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ANATOMY CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Heart- mediastinum Apex of the heart- diaphragm pointing to the left Base- below the

the 2nd rib Epicardium- outer layer of the heart Myocardium- thick, contractile middle layer Endocardium- delicate inner layer Heart- chambers o Atria- superior chambers !recei"ing chambers# o Auricles- earlike flap protruding from each atrium o $entricles- 2 layer chambers !pumping chambers# Myocardium of the "entricles is thicker than the myocardium of the atria because great force must be generated to pump blood Myocardium of the left is thicker than right because it must push blood much further% Atrio"entricular &A$' "al"e- pre"ent blood from flowing back to the atria from the "entricles (ricuspid "al"e- right A$ "al"e) has * flaps Bicuspid "al"e- left A$) 2 flaps +emilunar &+,' "al"e- half-moon shaped flaps o -pre"ent blood from flowing into the "entricles from the aorta and pulmonary artery .ulmonary +, "al"e- entrance of the pulmonary artery Aortic +, "al"e- entrance of aorta +inoatrial node- !pacemaker# Atrio"entricular node- node of (awara Arteries- carry blood A/A0 from the heart $eins- carry blood (1/A23+ the heart +ystole- contraction 3iastole- relaxation Arrhythmias- irregular heartbeats 4ardiac output- amount of blood pumped by a "entricle in 5 min% +uperior "ena ca"a- brings blood from the upper body 6nferior "ena ca"a- brings blood from the lower body 2ight atrium- recei"es blood from inferior and superior "ena ca"a ,eft atrium- recei"es blood from lungs by way of pulmonary "eins 2ight "entricle- pumps blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery ,eft "entricle- pumps blood through the body through the aorta 7ormal heart rate - 89-599bpm in adult

4hildren : infants- ha"e faster pulses because of their smaller si;es and higher metabolic rate Exercise- thickens myocardium and < supply of blood "essels in the skeletal muscle tissue

LYMPATHIC SYSTEM =unctions> o Maintaining fluid balance o 6mmunity Made up of ,ymph, lympathic "essels, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleen ,ymph nodes o =unctions> hematopoiesis, : filtration : phagocytosis (onsils- protect against bacteria that may in"ade tissues around the openings between the nasal and oral ca"ities (hymus- produces thymosin which enables the lymphocytes to de"elop into ( cells NERVOUS SYSTEM 4entral ner"ous system peripheral ner"ous system &brain : spinal cord' &cranial : spinal ner"es' 6nitiates appropriate initial response to changes Ectoderm- ner"e tissue de"elopment begins Aging causes degeneration of the ner"ous system, w?c may lead to senility 7eurons- act as !wiring# that connects structures needed to maintain homeostasis% - 2esponsible not only in responding to stimuli but also capable of remembering or learning new responses o +ensory neurons- act as receptors to detect changes in the internal and external en"ironment +ympathetic di"ision of A7+- !fight or flight response# .arasympathetic di"ision of A7+- !rest and repair# @lial cells- astrocytes, microgalia, epyndymal cells, ologodendrocytes, +chwann cells o 1ligodendrocytes- produce the myelin sheath which is responsible to electrically insulate the neurons of the 47+ 7odes of ran"ier- gaps in the myelin sheath .ons- contains respiratory center Midbrain- contains center of "isual reflexes, auditory reflexes, : eAuilibrium reflexes Medulla- regulates the "ital functions of the heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure - 2egulates reflexes of coughing, snee;ing, swallowing : "omiting

4erebellum- regulates coordination of "oluntary mo"ement, muscle tone, stopping mo"ement, : eAuilibrium Hypothalamus- body temp and food intake (halamus- alertness : awareness, : to memory =rontal lobe of the brain- "oluntary mo"ement) o .remotor area- seAuences of mo"ement for learned skills o .refrontal area- aspects of social beha"iour .arietal area- general sensory area feels and interprets for cutaneous senses : conscious muscle sense (emporal area- hearing : interpretation, smell : interpretation, speech areas thought before speech 1ccipital lobe- "ision : interpretation of spatial relationship +ubarachnoid space- 4+= 47+- acts as a shock absorber to cushion the 47+ Meninges- connecti"e tissue membranes that co"er the brain : the spinal cord o * layers> dura mater, arachnoid membrane : pia mater 4er"ical spinal ner"es- diaphragm, chest wall muscles, arms, : shoulders (horacic spinal ner"es- upper body : gastrointestinal function ,umbar?sacral spinal ner"e- lower body, bowel and bladder BrocaBs motor speech area- mo"ements of the mouth in"ol"ed in speaking 4erebral cortex-folded extensi"ely 4on"olutions?gyri- folds @ro"es between them- fissures or sulci

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 4onsists of endocrine glands that secrete chemicals called hormones 6nfundibulum- connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus 7eurohypophysis- posterior pituitary gland 2eleases antidiuretic hormone &A3H' : oxytocin $asopressin- A3H Adenohypophysis- anterior pituitary gland 2eleases @H, (+H, A4(H, .rolactin, =+H, : ,H @rowth hormone- somatotropin o @rowth hormone inhibiting hormone- somatostatin .rolactin- lactation ,H for female- o"ulation) for male- for testes to secrete testosterone =+H- has effects on gonads> o"aries and testes ( - thyroxine : (*- triiodothyronine Hypercalcemia- stimulus for secretion of calcitonin 6slets of ,angerhans- hormone producing cells of the pancreas Adrenal medulla- norepinephrine : epinephrine- catecholamines : are sympathomimetic Melatonin- secreted by the pineal gland during darkness) brings on sleep

@hrelin- stimulates hypothalamus to boost appetite @lucagon- produced by alpha cells 6nsulin- beta cells (hymus- located in mediastinum beneath the sternum : is large in children, then begins to atrophy with age

MUSCULAR SYSTEM More than 899 muscles in the body +keletal muscle- 9-C9D of body weight (endons- anchored firmly muscle to bones Aponeurosis-flat tendon 1rigin- stationary attachment of muscle 6nsertion- mo"able attachment