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Signal Measurements for

GSM/EDGE
Using the YBT250 Transmitter Testing Tool
Copyright Tektronix, Inc.
Outline
2
4EDGE Overview
4EDGE and GSM Measurements
4EDGE and GSM Testing Procedures
4Interference
4Conclusion
Copyright Tektronix, Inc.
Why Test EDGE Signals?
3
4 GSM signals are robust by design
0Slow, but reliable - likes rocks!
4 EDGE signals are not robust
0Fast, but less reliable - does not like rocks!
0Testing is required to create and maintain optimum conditions
4This is a customer satisfaction issue
Reliable GSM
Fast EDGE
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EDGE Technology
4
To understand the issues, we must first
understand certain parts of the technology.
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Constellation Diagrams
5
4 Polar Coordinate System
0Shows Magnitude and Phase
0Natural way to discuss phase
shifts
4Phase shifting can be
thought of as very small
time delays
4 Digital modulation is
accomplished by amplitude
and/or phase shifting
0Digital bits, or symbols,
encoded in phase shifts
I
Q
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Phase
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GSM/GMSK/GPRS
6
4 90 degree phase shifts
4 Encodes 1 bit per phase
shift
4 Constant amplitude
0Easier for RF amplifiers
4 Large EVM is acceptable
4 Very robust transmission
0The error (red arrow) can
be very big, and its still
alright.
4 Low data rate
0Could be 2 bits per
phase position, but
would be more error
prone
I
Q
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8 PSK for EDGE
7
4 8 possible phase shifts
4 3 bits per position
0Not nearly as robust
4Less EVM allowable
0Lose three bits for every
dropped symbol
4 Phase accuracy is now
important
0EVM becomes critical
I
Q
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8
Real-Life 8-PSK
4 Additional rotation, or twist,
to the axis between every
phase shift
0Rotated 1.5 data points
0Or 67.5 degrees
0Or 3 / 8 radians between
each data point
0Power does not go to zero
0Avoids largest amplitude
changes for amplifier relief
0Does not affect size of EVM
circles
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Tighter EVM Specifications
9
I
Q
I
Q
GSM/GMSK/GPRS
8PSK
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Data Rates and QoS
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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EDGE Technical Capabilities
11
4New channel coding
0Channel coding protects
data from errors when
transmitted over the air
interface
0Nine new modulation
coding schemes,
4MCS1 through MCS9
0Slower 4 use GMSK,
0Faster five use 8PSK
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12
EDGE/EGPRS Data Rates and Coding
Scheme
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EDGE/EGPRS Data Rates and QoS
13
K bits/slot
17.6
14.8 or 13.6
11.2
8.8
59.2
22.4
29.6 or 27.2
44.8
54.4
4How big do you
want the inner
circles?
4Influences:
0EVM
0Reception Quality
4Interference
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Outline
14
4EDGE Overview
4EDGE and GSM Measurements
4EDGE and GSM Testing Procedures
4Interference
4Conclusion
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Simple power measurement
15
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Power Measurements
Slot Aware Power Overview
16
4 For BCCH Channel
4Timing reference comes
from BCCH Slot 0
4RF Slot power can be
either:
0Relative to BCCH
Slot 0
0Absolute, in dBm
4Limit Setting available
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Power Measurement
BCCH Setup
17
4 BCCH can be specificied in
several ways
0Off
4 Ignores sync, takes any slot
0On Measurement Channel
4 Assumes current RF channel is
BCCH
0On Specified Channel
4 User sets BCCH RF Channel
number
0On Specificied Frequency
4 User sets BCCH frequency
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Power Measurements
BCCH Channel Overview
18
4 Used for time slot leveling
4 Used for diagnostics
4 Current measurement
0RMS Power and time slot
type
4 GMSK time slots
0Average power for each
time slot and slot status
4 8-PSK time slots
0Average power for each
time slot and time slot
status
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Power Measurements
BCCH Channel
19
4 What is being measured?
0RF Power for each time slot
4 Why test?
0BCCH RF Power sets the
size of the cell.
0High power levels may
cause early handoffs
leading to an overloaded
cell.
0Low power levels can cause
coverage faults and
dropped calls
0Uneven power levels will
cause problems with the
Mobile Assisted Handoff
(MAHO)
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Power Measurements
BCCH Channel
20
4 Guidelines:
0These are from the
standard, operator
requirements may be tighter
0Power should be set
accurately to +/- 2 dB
0Power should be leveled
between timeslots to +/- 2
dB
4 Look first for:
0Power differences caused
by channel elements
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Power Measurements
Traffic Channel Overview
21
4 Useful for time slot leveling
& diagnostics
4 Identifies modulation type
per time slot
0Timing comes from BCCH
RF channel
0Power reference comes
from BCCH Slot 0
0Current, GSMK and 8-PSK
measurements as before
4Idle slots now possible
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22
Power Measurements
Traffic Channels
4 What is being Measured?
0Slot type
4Idle
4GMSK (GSM or slow EDGE)
48-PSK (Fast EDGE)
0Absolute Power Levels
4In dBm
0Relative Power Levels
4In dB relative to BCCH time
slot 0
4 Why Test?
0Improper power levels causes
dropped calls, either in this cell
or neighboring cells.
0Slot type tells a lot about how
the network is being used
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23
Power Measurements
Traffic Channels
4 Guidelines
0These are from the
standard, operator
requirements may be tighter
0Absolute power levels
4+/- 2 dB
0Relative power levels
4+/- 2 dB relative to BCCH
Time slot 0
4 Look first for
0Amplifier power settings
0RF Path issues (Antenna,
Antenna cable, connectors,
etc.)
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Power versus Time
Overview
24
4 Close-up of time slot behavior
0Select timeslot
0Select preferred modulation type
4 Mask Test
0For checking rise time, peak to
average ratios
4 Max and Min envelope power
4 Modulation type
4 Adjacent time slot behavior
0Check for BCCH/Traffic channel
correspondence
0Check for co-channel interference
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Power versus Time
Details
25
4 What is being Measured?
0Rise and fall time of the slot
0Maximum excursion during
the time slot
4 Why Test?
0Slow/late rise time leads to
lost bits
0Fast/early rise time leads to
interference with other RF
channels
0 Useful Part mask violations
indicate sudden, unexpected,
power changes
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Power versus Time
Details
26
4 Guidelines
0Slot power must stay within the
mask
4This mask is per the
standard.
4Abbreviated mask available
for in-service testing
4 Look first for
0Slow or fast rise and fall times
4 Amplifier problems
4 Damage to antenna or antenna
cable
4 Damage to connectors
0Mask violations during the
Useful Part
4 Amplifier instability
4 Modulation problems
4 Co-channel interference
0Timing way off
4 BCCH timing does not match
traffic channel timing
4 Co-channel interference
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Carrier Frequency Error
27
4 What is being measured?
0The accuracy of the RF
carrier frequency
4 Why Test?
0Sufficient error will prevent
handoffs, creating an
island cell.
4 Guideline
00.05 ppm, which is 50 Hz at
1 GHz and 100 Hz at 2 GHz.
4 Look first for
0Bad frequency reference
0Faulty local oscillator in up-
converter
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Occupied Bandwidth
28
4 What is being measured?
0The amount of the RF spectrum
containing 99.5% of the RF carrier
power.
4 Why test?
0Excessive bandwidth creates
interference with adjacent RF
channels and lowers system
throughput
4 Guidelines
099.5 of the RF channel power
should be within 260 kHz.
4Each network operator may set
their own limits
4 Look first for
0Intermodulation problems caused
by faulty mixers.
0Intermodulation problems caused
by unintentional mixers, such as
rusty fences, corroded RF
connectors etc.
Copyright Tektronix, Inc.
EVM, Phase, and Magnitude Errors
29
4 Error Vector Magnitude
(EVM) is the unsigned scalar
difference between the
actual signal and the
reference signal
0EVM is related to magnitude
and phase error
4 The reference signal is
created in the analyzer from
knowledge of data stream,
clock rate and filtering R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

S
i
g
n
a
l
Magnitude Error
Error
Vector
Magnitude
(EVM)
Phase Error
A
c
t
u
a
l

S
i
g
n
a
l
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30
Origin Offset, IQ Offset, Carrier Feed
through
4 IQ Offset is caused by
unmodulated carrier leaking
into the modulated output
4 IQ Offset is also known as
Carrier Feed through or
Origin Offset
4 IQ Offset is characterized by
the constellation diagram
shifting positive on both
axis.
+Q
-Q
+I
-I
Actual Symbol Positions
Intended Symbol Positions
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31
Signal Quality
Phase Error for GMSK Signals
4 What is being measured?
0Phase instability of the
received signal
0Think of this as distortion
4 Why test?
0Throughput will be reduced
by high phase error
4Inaccuracies in phase
will cause high bit error
rate or a high number of
bad frames.
0This test is particularly
relevant to GMSK signals
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32
Signal Quality
Phase Error for GMSK Signals
4 Guideline
05.0 degrees
4 Look first for
0When hooked up to the BTS
4Unstable frequency
reference
4Unstable local oscillator
in up-converter or
modulator
0When testing over-the-air
4Co-channel interference
from another GSM
transmitter
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Signal Quality
EVM for 8-PSK signals
33
4 What is being measured?
0Phase and amplitude instability
of the received signal
0Think of this as digital
distortion
4 Why test?
0Throughput will be reduced by
high EVM
4High EVM will cause high
bit error rate or a high
number of bad frames.
0EVM identifies air interface
issues affecting throughput
0This test is particularly relevant
to 8-PSK signals
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Signal Quality
EVM for 8-PSK signals
34
4 Guideline
07% prior to passive combiners
08% after passive combiners
0Add 1% for extreme conditions
4 Look first for
0When hooked up to the BTS
4 Power amplifier issues
0Power settings,
compression, clipping,
power supply faults
4 Unstable frequency reference
4 RF path issues
0Loose connector, bad
antenna cable, antenna,
etc.
0When testing over-the-air
4 Co-channel interference from
another GSM transmitter
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35
Signal Quality
Origin Offset for 8-PSK signals
4 What is being measured?
0Unmodulated RF carrier
being broadcast with the
modulated carrier
4 Why test?
0Excessive origin offset
limits throughput
4Self-Interference
4 Guidelines
0-35 dBc
4 Look first for
0Faulty modulators in the
radio unit
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Signal Quality
Carrier to Interference Ratio Overview
36
4 New In-Service technique for a
digital world!
0Traditional technique involves
measurements with and without
carrier.
0A manual calculation then gives
the answer.
0Digital technique takes advantage
of the reference signal.
4Remember the EVM reference
signal?
4Reference signal serves as
carrier
4Reference minus received
signal serves as interference
Rx Ref
Rx
I
C

=
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37
Signal Quality
Carrier to Interference Ratio
4 What is being measured?
0The ratio of desired signal
(Carrier) to undesired signal
(Interference)
4 Why test?
0Co-channel interference is the
most prevalent form of GSM
interference
0Co-channel interference lowers
throughput, sometimes
dramatically
0Lower throughput means
unhappy customers
0Lower throughput means less
network data capacity
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38
Signal Quality
Carrier to Interference Ratio
4 Guidelines
0At least 23 dB for good
over-the-air EVM
measurements
4Accurate when larger
than 10 dB
4 Look first for
0Co-channel interference on
transmit frequencies
0Intermodulation products,
or harmonics, of licensed
transmitters on receive
frequencies
0Nearby off-channel strong
transmissions causing
receiver de-sense
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Outline
39
4EDGE Overview
4EDGE and GSM Measurements
4EDGE and GSM Testing Procedures
4Interference
4Conclusion
Copyright Tektronix, Inc.
40
First Pass BTS Check
Over-the-Air testing
4 Co-Channel interference can affect results
0 For the first measurement, find the best location
4 Best Bet Guideline:
0 1000 to 2000 feet from tower
0 Square with face
0 No large elevation differences
0 Line-of-sight
1000 to 2000 feet
Square to Face
Best BetPosition
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41
First Pass BTS Check
Slot Leveling
4 If all slots and channels
agree
0How likely is it that they are
all at the wrong power
level?
0BCCH absolute power
measurements may not be
needed!
4 Look for Idle, GMSK and 8-
PSK activity
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First Pass BTS Check
Carrier Frequency Error
42
4 Check for better than 0.05
ppm
0Prevent Island Cells
4 NetTek has user cal
capabilities for the best
accuracy
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43
First Pass BTS Check
Signal Quality: Carrier to Interference Ratio
4 Indication of reception
conditions
0 C/I better than 23 dB indicates
that Over-the-Air signal quality
limit checking is possible
4 Continue Testing!
0 C/I worse than 23 dB indicates
either:
4 The BTS signal is
distorted
4 Interference is present
4 Or both
0 Over-the-Air and
Connected
measurements can
resolve
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44
First Pass BTS Check
Signal Quality: Phase Error, EVM, Origin Offset
4 Fundamental indication of
Air Interface and Signal
quality
0High values indicate
throughput limitations
4 Indication of distortion
0Over-the-Air measurement
is interference + distortion
4 If this passes when
measured over-the-air,
the BTS must be really
clean!
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First Pass BTS Check
Power versus Time
45
4 This very useful display shows:
0Average, Max Envelope, and Min
Envelope power per slot
0Lost data due to slow rise time
0Adjacent channel interference
due to fast rise time
0Timing skew between BCCH and
Traffic channel
0Co-channel interference
4Other signals riding on top of
intended signal
0Downlink power control activity
4 Measure both GMSK and 8-PSK
time slots
4 Can select abbreviated mask for
in-service testing
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First Pass BTS Check
Summary
46
4For all carriers
0Check slot leveling, Carrier Frequency Error
4Spots power and frequency issues for any one transmitter
0Carrier to Interference (C/I)
4If C/I is clean:
0Over-the-Air testing for signal quality is possible
4If C/I is dirty:
0Carrier may be distorted or interference may be present
4Create fast EDGE call
4For a GMSK slot, an 8-PSK slot, and all carriers
0Check Signal Quality
0Check Power versus Time
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Outline
47
4EDGE Overview
4EDGE and GSM Measurements
4EDGE and GSM Testing Procedures
4Interference
4Conclusion
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Co-Channel Interference
48
4 Carrier to Interference Ratio
is calculated from
0EVM Reference Signal
0RF Input
4 Indicates co-channel
interference
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Co-Channel Interference
49
4 Co-Channel interference can
be spotted directly
0In time domain
0When a time-skew is
present
4From a different BTS
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Out-of-Channel Interference
50
4 Out-of-Channel interference
can be detected and
resolved by
0Spectrum Monitor
0Spectrogram
0Signal Strength Meter
4With directional antenna
0Audio Demod
0Noise Floor measurement
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Out-of-Channel Interference
51
4 Out-of-Channel interference
can be detected and
resolved by
0Spectrum Monitor
0Spectrogram
0Signal Strength Meter
4With directional antenna
0Audio Demod
0Noise Floor measurement
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Out-of-Channel Interference
52
4 Out-of-Channel interference
can be detected and
resolved by
0Spectrum Monitor
0Spectrogram
0Signal Strength Meter
4With directional antenna
0Audio Demod
0Noise Floor measurement
Copyright Tektronix, Inc.
Conclusion
53
4 The Technology
0GSM is robust but slow
0EDGE is fast, but sensitive
0Minimum interference and distortion is required for fast EDGE
transmissions
4 Measurements
0Slot aware power measurements
0Timeslot masks
0Signal Quality
4EVM, Phase, C/I
4 Interference
0Co-Channel
0Out-of-Channel
0Interference hunting tools
Copyright Tektronix, Inc.
Thank You
54
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