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R09

SET-1
Max. Marks: 75

## B.Tech II Year - II Semester Examinations, April-May, 2012 FLIGHT MECHANICS I

(AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Answer any five questions All questions carry equal marks --1.

Explain the factors to be considered in the estimation of performance of an aircraft and how the estimation is carried out.  Explain the different forces acting on an aircraft. Explain the components of drag in detail.

2.a) b) 3.a) b)

[7+8]

Derive the Breguet equation for the range of an aircraft. Derive an expression for the range of an aircraft following the method of constant angle of attack constant Mach number. [7+8] Explain in detail, with relevant formulae, a) Energy height b) Specific excess power c) Minimum time climb d) Minimum fuel climb. Write notes on a) Instantaneous turns b) Sustained turns c) Military aircraft maneuver performance.

4.

5.

6.a) b) 7.

State and explain Buckingham Pi theorem. Describe the parametric forms of aerodynamic and thrust forces.

Distinguish between flight planning, performance planning and fuel planning. 

8.

Explain Payload-range diagrams. Also, explain the definitions of various limits on range, payload and weight of an aircraft. 

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[4+3+4+4]

[5+5+5]

[9+6]

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R09

SET-2
Max. Marks: 75

## B.Tech II Year - II Semester Examinations, April-May, 2012 FLIGHT MECHANICS I

(AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Answer any five questions All questions carry equal marks --1. 2.a) b) Explain the international atmospheric model.



Explain the lift independent and lift dependent drag components. Find lift to drag ratio when drag coefficient at zero lift is 0.2, density of air at 10 km is 0.4135 kg/cubic meter and speed of the aircraft is 300 kmph. The mass of the aircraft is 5000 kg, area of the wing planform is 5 square meters and its aspect ratio is 6, and span efficiency factor is 1. [9+6] Derive the Breguet equation for the range of an aircraft. Derive an expression for the range of an aircraft following the method of constant angle of attack constant altitude. [7+8] Explain in detail, with relevant formulae, a) Climb rate b) Climb gradient c) Thrust producing engines d) Minimum fuel climb. Write notes on a) Turning performance b) Turning radius.

3.a) b)

4.

5.

6.a) b)

Explain the three main purposes of measuring flight data. Derive an expression for the correction to the measured equivalent air speed due to error in weight of the aircraft. [6+9] Describe the different phases of flights and the safety requirements during these phases.  Explain the procedure to determine the MTOW (maximum take off weight) of an aircraft. 

7.

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[4+4+3+4]

[9+6]

8.

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R09

SET-3
Max. Marks: 75

## B.Tech II Year - II Semester Examinations, April-May, 2012 FLIGHT MECHANICS I

(AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Answer any five questions All questions carry equal marks --1.

Estimate the pressure of the atmosphere at an altitude of 10 km and calculate the Mach number of an aircraft travelling at 300 kmph at this altitude.  Derive an expression for the thrust of a jet engine. Explain the drag polar of an aircraft.

2.a) b) 3.a) b)

[6+9]

Derive the Breguet equation for the range of an aircraft. Derive an expression for the range of an aircraft in constant altitude constant Mach number flight. [7+8] Describe the different climb and descent techniques.

4. 5.a) b)

Derive an expression for the pull-up maneuver of an aircraft. Find the load factor on an aircraft, when the radius of the maneuver is 700 m, climb gradient is 60 degrees and speed of the aircraft is 100 m/s. [9+6] Derive the equations necessary for performance data analysis of an aircraft with known test weight and standard weight, using the power equivalent weight speed equivalent weight method.  Explain the following: a) Take off distance required, b) Maximum refusal speed c) TORA d) TODA.

6.

7.

8.a) b)

Explain the operational analysis of an aircraft. Describe the flight path segments in a climb.

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[4+5+3+3]

[9+6]

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R09

SET-4
Max. Marks: 75

## B.Tech II Year - II Semester Examinations, April-May, 2012 FLIGHT MECHANICS I

(AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Answer any five questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) 2.a) b) 3.

Explain the difference between the performance of an aircraft and its airworthiness. Describe some typical mission profiles. [8+7] Define Specific fuel consumption. Derive an expression for the Minimum drag speed of an aircraft.

[5+10]

Assuming the fuel flow rate to be a function of the square root of temperature ratio of the atmosphere and the nth power of Mach number of the aircraft, derive expressions for the optimal speeds of an aircraft corresponding to maximum range and maximum endurance.  Explain maximum climb gradient and maximum rate of climb of an aircraft. An aircraft with a wing loading of 1500 N/sq. m. is gliding from an altitude of 4 km. What is the glide angle corresponding to minimum rate of descent, if zero lift drag coefficient is 0.2? What is the equilibrium glide velocity associated with this descent? [8+4] Explain the V-n (Maneuver) diagram of an aircraft.

4.a) b)

5. 6.a) b)

Derive an expression for the correction to the measured equivalent air speed of an airplane due to error in temperature of the air. State an expression for the ground run distance and explain all the parameters clearly. [8+7] Explain the current performance classifications. Discuss briefly the space available and space required for take-off of an aircraft. [9+6] Explain a) Block performance of an aircraft. b) Disposable load c) Performance summary d) Balanced take-off distance.

7.a) b)

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