Sunteți pe pagina 1din 54

BRITISH

MUSEUM.

The

Book

of the Dead

WITH

TWENTY-FIVE

ILLUSTRATIONS.

PRINTED

BY

ORDER

OF

THE

TRUSTEES.

1920.
PRICE ONE

SHILLINGAKr

[All Rights

Reserved.]

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD

The
"

Title.
to the commonly given which the ancient Egyptian

Book

of

the

Dead

"

is the titlenow

of funerary texts great collection and incantations, hymns spells and


cut
on

scribes composedfor the benefit of the dead. and words of power walls of and

These consistof

formulae litanies, magical

names,
or

papyri.The title Book for of the Dead is somewhat and misleading, unsatisfactory the texts neither form a connected work nor belongto one tellus nothing in a nd misceUaneous are character, period ; they
rollsof
"

on painted coffinsand sarcophagi and

prayers, and they are found pyramidsand tombs, and painted


"

about

the lives and

works

of the dead

with whom

they were

buried. works
Jione
"

Moreover, the Egyptianspossessed many


that be called mightrightly bore
a
"

funerary

Books

of the Dead," but

of them

name

that could be translated


to given

Book of

of the Dead."
texts funerary

This titlewas

the

by the title tion greatcollecexact

in the first quarterof the nineteenth

who possessed no by the pioneer "century Egyptologists, of knowledge


of

their contents.

They

were

familiar with the rolls the hieratic the

papyrus

inscribed in the

and hieroglyphic

of several had been for copies character,


texts in them
were

but published,^

short and

-the Facsimile^ of the


'

of The publication fragmentary. by Papyrusof Peta-Amen-neb-nest-taui^

See

Journal de

Trhoux,

June,

1704 ;

torn.

Travels, plates I, plate 21 ; Denon, 136 and de I'Egypte, torn. II, plate 64 ff.
"

Caylus, Antiq. Egypt. 137 ; and Description


^

Copie Figur/e d'un


des Rois.
was

Rouleau

de

Papyrus
a

trouv^

d Th^es is

dans

un

tombeau

Paris, XIII-1805. This papyrus

in length and

brought
called

to

Strassburgby

nearly30 feet paymaster in Napoleon's

Army

in

Egypt

who Poussielgue,

sold it to M. Cadet.

272
GIFT

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

M.

Cadet

in

1805

made

text long hieroglyphic for

and French

numerous-

coloured

vignettes available
described it
as a

study,
"

and

the

logists Egypto"

copy

of the
these

Rituel

Funeraire

of the

ancient but
"

Egyptians. Among
his return
"

was

Champollion
he

le

Jeune,
it

later, on
Livre
etc. the

from The
are

Egypt,
Book

and

others
"

called Todtenname

Le

des Morts," These

of the Dead," translations


to

Das

buch,"

titles

merely
with

of the

given by
papyrus

Egyptian they
Book dead
a
" "

tomb-robbers

every

roll of inscribed

which

found

mummies,
"

namely,
Kitab

"

Kitab

al-Mayyit,"
"

of the

dead

man,"

or

al-Mayyitun,"
nothing
say
was

Book

of the

(plur.). These
all and

men

knew
to

of that

the it

contents
was

of such dead

roll,and book,"

they
that

meant

"a

man's

it

was

found

in his coffin

with

him.

II. The Preservation


of the BY

Mummified Thoth. of the and Nile


as

Body

in

the

Tomr

The

objects found

in the graves

predynasticEgyptians,
weapons, believed of

vessels of food, flint knives i.e., that kind these of


a

other

etc., prove
in
some was we

early dwellers
future
to

in the But

Valley
the
no

existence. their graves


texts

art

writing

unknown
can

them from

contain

and inscriptions,

only infer
the

of the
were.

dynastic period what


It is clear
to that the

their ideas did


not

about consider

Other

World

they

it of and

great importance

preserve

dead
many

body
of

in

as

complete
graves
the the

perfect state
and
some

as

for possible, been from


as

in

their from

heads, hands
and

feet have distance

found them.

severed On
a

trunks
the

lyingat

the other difference


who to had the

hand,
in

dynastic Egyptians, either


under the

the

result of of invaders

religiousbelief,or
in their

influence supreme
dead

settled

country, attached

importance
and

preservation and
every
means

integrityof
to them

the
to

body,
it with

they adopted
and

known

prevent

its dismemberment

decay.
balsams fluids ; and laid then in
a

They cleansed
;

it and

embalmed aromatic of
or

drugs, spicesand preservative bandages


;

they they

anointed

it with

oils and

they

swathed sealed

it in hundreds it up hewn in
a

yards
of

of linen

coffin

sarcophagus, which
the

they
All

chamber

in the

bowels

mountain.

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

these

things

were

done and

damp, dry
beetles, worms
enemies for both had

rot

protect the physical body against decay, and against the attacks of moth,
to

and

wild

animals.

But

these

were

not

the

only

of the dead the

against which body


earth

mummified it upon

and

had to be taken, precautions elements which the spiritual

inhabited

had

to be

protectedfrom
of darkness

multitude

of devils and These and powers

fiends, and
of evil had
were

from hideous

the powers and

generally.
the

shapes and forms, terrifying


for

their haunts which


to

well road of

known,
the

they

infested when
"

region
"

through
this world afraid
use

the
tlie

dead

lay
The

passing from
were

Kingdom
were

of Osiris.

great gods
which

of them,

and

obliged to protect themselves


and Thoth. words of power,

by

the

and magical names, spells composed and written down by

of

were

in

fact it in

was

believed that Ra

in very the

early
the

times owed

Egj^t
a

Sun-god
to

his continued
secret

existence
name

of possession Thotli had

with And

which each

provided

him.
was

sun morning the rising by a fearful monster

menaced

called

Aapep,
the up

^i^
P

"

which

lay hidden waitingto


It
was

under swallow

placeof
the
even
"

sunrise disk.

solar

impossible,
The (From

Sun-god, to destroy this Great each Devil," but by reciting with which morning the powerfulspell Thoth had able provided him he was
limbs and
even

for the

Spearing of Aapep.
of Nckhtu-Amcn.)

the Pa^rus

to

to rise upon

this world.

Since

paralyseall Aapep's then the great gods,"


"

though benevolentlydisposedtowards
the dead from the devils hearts of Thoth that of the
on

them,

were

not
"

able

to deliver

lived upon

the

bodies,

shadows souls, spirits, decided


to

and

dead," the Egyptians


and

to

invoke

the aid

behalf of their dead

the under place them protection of his almighty spells. of ancient the theologians Inspired by Thoth Egypt composed of funerary texts which a were certainly in large number

general
were

use

under well

the

IVth

dynasty
under

(about

3700 and
was

B.C.), and

probably
the whole the author

known of

the 1st

dynasty,

out through-

period
of the
"

dynastic history Thoth


of the Dead."

regarded

as

Book

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

III. The Book


FORTH
BY

Per-t

em

hru,
THE

or

[The
DaY,

Chapters
COMMONLY

of]

Coming

(or, INTO)
THE

CALLED

"Book
texts

of

the

Dead."
were

The the
were

and spells
of the

other

which
are

written

by

Thoth with
the Forth

for

benefit

dead, and
to
"

directly connected
written of the under

him,
Xlth

called, according
XVIIIth

documents

and

dynasties,

Chapters

Coming
"

by

into) the Day," (or,


in the Papyrus of Nu
of the work called
was

^ j
"

^'^

^ ^ ^ ^/f
No.

^^^ that

rut)ric
the text

(Brit.Mus.
Per-t
em

10477)
"

states

hru," i.e., Coming

Forth

(or,

into) the Day,"


of
or same a

discovered the

by
Hennu

shrine

of

god
the

high during
cut

official in the the

tions founda-

reignof Semti,
rubric the in the alabaster of the

Hesepti, a king
papyrus
a

of the that of
that

1st

dynasty.
text
was

Another upon

says
statue

plinth of
IVth The
son

Menkaura the letters

(Mycerinus), a king
were

dynasty,

and

inlaid with

lazuli. lapis

plinth
of

was

found

by

Prince

Herutataf,
carried
"

^^

tziS Jj, a
king and
victorious him
a

King
it

Khufu
"

(Cheops), who
most

it off to his This


a

exhibited
was
"

as

wonderful for it Other


"

thing.
make
;

composition

greatlyreverenced,
upon earth and and

would World
the to

man

in the

it would

ensure

"

safe would time

free passage him he


to

through
go in and

Tuat

(Under World)
to

; it

"

allow
any

go

out, and
make

take

at

any

"

form

pleased; it would
him from the fuU
was

his soul to flourish, For


to be

"

and

would

prevent
"

dying

the

[second] death."
it had and with the who

the

deceased

to receive
a man or

benefit of this text

recited
not

by

who

ceremonially
had
not

pure,

had

eaten

fish

meat,
Xlth
two

and

consorted
on

women." XVIIIth
one

On

cofiins of the
we

dynasty
versions

and

papyri of
em

dynasty
and
one
"

find

of the

Per-t shorter

hru,

long
that"

short.

As

the

title of the
em

version
a

states

it is the

Chapters of

the Per-t
even

hru

in IVth

single chapter,"it
dynasty, contained
form rubric of the
that

is clear that this work,


"

under
a

the

many
work
was

Chapters," and
also the
"

that at
"

much
same

abbreviated

current

the

period.
to

The

attributes

finding

of the

Chapter

Herutataf

associates

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

it with the

Khemenu,
of this
work

i.e.,Hermopolis, and
its author.
hru

indicates

that

Thoth,

god
The

city,was
Per-t
em

received

many

additions

in

the

.:2

Si

i)

op

"5^
a

d
lA
""

6^
o

2
!2

course

of centuries, and about 190 of

at

length,under
of these

the

XVIIItli
"

dynasty,

it contained

distinct many

or compositions, are

Chapters."
in the

The

forms original

to

be

found

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

"Pyramid
walls
of the

Texts" chambers
I

the funerary compositions (^.^., and corridors of the and and


had

cut

on

this

pyramids
II
at

of

Kings
The

Unas, Teta, Pepi


which forms Xllth
the
were

Meri-Ra, Merenra
under
other the Vth

Pepi
Vlth under

Sakkdrah),
Xlth

written
many
are

dynasties.
the texts

which

chapters

and
on

dynasties

well

coffins of Amamu,

representedby the Sen, and Guatep in the


it is
"

painted
Museum
these

British
both the

(Nos. 6654, 30839, 30841), but


the
EM no

so-called
HRU,

"

Pyramid
extracts
a

Texts
from few

possiblethat all belonged to


The
texts
"

and

work Texts
"

Per-t have the

and

are

it.
the

Pyramid
on

but illustrations, and Xllth


to the

of
have to

the

cofhns

of

Xlth which his way


the

dynasties
the

coloured traversed
the

vignettes,e.g., by
the

those
on or

refer
to

region
On
the

be and

deceased Blessed

Other

World,

Islands of the
of the

Elysian
of

Fields.
are

upper

margins
two
or

insides of such
of coloured

coffins there

frequently given offeringswhich


deceased
"

more

rows

drawings presented
of the the

the

under
statue Mouth
"

the

Vth

dynasty
the

were

to

the of

or

his
the

during
and
of
use

celebration

service

Opening
of

the

performance Offerings."
the scribes
em hru
were

of

ceremonies
the

"The

Liturgy
when
the somewhat of

Funerary
of

Under coffins

XVIIIth

dynasty,
feU

largerectangular
Per-t

and
to of

sarcophagi papyri

into from
At

disuse,
the

began
on

wTite

collections instead

Chapters
on

roUs

of

coffins.

first the of
them

texts

written black

in

hieroglyphs,the
an

greater number
made
The

being
text

in
a

ink, and

attempt

was

to illustrate each

by

vignette drawn
such
a

in black is the feet

outline.

finest known
Mus. (Brit.
i

example
No.

of

codex
is 77

Papyrus
inches
in the

of Nebseni

9900),
in

which
breadth. the red

7J
in

length

and

foot

ij

inches

Early
the the

XVIIIth
the
,

dynasty
and

scribes the

began

to write in
to

titles of ink and


the

Chapters
text

rubrics, and

catchwords

in

black,
codex which

it became
to

customary
their

decorate

vignettes with
The No.

colours, and
of

increase

size of

and Nu and
were

number.

oldest

this class is the

Papyrus
in other

(Brit.Mus.
I

10477)

is

65
This

feet

3J

inches
many

length,
rolls in each
same a

foot

i| inches

in breadth.
owners

and

written
text

by
and

their

for their

own

tombs,
the the work
text

and

roll both hand. skilled

vignettes were
the scribe
to

usually
wrote the add

of the

Later, however,
artist
was

only, and

employed

coloured

vignettes,for

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

which The

spaces finest

were

marked
of

out

and

left blank

by

the

scribe.
of Ani

example

this class of roll is the

Papyrus

-Xw-^l*

*".""

xn

^1
rn
"
" "

.-tcr

jttHM^

m ^
text

Vignetteand
Dead

text

of the the

Tl..

wt

ihe

Vignette and
Dead

ol the the

Theb.i;.

i;w.,., .;i ilic

from

[Brit.Mus., No.

Papynis of Nu. 10477.] XVI I Ith dynasty

from

[Brit.Mus., No.

Papyrus of Ani. 10470.] XVI 11ih dynasty.


i

(Brit. Mus.,
3 inches

No.

10470), which
In all

in breadth.

yS feet in length and papyri of this class the


is

foot is

text
c

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

written

in

hieroglyphs, but
many

under written character

the- XlXth

and
in

following
hieratic lack

dynasties

papyii

are

throughout
;

the

these but

usually
have

vignettes,
Under Priests
were

coloured

frontispieces.
the of rule of
many

the

High

Amen

changes
contents

introduced

into
the

the

of the
of

papyri, and
texts
em

arrangement
the

the

and
hru

vignettes of
was

Per-t

altered.

The

of great confraternity
the
"

Amen-Ra,
to the

King

of the
to

Gods," felt it

be

necessary of

emphasize god,
even

supremacy
the

their
of

in

Kingdom
many
to

Osiris, and
litanies
to from
was

they
and

added

prayers, the

h3nTins
selection Per-t
on a

Sun-god
texts that

every
the

of
hru

the

em

copied

roll of papyrus The this

for

funerary
of
are

purposes.
the

greater number

rolls of contain

period
a

short

and

only

few
of

Chapters,
the

e.g., the Mother No.

Papyrus
Netchemet and

Royal
Mus. of

(Brit.
the

10541) 10478).
very

Papyrus (Brit.
the

Queen
No. is

Netchemet In
some

Mus.
text

defective
the

and

carelessly vignettes
size and of

written, but
are

coloured
for their

remarkable
;

beauty
finest
Vignette and
of the Dead
No.

of

this is

class
the

roll the
of

example (Brit.

Papyrus
No.

Anhai
Chapter of the Book
written in hieratic

Mus.

10472).

The that

most
were

of interesting written Priest-

all the rolls the rule

for Heru-em-heb.

[Brit. Mus.,

XXVIth

10257.] dynasty,

during
over

or

later.

of

the

Kings

Upper

Egypt
No.

is the
now

Papyrus

of Princess
known

Nesitanebtashru
as

(Brit.Mus.

10554),

commonly

the

"

Greenfield

Papyrus."

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

"I-

"

a a

1?

"^

"

."

ex

uj

(^

00

1*

"c

c^

10

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

It it
more

is the
measures

longest
123

and

widest

funerary papyrus^ known,


foot

for

feet

by
other

6J inches,
Adorations
The

and and

it

contains

Chapters, Hymns,
the

Litanies, roll.

Homages
from
the

to

gods
em

than

any

^y Chapters
the to

Per-t
to

hru

which cult able of

it contains

prove
the

tion devoprincess's

the
was

Osiris, and
to

Hymns
and She

Amen-Ra
not
as

show

that

she
as

regard
the

this

god god.

Osiris

rivals
the
was

but
"

two
"

aspects
creative form

of

same

believed

that

hidden

power of the which


em
hru

which power
was

was

materialized

in Amen

only
and

another

of

procreation, renewed
Osiris.
on

birth

resurrection
the Per-t

typified by
which
we

The

oldest contain
as

copiesof
a
"

have

papyrus
such

few Book

extracts

from

other the
"

ancient

funerary works,
the
"

the

of

Opening
the

Mouth,"
of the
the
hru

Liturgy

of But

Funerary
under with
the the

and Offerings," rule of


the

Book

Two

Ways."
from
the
"

PriestPer-t
"

Kings
em

scribes
extracts

incorporated
Book

Chapters
Tuat
"

of the
the

of Ami-

and

Book

of Gates," and
on

several of the

of the

vignettes
tombs
of

and

texts

that

are

found

the

walls

royal
at

Thebes. One found of the in the


most

remarkable of

texts

written which

this is
now

period is
in
of
a

Papyrus

Nesi-Khensu,
This been
the the

the
tract con-

Egyptian
which and

Museum

in Cairo.
to have

is

really the
between

copy

is declared
"

made

Nesi-Khensu

Amen-Ra,
for the interests
her there
a

the

holy god,

lord of all the queen,


the

gods."
devotion undertakes
her of with

As

reward the
make estate

great piety of of Amen-Ra upon


in

and

her

to
to
an

earth,

god

goddess
in

his

kingdom,
a

to

provide
and
"

and
upon

perpetuityand happiness of heart, soul


earth

supply never-failing body,


of Ra the for the The

offerings,

and

[daily]recital
benefit of her
contract
was

of the

"

Seventy Songs
or

soul

in the
up

Khert-Neter,
a

Under

World.
in

drawTi

in

series of
who

paragraphs
beHeved

legalphraseology by
had
the

the

priestsof Amen,
their

they

power

of

making
after the the

god

do

as

they pleasedwhen
of the

they pleased.
the

Little is known downfall rule of the


of the

history of
the

Per-t

em

hru

priestsof Amen,
but under

and

during
the

the

period of

Nubians,

kings of
is

XXVIth

dynasty
No.
i

The

Mus.

No.

longest papyrus 9999) ; it measures

in

the 133

world

Papyrus
foot

Harris
inches.

(Brit.

feet

by

4^

ISMS

"l^

^Br^^J"'^^^^C"^^!^4^^;^gl)^'liro^ i^f^^.^l3^i3^{|\-^i:^!l?il!r^H^ g^^-n"^i^^efeijir3w;^j"^si-^i' '5i:

!SiiMiai^Sifiii^^i;v]3i"
mBmmmm^^] WMmm^muimwmA:.^
be.

l]i;^VviHlMi1i!BM5ilHW'.^

^zt^mm-v

"\\\i\-Xu:]^M^.-\l

12

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

the

Book

enjoyed
both in

great vogue.
and in black

Many
; and

funerary
were

rolls

were

\\Titten with

hieroglyphs

hieratic, and

decorated the

vignettesdrawn

outline

about

this time

"*,

tx

^3

(U

ON

"So

CQ

scribes But
HRU men as

began
no

to

write

funerary
under

texts

in the

demotic
from XlXth the

character. Per-t
em

longer copied long


had done the

selections

they

XVIIIth,

and

XXth

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

13

of the Egyptians views religious number had a undergone a great change, and partly because of a more had appeared. of Books of the Dead popular character

dynasties, partly because

the

The

cult
the

of Osiris

was

triumphant everywhere,
litanies which
to the

and his

men

ferred pre-

hymns
of Ra of
was

and

dealt

with
which

sufferings,
absolute
4-1

death

and

resurrection

compositionsin
,

the

supremacy his and solar

and
v

ix-

cycle

gods
sumed as-

goddesses
or
"

proclaimed.
tions Lamenta"

Thus, in the
of "Festival and
"

Isis

and of

the Isis the

Songs
of
"

Nephthys," and
the Book

Litanies

Seker,"
of

and

Honouring Osiris," etc., the central figure is


Osiris, and
he
as

alone the

is

regarded
of

giver

life. The everlasting dead were no longer buried of with

large
the in

rolls

papyrus of

filled with Per-t their small


"

Chapters
EM HRU

laid

coffins, but
sheets
or on

with

:\^

stripsof
which the
or

pyrus, pawere

inscribed

above the the


A

compositions,
shorter
"

texts

of

1:
copy of
a

Book the

of

Breathings,"
of Traor

Book

of the
name

Dead

entitled Roman

May

my

or

"Book

flourish 1 "

Mus., No. 10,304.] [Brit.

Period.

versing Eternity,"
the" Book
of the Last Ancient
EM HRU
was

of

May

my

name

or flourish,"

part

of the

"

Chapter

Judgment."
Per-t Egyptian tradition asserts that the Book the papyri and used eariy in the 1st dynasty, and the Roman

coffins of

Period

afford

evidence

that

the

native

14

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

Egyptians
contained
many
seems

still in it.

accepted During
were

all the
the

essential

beliefs and
years

doctrines

four thousand
to

of its existence of the

additions
to have

made

it, but
from

nothing
it.

importance
space
here

been

taken

away

In

available

it is

impossibleto

describe

in detail the

various

sions Recenand
to

of this work, viz.,(i) the its various sketch


may

(2)the Heliopolitan,
Saite ; but it is

Theban

forms, and
main from

(3) the
facts
them

proposed

brieflythe
be deduced

Egyptian Religion which the and especiallyfrom generally,


the contents
as a

of the

Theban

Recension, and
No
one

to indicate
can

of the final

principal authority,
of the
and the

Chapters.
for
no

papyrus

be

cited

payprus

contains

all the in
no

Chapters,
two

190
are

in

number,

Theban sequence

Recension, and
of the
same.

papyri

the

selection of

or Chapters identical,

is the

treatment

the vignettes

IV.

Thoth,

the

Author

of

the

Book

of

the

Dead.

Thoth,

in
^

Egyptian
has
,

Tchehuti

or

Tehuti,

"^ f^ ^ r^
as

or

v\

J| who
that form the the

already been
Per-t
to
em

mentioned
hru,
or

the

author

of the texts
was

the

Book the

of the heart and

Dead,
mind in

believed

by
of

Egyptians
Creator,
called
"

have
was

been in

who the

very

early
"

times and

Egypt

by

natives
was

"Pautti,"
also the voiced

by
"

foreigners
of the

Ra."

Thoth
he
at

tongue
the

of the Creator, and

all times
the

will
manded com-

great god, and


every

spoke
and

words

which

being
into
once

thing

in heaven His words

and
were

in

earth

to

come

existence.
never

almighty and
Tehuti

uttered
the

remained
which
are

without
earth he

(Thoth). effect.

He

framed

laws

by

heaven,

and ordered
the
courses

all the of and


the

heavenly
sun,

bodies and

maintained;

moon,

stars ; he

invented

drawing
the
art

and of

design

the the

arts, the
science

letters of the
of

alphabet and
At
a

writing,and

mathematics.

very

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

15

earlyperiodhe
Company
of
was

was

called the

"

of the Great scribe (or secretary)


as

of
words

the

Gods,"
deeds many
the the Law

and of

he he

kept

the

celestial register

the

and

men,

regarded by

generations "Recording
inventor and became
; and

of

Egyptians as was Angel." He physicaland moral


the
as

of

of Justice personification the

Companies
and

of

the

Gods
the

of

Heaven,
World words verdicts
more

Earth, and
him
"

Other
the

appointed
and
were

to

"

weigh
and
he

deeds

of

men,

his

unalterable,
in the

became World owed his

powerful
over

Other

than

Osiris himself. Set


of

Osiris

triumph
the mouth

in the Gods of

Great

Hall skill
"

the Thoth

Judgment entirelyto
**

of
as an

the and in

wise his
Set, the Arch- Liar and
of Evil.

Advocate,
the

to

influence And
every

with

gods
of

heaven. relied

god

follower

Osiris

upon
of in

the

advocacy
and

of Thoth
to

to secure

his
an

on acquittal

the

Day

Judgment, the Kingdom

procure

for him

everlastinghabitation

of Osiris.

V. Thoth The the texts Great wished and


to
and

Osiris.
the of possession being weighed in the
mere

Egyptians were
of Thoth, in
to

not

satisfied with their souls Hall


were

when

Scales Thoth prove

the
act

Judgment
as

of

Osiris, but
on

they

also

their Advocate
as

this dread that

occasion
of Osiris

their

innocence in

he

had

proved

According to a very ancient Egyptian tradition, the god Osiris, who was originally of the fertility of the Nile, became the god of the principle
incarnate the
one on

before

the great

gods

times. prehistoric

earth

as

the had

son

of Geb,

the

Earth-god,
and

and

Nut,

Sky-goddess.
brother, Set
set Osiris on ;

He he

two

sisters,Isis
Isis and Set

married
of

Nephthys, and married Nephthys


was

Geb

the throne

Egypt, and

his rule

beneficent

16

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

and and
so

the

nation
very

was

happy

and

prosperous. and
take

Set
wished

marked
to

this

became
that he

jealous of
devoted
some

his brother,

slay him

might

seize his throne


a

and

possession of Isis,
and able manager contrive
to

whose

reputation as
country.
:

and
means

loving wife
or

filled the
kill Osiris

By

other he

Set did

according
at

to

one

story
,

killed him

by

the

side

of
to

canal

Netat,
caused
him

(I
to

near

Abydos,

and

according

another
her

he

be
to

drowned. Netat
the

Isis, accompanied
rescued the
a

by
her

sister

Nephthys,
the two

went

and

body
son

of of

lord, and
the

sisters,with
it. grew

help
then

of

Anpu,

Ra

Sun-god,
and
a

embalmed
tree

They
round is found laid of in

laid the

body

in
over

tomb,
the

sycamore A tradition

it and

flourished

grave.
that

which
was means

in the his

Pyramid
his wife

Texts

states

before

Osiris

tomb,

Isis,
ceeded suc-

by
and
was

her

magical
of her After
to

powers,

in made

him restoring him

to life temporarily,
an

beget

heir, who
burial of in forth

called

Horus.

the
the

Osiris, Isis retreated


the

marshes

Delta, and
In order
on

there

she

brought
the

Horus. of in
she

to avoid
one

persecution
succeeded
a

Set, who

occasion
the

Horus killing fled from lived


a

by

sting of

scorpion,
Delta,
some

place to place
very

in the life for

and

unhappy helped

years.

But

Thoth and

her her

in all her with Horus unharmed


other the to

difliculties words

provided
which
her to

of power enabled
the that at that

restored pass and


the

life, and
among
beasts
Horus of Edfu Crocodile

crocodiles infested time.

evil of
the

waters

spearingthe
(?)Set. he set
out

Delta

When
to

Horus

arrived
to

at
war
a

years

of

maturity,
his father's

find

Set

and

wage
and

against fight finally right eye


was

murderer.

At Set he

length they
was

met

fierce
was

ensued,
hurled
to

and
the

though ground,

defeated
in after
was

before

he

succeeded
Even

tearing out
this

the

of Horus
to

and

keeping
and

it.

fight Set
to

able it

persecute Isis,

Horus

powerless

prevent

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

17

until he and

Thoth

made

Set off.

give
Thoth

him

the

right eye
brought
restored
out

of Horns eye
to to

which

had

carried
it

then

the

Horus,
it

replaced spitting upon


order
to

in

his

face, and
then
to

sight
the

by

it.

Horus it up
so

sought
life,and
Osiris

body
he

of

Osiris it he

in

raise

when

found his Horus

untied and
a

the rise up.

bandages
Under

that

might
of Thoth

move

limbs,
recited

the
as

direction

series of formulas

he

presented offeringsto
Sons
of

Osiris, and

The

Four

Horus.

Mesta.

HSpi.
sons

Tuamutcf.

Qebhsennuf. ceremonies
and the which
ears

he and

his the

and

Anubis and

performed

the

opened

mouth,

and nostrils,

the eyes

of

PMim\iiiiiniimiiiii\llllllllHllllliiiii'||||||iiiiim

Anubis

standingby

the bier of the dead.


D 2

18

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

Osiris.

He
own

embraced

Osiris

and

so

transferred and virility,


Set and eye

to

him gave

his him

ka,
his

i.e.,his
eye in

hving personality and


Thoth As
soon

which
his face.

had
as a

rescued Osiris soul

from had
and
eaten

had
of

replaced
Horus
recovered he

the

became

endowed
the

with
use

vital power,

and

thereby
had became Osiris
the

complete
Lord of

of all his mental he


rose

faculties,which
up of

death and

suspended.
the became
the

Straightway
the Dead

from the

his bier Under

and

King
of
he

World. among
who

type

and

symbol
had

resurrection
was a

Egyptians

of all

periods, because
and

god

had

been

a originally

mortal

risen from
of the

the dead. World


a

But further

before

Osiris became

King
Set.

Under

he

suffered
of
seems
"

persecutionfrom
hints
and that

Piecing together
in the
to
or

number

disconnected

brief statements Osiris

texts, it
"

pretty clear either


to

appealed
him,
At

the that the

Great Set

Gods

take

notice

that

Set had

murdered

brought
Gods and

a
"

series of

charges against Osiris.


to

all events
The

"

Great

determined
Lesser

investigatethe
of the Gods Osiris ordered

matter.

Greater

the
or

Companies
the

assembled
to

in the up him

celestial Anu, defend Set.

and Heliopolis,

stand

and

himself Isis and


"

against

charges brought brought


him

against
the
to

by
and
case

Nephthys
avenger
of

before
came

gods,
the

Horus,
on

the

his

father,"
Thoth
"

watch

behalf

of
in and

his father, Osiris. his official the


his

appeared began. repeated


defence

in the

Hall

of
to to

Judgment
the have

capacity
the

as

scribe,"i.e., secretary
Set
the
seems

gods,
he

hearing of
own

evidence
to

pleaded
had

cause,

and

have The

charges
was

which

made

against Osiris.
who

of

Osiris

undertaken

by

Thoth,
Osiris

proved
Set that
were

to

the

gods

that that

the the
a

charges brought against


statements The the of

by

unfounded,
Set

Set

were

lies, and
Thoth's ordered

therefore
the

was

liar.

gods accepted guiltof Set, and


God
that and
to

proof of
that the

innocence

of Osiris and
a

Osiris

was

to be considered

Great

have
to
maa

rule
be

over

Kingdom
Thoth ^

of the

Under

World, and
that

Set
was

was
"

punished.

convinced

them ^^

Osiris

KHERU,"

^
the

I^^'
when he

"^^"^

word,"

that i.e., in texts


kheru

he

had of all

spoken
periods

truth is

gave

his evidence, and


as

Thoth

frequently

described

S-maa

Asar,

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

19

1 ^^ 1
of word."

IV
As Great

9r

^^ AJ\'^'^'' the

^^^"
was

proved
seized
on as a

Osiris to be

''

true

for Set

Liar, he
him
his

by

the

ministers
and

of the and and beast

Gods,

who

threw

down
back
was

his hands mark with


was

face

made

Osiris mount

upon this

of his cords

victory
hke
a

superiority.After
for sacrifice, and

Set

bound

in the presence

of Thoth

hacked

in

pieces.

Vf.

Osiris

as

Judge

of

the

Dead World.

and

King

of

the

Under

When the
over

Set

was

destroyed Osiris departed


the
was

from and

this world

to

kingdom
the dead.

which He
was

gods

had

given
of the

him

began

to

reign
Ra the

absohite

king of

this realm, This

just as

the

Sun-god
or

absolute

king

sky.

region of
"

dead,
^

Dead-land, is called
^"*
"

"Tat,"

^=^^ ^"
it of

or

Tuat,"
situated
was

^^

where The

the

Egyptians thought

was

,"-,

is not

quite clear.
a

oiiginalhome by
over

the cult of Osiris


was

in the Delta, in the


to
near

city which
Busiris

in historic times the

called Tetu

by

Egyptians
assume

and the

Greeks, and
Osiris
was

it is reasonable situated

that

Tuat,

which it

ruled, was
its confines

this
not

it
was

was

it was place. Wherever in the sky or originally


on

not
on

underground, and
;

even

but

it

located

the
Tuat

borders
was

of
a

the

visible world, in the

Outer

Darkness. the When


"

The

not

placeof happiness, judging from


em

descriptionof
Ani ?

it in the

Per-t
there

hru,
"

or

Book

of the Dead. is this to which

the scribe arrived


come

he said,
water
as

What

I have

There it is

is neither
as

nor

air here, its

depth
men

"

is unfathomable, wander be about

dark

the
man

darkest
cannot

night, and
live here

'*

here
he

helplessly.A
cannot

and
"

"

and satisfied,

gratify the cravingsof


there
was

affection
nor

(Chapter CLXXV).
for it times
was

In the Tuat land


where

neither tree
"

plants
where horror

the
was a

"

nothing

grew and

; and
a

in

primitive

it

region
and

of destruction
a

death,

place
and

the dead and

rotted

decayed,

placeof abomination,
But in very

terror, and

annihilation.

earlytimes, certainly

20

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

in the
a

Neolithic and life,

Period,

the

Egyptians
conceived upon

believed
that the

in

some

kind

of of

future life
who

they dimly
to

the

attainment

that those

might possibly depend

manner

of life which
"

hoped
loved

enjoy
God

it led here. when of the


the

The

Egyptians
himself

hated

death them
the
a

and
that

and life,"

belief

gained ground gods


of heaven
men

among

Osiris,the
had

Dead,

had

risen from after


women

dead, and

been
had

acquitted by
the
"

the
"

and searching trial,

power
renew

to

make
"

and
of the

to be

born

again," and
God
of the

to

life

because
him
as

his

truth
as

and well

righteousness,they
as

came

to

regard
time
the who

Judge
moral it became
as

the

Dead.

As among those

went

on,

and

and

religious ideas
certain their
to

developed
that

Egyptians,
had
satisfied

them

only

Osiris could

to

truth-speaking and
into his

honest

dealingupon

earth

hope

for admission When

kingdom. predominant righteous judge


and
all
men

the power his fame among

of Osiris became
as a

in the became

Under well it

World, and
established
was

just and
that

the

natives

of Lower after death


of

Upper Egypt,
would
to

universallybelieved
him
or more

appear their

before reward

in

his

dread

Hall of doom.

Judgment
The

receive

their sentence than and

writers
ago. not

of the

Pyramid
of
a

Texts,
when
had

centuries fifty-five
earth

dreamed

time

heaven not
a
D

and

men

did death

exist,when
not been

the

gods

yet been
0^
'l^
"="

born, when
D
^

had

created,

P==;i

P? =S=

^^

\ \ \

k P I "111 -^SSTK'
speech (?),cursing
time
was

^""i "i^^'^ unknown.^


the

^"g*^^that took

and

rebellion
and

were

But

very

remote,
Horns and

long
when

before
the

great fight
lost his eye

place between
the

Set,
in
a

former

and

latter had
man

was come a

wounded
into the

vital part of his


and since

body.

Meanwhile Osiris
lasting evermass

death

world,
from

the the

religionof promise
to

gave

hope

of escape

death, and
that

of

life of the
of the

peculiarHnd
over

appealed
of the

the

great

Egyptian people,the spread triumph


the

cult of Osiris and


were

its

ultimate Under

all forms
the

of

in Egypt religion

assured. of

early dynasties

priesthood of Anu
11. 664 and
662.

(the On

Pyramid

of

Pepi I,

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

21

the

Bible)
but

strove

to

make of this

their

Sun-god

Ra

pre-eminent
to

in
as

Egypt,
a

the It
was

cult

god by

never

appealed
Pharaohs,
the

the

people
their

whole.

embraced of
but
was

the

and

high

officials,and
official

some

the

nobles, and
reward

priesthood,
offered

the
not

which with

its doctrine the in

popular
A life

materialistic the Boat in of

Egyptians.
Ra and with fed
the

passed

gods, being light, made

arrayed
no

light
to

upon

appeal
them

the
as a

ordinary folk since Osiris


reward Field of
a

offered of

life in the of

Field
of

Reeds,
and

and
the

the

Offerings

Food,
and and

Field

the in

Grasshoppers,
a

everlasting existence
beatified of

transmuted resurrected wife and

body

among and

the

bodies

father

mother,
friends.
to

children, kinsfolk

and

But,
wicked,
the

as

according
rebels, and
suffered all

the the

cult

of Ra,

the of

the

blasphemers
final had

Sun-god
so

swift those

and who

ment, punishsinned
Ra the

also
stem

against
who had the

the

moral
to

Law

of Osiris, and

Sun-god.

failed

satisfy its

demands,
The

paid
at

penalty

without the

delay.
were

Judgment
into and Osiris

of

Ra

was

held filled
sumed con-

sunrise, and fire,and

wicked

thrown

deep pits
hearts took
were

with

their

bodies,
The

souls, shadows
of

forthwith.

Judgment

place

near

Abydos, probably
was

at
on

midnight, and\'i decree


the damned.
was

of swift heads
were

annihilation
cut

passed by
headsman their
was

him

Their called and

off

by
"

the and

of Osiris, who bodies


no

Shesmu,
__

1\
in

^ ^
of
were

dismembered

destroyed

pits
wicked
as

fire.

There

eternal

punishment
and

for men,
;

for the inasmuch destruction

annihilated in

quickly
and

completely
the
never

but
to

Osiris

sat the

judgment
of

doomed

wicked ceased.

daily,

inffiction

punishment

22

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

VII.
The

Judgment

of

Osiris. that the the

The

oldest the

texts religious

suggest
with

Egyptians always
of the the heart of of the Book

associated
in the
a

Last

Judgment
in the is

weighing papyri
to

pair of scales,and
Dead

illustrated

great prominence

always given
carried
out.

vignettes in
heart, ah

which
was

this
as

weighing
the

is

being

The

y*

taken

symbol
evil, and

of all the emotions, desires,and


out of

passions,
of life. double
Book

both
It
or was

good

and

it

proceeded
the

the

issues

intimately connected
a

with
and

ka, ^
short

the i.e., the

personalityof
em hru were

man,

several
to ensure

in spells

Per-t

composed
The into

its preservation(Chapters
of the

XXVI-XXXb).
the

great Chapter
three

Judgment
are

of Osiris, sometimes

CXXVth,
the

is divided
of the the

parts, which
a was

(as in

Papyrus
entered
:

Ani) prefaced by
which following, Hall
of

Hymn
said
which

to

Osiris.
the

The

first part contains when


he

by

deceased
sat

Maati, in

Osiris

in

judgment
" *'

Homage
thee, O

to

thee, O Great

God, Lord
I may
name,

of Maati,^ I have

come

to

my

Lord,
I know

that

behold and
the

thy
names

beneficence.
of the who of

"

know Two
over

thee, and
who

thy

Fortyward

"

live with

thee

in the
their
.

Hall blood
. .

of Maati,
on

keep

"

sinners, and
before
I have

feed upon Un-Nefer^

the

day

estimating
come

"

characters

Behold,

I have

to

"

thee, and
I have I have the
not

brought

maat

truth, integrity)to (i.e.,


I have
not

thee.

"

destroyed
not truth.

sin for thee.

sinned done

against men.
no

*'

oppressed [my]
I have I have have not not

kinsfolk.
not not

I have

wrong

in

"

place of

known

worthless
the

folk.

I have

"

\\Tought
his. goods.

evil.
I

defrauded
the
a

oppressed one
that his the master.

"of
"

done

things
to

gods
I I

abominate.
not

I have caused
no one

vilified
I have

servant

"have "have
"

pain.
to

not

let any
not

man

hunger.
murder. I have

made
not

weep.
any

I have
to commit

committed
for
me.

I have

commanded
on no
man.

murder
not

"

inflicted

pain
1

I have

defrauded

the

temples

I.e., Truth,
A
name

or

Law,

in

double

aspect.

of Osiris.

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

23

"of

their

oblations.
not not

I have stolen
the

not

purloined the
the

cakes

of

the

"gods.
"dead).
"

I have I have

offeringsto
the

the (i.e., spirits

committed

fornication.

I have

not

poladd

luted
not
to

myself

in the from

holy placesof
the

god

of my take
on

city.
from the the

I have
or

"

diminished
the
acre-measure.

bushel.
not
to

I did

not

"

I did
not the

encroach

fields scales.
not

[of
I

"others].
"

I have misread the

added

the
the

weights
scales. I have

of

have

not

pointer of
of

I have
not

taken cattle

"

milk from I have

from

mouths

children.
not

driven of the I have


cut the

"

their pastures.
not

I have fish with it should

snared

the birds kind.


not

gods.
not

"

caught
[when
I have altered

fish of

their

"

stopped water
of
a

flow].
of the

I have

dam burn.

"

canal.
not not not

not

extinguished a
times the cattle
at
am

fire when
meat

it should

"

I have have

the away

chosen

offerings. I
I I
am

"

turned

[intended for] offerings.


."
. .

"have
"

repulsed the god


I
am

his appearances. pure.

pure.

am

pure.

pure.

In the second
one

part of Chapter CXXV

Osiris is

seen

seated

at

end

of the and

Hall of MaSti the

accompanied Forty-Two

by goda

the two who


are

goddesses
there
to

of Law

Truth, and
Each of the and has

assist him.
nomes

Forty-Two
a

gods represents one


When
doors of the
rows,

of the

of

Egypt
saw

symbolic name.
names

the deceased

had

repeated the magical


it and side these the each of Hall. the

of the

Hall, he

entered
on

gods arranged
At the of

in two
near

twenty-one
the
the

end,

Osiris, were
and hearts of

Great
monster

Scales, under

charge

Anpu (Anubis),
Dead,
of i.e.,
the

Amemit,
who

the
were

Eater

of the

of

the The

kicked deceased

condemned

in

the

Judgment
he had

Osiris. of the
mitted com-

advanced

along the
his name,
:

Hall and, declared

addressing each
not

Forty-Two
a

gods by

that

certain

sin, thus
comer

"

Usekh-nemmit,
sin.

forth from

Anu,

I have

not

committed

"

O O O

Fenti, comer Neha-hau, Neba,


comer

forth from
comer

Khemenu,
from

I have

not

robbed.
not

"

forth forth in

Re-stau, I have
have
not

killed

men.

"

retreating,I
Hensu,

plundered
lied.
not

the

property of God.
"

O O

comer Set-qesu,

forth from forth from

I have

not

"

Uammti,
man's

comer

Khebt,

I have

defiled any

wife.

24

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

"

Maa-anuf,

comer

forth

from

Per-Menu,

I have

not

defiled

myself.
*'

O O

Tem-Sep,

comer comer

forth from

Tetu,

I have

not

cursed
I have

the not

king.
acted

*'

Nefer-Tem,

forth from I have forth


not from

Het-ka-Ptah,

deceitfully ;
*'

committed

wickedness.
I have
not

Nekhen,
ear

comer

Heqat,
Law

turned

deaf

to

the of

words
most

of the

(or Truth)."

The but
as were

names

of the
the

Forty-Two
of Him
the that

gods
about

are

not the the the

ancient,
time and

invented
names

by
the

priestsprobably

same

the

in

Book

is in and

Tuat

the

Book

of

between Gates, i.e., Their

Xllth is shown

XVIIIth
ings. mean"

dynasties.
Thus Fenti members
means
"

artificial character
means

by

their

Usekh-nemmit
"

"He
"

of the
means

long
"

strides

He

of the

Nose

; Neha-hau

Stinkingetc. The

Set-qesu

"

means

Breaker second and

of

bones,"
the

early Egyptologists Chapter by


In the which
the the

called

the

part of
it is

CXXVth

"Negative Confession,"
inexact title to this CXXVth
to the

known generally

this somewhat third

day. Chapter
comes

part

of the

the

address his

deceased of the
"

made

gods

after he
the

had

declared

innocence
He
*'

sins enumerated
to

before
ye

Forty-Two
dwell in your
Let my
me

gods.
Hall
not

says

Homage
I know

you, and

gods

who

of Maati. fall under


to the

you

I know

your

names.

^'

your
of

knives. slaughtering
the

Bring
ye

not
are.

wickedness Let
not the

"

notice

god

whose
come

followers under
your
me

""

affair

[of my
Law

judgment]
the

jurisdiction. Speak
before
Ta-mera

"''yethe
"for
"'

(or truth) concerning


Law
the

Neb-er-tcher,^ {i.e., Egypt).


came

performed
not of the

(or, truth) in
God.
No

I have the
are

blasphemed king
who ye

affair of mine

under
ye who

^'

notice in your live


on

in his

day.
truth

Homage
no

to you,

"

Hall

of Maati, who
eat
me

have

lies in your

bodies,
dweller
the

"'who "in
'"

truth,

before Babai-

Horus,
who

the

his disk, deliver

from
on
^

liveth Great
!

upon

entrails of the

mighty
"

ones

the

day

of the
me

Reckoning
come

^'

(Apt a
'

at,

(]fl^^^
"

)" Behold
Hmit of

I have

I.e., the

Lord

to

the

uttermost

everything,"
to
one

or

God. the

'

J^^'^.'^^'^^ ^Hr^
'

^"

^^

according

legend

firstborn

son

of Osiris.

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

25

"

to

you

without

sin, without
I have not

deceit
done
an

(?),without

without evil,
I live upon the

"

false
truth

testimony (?)
and
I feed the

thing. [evil]

'*

upon

truth. that

I have

performed
I have
to the

behests proto the


a

"of
"

men,

and

things
the

satisfythe gods.^
will.

I have bread

the pitiated

God
to

[by doing] His

given

"

hungry,
to

water

raiment thirsty,
one.

naked, and

boat the
ye

**

him

that

needed

I have

made
the

holy offeringsto
beatified dead.
no

"-

gods,
then tion and
saw

and
my

offeringsto sepulchral
saviours, be
before
ye my the

Be
accusa-

"

protectors,and
Great God. I been
"

make pure said

"

againstme
clean
*

am

of mouth, those who

"

of hands Come

; therefore
come

it hath in

by
"

"

me,

in peace, then upon


name

peace.'
says, Lord
save

The
"

deceased
art

addresses

Osiris,and
thou

Hail,

thou

who

exalted whose

thy standard,
is *Lord with

of the
me

Atefu

"Crown,
"

of Winds,' uncovered

from
who

thy

Messengers (or Assessors) charges


of evil and the Law make

faces,

bring
I have Law

"

shortcomings
for the with

plain,because
Lord of the

"performed
"Truth).
"

(or Truth)

(or
my in

I have been of

myself purified
cleansed with There the
as

washings
my member follow the

in water,

back

hath Pool

salt,and
is not
a

inner of

parts
mine

are

"the
"

Truth. From
seems

that

lacketh

truth."
of Nu it

lines that

above

in the

though the judgment by the Forty-Two gods v\^s preliminaryto the of Osiris. At all events, after questioninghim Papyrus
of certain Hall
the

of the deceased final about


to

judgment
the enter

formance perthe

ceremonies, they
when he
was

invited
to do

him
so

of Maati, but

about

the and

porter,and
its frame,

door-bolts, and
the

the various
to

parts of the door


to enter

and

refused floor,

permit him
When he had

until he had these

repeated
correctly
the of And
am am

their

magical names.
him Thoth himself.

the porter took


was

in and When
"

pronounced presentedhim to Maau


asked
come
"

who (?)-Taui,
come

by

him

why

he had be

deceased me."

answered,
Then Thoth

I have

that is

report may thy


condition evil

made
"

said,
"

What

the deceased
"

replied,
On

am

purifiedfrom
who

things,I days
walls
;

free
not

from
one

the wickedness of them."

of those this Thoth

lived in my
"

"

said,

Thou

shalt be

reported.
are

"

[Tellme

:]Who

is he whose

roof is fire,whose

living

"

I.e., I have

kept

the

Moral

and

Divine

Law.

C/2

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

27

"

serpents, and
he ?
"

whose

floor

is

stream
"

of

water

Wlio

is

*'

The forward that

deceased
to

ha\dng repUed god Osiris, who


should be

Osiris," Thoth him, and


from

then

led him

the

received

mised prothe

subsistence

provided
Dead Last

for him

Eye

of Ra.

In great

papyri

of the

Book

of the

such

as

those
or

of the

Nebseni,
*'

Nu,

Ani, Hunefer,
is made

etc., the
the
most

Judgment,
scene

Great

Reckoning,"
work, and
the most

prominent
it is

in the several

whole feet

long.

The may

vignettein which complete form of


thus
on

depicted is
end of the made

it is given in the
one a

Papyrus
Hall of in the.

of Ani, and Maati form

be

described
a

At

Osiris is seated of
a one

throne

withm him

shrine

funerarycoffer
side of the

; behind

stand the

Isis and

Nephthys.

Along
Tem,
Hu the these headed and
"

Hall

are

seated

gods Harmachis,
these formed

Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Isis and Saa, who


are

Nephthys, Horus, Hathor, jury ;


"

to

serve

as

the divine of
on

Great
stands ape

Company
the

of

the

Gods

Ami
its

Great

Balance, and

By (Heliopolis). sits the dogpillar


of Thoth. The

Astes, or

Astenu,
is in the

the

associate

pointerof
are

the and

charge of Anpu. Behind Anpu Thoth the scribe of the gods, and the monster Amemit, with of a crocodile, the forepaws and head shoulders of a lion, the hindquarters of a hippopotamus ; the duty of the lastthe Balance
was

named

to eat

up

the

hearts Balance bent the

that

were

lightin

the

balance.

On
is

the other
seen

side of the uith

Ani, accompanied by his wife,


low
two

standing
and the

head stand

in adoration, and

between
nurse

him
rear a

Balance

goddesses who body,


and

and of

children, Meskhenet hawk,


was a

and

Rennet, Ani's soul, in the form


of his his luck

man-headed

portion

Shai.

Since the heart


reason feeling,

considered

to be the seat

of all will,emotion,

and the

Ani's intelHgence, in the

heart,
other

"O*, is

seen

in

one

pan

of

Balance, and
and

is the

feather, [J,
was

symbolic
the Book
'*

of truth

righteousness. Whilst
of addressed of my
me

his heart XXXb heart of


my

in the my

Balance
of the
!
no

Ani, repeating the words Dead,

Chapter
"

of of

it, saying,
!

My

mother

My

heart

mother when

My

heart

being !
me

"Make
"

stand

against

thrust testifying,
overseers

not

back make

before
no

the Tchatchaut

the {i.e.,
me

of

and Osiris), of the

"

failure

in respect of

before

the

Master

PL.

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

29

"

Balance. and
the

Thou

art

my my

Ka,

the

dweller Thou

in my

body, uniting(?)
come

*'

strengthening happiness
with the
to

members.
we

shalt Make

forth
name no

to to

**

which

advance.

not
men,

my

"

stink

officers the

[of Osiris]who
Great

made Lord

utter

lie

"

against me
Then Gods
who ye

before
the
are

God,

the

of Amentt."

Thoth,

Judge
in

of Truth, of the presence


:

Great

Company
to the

of

the
"

the

of Osiris, saith
truth

gods,

Hearken hath been

to

this word and

In

very

the

heart

of Osiris
con-

"

weighed,
;

his soul
to

hath Great hath

borne

testimony
his
case

"

ceming
tnith
did

him

according
No

the

Balance found
He
was

is He
act

**

{i.e., just).
not

wickedness the

been

in him. did
on

"

filch

offerings from
he did
not

temples.
when

not

"crookedly, and
And dwelleth "forth
"

folk vilify

he say

earth.'* who

the

Great

in from

Company of the Gods Khemenu (Hermopolis):


mouth true

to

Thoth,
that

"

This

cometh

thy
Ani,

of truth of

is confirmed

(?)
He
us

The

Osiris,
not

the

scribe and

voice, hath
doth
not

testified. before the

hath
;

"

sinned
the {i.e.,

[his name]
of the be there

stink

Amemit
over an

"

Eater

Dead) shall not


unto

have

mastery
food and

"

him.

Let

given
unto

him
an

of offerings

"appearance
"

before

Osiris, and

abiding
Ani
"

homestead

in the

Field Thus

of

as Offerings

the Followers that Ani

of Horus.*' is "true of voice,'* in his all the called

the

gods
and Book
as

have

declared have he called

as

was

Osiris, and
word the

they

because Osiris," that

purity of copies of
"

deed of the

resembled the

god.
is those when

In

Dead

deceased that

always

Osiris,"and
were

it

was

always
be words
"

assumed

for whom

they
the

written

would
the
to

found
"

innocent
true

weighed
were

in

Great

Balance,

of

voice," which

in meaning equivalent written when Great


the

innocent It may

and be

were acquitted,"

always
of

after Ani's

their
was

names.

noted

in the This

passing that
beam the
that

heart

weighed against Truth,


horizontal. perfectly the heart satisfied

Balance did

remained
not
were

suggests
to
"

gods

expect

of the deceased if it

kick

the

beam,"
Truth.
more,
on

but

quite
content

exactly

counterbalanced and

They
and
were

demanded

the fulfilment
to

of the Law

nothing
the
man

bestow
"

immortality upon
done
no

whom

Thoth

's verdict

was

he hath

evil," -/u.

ji %*"

30

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

In

accordance the

with

the to he

command
the

of
of the the

the Hall

gods
of

Ani

passes where
son

from

Great

Balance
as

end

Maati the

Osiris is seated, and takes Isis, before


"

approaches
and
"

god Horus,
forward, and
to His

of

him

by

the

hand

leads him I have


come

standing righteous
no

his father

Osiris says,
to thee forth
or

thee, Un-Nefer,^
heart It is hath set the

I have

brought
hath any
come

the

Osiris Ani.
the

"

[and]

from

Balance. Thoth
hath of

sin
his have

"before

god
in
his

any

goddess.
and
that of the

down

"judgment
*'

writing,
behalf
unto

Company
bread and

Gods
true.

declared
there

on

[his]evidence
the

is very beer

Let

*'

be

given
Next
"

him him
see

which of

appear
for

"

before
ever

Osiris.
"

Let
we

be Ani

like the

Followers adoration O
Lord

Horus

"

! he

kneeling in
in

before
of
a

Osiris,

and
"

says,

Behold,
sin in my
no

am

thy

presence,
not

Amentt.
lie knowbe

There

is

no

body.

I have

uttered
that

*'ingly. [I have]
*'

duplicity (?)
ones

Grant
are

I may

like

the favoured
of

(or rewarded)
Ani
then in

who
a

in

thy

train." R V^

Under

favour
"

Osiris

became form

sdhu, into

O'

^^

and spirit-body,"

this

passed

the

Kingdom

of

Osiris.

VIII.

The

Kingdom

of

Osiris.

According
the Sixth
in the

to

the

Book

of Gates
the

and

the

other

"

Guides

"

to

Egyptian
Division

Under
of the

World,
Tuat

Kingdom
Xllth

of Osiris formed
it
was

the

; in very

early times
and

situated

Western
near

Delta, but

after the

dynasty theologians
before
had the

placed it
of
the

Abydos
Period
every of

in

Upper
the

Egypt,
of

close
the in

Dynastic
World
or

Tuat
of

Osiris
When the

absorbed
the

Under

nome

Egypt.
there,

soul
of had it

its

beatified took

spiritbody
the it

arrived
or

ministers which there

Osiris

it to to

homestead

place of
of

abode

been
its

allotted
new

by

the The
manner

command

Osiris, and
the abode
w^ere

began

existence.

large vignette to
of

CXth

Chapter
blessed

shows
was.

us

exactly

what
was

place
the

the

of the

The

country
'

fiat and

fields

intersected

by

canals

I.e., the

"

Beneficent

B^ing,"

title

of

Osiris.

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

31

of

running

\\'ater

in

which

there
one

"

were

no

fish and
were

"

no

w'orms

water (i.e.,

snakes).
on one was

In

part
Osiris
was

of

it

several
to

small with

islands, and
his saints.

of them called
not the convey
"

supposed
of

dwell the
not

It

"Island

Truth," and
soul that the the had

man ferrybeen Gods of

of Osiris would declared


at
"

to it any

true

of word

by Thoth,
The Books

Osiris and

Great

the

Osiris
many

Reckoning." depicted in the large


respects
in
a

"

Great

portion of
of
the

Kingdom

Dead
we see

represents in
the deceased the
oxen

Egj^^tian farm, typical


and

and

engaged
are

ploughing
the

reaping and
He
was

driving

that Sekhet

treading out
"

com.

introduced

into

the

Heteput (a section of the Sekhet Aaru, i.e.,"Field of Reeds," the or Elysian Fields ") by Thoth, and there he found the souls
of his ancestors, who
were

joined to

the

Company

of the

Gods.

One

comer

of this the

placeof
which moored

set apart for the dwelling specially beatified souls, or spirit-souls, who were dakhu, i.e,,

regionwas
in

said to be
grew
two

seven

cubits
a

height,and
three

to

reap Near

wheat this

or

barley
of the
"

to

height
that

of

cubits.

spot were
use

boats that

were

always ready
appear
to

for the

denizens

of

region ; they
which moved

Jiavebeen
and
any

spirit
the

boats,"

%,e,, boats

of themselves
to

carried

beatified wheresoever
or

they part.
from

wanted

go

without

trouble

fatigueon
How the be

their

beatified
seen

Osiris may

passed their time in the Kingdom of the pictures the alabaster sarcocut on phagus
in Sir
see

of Seti

I, now
Fields.
on

preserved
Here which
we

John
the

Soane's

Museum

in

Lincoln's
the

Inn

them

occupied in producing god


and lived.
are

celestial food

they and

Some

are

tending the wheat plants as they the ripe grain. In the texts that
ears

grow,

others these
of
was

reaping
the

accompany members Osiris

scenes

of wheat

are

said

to

be

the

"

Osiris," and
the

the

wheat and

plant is called
also the

the mant

plant.
Madt of the

Wheat-god
and
the

personificationof
upon
the

(i.e., Truth), god


and of
ate

beatified- lived

body
was

their
"

him

daily,
are

and
which

the

substance

of him in the who

Bread Texts.
up

Everlastingness,"
The beatified
to the

is mentioned
"

Pyramid
have

described
"

as

Those

offered
or

incense
have

gods, (i.e.,
sin."

and

whose
.

kau

doubles, (i.e.,
been

persons)
up

been
are

washed

"clean.
'*

They

have

reckoned of the Great

and

they
who

madt

Truth)

in the presence

God

destroyeth

32

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

Osiris says And of them

to

them,

"

Ye

are

truth

of truth
of truth

rest

in

peace."
were

he says,

"

They

were

doers

whilst

they

"

upon
"

earth, they did battle

for

their

god, and
House

they shall

be

called to the

enjoyment of

the

Land

of the

of Life with

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

33

"

Truth.

Their

truth

shall be reckoned

to them Then

in the presence

"

of the Great

God
"

who Ye

destroyeth sin."
are

addressing them
Take
even

again

Osiris says,
rest

beings of Truth,
what ye have and following,

O ye Truths.

"ye
"

your
those

because
are

of

done, becoming
who

as
"

who

in my is

direct

the

House
as

of Him

whose ye

Soul

holy.

Ye

shall live there


over

even

they [of
the

"

live, and
land.
that have

shall have
that

dominion ye and have

the cool waters

of your limit

"

I command

your

being
In

to

the

"

land]
the

\nth
two

Truth

without

sin."

these

passages As
a

vre

conceptions of
would

Osiris well illustrated. who \\ished would for be

Wheat-god
and where

he

satisfy those
would and
to
as

purely physical
the would

material, agricultural heaven, where


the
want

hunger
to

unknown

blessed

be

able God

satisfyevery

desire and

daily;
and

the

of Truth, of whom

minded spiritually be their

hoped

become

the the

counterpart, he image
of the

hope,

consolation, and

Eternal

God.
IX A
"

SHORT

DESCRIPTION
THE

OF

THE of the

DoORS Dead.

"

OR

CHAPTERS

OF

Book the

All the great Hymn


"

papyri of
from
"

Book

of the

Dead

begin
"

with

to

Ra, who

King
"

of the under

the periodof the IVth dynasty was lished of Egypt. His cult was Gods finally estabthe Vth dynasty when the king of Egypt began the and is
monuments to
"

to call himself

in official documents R(i. This


:
"

Son

of the

Sun,"
the
"

^^

Sa

Hymn

supposed

be

sung

by

deceased, who
Homage
to

says

thee, O
the thee and with Maati
at

Ra,

at

thy

beauteous
at

rising.
dawn. thee. Thou The

Thou

risest,

thou of the the

risest ; thou

shinest, thou
sunrise heart

shincst

the

Thou

Gods, and

goddesses
and is

embrace
sunset.

art King of Company


over

Gods

praise
of heaven Boat

at

sailest Boat

the

heights
mother Western thou abase who
;

thy

thy Evening
is

fair winds. and thou


art
over

glad. Thy Thy father


art Horus O

is the
of thou

Morning Sky-god
the

meeteth and

thy
and O
can

the

Sky-goddess,
. .

thou

Eastern

skies.
art

O
.

Only
the

One,

Perfect

One,

eternal, who
hath dominion in

never

weak,

whom which

no

none

things

Homage
Great

to

thee who
men

thy
women

characters
man

of Horus,

Tem,

mighty one appertain to and Khepera,


face. and

thee. thou When dost

Hawk,
risest

makest and

to

rejoice by thy
Thou
renewest

beautiful

thou

live.

thy youth,

34

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

set who

thyself
art

in

the

place
I

where cannot

thou

wast

yesterday.
thee.

O Thou

Divine
art

Youth,
the lord

self-created,
and Thou of time.

comprehend
didst
create

of

heaven

earth,
art

and the

beings
earnest

celestial into and


man,

and

beings
in the didst waters the

terrestrial.

God didst

One,
create

who the

being
thou the

beginning
make and
the

Thou
the

earth,
; thou

sky give
and

and

celestial all that made made


are

river therein

Hep
is. and

didst hast

make knit

didst

life unto
hast

Thou

together
field to fiend
thou

mountains,
into

thou

mankind
the cut

the

beasts the

of the

come

being,

hast his

heavens off. and O

and thou

earth.

The

Nak heir

is overthrown, of

arms

Divine

Youth,

everlastingness, self-begotten
and
the

self-born. One,
Lord

Might,
thou art

of

myriad
thou

forms

aspects, Prince

of An Gods
are

{i.e., On),

of

Eternity, Everlasting
As

Ruler,

Company
:

of the rays

rejoice in thy

thee.

risest

growest
and
no

greater tongue
of years

thy
can

upon

all faces. similitude the


;

Thou thou

unknowable,
alone. number

describe

existest tell the


est

Millions of those

have

passed
thou

over

world,

I cannot

through

which

hast

passed.
[to pass
dost make

Thou

journey
in
one

through

spaces of time,

[requiring] milHons
and then thou

of years and

over]
an

little moment hours."

settest

end

of the

The

subject matter

of the which Ra

above contains

extract
a

is treated
to

at

greater
at his

length in Chapter XV,


or rising,

long Hymn
solar
at

Ra

Amen-Ra,
and
a

or

united

to other to

gods,

e.g., Horus In the in

and

Khepera,
the

short

Hymn
Ra

Ra

his

setting.
the
"

latter

welcome

which Hidden
:
"

receives

from Greek

dwellers Hades

Amentt

the (i.e., thus

Place, like the

")

is

emphasized
"

All

the of

beatified

dead

(Aakhu)
shout

in

the of

Tuat him in

receive his

him form

in of

the Tem

horizon the [i.e.,

Amentt.

They
Thou and

praises
rise and

setting sun).
a

didst

put
in

settest,

living being, rejoice


the
in

Amentt

thy

beauties
ones

thy glories are (or beneficence).


thee

on strength, and thou Amentt. The gods of

The

hidden

ones

worship thee,
Souls of

aged
cry be of the cry lords
to

bring
and

offerings and they


shout out
'

protect thee. thy


! Hail
to

The

Amentt
Health

out,
thee

when

meet

Majesty
!
'

(Life,
lords

Strength.
of the

!) they
stretch

Hail hands
in

The

mansions and
of

Tuat
to

their follow

thee

from

their

abodes,
the hearts

they
the

thee,
of the

and Tuat

they
thee,

thy bright train, and


thou

rejoice when they thy


tombs,
press face.
thou Thou

sendest
to

thy light
see

into and the

Amentt.
their

Their

eyes
at

follow
the
are

forward
Thou

thee,
to

hearts

rejoice
those who

sight
in

of

hearkenest

petitions of
and Thou
art

their

dispellesttheir
givest breath
is to

lessness helptheir very

drivest
art

away

evil from

them.

nostrils.

greatly feared, by
those

thy

form
in

majestic,
Other

and

greatly

thou

beloved

who

dwell

the

World."

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

35

The

Introductory
the

Hymn

to

Ra
:
"

is followed

by

Hymn

to

Osiris, in which
Glory be to (Abydos), King
existence
"

deceased

says

thee,
of

Osiris

Un-Nefer,
of
son

Eternity,
of years, of the

Lord

is millions Lord

eldest Crowns

god in Abtu whose Everlastingness, God of Nut, the begotten by Geb,


thou

great

Ancestor-Chief,
of the and

of the
art

South

and of

the

North,
and of

Lord
men

High

White

Crown. the

Thou

the

Governor

gods
of

whip, thy be for thy son Horus content, thy heart in Amentt Thou Tetu is seated throne. Lord of art (Busiris) and thy upon of Abtu makest fertile the Two Lands Governor {i.e., (Abydos). Thou before the Lord to the Uttermost all Egypt) by [thy] true word Limit. is widespread, and of thy name great is the terror Thy power of Osiris.' endurest for all eternity in thy name Thou Un-Nefer Beneficent of to thee. King of kings. Lord Being). Homage {i.e.. who from of the Sky-goddess of governors, the womb lords. Governor
Fathers. Let
.
. .

hast

received

sceptre, the

and

the

rank

Divine

'

'

hast

ruled

the hand the

World is blue colour

and hke
of

the

Under

World. the

Thy

hmbs
on

are

as

silverside of

gold, thy
thee is of milhons

and lapis-lazuli,

space

either

of god An turquoise (or emerald). Thou is O dweller in the Land of thy body all-pervading, The before thee HoUness, gods come thy face is beautiful. in low. fear. withdraw hold thee and retreat bowing They They of Ra thee ; the [thought] of the when they see the awfulness upon is in their hearts. Life is with of thee. thy Majesty conquests Let follow thy Majesty as when I was soul be earth, let my on me of years,
. . .

"

summoned,
to

and

let it be

found

near

the

Lords

of Truth. with

I have my soul land. him

come

the

double

God

City of God, the region that is eternally old, to be a dweller (Aa) and spirit-soul{(iakhu), of Truth he giveth old Lord is the
...

{ba),
Its that

in this age the


to

worketh

Truth,
for

and the

honour

to

his burial

followers,
in the

and Land

at

last

abundant I have in my
on

equipment
come

tomb,
hands

and hold

of Holiness. is
no

unto
. .

thee, my
.

Truth, and
Truth
no

there

falsehood I know

heart. thou
no man

Thou

hast committed

set

before

thee

what

livest. of his

I have

sin in this land, and

I have

defrauded

possessions." (Chapter CLXXXIII.)


I
was

Chapter
mummy there. Thoth done
to

recited tomb and

by

the

priestwho
the

accompanied
burial
the

the

the it the

performed
to

ceremonies character of

In and

priest (kher Jieh)assumed


the deceased of old.
enter

promised

do

for him Ib

all that the

he had

for Osiris in

days

Chapter
the and
Tuat

gave

sdhu,

or

"spirit-body,"power
burial Worms written of
the

to

immediately after
it from
are

the

material lived
on

body,
the dead.

delivered H-IV

the
short

Nine

that to

Chapters

spells

give the
to travel

deceased about

power the

to revisit the

earth, to join the


and VI

gods, and

sky.

Chapters

provided

36

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

for the The


etc.

performance
of

of VI

labours agricultural
was were

in the

Other

World.

text

Chapter

cut

on

figuresmade
in the

of stone,

wood,
the

which (ushabtiu), recited it these The shabti

placed

tomb,

and did *^^^

wfeen

deceased he wished. of
the

became figures

alive and

everything
^^^

figure,t^l^'t

^. J T ^
was

'

place
over

human before

funerary
the

sacrifice which
the

common

all

Egypt
Xllth tomb

generaladoption of
About many 700 ushabtiu of them

cult of Osiris under found

the

dynasty.
VII the is

figureswere
in the Great the the

in the

of Seti I, and
a

are

British

Museum.

Chapter

spellto destroy
of

Serpent Aapep,
Ra, Osiris,
VIII

T^
Horus and and
met

)Mh
son

Arch-enemy
of every

Horus follower

Elder,

of Isis, and secured


X
a

of Osiris.

Chapters
the enemies

IX

passage XI XII

for the deceased gave and him XIII


of

through
over

the Tuat, he

Chapters
there.
movement

and

power gave Osiris.


to

Chapters
in
the

him

great freedom
XIV is
a

of

Kingdom
have

Chapter
away

prayer

in which

Osiris is entreated that


he may

put

aay

of feeling
who

dissatisfaction
*'

for the
;

deceased,

says,

Wash

away

my

sins.Lord

of Truth

destroy my May
are

transgressions,
this

"

wickedness peace with Give

and
me. me

O iniquity,

God

of Truth.

god

be at

*'

Destroy
peace,

the

thingsthat
aU

obstacles

between

"

us.
"

and

remove

dissatisfaction from

thy

heart

in respect of me." XV has several


were

Chapter Hymns
to

forms, and
sung

each

of the

them

contains and

Ra,

which

daily

in

morning

The

of

holy Ape-gods singing hymns praise to Ra at sunrise.

The

Jackal-gods
of

and

the

Hawk-gods
Ra
at sunset.

singinghymns

praiseto

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD

37

evening Chapter Chapter


The
"

specimen paragraphs
XVI is is

are

given

above

(pp.

33,

34).

only
a

vignette

that

illustrates

Chapter XV,
ments state-

XVII

very

important chapter, for


as
"

it contains

of divine

doctrine
are,

understood I
am

by
in

the

of Heliopolis. priests the

opening
came

words

Tem

rising. I am
I
am

Only
rose

One. in this It is
as

into

being
"

in Nu

(the Sky).
he

Ra, who

"

primeval time,
the

ruler of what Who

had
"

made." and the

Following
answer

comes
"

question,
rose

is this ?

is,

"

Ra

who

in the

cityof Hensu,

in

primeval time, crowned

The

Sun-god Ra,
Tree of Anu,

in the

form

of the

"Great

Cat," silting by the side of the Persea

and

off the head cutting

("f .\aix'p, the

god

of darkness

and

evil.

"

king. sky

He

existed of made."

on

the

of heiglit

the

Dweller

in Khemenu
the to

"

Thoth (i.e.,
were

Hermopolis) before Chapter


to

the

that support pillars the


to

"

XVIII make

contains the deceased

Addresses be

Thoth, who
innocent

is entreated the

declared

before
etc.

Busiris,Latopolis, Mendes, gods of Heliopolis,


addresses and formed when
cut
a

Abydos,
which
was

These

very

powerful spell
it four times all XIX

used
were

by Horus,
overthrown forms

he recited
to

his enemies and XXIII the XX


are

and
of

pieces. Chapters Chapters


the
to

variant the

Chapter
in

XVIII.

XXI"

secured

help of
he
eat.

Thoth obtained Thoth

"opening
the power

mouth breathe
the

of

deceased, whereby
and Ptah with
a

and

think whilst mouths

drink

and

recited and Shu

over spells

gods
their the

untied
an

the

bandages

forced XXIV
"

open gave
to

iron

(?) knife.
of the
"

Chapter
of power

deceased

knowledge
were

words the

LJ ^^^ (^
Five

|'

fiekau)which Chapter
XXVI-XXX,
XXV

used

by
to

great god Tem-Khepera,


his
memory.

and

restored contain

him and

chapters,

prayers

whereby spells

the deceased

38

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

obtained
of it.

power The
p. most

over

his heart

and

gained
is that

absolute
of

possession XXXb

popular

prayer

Chapter
was

(see above,

4) which, according to
Herutataf, the
prayer In and
the the
was

its rubric,

"found,"
about
of the

i.e., edited, by

son

of the
use

great Cheops, early years


it is associated

3600

B.C.

This Era.

still in

in the
Nu

Christian

Papyrus
earliest

of

with in

Chapter LXIV,
existence under

the 1st

form

of

it

was

probably
the

dynasty.
were

Chapters
from
the

XXXI-XLII Crocodile

written

to

deliver

deceased and Beetle of

Great the

Sui, and
its

the

Serpents

Rerek the
a

Seksek, and

Lynx

with

deadly claws, and

Apshait, and
three

the terrible Merti

snake-goddesses, and

group

venomous particularly

serpents,and
the

Aapep

tion personificaa

of Set the of

god

of

evil,and

Eater

of the

Ass, and
of the

series In
the

beings

who

lived

the by slaughtering
the
a

souls

dead.

of member Chapter XLII every of, or identified with, protection

deceased
or

is put under e.g., the eyes There of


a

god

goddess,

hair with is
no

with

Nu,

the

face with
the my

the Aten (i.e.,

solar

disk),the
"

Hathor,
member

and
of

deceased

exclaims is
not

triumphantly,
the the

body
A
assumes

which

member

god."
the of
the

Chapter
deceased,

XLIII.
who

spell to prevent
in it the XLIV. An
the

decapitationof
of Osiris the Lord

character

Eternity. Chapter
recital time. deceased of which

ancient
deceased

and
from

mighty

speU,
a

prevented
XLV and

dying
mummy

second
of the

Chapters
from
or

XL

VI

preserved
XLVII enabled Shesmu. and
the

the

decay, and
throne.
of

Chapter
L the

prevented the removal


deceased
to avoid

of his seat
the

Chapter
with pure

block

of execution
the

god

Chapters
clean water
lived upon, gave
the

LI-LIII from and the


so

provided
table
became

deceased

food what

of the
one

gods
with

; he

lived upon

they

them.

Chapters
from
the

LIV-LXII

deceased

power

to obtain

cool water and

Celestial Nile and with

the the

springs god
at of

of waters

of heaven,

being
to

identified pass
the
"

Shu,

light and
His

air, he
was

was

enabled the
a

over

all the

earth

will.
the
or

life

that

of

Egg
house

of

Great in the

Cackler," and
Celestial

goddess
The

Sesheta

buUt

for him

Anu,
to

Heliopolis.
recital of

Chapter

LXIII

enabled
Tuat. those

the

deceased in
some

avoid
of of

drinking boiling water pools was


cool and

in the

The
who

water
were

its
the

to refreshing

speakers

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

3^

truth, but
when the

it turned

into

boilingwater
of it.

and LXIV

scalded is
"

the

\vicked of

they
whole

tried to drink Book


"

Chapter
The

an

epitome

of the the

Dead, and it formed


deceased.
that the text

great and
a

divine

protection
character

for

is of

'mystical
its himself

and

suggests
tlie

deceased

could, through
become from
to

either absorb recital, absorbed fish and

gods

into his orders

being,or
who
were

by
women

them.
on

Its rubric the


the

abstention

meats,
it.

part of those
deceased LXVII

recite

Chapter LXV gave and Chapters LXVI


Ra. motion addresses in heaven
to

victoryover
gave him him
access

all his enemies,


to the

and

Boat

of of

Chapters LXVIII-LXX
and Seven
on

procured
earth. who Spirits

complete freedom
LXXI the is
a

Chapter

series of in the
to be

the

punished
aided The

wicked

Kingdom
reborn bull's LXXIII LXXV Seker the the

of Osiris, and

Chapter
Chamber. the
as

LXXII

the deceased
was

in the skin

Mesqet
which
same a

Mesqet
was

a originally

in

deceased IX.

wrapped.

Chapter
and
Boat his of

is the secured the

Chapter
Chapter

Chapters
in the

LXXIV Henu
to
"

passage
and

for the deceased LXXVI him

Death-god,
of Osiris.

brought
the

help
"

praying mantis
House

which

guided
the

through
of

bush LXXVII-

to

By
to

recital of

Chapters
forms

LXXXVIII,
deceased
was

i.e., the
enabled

"Chapters
assume

Transformations,"
of

the

at

will the

(i) the

Golden

Hawk,

(2) the Divine

Hawk,

(3) the Great

Self-created

The

soul

the visiting

mummified is

Ixnlyin
that
at

the

tomb.

Isis,and

the feet is

The at bird-goddess Nephthys.

the

head

God, (6)

(4) the Light-god or


Son
of Ptah,

the

Robe

of Nu,

(5) the
the
or

Pure

Lily,

the

(7) the

Benu

Bird, (8)
Sata

Heron,

(9) the

Soul of Ra,

(10)

the

Swallow, (11) the

(12) the

Crocodile.

Chapter

LXXXIX

Earth-serpent, brought the soul (ba)

40

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

of the

deceased
him

to his

body

in the and

Tuat, and

Chapter

XC
"

served precut

from and

mutilation

attacks

of the XCI
shut

god
and

who XCII

off heads Hie

slit foreheads." deceased

Chapters
from

vented pretomb.

soul of the
is
a

being
with him and The

in the

Chapter
XCIV and
the the

XCIII XCV

spell very
god,
and

difficult to understand. deceased


the

Chapters
of Thoth his

and

provided the
of this

books

power

enabled
XCVI

to take

scribe under
11

of Osiris.
the

Chapters
of deceased
a

XCVII recital in which


to ascend

place as also placed


of

him XCVI

protection

Thoth. with
a

Chapter

provided the

boat which

to sail over to heaven.

the northern

heavens, and
gave

ladder him

by
he

XCIX-CIII Chapters

the

use

of the
was

magical boat,
be
with

the

mystic

name

of each to
or

part
the

of which Boat

obligedto know, and


to Hathor.

helped
The and
the

him

enter

of Ra
to the

and

Bebait,

mantis, led him


amulet from
the

great gods (Chapter CIV),


of Ra

Uatch
his

neck

provided his
known
to the

double

(ka) and Chapters


of the

heart-soul

(ba) with
him
the

offerings(Chapters CV, CVI).

CVII-CIX and

made

favourably

spirits
was

East

West, and
the

gods
the

of the

Mountain

of Sunrise.
; he
saw

In this
30

region lived

terrible In

Serpent-godAmi-hem-f
East
the

cubits

(50 feet) long.


the Two

deceased between
to

the the

Morning Star, and


Aaru
the
or

Sycamores,
found
the

from

which
the

Sun-god appeared daily,and


Elysian
Fields and Fields.
have

entrance

Sekhet

Chapter
already
how

CX

and

its

vignette of
(see
p.

Elysian

been

described lost the


the

31).
his black of

Chapters CXI
eye

CXII

describe

Horus

sightof
of
a

temporarilythrough lookingat
Chapter
the

Set under

form

pig, and
Horus

CXI

II refers to the
of his the

legend
Sebek
to

of the
the

drowning
wisdom made

and

recovery enabled

body by

Crocodile-god.
the

Chapter
Thoth

CXIV his
Tuats

deceased

absorb

of him

and

Eight gods.
of

Chapters
and

CXV-CXXII

lord of the with with

Memphis
CXXIV

HeliopoHs, and suppliedhim


him
to

food, and Chapter CXXIII


Thoth.

enabled
and

identifyTiimself
treat of the
tains con-

Chapters
have
to the

CXXV,

which

Judgment,
a

already
of the
to

been

described.

Chapter
Tuat,

CXXVI CXXVI and

prayer the
a

Four
"

Holy
Circles
"

Apes, Chapter
in the CXXX Boats him
to of

hymn
CXXVIII secured

to

gods hymn

Chapter
CXXXI and
earth

Osiris.
the
use

Chapters
of the

and

for the

deceased

Sunrise
to

Sunset, and

Chapter

CXXXII

enabled

return

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

41

and

visit the

house

he

had

lived in
a

in.

Chapters
of

CXXXIII CXXXI.

(or

CXXXIX)-CXXXVI

resemble describes

contents

Chapter

Chapter
that him
to
were

CXXXVII
to be

series

magical

ceremonies
to make
are

performed
**

for the deceased for ever."


the

daily in
The

order

to become have

soul living

formulae

said

been

composed

under

IVth

dynasty. Chapter
of twelve
to the

CXXXVII

I refers to the ceremony CXL-CXLII of deal with


the

of

Osiris,and reconstituting

Chapters
and forms the

setting up
gods
a

altars,
various

making
of which

offeringsto

all the

and

of Osiris.

Chapter CXLIII
solar boats
are

consists of

series of

vignettes,
Great Hall

in three

represented.
deal Osiris. witli the The
a

CXLVII and Chapters CXLIV Halls (Ant) of the Kingdom of


was

Seven
of each

gate

guarded by
the

porter, a watchman,
looked
names

and

messenger arrival
one

; the first

kept
and Hall

door, the second


took their

out

for the No

of

visitors,
enter
a

the third without and

to Osiris.
name

could

repeating the Kingdom

of

it, of

the
a

porter, of

the

watchman,
the Gates

of the messenger. of Osiris and


two

According to
were

late tradition in number


and
to

of the

twenty-one
had
a

and CXLVI), (ChaptersCXLV each was guarded by one or

each

magical name,
names

gods,
he the

whose could
names
"

had

be

repeated by the deceased CXLVIII supplied the deceased


Cows feed.

before with the


"

pass.

Chapter
Seven
to

of the

and

their

Bull

on

which and CL

gods

were

supposed
CLIa

Chapters CXLIX
the

give the

names

of the Fourteen

of Aats,or districts,

Kingdom
the
mummy

of Osiris. chamber

Chapter
and

and

CLIb
texts

give
that

pictureof
necessary in it. Celestial
to

the

magical
for the

were

and

the mummy in the his soul

of both protection Chapter CLII provided a for the

the chamber house and

deceased

Anu,
an

and

Chapter
in the
to
nor

CLIIIa

CLIIIb
snarer

enabled souls.
deceased
"

avoid is

capture
not

net

of the in

of the

Chapter
"

CLIV

address

Osiris

which

says,
worms,

I shall
nor
see

decay,

rot,

become

corruption.
which

I shall have in

**

I shall rise up I shall live,I shall flourish,


are

putrefy, nor being, my peace." Chapters


nor

CLV-CLXVII
U"

speUs

were

engraved

on

the the

amulets

n,

O,

|,"^1 ^^,

etc., giving the


and of
a

deceased

tion protec-

of Ra, Osiris,Isis,Horns,

6ther

gods.

The

remaining

Chapters (CLXVIII-CXC)

are

miscellaneous

character, and

42

THE

BOOK

OF

THE

DEAD.

few Book

of

them of
the the

are

found A

in

more

than

one

or

two

papyri
are

of

the

Dead.

few

contain and

hymns
one

that

not

older

than

XVIIIth

dynasty,
of Unas

is

an

extract

from

the

text

on

the

Pyramid

(Hnes
CLXXV,

379-399).
which In
this

The

most

interesting
the

is,

perhaps.

Chapter
and

describes the

Tuat deceased

as

airless,
assured millions

waterless,
of of

lightless.
in
the

chapter
"

is for

immortailty
millions of years,

words,
life of millions

Thou

shalt of

live

years."

E.

A.

Wallis

Budge.

Department

of

Egyptian

and

Assyrian

Antiquities,

British

Museum.

April

15,

IQ20.

43

NOTE.

The

Trustees

of the

British

Museum

have

published
of

"

1.

Coloured

facsimile

of

the

Papyrus

Hunefer,
and

XlXth

dynasty,
II

with

hieroglyphic

transcript

translation.

plates, large folio.


facsimile with of the

2.

Coloured

Papyrus

of

Anhai,
and

XXIst

dynasty,
8

hieroglyphic transcript

translation,

plates, large folio.

3.

Collotype
Netchemet,
and

reproduction
XXIst translation.

of

the with

Papyrus

of

Queen
script tran-

dynasty,
12

hieroglyphic

plates, large folio.


hieratic
text

4.

Coloured
of

reproduction
with
2

of

the

of

the and

Book
lation. trans-

Breathings,
With

hierogl)T)hic transcript collotypes


of
the

vignettes,

large

folio.

5.

Hieroglyphic

transcript

of

the

Papyrus

of

Nu,

with

one

collotype plate.
Nos.

7-5

are

bound

in

one

volume,

price "^2
of

los,

6.

Collotype reproduction
ta-nebt-ashru, translations,
with and and
los.

of

the

Papyrus

Queen
the

Nesi-

full

descriptions of

vignettes,
several

introduction,
116

containing
hieratic
text.

illustrations,
4to.
Price

plates

of

Large

"2

Harrison

"

Sons,

TrtnUrs

in

Ordinary

to

His

Majesty,

St.

Martin's

Lane,

London,

W.C.

2.