pope John XXIII. the of the Church, to end consider the reform the rival Popes, and to pass on the schism between teaching of John Huss with the attendant disorders Council The of the in Bohemia. deposed two Benedict XIII. and John XXIII. rival Popes third pope The Gregory XII. abdicated. The decided amenable that to Council Popes were at and that the latter should be summoned Councils, periods. Cardinal Oddo Coloma was elected regular and Pope as Martin V. John Huss was condemned burned July 6, 1415, and Jerome of Prague, May 30, gious This action,however, failed to end the reli1416.
" "

CONSECRATION." The religious act or ceremony of separating, or settingapart as dedicating, and sacred certain persons, animals,places, objects, times. Among primitive peoples certain persons and objectsbeing considered as set apart for sacred tabu were (q.v.) or dangerous. The purposes, of consecration are varied, the direct means including unusual work of the god or consecratingagency, in a meteorological occurrences, participation ing, sacrifice or sacrament, the saying of charms, blowlaying-on of hands, branding or singeing a the use of names, and the tyingon of amulets, person, religion talismans, etc. In the Christian connected with the consecration ceremonies are dedication of persons elements used to holy offices, in the sacraments, church buildings and utensils, burial and grounds. Analogously consecration is used of any solemn dedication such as to one's

The efforts of the controversies in Bohemia. defeated by the Council to reform the Church were Such higher clergy, especially the Cardinals. for reforms as were mended adopted or recomsuggestions were ignored by Martin V. See Basel, Shailer Mathews Council op. Steadiness or immutabihty of CONSTANCY." The ethical task is to develop motives or conduct. of thought and action, constancy in right modes evil. and in opposition toward CONSTANTINE." Roman Emperor, 306-337, He converted 312, to Christianity, granted of religion the Christians freedom by the so-called Edict of Milan, 313. By his order the council of Nicaea convened in 325. During the post-Nicene Arian controversy and in deahng with the Novaserve tians,Donatists,and others,his pohcy was to preby an opportunistpolicythe undivided church.
was

country

or

to

cause.

collective and CONSENSUS The PATRUM." unanimous Fathers of the teaching of the Church of the firstfive centuries of the Christian era; one of authoritative Catholic doctrine. sources

of two popes: CONSTANTINE. The name Constantine I. Pope 708-715. Constantine II. Pope 767-768 ; a layman before his election by a faction; not recognizedby Catholic
" "

"

CONSENT,

AGE

OF."

See Age

of

Consent.

authoritiesas

legitimate pope.

results of a ."The CONSEQUENCE the conduct line of conduct in distinction from itself. UtiHtarianism quences, (q.v.)is an ethics of conseconduct in terms of results. evalucuting sels; CONSILIA EVANGELICA." EvangeUcalCounin R.C. ethics,the designation of certain moral ideals based on the New Testament stringent hoHness seek especial and commended to those who that are in distinction from commands obhgatory The distinction appears in the all Christians. on writingsof TertulUan, Cyprian and Ambrose, but formulated by Thomas was Aqmnas. finally CONSISTORY.An

ecclesiastical coxirt:

papal consistory consists of the college of cardinals over which the pope presides and (1) The

The OF." COUNCILS CONSTANTINOPLE, First Council of Constantinople (2nd, ecumenical) in 381 re-affirmed the Nicene formula and re-dealt with the Arian controversy. It established four doctrinal canons which were accepted by the Roman and Greek churches, and three disciplinary canons which were accepted only by the Greek church. Second CouncU The (5th. ecumenical) in 553 and the Third Council (6th.ecumenical) in 680-81 Monothelite dealt with the controversy. The Fourth Council (8th.ecumenical) 869-70 dep9sed Photius, patriarch of Constantinople,and decided that Constantinople should be the first of the four See eastern Trinity; Arianism. patriarchates. also held at Constantinople in 692 Councils were the use of and 754, the latter of which condemned Mathews Shailer images in churches.

113

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS
to

Conversion

The forCREED." mula held in the Council Constantinoplein 381. This Decree became widely known because it was as the Nicene regarded Creed, as expressingthe views of the Council of Nicaea held in 325. There has been considerable speculation the Nicene to whether as Creed, so-called, however, is really the formula adopted by the Council of 381. In the absence of preciserecords, it is probable that this matter of will always be one Creed is very similar to the conjecture. The Baptismal Confession used by Cyrilof Jerusalem. Shailer Mathews CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON." A body of laws promulgated at the Assize of Clarendon (q.v.)by Henry 11. of England in 1164 in his Becket strugglewith Thomas definingthe (q.v.), spheres of the civil and the ecclesiastical courts. CONSTANTINOPOLITAN

perfectlyproper
sense.

speak of

convent

adopted by supposedly

In this article the term


"

will be taken

of men. in its popular

1. Rise of convents. The Egyptian Pachomiua (died346),who instituted the firstChristian monastic under the charge of his rule, put a nunnery

is from the Coptic, signifying the Rule of St. Basil convents in the East, and of women founded were under that of St. Benedict, in the particularly West. Not all nuns 2. Enclosure. are "enclosed," forbidden to leave the grounds of their coni.e., vents. The French Revolution and conditions of work in Protestant countries have brought about widespread relaxations of the ancient enclosure, which had restricted the social work of nuns very The
nun

sister.

word

"clean,pure."

Under

"

to keeping boarding-schools. largely

PAPAL." Enactments CONSTITUTIONS, the pope of Rome, which the church beUeves obligatoryfor those involved.

of
to be

In ancient 3. Immuring. Rome vestals who buried aUve, and under were lapsed from virginity
"

CONSUBSTIANTIATION." A term appUed the Lutheran doctrine of the Lord's Supper, according to which, after the words of institution, the substantial body and blood of Christ become united and with wine the bread sacramentally which unchanged, the union subsisting remam only until the purpose of the consecration has been fulfilled.
to

CONTEMPLATION."
a means

employedfor
certam

highestgood in Buddhism, the


certain R.C. CONTEMPT."

Yoga

tion; meditathe attainment of the types of mysticism such as school of Hinduism and

Concentrated

orders. An
an an

expressingitself as
attitude toward inferior.

ACT." An act passed (1664) in greater numbers than four, of sixteen years and upward, attending services "in CONTENTMENT." faction other manner than is allowed of satisA mental state by the Liturgy." A third offense was from induced either by or punished by deportation quiescence. When moral the realm for seven act (1670) A second or religiousexperience,it is regarded as years. lessened the penalties but of the ear Her enactment highly commendable. imposed fines upon officialsfor neglectin enforcing CONTINENCE." the statute. lowed Severe Self-restraint in regard to persecution therefore folthe passions until in 1672 the king interposedhis dispensand appetites, sexual passion, especially ing in cehbacy; an ideal emphasized in monasticism as by granting to the nonconformists power licensed meeting placesfor worship and such preachto purity of hfe. as conducive ing not as was derogatory to the Established Church. CONTINGENCY." Roman Catholics were Possibihtyof an occurrence permitted to meet not predictableby any In 1673 annulled disrule. The Scholastic phiParliament only in their homes. losophers used the term the king's declaration of indulgence but for what is accidental in contrast with what is logically passed a "ReUef Bill" permitting worship to nonconformists necessary. who took the Oaths of Supremacy and CONTRITION." In R.C. theology,repentance Allegianceand subscribed to the doctrinal articles of the Estabhshed the love of Church. This continued to be springingfrom the highestmotive, viz., God and genuine sorrow for sin; contrasted with the status of nonconformist worship until in 1812 attrition (q.v.). See Penance. the Conventicle Act was repealed. P. G. Mode R.C. CONTUMACY." CONVENTUALS." branch of the A Contempt of authority. In EngUsh law contempt of the ecclesiastical court is religiousorder of Franciscans dating as a (q.v.), Sometimes 1517. punished by a writ de contumace they are separate order from capiendo, this called "Black Franciscans," statute of from the color oi their taking the place of the older custom excommunication. about garb. They number 2,000.

attitude of despising, often unsocial ethical or religious object or person considered as

fallen nuns mured." to be "imwere "shut up within four walls" (close confinement); the punishment of burial alive is said to be legendary. 4. Abuses. have led to demands for Rumors the state inspectionof convents. The machinery of the Roman church is adequate to remedy abuses. The rule that nuns be given two or three times must other a year the opportunity to confess to a priest than their regular confessor gives opportunity for the denunciation of malfeasants in office. W. W. Rockwell CONVENTICLE." secret (1) A private or held in meeting for worship. Conventicles were the early church and in the schools of WycUf. (2) In Great Britain,the meetings of dissenters from the established church. In the reign of Charles II., thousands of Scotch Covenanters were fined or imprisoned for attending conventicles.
canon

the

older

law

This

means

"

CONVENTICLE

against persons

word has The two meanings: of women or reUgious commvmity of men viewed in its corporate capacity; (2) the buildings occupied by such a community.
"

CONVENT.
a

CONVERSION."

Changing
state
or

(1)

change from

one

condition A

transformation. either of nature


a man

Broadly, a
or

causing to another; thoroughgoing change


or

to

function.

converted

man

is

of a is used of a branch flexible form religious order,not of part of the more of organization called a congregation. Popularly the word is restricted to female rehgious, though it is "convent" Strictly,

profoundly altered in moral

in or disposition

mental attitude. In Ethics, conversion describes a radical change of moral character;involvingmotives,aims,ideals;

Conviction of Sin

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

114

changingfrom an evil or indifferent to an earnest attitude. moral conversion involves this moral change In religion, with some impUcation of the divine power that has conversion is a wrought the change. Religiously, radical spiritualand moral change, commonly and involving proattending a change of belief, foundly altered spirit and conduct, "a change of heart. The conversions of Paul and of Augustine
a

OF THE." R.C. CORD, CONFRATERNITIES the members of which wear associations, a cord or a cincture in commemoration of a saint, or as a S3Tnbol of purity. CORNELIUS."

Pope,
emperor

251-253;
GaUius.

exiled

and

martyred by the

striking examples. the experience is associated with Historically, various religions.Moreover, in a more general it may be appliedto a social group as well as to sense individual. The familiar meaning refers an more
are

to individual

conversion in the Christian sense. logians conceived Conversion was by the older theo-

of grace,"a specific, miraculous as a "work divine act by which a man brought from a was condition of eimaity toward God into a state of salvation. By some sacramental or other duly authenticated plished, accomagency, the radical change was and the man henceforth had a "new heart" which was both guarantee and source of the transformed hfe. Commonly, conversion was regarded instantaneous in which the miracle as an occurrence of transformation occurred,though the adjustment of the whole hfe to the inner change might be

CORONATION. A ceremony arch whereby a monis inaugurated in office, so-called from the of the crown the head. In O.T. history on placing anointed kings were by the priest and crowned. Christian a religious Wlien Europe became liturgy In the was arranged for coronation ceremonials. for papal domination,the claim was that the struggle by the pope, a custom Emperor must be crowned broken by Napoleon.
"

CORPORAL. A piece of linen spread altar when the Eucharist is handled.


"

over

the

CORPORATION

ACT

OF

1661."

An

act

mulgated pro-

by the Enghsh parhament compeUing all members of municipal bodies to receive the Holy Communion in the Anglican form. The act was suspended from 1689, but not abohshed until 1769.
CORPUS of the Real CHRISTL" A R.C. festival in honor Presence in the Eucharist,observed on Thursday after Trinity Sunday, originatingwith Robert, Bishop of'Li^ge,1246 and becoming ecumenical in 1264 by a bull of Urban IV. CORPUS DOCTRINAE." The of designation certain 16th. collections of doctrinal century formulas put forth as representative of statements the specific types of faith or of churches,especially and Calvinistic collections. With Lutheran the Formula of Concord (q.v.),the importance of collections declined. other Lutheran CORRECTION."
or or an error.

gradual.
Modern theologydescribes conversion in terms of the laws of ethical and rehgious transformations. The divine which effects the change is power but by social, regarded as operating not lawlessly, and ethical laws which it is the task psychological of scientific study to trace and set forth. The fact of rehgious and ethical awakening is a matter of of conceiving common experience. The manner the change and is a of effecting the conversion field in which rehgiouspsychology must speak with vation. authority.See Regeneration; Holy Spirit;SalHerbert A. Youtz CONVICTION of OF inward SIN." An leads to such as
sense

The

act

or

process
remove

tion of rectificaa

personal sinfulness

genuine

discipline (q.v.), designed to

wrong

repentance.
This experienceof guiltin the sightof God has been characteristic of some leaders of the spiritual in Christianity, notably Paul, Augustine, and Luther. It has been emphasized in evangehstic preaching in America during the 18th. and 19th. condition of salvation century, as the indispensable While instances of Christian there are by grace. experiencewhich do not involve this profound sense of sin,it is nevertheless a typicalfeature in many conversions. See Sin; Repentance. Smith Gerald Birney COPE. A semicircular cloak used in the R.C. Church vestment as a on liturgical ceremonial, but not on sacerdotal, occasions.
"

COPTIC church as and other from

CHURCH." The native Egyptian from that of the Greeks distinguished churches of Egypt. While dition Coptic tratraces an unbroken succession of patriarchs

the 1st. century on, it is probable tianity that Chrisdid not reach the native Egyptians much before the end of the 2nd. century, and the Coptic church can hardly be said to have had a separate existence until by the adoption of Eutyches' doctrine tianity of the singlenature of Christ,Coptic Chrisdivergedfrom Catholic beUef. The rejection of the Eutychiandoctrine by the Council of Chalcedon not (a.d.451), was accepted by the Copts who adhered The to the Monophysite doctrine. itself through the Coptic church has maintained Moslem occupation of Egypt and stillconstitutes a small fraction (nearly 700,000)of the population. Edgar J. Goodspeed

AND COSMOLOGY." mogony Costhe birth of the world,and cosmology the description of the world (or universe,the kosous mos), but both words are now apphed to the varitheories which have been advanced concerning the originof things. Cosmogony is more usually applied to the mythologicalexplanations, cosmology to the more philosophical. When men began to inquire how the world in which they found themselves to be they gave came either in terms of external nature the answer in or of human terms experience. Thus it was possible like the revival of vegeto say that the process was tation after the deadness of winter, or that it was hke the buildingof a hut which the man knew to result from his own exertions. In the latter case be a Creator; in the former this was there must but the tendency of the mind not so essential, to forces external to itselfis so inveterate that personify mechanical of early theories does assume the most of the gods. This the existence however only pushes the inquiry further back for the question of the gods themselves was raised. of the origin soon and Night It is difficult to say whether the Chaos of the Greeks placed at the beginning which some first conceived of as personal or not. Some was mythologiesposit a cosmic egg from which the world developed. Since the forces of the world are often in conflict cosmogonies describe rival and contending many Parallel to gods, like the Titans against Zeus. this is the Babylonian myth accordingto which the
means

COSMOGONY

115

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Councils

(Buddhist)

chaos personified by as a monster, Tiamat is conquered by Marduk, representingthe The bodj^of the defeated Tiamat ordered universe. furnished the material out of which the world consists. Her body was splitinto halves, the lower the vault of the making the earth, the upper similar conception, meet we a sky. Elsewhere the earth is the body of a giant, to which according the rocks being his bones, the vegetationhis hair, the his veins. and Earth streams are Again Heaven husband and wife,and all animate beingsare their

watery
name,

h) The
which

First Council of Constantinople (381) restated the position of Nicaea and demned con-

ApolUnarianism (q.v.).
c) The First Council of Ephesus (431) which condemned Nestorius and aproved the use of the "Mother of God" term (q.v.). Council of Chalcedon d) The (451) which declared the presence of two natures in the one
person

e) The
which

Christ. Second

Council of Constantinople (553)

offspring.

Where a creator god is credited with the making of the universe he is not always thought to be the of the more one unique One or even important divinities. He might be one of the smaller animals Indian myth tells insect. An American or even an how the muskrat council. brought up mud from the bottom of the primeval ocean that the ecumenical and thus created the dry land. It will appear councils did not proceed far in the development of the fundamental Apparently the idea of a creatio ex nihilo is not beliefs as contained in the Apostles'Creed. The Hebrew readily grasped by primitive man. account in its earUest form does not affirm creation The R.C. church liststwenty councils as ecumenical, in the strict sense. It assumes but those not mentioned above a desert land already were wholly in existence but without animals or composed of R.C. clergy. plants. The creation is likened to the work of the cultivator who of other councils, 2. A very large number ever, howredeems the desert by watering and held dealing with various questionswhich were planting it. The other Hebrew in the church. account In fact the entire history of to start arose (Gen. 1) seems with a watery chaos on which the early church might be said to be found in the the Almighty exercises his skiU. In this (priestly) account the see we development of a group of authoritative beliefs as be faith working on maproduct of a strong religious terial organized in councils and synods. It would impossiblein the space at our disposalto give any mythological. This material was originally of the decisions of these councils in detail. from the account probably borrowed Babylonia. But Hebrew writer rigidly excluded polytheistic It is,however, well to call attention to the fact every and he avoided anthropomorphism, making that the 11th. century councils showed allusion, very decided each act of the drama intention to reform the church,especially the morals proceed from a spoken word; God spake and it was of the clergy" the 12th. century councils were and it cerned condone; he commanded stood fast. In this account discover with the relations of the papacy largely moreover we with the church and with the development of the an element; the successive acts of evolutionary creation form an dogmas of transubstantiation ascending scale culminating in (4 Lateran 1215); These the Council of Lyons (1274) attempted unsuccessacts man. fully are now brought into the six to end the schism between the Greek and the days of the week, in order that the sanctityof the Sabbath Latin churches; the councils of the 15th. century be emphasized by the divine example. may In modern times cosmogony takes the form of including those of Pisa (q.v.),Constance (q.v.), some theory of cosmic evolution in which physical and Basel (q.v.), were largelyconcerned with the forces shape the universe in accordance with scientifically reforming of the administration of the church. In ascertainable laws. the period of the Reformation the most See Evolution. important R.C. council was H. P. Smith that of Trent (q.v.)which was convoked COUNCIL OF BASEL." cil for the purpose 1542-1563 of undertaking See Basel, Counreform both of the matters of administration OF. and of doctrine in view of the progress of the COUNCILS Reformation AND SYNODS." AssembUes (q.v.). The Vatican Council held in senting repreChristians of some defined the dogma of papal infalhbility. in which decision 1869-1870 locality is made relative to the doctrine or administration The Protestant groups have also held innumerable of the group of councils and represented. synods for the purpose difference between The the Council and the Most correctingheresy or working out reforms. ing Protestant bodies have such meetings with more Synod is not easy to draw, possiblythe most strikor difference being that the latter is more local less authorityholding sessions at regular intervals. than the former. ences, These are generallyknown as conventions, conferCouncils are by no means Umited to Christians, the associations. In American or practice for the history of Buddhism word Council commonly is used for meetings called abounds in records of the meeting of representativepersons for special decisions while Synod is used as an to deal with heresy or undertake official designation for the authoritative to organize correct views body of to be held by the clergy and their fellows. definite territory. Shailer Mathews some of a group, has almost as a religion Christianity, from its inception held meetings in which matters COUNCILS There is evidence (BUDDHIST)." of policy or belief were decided. held in the The earliest of of a succession of councils early of presuch meetings is the so-called Council of Jerusalem centuries of Buddhism for the serving purpose but held for the purpose of adjusting the relations between the law and discipline of the movement the Pauline and the Jewish group of Christians. is impossible confident assertion regarding them 1. The Ecumenical the best attested. Councils. first three are These are seven at present. The in number and were never thoroughly ecumenical. (1) A coimcil held at Ragagriha under KaSyapa in Their membership was the law when 447 B.C. composed largelyof eastern (dhamma) and discipline established with the assistance of These were clergy with only a few from the west. (j)inaya) councils are: Ananda and Upali. (2) A council at Vai^ali in First Council of Nicaea 377 B.C. which decided regarding certain practices a) The (325) which formulated the belief in the consubstantiabihty of monks of that place not provided for by the law. of the Son with the Father. (3) A council at Pataliputra under Asoka about
"

condemned the Three Chapters (q.v.). /) The Third Council of Constantinople (680Monothelitism 681) which condemned (q.v.). Second The Council of Nicaea g) (787) which favored the use of images. The Fourth Council of Constantinople (869-70) is sometimes reckoned as an eighth ecumenical

Counsel

of Perfection

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

116

had the character of real ecclesiastical by the king. The authority of councils came from the conof the Buddhist sensus most claimed to preserve of elderly saints who tradition of Buddha. the original A. EtrSTACE Hatdon OF PERFECTION." See Consilia COUNSEL EVANGELICA. 242
B.C.

which

authority backed

A COUNTER-REFORMATION." term monly comapplied to the reaction in the R.C. church had Reformation, which against the Protestant serious-minded aroused to the painfulconsciousness men of widespread depravity and urgent of reformation of both clergy and laity. demand which had already begun The reformingactivity, with Catholic princeslike William IV. of Bavaria, of continued for a hundred years, from the middle the 16th. to the middle of the 17th. century, with had aim of reclaiming those who the twofold and of corabandoned the church for Protestantism recting the the abuses which had brought on who the Reformation. Prominent men among task themselves the to were: Ignatius, gave Canisius, Cardinal Bellarmine, and other Jesuits; Philip Neri, Cardinal Baronius, and other Orain preaching and writing; torians, by their sincerity Vincent de Paul by his congenial active charity; missionaries like the Franciscan Fidelis of Sigmaringen; Bishops like Francis de Sales, Charles Borromeo, Otto of Walburg, Hosius of Ermland. Juhus Echter alone, it is said,brought back more communion. than 62,000 Protestants to Roman authoritative The procedure began with the of cardinals by pope appointment of a commission drawn Paul III. to carry out the programme up by cardinals Contarini, Morone, and Caraffa in zealous The 1537. Inquisition,generally under stopped the spread of the Dominicans,effectively lands. faith in Italy,Spain, and the Spanish Nethernew and Bavaria of France The were crowns in maintaining the strenuous discipline"cujus nots, regioillius religio." The persecutionof the Huguemew's of St. Bartholoculminating in the massacre effect of their zeal. an Night (1572), was milian Austria, despite the tolerant inclination of Maxiwithstood the Reformation. persistently II., had In its effort to correct the abuses which vened brought on the Reformation, the R.C. church conits bishops in numerous synods and enacted decrees for the reform of the clergyand disciplinary laity. The most important by far was the Council of Trent (1545-1563) (q.v.) Besides anathematizing the teachers and teachings of Protestantism, the council enacted "reformatory decrees" providing in teaching Catholic for more efficient methods exact theology and philosophy (Session5), more
.

of Catholics to literatureand art, incidentally, as it were, introducingreform in the study of Scripture, in Canon Law, and in Liturgy, which has perhaps than anything else brought about concord more and proper understanding of devotional practices the point whence the Reformation started. So the reformatory was thorough and far-reaching work of the Council of Trent that the church has since that time done little more than apply and enforce its decrees,which, with slightmodification, stillin force. J. N. Reagan are
"

of the cardinal virtues in COURAGE. One Greek Christian and in mediaeval ethics. It denotes in Greek philosophy the capacity of a man to control impulses and to subordinate emotions in the interest of the rational end prescribedby wisdom. Christian moralists emphasized the fearless fortitude of martyrs and saints and the persistent from temptations. In modern times turning away the term is employed in the military of fearlessly sense of resofacing danger, and in a social sense lutely facing disapproval of others or personal for the sake of loyalty to principles. disadvantage See Virtues Vices. and
"

ECCLESIASTICAL." Congregational internal disputesand moral offenses soon developed the Bishop's Court which obtained fixed came procedure when synodal legislation (4th. century). Constantine (321) allowed episcopal arbitrate in civic cases courts to belonging to This soon state courts. ceased, but the mediaeval and contracts, Bishop'sCourt dealt with testaments infraction here being sin. The appeal from the bishop is to the archbishop, the highesttribunals The Sacred Penitentiary, courts: beingthree Roman The Sacred Roman Rota, The ApostoUc Synatura. Protestant procedure varies with the denomination. The Presbyteriancourts are the session, the presbytery, the synod, the General Assembly. Methodism with an provides a judicialcommittee appeal to conferences. F. A. Christie action
on

COURTS,

COUVADE. ^A custom certain primitive among peoples of putting the father to bed after the birth of a child, in recognitionof paternal obligation.
"

(S. 23, c. 18), more frequent seminary discipline the duty of diocesan synods (S. 24), insisting on residence, of bishops and pastors (SS. 6 and 23), of clerical dress and life (SS. 14 and 25), simplicity visitation (S.6), frequent diocesan and parochial regulation of ecclesiastical benefices (S. 7), care in the ordination and installationof clerics (S.21), restoration of monastic discipline(S. 25), and correction of the misuse of excommunication (S.25). To protect the faithful from dangerous reading it
drew

COVENANT. ^Any formal and solemn agreement between individuals or two two or groups between individuals or groups and a god or gods. The covenant is usuallysealed by means of symbolism. In covenants between the purposes men include the adoption of a stranger into a tribe, the making of peace between enemies, the production of kinshiprelationship or of friendship or of identity of interests, and the founding of an alHance; and the covenant is symbolized by mutual drinking, infusion or smearing of blood as in the bloodcovenant (q.v.), by an interchange of names, ments, garmeal. or or utensils, by a common weapons In covenants and deities the rehgious between men is the ceremonial symbol which an expresses in exchange of duties,worship or giftsfrom men return for some boon from the god. The commoner are symbols of such covenants eating the sacrificial meal, ceremonies in which the blood of the sacrificial victim is the vehicle, and totemistic rites. Sometimes
"

provided

and the Index librorum prohibitorum^ the safe guide in Catholic doctrine m The to Catechismus Romanus. was "Inquisition" be more vigilantand exercise its power under the fideitridenbishop in each diocese. The professio Pius V. to be required of all CathoUcs. tina was executed the laws of Trent. Gregory unflinchingly XIII. was kinder than Pius and his reform ran smoother, but withal quite as effectively.It was a turned the attention relief when Sixtus V. happily
up
a

meteorologicalphenomena are regarded as in Gen. 9 : 16 covenant-signs, as the rainbow Covenants constituted important factors in the and an reUgion of Israel, important development of Protestant based on the conceptheology was tion
of Covenant
a

covenant

between

God

and

man.

See

Theology;
OF

COVENANT GRACE. See


"

WORKS;

Covenant

COVENANT Theology.

OF

117

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Creed"

FEDERAL THEOLOGY COVENANT or the THEOLOGY." A type of theology in which relations of God and man are presented under the form of a covenant contract or (Joedus) Cocceius The (q.v.) is theologian Johannes commonly regarded as the founder of this type of of fact,the conception of theology. As a matter God's relations to man under the form of a contract not unknown to writers before him, although was he may well be said to have given the theology fairly its first systematic form. federal theology, or According to the covenant God is represented as having estabUshed nants covetwo with man; Covenant of Works, the first, or made with Adam, the representativeof the was human This covenant race. promised Ufe and happiness as a reward for obedience and death as of the penalty of disobedience. This covenant works Adam, again as representative of the human and thus brought upon humanity the race, broke, God then subsequently made a penalty of death. second covenant Covenant of Grace with Christ, or the representative of his people. According to this new covenant, the promise was made of salvation to those who believed in Jesus Christ. The covenant of grace includes various subordinate covenants that of Redemption made God and between as: Christ that God should give Christ spiritual seed; the Abrahamic declared to Abraham and his as descendants. Covenant The theology thus starts from the the covenant generalpoint of view of Calvin. By it, of grace exists only between those elected by God for salvation. and acts Christ is the Son of God for those for whom he was to be the representative and head. To this end, he became incarnate in order to unite the deity with humanity, thus becoming the federal head of the elect humanity. For them he suffered, making expiationfor those whom he represented. It is significant that this type of theology has found not wide those acceptance except among reformed churches which belong to countries in which the idea of the covenant in poUticalaffairs is less familiar. of Trent Council more or The condemned the Covenant especially theology. Shailer Mathews COVENANTERS." A party holding to the of the Reformed in principles church, originating Scotland,and playing an important part in the Scottish and English history of the 17th. century. In 1557 and again in 1581 these "godly bands" covenanted to resist the encroaching of the Catholic church. In 1638 there was of the covenant a renewal of 1581 in opposition to the attempt of Charles I. and Laud to foist the English Uturgy Scotland. In 1643 the leaders of the English on parUament, after defeat in the civil war, entered into the Solemn with League and Covenant (q.v.) the Scots for the establishment of the Reformed church in both countries in return for miUtary dominated Scottish politihelp. The Covenanters cal life from 1638 to 1651, but were weakened with Cromwell's with the victory,and lost their power accession of Charles II.
.

it involves discomfort or peril. Cowardice anti-social and in t