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# ____________________________________Aspects of knitting Science Loop length measurement: Two types meter may be employed to monitor yarn feed during

knitting. Those are:1. The yarn length counter. 2. The yarn speed meter. Those are describe below:1. The yarn length counter: It is the simplest in construction providing a reading of the amount of yarn fed in a certain time period. It is particularly suitable for attaching to a moving yarn feeder on a circular revolving cam box m c. after a specific number of revolution! the machine is stopped to enable the yarn length reading to be taken" this is then divided by the number of knitting m c revolution in order to obtain the course length for that feed. 2. The yarn speed meter: It may calibrating # provides a direct reading of the rate of yarn feed! usually in metres per minute! whilst the machine is running. The meter may be hand-held and can be used on a revolving cylinder m c without the need to stop it. To obtain the course length it is necessary to divide the reading by the number of knitting m c revolutions per minute. \$ositive feed system 1. %apstan system 2. &ip feed system '. Tap feed system (. )ltra positive feed system *arp let-off +ead yourself from ,pencer - 2./

## 0dited by 1d. &a2mul 3asan %ontact: 41.5./1/'1'

Knitted fabric relaxation and shrinkage: 6t first a piece of fabric 7189 x 189: is cut from lot of fabric for testing. 6nd then mark hole is set inside that fabric at 149 x 149 si2e. Then this fabric is treated with giving recipe. ,oap ; 1 gm litre 1:< ; 1:24 '4 *ash ; hand wash without any stretch. 6fter washing! this washed fabric is dried in tumble dryer and calendaring it by setting over a woven fabric. Then measure the amount of shrink from 149 x 149 mark holes. =y this way we can determine the amount of shrinkage of any knitted fabric. Knitted fabric geometry: 1ain factors affecting the dimensional properties of knitted fabrics or garments are:1. >abric structure: different structures relax differently. \$lain single ?ersey and double ?ersey have different relax amount. 2. >ibre type: fabrics or garments made from different fibres relax differently. ,uch as cotton and wool different fibre show different result. '. ,titch length: the length of yarn is a knitted loop is the dominating factor for all structures. @ifferent loop stitch length show different result. (. +elaxation finishing route: the fabric dimension vary according to relaxation or finishing seAuence. 5. Barn linear density: affects the dimension slightly! but affects fabric tightness! area density 7gm m2: # other physical properties. 8. Tightness factor .. +obbing back Tightness factor: The ratio of the area covered by the yarn in one loop to the area occupied by that loop is called tightness factor 7T>:.
0dited by 1d. &a2mul 3asan %ontact: 41.5./1/'1'

The total area covered by yarn is: , x l x d! where l is loop length in mm and d is yarn diameter in mm 7assuming the yarn to have a circular crosssection and the fabric to be theoretically flat and not three-dimensional:. The simplified formula: T>.C ;
tex in ,I units. l

>or most plain fabrics knitted from worsted yarn the T> ranges from between 1.( and 1.5 Robbing back: the phenomenon of Drobbing backE to be the reason why the measured loop length in a knitted structure is smaller than the theoretical loop length when calculated form the depth of the stitch cam setting! as well as the reason for fluctuations in input tension producing large variations in loop length. 6s the needles descend the stitch cam! the tension reAuired to pull yarn from the package increases rapidly and it becomes easier to rob back yarn in the opposite direction from the already-formed loops of needles further back that are then beginning to rise from their lowest 7knock-over: position.