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Analele Universit ii Constantin Brncu i din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

3/2010

EVALUAREA CALITII PNZEI FREATICE I A SOLULUI N ZONE AFECTATE DE EXPLOATAREA PETROLULUI N JUDEUL GORJ
Daniela Crn, Conf.univ.dr., Roxana Popa, ef lucr.dr., Universitatea Constantin Brncui din Tg. Jiu
Rezumat: Impurificarea apei subterane cu ape saline, gaze sau hidrocarburi, produse ca urmare a unor foraje de exploatare a petrolului are efecte nedorite asupra calitii acesteia, aduce prejudicii asupra folosirii ei ca surs de ap potabil i afecteaz n totalitate materia vie din straturile acvifere. Datorit polurii cu iei a solului, la suprafaa acestuia se formeaz o pelicul care reduce capacitatea de difuziune i sufoc vegetaia. Deversarea accidental a apelor de zcmnt direct pe sol, conduce la modificarea structurii chimice i fizice a solului, avnd efete negative mai ales asupra dezvoltrii organismelor n sol. n lucrarea de fa se prezint un studiu asupra gradului de impurificare al apelor subterane i solului cu produse petroliere, cloruri i metale grele n zone ale judeului Gorj n care se realizeaz activiti de exploatare a ieiului. Cuvinte cheie: sol, pnz freatic, petrol, Gorj

ASSESSMENT QUALITY OF GROUND WATER AND SOIL IN THE AREAS AFFECTED BY OIL WORKING OFF IN GORJ COUNTY

Daniela Crn, Assoc. prof .dr., Roxana Popa, Lect. dr., Constantin Brncui University of Tg.-Jiu

Abstract: Underground water pollution with salted waters, gases or hydrocarbons produced as a consequence of oil drilling has unwanted effects on its quality, prejudicing its use as drinkable water and entirely affecting the living matter from aqueous layers. Due to soil pollution with crude oil, a pellicle forms at its surface reducing the diffusion capacity and suffocating the vegetation. Accidental discharging of formation waters directly on the soil results in the alteration of the soil chemical and physical structure, with negative effects especially on the development of organisms in the soil. The current paper presents a study on underground waters and soil pollution level with oil products, chlorides and heavy metals in areas of Gorj County where crude oil exploitation works are performed. Key words: soil, ground water, oil, Gorj

1. Introducere Factorii poluatori majori care afecteaz calitatea apei subterane se grupeaz n urmtoarele categorii: produse petroliere i ap srat, produse rezultate din procesele industriale, produse chimice (ngrminte, pesticide) utilizate n agricultur ce provoac o poluare difuz greu de depistat i prevenit, produse menajere i produse rezultate din zootehnie, metale grele, radioactivitatea, necorelarea creterii capacitilor de producie i a dezvoltrii urbane cu modernizarea lucrrilor de canalizare i realizarea staiilor de epurare, exploatarea necorespunztoare a staiilor de epurare existente, lipsa unui sistem organizat de

1. Introduction The major polluting factors that affect the quality of underground water can be grouped into the following categories: mineral oils and salted waters, products resulted from industrial processes, chemical products (fertilizers, pesticides) used in agriculture and cause a difficult to find and prevent diffuse pollution, domestic products and products resulting from stock raising, heavy metals, radioactivity, the failure to correlate the increase of production facilities and urban development with the modernization of sewerage works and treatment plants, inadequate exploitation of already existing treatment plants, the lack of an organized waste and mud collection,

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colectare, depozitare i gestionare a deeurilor i a nmolurilor de la epurarea apelor industriale uzate. Regimul natural al apelor subterane a suferit, n timp, o serie de modificri cantitative i calitative. Aceste modificri sunt datorate att folosirii lor ca surs de alimentare cu ap potabil i industrial, executrii unor lucrri hidrotehnice i hidroameliorative, ct i factorilor poluatori (naturali i antropogeni). Forajele au fost monitorizate fiind urmrite dup noul sistem de monitoring pentru ape subterane, implementat n anul 2006, care urmrete o supraveghere mai atent i mai concret n ceea ce privete calitatea apei. Astfel calitatea apei subterane a fost monitorizat n vederea prevenirii polurii i degradrii stratului freatic. Sursele de poluare a apelor subterane sunt n general aceleai cu cele care intervin n cazul apelor de suprafa. Ele ajung n apa subteran, care poate constitui un receptor similar cu apa de suprafa, att n mod organizat ct i in mod neorganizat. n poluarea apelor subterane o pondere foarte mare o au sursele neorganizate de poluare deoarece trebuie evitat folosirea apei subterane ca receptor [1,2]. n activitatea de exploatare a petrolului, poluarea apelor subterane se produce prin neetaneiti sau deversri de produse la intervenii sau pe traseul conductei, n cazul spargerii acestora n special datorit procesului de coroziune. Principalele surse de poluare a apelor de suprafa dar i a celor subterane sunt: a) sondele de producie i conductele de transport. Numrul mare de sonde i agresivitatea fluidelor transportate (ap srat, iei, gaze) reprezint o cauz major de poluare a apelor n procesul de exploatare a produselor petroliere. Majoritatea liniilor de amestec nu sunt protejate prin acoperiri interioare sau exterioare contra coroziunii, iar tratamente cu inhibitori nu s-au realizat dect n cazuri speciale. Numrul mare de avarii al conductelor de la sonde la parcuri este diferit

storage and management resulted from waste industrial waters treatment. The natural regime of underground waters has undergone a series of quantitative and qualitative alterations. These alterations are due both to their use as a source of drinking and industrial water source of supply, to the performance of hydro-technical and hydro-ameliorative works and to polluting factors (natural and human). Drillings have been monitored according to the new monitoring system for underground waters, implemented in 2006 and seeking a more careful surveillance of water quality. Therefore, the quality of underground water has been monitored in order to prevent the pollution and degradation of the underground layer. Polluting sources of underground waters are generally the same as those occurring in the case of surface waters. They get to underground water which may be a receiver similar to surface water, both in an organized and not organized way. In underground waters pollution, not organized pollution sources have a great weight because underground water use as receiver should be avoided [1,2]. In oil working off activity, underground waters pollution occurs by failures of sealing or products discharging during intervention or on the pipe in case of breakage especially due to the corrosion process. The main polluting sources of surface and underground waters are: a) production wells and transport pipes. The great number of wells as well as the aggressiveness of carried fluids (salted water, crude oil, gases) is the major polluting source of waters in mineral oils exploitation process. Most of the mixture lines are not protected with interior or exterior covers against corrosion, and inhibiting treatments have only been performed in special cases. The great number of faults of wells pipes is different from one oil field to another and alternates from few tens a year to several thousand.

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de la o schel la alta i variaz de la cteva zeci pe an la cteva mii. b) parcurile de colectare i staiile de tratare iei i ap. n cazul acestora poluarea apelor apare prin infiltraii i scurgeri, n special pe fundul rezervorului de decantare stocare, dar i din nisipul i lamul depozitat n incinta parcului, n bazine decantoare sau n batale. Parcurile i instalaiile de tratare au sisteme de colectare a scurgerilor din canale betonate i bazine decantoare amplasate sub nivelul solului. Poluarea apelor freatice apare prin infiltraiile care se produc prin fundul rezervoarelor, aceast problem existnd dei nu se raporteaz. c) staiile de injecie de ap rezidual, conducte i sonde. Apa de zcmnt separat de iei, se injecteaz ca atare sau dup filtrare, fie n scop tehnologic, fie pentru evacuare. Frecvena mare a avariilor se datoreaz coroziunii i presiunilor relativ ridicate la care se face injecia, fenomen care apare datorit coninutului de suspensii i emulsii coninute n apa de injecie. Ponderea cea mai ridicat a surselor de poluare a solului o reprezint sondele i conductele iar poluanii care afecteaz calitatea solurilor sunt ieiul i apele de zcmnt, dar poluarea solului se mai poate produce i prin unele deeuri solide i semisolide formate din: depuneri de nisip i argile din rezervoare; depuneri de cruste i produse de coroziune din sonde, linii de transport, schimbtoare de cldur; emulsii de iei acumulate n staiile de tratare; lamuri de la epurarea apelor reziduale; crbune activ, site moleculare uzate de la instalaiile de tratare a gazelor; nisip i pmnt contaminat cu petrol excavat din zonele de spargeri de conducte; detritus i fluide de foraj. Toate aceste reziduuri sunt depozitate n batale special amenajate iar acolo unde nu sunt etane este posibil infiltrarea i trecerea n pnza de ap freatic a srurilor solubile. Aceast poluare poate fi combtut prin construirea de batale sau celule de lam impermeabile. Datorit vscozitii mari, ieiul

b) collection parks and treatments plants of crude oil and water. In this case water pollution occurs through infiltrations and leaks, especially on the bottom of the treatment storage tank, as well as from the sand and slime stored inside the park, separating basins located at the level of the soil. Underground waters pollution occurs through the infiltrations resulted on the bottom of tanks, this problem existing although it is not reported. c) waste water injection stations, pipes and wells. Formation water separated from crude oil is injected as such or after having been filtered, either for technological purpose, either through discharge. The great frequency of faults is due to corrosion and relatively great pressures at which injection is made, which occurs due to the content of suspensions and emulsions from the injection water. The greatest weight of soil pollution sources is represented by wells and pipes and the polluting agents that affect soils quality are crude oil and formation waters, but soil pollution is also caused by solid and half solid waste consisting of: sand and clays deposits from tanks; deposits of crusts and corrosion products from wells, transport lines, heat exchangers; crude oil emulsions accumulated in treatment plants; slimes from waste waters treatment; active coal, waste molecular sieves from gas treatment plants; sand and ground contaminated with oil excavated from pipes breakage areas; detritus and drilling fluids. All these waste is stored in specially arranged catch pits where infiltration is possible along with soluble salts passing into the ground-water sheet. This pollution may be removed by building waterproof catch pits or slime cells. Due to the great clinginess, the crude oil discharged on the soil surface does not rapidly infiltrate in the soil like formation water. The affected area can be easily isolated, and where possible crude oil can be recovered [3,5].

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deversat pe suprafaa solului nu se infiltreaz rapid n sol asemenea apei de zcmnt. Zona afectat n acest mod poate fi uor de izolat, iar acolo unde este posibil ieiul poate fi recuperat [3,5]. 2. The evaluation of pollution degrees of 2. Evaluarea gradului de poluare a environment factors by the oil working off factorilor de mediu prin activitatea de activity exploatare a petrolului In order to assess the impact of oil working off activities upon some areas from Pentru a evalua impactul activitilor de exploatare a petrolului asupra unor zone din Gorj County that have a high risk of udeul Gorj cu risc crescut de poluare, s-a pollution, monitoring was developed through realizat o monitorizare prin analize fizico- physical and chemical analyses of chimice a indicatorilor de calitate a pnzei underground sheet quality markers and the freatice i a solului prelevat din amplasamente soil taken from working off sites that belong ale unor obiective de exploatare aparinnd to icleni oil structure. icleni oil structure is located in the structurii petroliere icleni. south-west of Romania in the north of Structura petrolier icleni este situat n zona de SV a Romniei, n partea Oltenia, on the territory of Gorj County and nordic a Olteniei, pe teritoriul judeului Gorj has a surface of approximately 3000 ha. The i are o suprafa de aproximativ 3000 ha. working off of the pools existing in this Exploatarea zcmintelor existente n aceast structure is made within icleni Production structur se face n cadrul Unitii de Unit, respectively in 6 extraction sections. Producie icleni, respectiv n 6 secii de extracie. n studiul privind poluarea apelor freatice n vecintatea obiectivelor seciei 1 icleni, probele de ap au fost supuse analizelor de laborator pentru determinarea indicatorilor pH, cloruri i produse petroliere. Rezultatele analizelor fizico-chimice realizate pe probele de ap subteran prelevate din foraje aflate n vecintatea obiectivelor din cadrul seciei 1 icleni sunt prezentate n tabelul 1. In studies on the pollution of underground waters in the neighbourhood of section 1 icleni, the water samples were analyzed in the laboratory in order to determine pH, chlorines and oil products markers. The results of the physical and chemical tests made on underground water samples taken from the drills located near the objectives within section 1 icleni are described in table 1.

Tabelul 1. Rezultatele analizelor pentru probe de ap subteran din zona seciei 1 icleni. Indicatori analizai Adncimea Denumire pH produse Nume prob stratului cloruri obiectiv (uniti petroliere freatic (m) (mg/dm3) pH) (mg/dm3) AF (in incinta Parc 105 20,00 6,91 90,49 0,05 parcului) AF (n incinta Parc 1000 2,50 6,82 34,80 0,05 parcului) AP (din puul de Parc 440 2,00 6,27 20,88 0,05 monitorizare F10
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cu Hfinal = 5,5m) Prag de intervenie (PI) Prag de alert (PA 70% din PI)

6,5

9,5

250 175

0 0

Table 1. The test results for groundwater samples from the section 1 icleni. Indicators review Name Name Sampling Petroleum pH (units Chlorides objective sample depth (m) products pH) (mg/dm3) (mg/dm3) Park 105 AF (in the park) 20,00 6,91 90,49 0,05 AF (in the park) Park 1000 2,50 6,82 34,80 0,05 AP (monitoring Park 440 of trunk F10 with 2,00 6,27 20,88 0,05 Hend = 5,5m) Intervention threshold (IT) 250 0 6,5 9,5 Alert threshold (AT 70 % of IT) 175 0 Interpretarea rezultatelor obinute s-a fcut prin raportarea valorilor msurate la limitele admisibile conform legislaiei n vigoare. Din analiza msurrilor, rezult c valorile se ncadreaz n limitele normale, nefiind nregistrate depiri ale pragurilor de alert (PA) pentru nici una din probele analizate. Raportarea rezultatelor la limitele admisibile conform legislaiei n vigoare se poate urmri n figura 1. Results interpretation was made by comparing the measured values with the admitted limitations according to the relevant legislation. Results analysis reveals that the values are included in normal limitations without recording excesses of alert thresholds for any of the analyzed samples. Results comparison with the admitted limitations according to the relevant legislation may be described in figure 1.

300
[Cl-] mg/dm3

250 200 150 100 50 0 Parc 105 Parc 1000 Parc 440 PI PA
AF AP

Fig. 1. Concentraia ionilor clorur (Cl-) pentru secia 1 icleni. Evaluarea polurii solului n zona icleni

Fig.1. The concentration Cl- ions from the section 1 icleni. Soil pollution assessment in Ticleni area

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Solul din zona icleni este afectat de asemenea de activitatea de exploatare i transport a zcmintelor de iei i gaze, fiind poluat cu iei i ap srat. n general, valorile nregistrate pentru indicatorii metale grele, pentru anul 2009, se situeaz n limitele admise aa cum se poate vedea n tabelul 2, excepie facnd cuprul n cazul cruia valorile depesc valoarea normal dar se situeaz sub pragul de alert. Analizele fizico-chimice efectuate asupra pobelor de sol prelevate din zona icleni indic n general un sol moderat salinizat aa cum se poate vedea din rezultatele menionate n tabelul 3.

The soil in icleni area is also affected by the exploitation and transport activity of crude oil and gases pools, being polluted with crude oil and salted water. In general, the values recorded for heavy metals markers, for 2009, are within the admitted limitations according to table 2, except for copper for which values exceed the normal value but they are below the alert threshold. Physical and chemical tests performed for the soil samples taken from icleni area generally indicate a moderately salinized soil as we can see from the results mentioned in table 3.

Profil de adncime (cm)

Punct de prelevare

Tabelul 2. Determinri ale metalelor grele din sol n zona icleni. Indicator Cu Pb Zn Valoarea normal Prag de alert Valoarea msurat Valoarea normal Prag de alert Valoarea msurat Valoarea normal Prag de alert

Cd

Secia 0-10 injeci10-20 Zona 0-10 Turbo 10-20 Parc n 0-10 14 10-20 Parcul 0-10 Mare10-20

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

100 43,20 100 25,20 100 18,00 100 16,00 100 21,00 100 100 100

20 20 20 20 20

50 50 50 50 50

1,71 2,15 3,68 2,61 1,48

100 100 100 100 100

300 300 300 300 300

icleni

17,00 20 11,20 20 14,40 20

50 1,69 100 300 49,00 1 50 1,79 100 300 38,40 1 50 2,36 100 300 50,60 1

Depth profi (cm) Normal value Alert threshold Measured value

Sampling point

Area

Normal value Alert threshold Measured value Normal value Alert threshold

Section 0-10 injection 10-20 Area 0-10 Turbo A 10-20

20 20 20 20

100 100 100 100

43,20 20 25,20 20 18,00 20 16,00 20

50 50 50 50

1,71 2,15 3,68 2,61

100 100 100 100

300 300 300 300

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Measured value Normal value Alert threshold Measured value 68,60 56,20 5,80 10,80 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 0,2 0,4 0,4 0,6

Table 2. Determinations of heavy metals in the soil in icleni. Indicator Cu Pb Zn

Valoarea msurat Valoarea normal Prag de alert Valoarea msurat 68,60 56,20 5,80 10,80 73,00 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0,2 0,4 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,2 1,6 1,0 Cd

Zona

Analele Universit ii Constantin Brncu i din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 3/2010

Park No.14 Big Park

0-10

20 100

21,00 20 17,00 20 11,20 20 14,40 20

50 1,48 100 300

73,00 1

3 3 3 3

0,8 1,2 1,6 1,0

10-20 20 100 0-10 20 100 10-20 20 100

50 1,69 100 300 49,00 1 50 1,79 100 300 38,40 1 50 2,36 100 300 50,60 1

Tabelul 3. Determinri ale indicatorilor pH i cloruri din sol n zona icleni.


Punct de prelevare Profil de adncime (cm) pH (uniti de pH) 6,6 6,5 6,2 6,2 6,7 6,5 6,1 6,4 Indicator Cloruri Observaii (mgCl-/100g sol) 255,6 106,5 71,00 74,55 63,90 53,25 39,05 63,90 Sol puternic salinizat Sol moderat salinizat Sol moderat salinizat Sol moderat salinizat Sol moderat salinizat Sol slab salinizat Sol slab salinizat Sol moderat salinizat Zona

Secia injecie icleni Zona Turbo A Parc nr. 14 Parcul Mare

0-10 10-20 0-10 10-20 0-10 10-20 0-10 10-20

Depth profile (cm)

Sampling point from

Table 3. Determinations of pH and chlorides indicators in the soil in icleni. Indicator pH Cloruri Comments (pH unit (mgCl /100g so 6,6 255,6 Power saline soil 6,5 106,5 Moderately saline so 6,2 71,00 Moderately saline so 6,2 74,55 Moderately saline so 6,7 63,90 Moderately saline soil 6,5 53,25 Low saline soil 6,1 6,4 39,05 63,90 Low saline soil Moderately saline soil Area

Section injection icleni Area Turbo A Park No.14

0-10 10-20 0-10 10-20 0-10 10-20

Big Park

0-10 10-20

Evoluia concentraiei de Cu obinut The evolution of Cu concentration n probele de sol prelevate pe doua profile de achieved in soil samples taken on two depth adncime din zona icleni n anul 2009 i profiles from icleni area in 2009 and
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comparate cu valoarea normal pentru acest compared to the normal value for this marker is described in fig.2. indicator este prezentat n fig.2. regarding the pollution of Studiu privind poluarea apelor freatice n Study underground waters in the neighbourhood vecintatea obiectivelor seciei 6 Blteni of section 6 Blteni n ceea ce privete contaminarea As far as underground waters apelor subterane ca urmare a activitilor specifice din cadrul seciei 6 Blteni s-a contamination due to specific activities in urmrit realizarea unor analize fizico-chimice section 6 Blteni is concerned, physical and pe probe de ap prelevate din foraje existente chemical tests were performed on water n imediata vecintate a obiectivelor samples taken from drillings existing in the investigate. Investigaiile au avut ca scop immediate neighbourhood of the investigated identificarea unor poluani specifici, produse objectives. The investigations had the purpose of identifying specific polluting petroliere i cloruri n apele subterane. Avnd n vedere specificul agents, mineral oils and chlorines in activitilor desfurate n cadrul seciei 6 underground waters. Taking into consideration the Blteni, probele de ap au fost supuse analizelor de laborator pentru trei indicatori: specificity of activities developed within pH, cloruri, produse petroliere, pentru fiecare section 6 Blteni, water samples were dintre acetia folosindu-se metode de analyzed in the laboratory for three markers, determinare standardizate: pH SR ISO pH, chlorines, mineral oils, standardized 10523/1997; pentru cloruri SR ISO determination methods being used for each of 9297/2001; pentru produse petroliere them: pH SR ISO 10523/1997; for chlorines SR ISO 9297/2001; for mineral oils (global (determinare global) SR 7877/2-1996. determinations) SR 7877/2-1996.
Determinarea Cu din sol

50 Cu [mg/Kg] 40 30 20 10 0 0-10 [cm ] 10-20 [cm]


0-10 [cm] 10-20 [cm] Valoare normala Valoare normala 37

Fig .2. Determinarea concentraiei de Cu din sol n zona Ticleni. Rezultatele analizelor fizico-chimice realizate pe probele de ap subteran prelevate din cteva foraje aflate n vecintatea obiectivelor din cadrul seciei 6 Blteni sunt prezentate n tabelul 4.

Fig. 2. Determination of copper in the soil in Ticleni. The results of the physical and chemical tests made on underground waters samples taken from several drills from the neighbourhood of the objectives within section 6 Blteni are described in table 4.

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Interpretarea rezultatelor obinute s-a fcut prin raportarea valorilor msurate la limitele admisibile conform legislaiei n vigoare, s-au luat n considerare pragurile impuse de Legea 458/2002 privind calitatea apei potabile (modificat i completat de Legea 311/2004). n legislaia romneasc actual nu exist concentraii maxime admisibile (CMA) specifice apei subterane. Din analiza msurtorilor, rezult c pentru o singur prob (prelevat din forajul de lng intrarea n Parc 2) s-a nregistrat depirea pragului de alert (PA) la indicatorul cloruri, concentraia msurat meninndu-se sub pragul de intervenie (PI). Valorile concentraiilor de ioni clorur pentru probele din vecintatea obiectivelor investigate sunt prezentate n figura 3. Este posibil ca poluarea solului cu ap srat la Parcul 2, ca urmare a unor spargeri mai vechi la rezervoarele de stocare din parc, s fi influenat direct i calitatea apei din pnza freatic. Se recomand monitorizarea periodic a calitii apei din fntna din Parcul 2, pentru indicatorul cloruri, pentru a se putea evidenia evoluia n timp a acestei concentraii.

Results interpretation was made by comparing the measured values to the limitations admitted according to the relevant legislation, considering the thresholds established by Law 458/2002 regarding the quality of drinking water (amended and completed by Law 311/2004). The current Romanian legislation does not include maximum admitted concentrations specific to underground water. The analysis of measurements results reveal that for only one sample (taken from the drill near the entrance in Park 2) the alert threshold was exceeded in the case of chlorines indicator, the measured concentration being maintained below the intervention threshold. The values of chlorine ions concentrations for the samples from the neighbourhood of investigated areas are presented in figure 3. It is possible that soil pollution with salted water in Park, due to older breaks in the storage tanks from the parks, may have directly influenced the quality of water in the underground water. Periodical monitoring is recommended for the quality of water in the fountain from Park 2, for the chlorines marker, in order to be able to reveal the evolution of this concentration in time.

Tabelul 4. Rezultatele analizelor pentru probe de ap subteran din zona seciei 6 Blteni. Indicatori analizai Adncime Denumire de pH Produse Nume prob Cloruri obiectiv prelevare (uniti petroliere (mg/dm3) (m) pH) (mg/dm3) AF (lng intrarea Parc 2 20 6,20 195,00 0,05 n Parc 2) Parc 3 AF (aval de Parc 3) 5 6,63 41,76 0,05 PC 179 AF (aval de PC179) NA 6,35 13,09 0,05 Prag de intervenie (PI) 250 0 6,5 9,5 Prag de alert (PA 70 % din PI) 175 0 Table 4. The test results for groundwater samples from the section 6 Blteni. Indicators review Name Sampling Name Petroleum pH (units Chlorides objective sample depth (m) products pH) (mg/dm3) (mg/dm3)
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AF (near the entrance to Park 2) AF (downstream Park Park 3 3) AF (downstream PC 179 PC179) Intervention threshold (IT) Alert threshold (AT 70 % of IT) Park 2
300 250 200 150 100 50 0

20 5 5

6,20 6,63 6,35 6,5 9,5

195,00 41,76 13,09 250 175

0,05 0,05 0,05 0 0

[Cl] mg/dm3

AF

Parc Parc 2 3

PC 179

PI

PA

Fig.3. Concentraia ionilor Cl- pentru secia 6 Blteni. Cele mai importante probleme privind protecia mediului din cadrul seciei 6 Blteni sunt legate de poluarea potenial a solului i apelor subterane ca urmare a producerii unor avarii la colectare i linii de amestec i ca urmare a pierderilor de produse petroliere i ap de zcmnt de la sondele de extracie. Tehnici de prevenire i reducere a riscului de poluare a solului i apelor subterane cu hidrocarburi i ape srate provenite din exploatrile petroliere Strategia de remediere a solului poluat poate cuprinde o combinaie de msuri de izolare sau de curire. Msurile de izolare mpiedic migrarea poluanilor prin bariere, acestea reprezentnd prima etap obligatorie a oricrui program de remediere. Msurile de curire pot fi mprite n: tehnici ex situ, acestea necesit excavarea i transportul solului poluat la instalaii de tratare i tehnici in situ. n alegerea celei mai potrivite tehnologii de remediere a solului trebuie inut cont de informaiile culese anterior pe parcursul etapelor de investigare, acestea referindu-se la: tipul poluanilor prezeni i

Fig.3. The concentration Cl- ions from the section 6 Blteni. The most important problems regarding environmental protection in section 6 Blteni are related to the possible pollution of soil and underground waters as a result of collection faults and mixture lines and due to the lacks of mineral oil products and formation water from the extraction wells. Prevention and risk reduction techniques for soil and underground waters pollution with hydrocarbons and salted waters resulted from oil working off The remediation strategy of a polluted soil may include a combination of isolation or cleaning measures. Isolation measures prevent polluting agents migration through barriers, this being the first compulsory stage of any remediation program. Cleaning measures may be divided in: ex situ techniques, requires excavation and polluted soil transport to treatment plants and in situ techniques. In choosing the best soil remediation technology, we have to consider the information previously collected during the investigation stages, regarding: the type of present polluting agents and their

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concentraia lor; volumul solului poluat care necesit tratare; localizarea zonei afectate de poluant; caracteristicile solului; destinaia amplasamentului viitor i evaluarea riscului. Principalul avantaj al tehnicilor de izolare i de remediere in situ este acela c ele au nevoie de o dislocare minim a solului i pot fi aplicate i n locurile aglomerate aflate n excavare. Dezavantajele remedierii in situ constau n necesitatea unei investigri mai aprofundate a amplasamentului, a monitorizrii i a unor durate de tratare mai lungi. Principalele tehnici in situ constau n: acoperirea solului prin care se realizeaz o perturbare minim a zonei dar poluanii rmn n amplasament; realizarea unor bariere separatoare astfel se separ sursa de poluare de receptor rezolvnd n acest mod temporar problema dar aceast tehnic nu este o tehnic ce poate fi folosit pe termen lung; bioremedierea in situ - este o tehnic folosit n cazul prezenei hidrocarburilor cu volatilitate sczut dar fiind neadecvat pentru poluarea cu metale grele, avnd o durat mare a procesului i fiind nepotrivit pentru solurile cu o permeabilitate sczut. Dintre tehnicile de remediere ex situ mai importante sunt urmtoarele: - bioremedierea ex situ: n cazul acestei tehnici solul poate fi refolosit, poluarea este tratat la faa locului fiind aplicabil n cazul ntregii game de produse petroliere. Aceast tehnic este neadecvat pentru metale grele, prezint un risc mare pentru contaminarea apelor i necesit un timp mare pentru ndeprtarea poluanilor. - vitrificarea: reprezint transformarea solului amestecat cu poluant ntr-o mas solid la temperatura de 2000 C. Se distrug toi produii organici dar i cei anorganici. Aceast tehnic are un cost ridicat iar solul trebuie transportat n afara zonei de unde a fost recoltat. incinerarea: reprezint distrugerea produilor organici la 600-800 C i a produilor remaneni la 1100-1300 C. Avantajele acestei tehnici: poluanii organici sunt distrui, se pot manipula volume mari i

concentration; the amount of polluted soil that requires treatment; locating the area affected by the polluting agent; soil characteristics; destination of the future location and risk assessment. The main advantage of insulation techniques and in situ remediation is that they require minimum soil dislocation and apply in crowded places undergoing excavation. In situ remediation disadvantages consist in the need for a further investigation of the location, monitoring and longer period of treatment. The main in situ techniques consist in: soil covering resulting in a minimum perturbation of the area, but polluting agents remain at the location; development of separating barriers the pollution source is therefore separated from the receptor thus temporarily solving the problem, but this technique cannot be used for long term; in situ bioremediation is a technique used in case of low volatility hydrocarbons being inadequate for heavy metals pollution, having a long duration of the process and being unsuitable for low permeability soils. Among the ex situ remediation techniques, the most important are the following: - ex situ bioremediation: in the case of this technique the soil can be used again, pollution is treated at the site and being applicable for the entire range of oil products. This technique is not adequate for heavy metals and has a great risk for waters contamination and requires a longer period for removing polluting agents. - vitrification: is the transformation of soil mixed with polluting agent in a solid mass at the temperature of 20000C. All organic and inorganic products are destroyed. This technique has a high cost and soil has to be transported outside the area it was collected from. - incineration: is the destroy of organic products at the temperature of 6008000C and of remaining products at the temperature of 1100-13000C. the advantages of this technique: organic polluting agents are

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se poate aplica la faa locului sau n alt parte. Principalele dezavantaje: costul ridicat, nu ndeprteaz metalele grele i nu trateaz emisiile n atmosfer [4,6]. n cazul tratrii apelor freatice afectate de hidrocarburi se limiteaz zona afectat i se recupereaz produsul petrolier. Limitarea zonei afectate de produse petroliere se poate face cu puuri de recuperare iar recuperarea produsului petrolier se poate realiza cu uurin atunci cnd acesta se separ liber la suprafa. Dup ce se recupereaz produsul petrolier are loc o tratare suplimentar pentru a se ndeprta hidrocarburile dizolvate. Cele mai importante metode pentru tratarea apelor care conin hidrocarburi dizolvate sunt: adsorbia pe crbune activ, striparea cu aer, epurarea biologic etc. 3. Concluzii Evaluarea strii de poluare a mediului produs de exploatarea petrolului are un rol esenial n stabilirea msurilor de prevenire a polurii i elaborarea unor tehnici adecvate pentru reducerea gradului de poluare. n judeul Gorj, exploatarea petrolului este una dintre activitile cu pondere nsemnat n economia zonei i, n acelai timp, cu impact semnificativ asupra calitii factorilor de mediu, cu precdere asupra solului i pnzei freatice. Pornind de la importana msurilor de prevenire a polurii mediului care ar trebui s constituie principiul de baz n managementul activitilor din domeniul petrolier, investigarea surselor de poluare i a efectelor acestora reflectate n cuantumul indicatorilor de calitate monitorizai reprezint punctul de plecare n evaluarea impactului de mediu. Studiile realizate asupra strii actuale a pnzei freatice i solului din zona unor obiective de exploatare aparinnd structurii petroliere icleni au evideniat o serie de probleme majore privind protecia mediului i anume: - poluarea potenial a solului i a apelor subterane ca urmare a producerii unor

destroyed, large amounts can be handled and it applies at the site or anywhere else. The main disadvantages: high cost, it does not remove heavy metals and does not treat emissions in the atmosphere [4,6]. In case of treatment of underground waters affected by hydrocarbons, the affected area shall be limited and the oil product is recovered. The limitation of the area affected by oil products can be made with recovery shafts and oil products recovery can be easily made when it is freely separated at the surface. After the recovery of the oil product, additional treatment is performed in order to remove dissolved hydrocarbons. The most important methods for treating waters that include dissolved hydrocarbons are: active coal absorption, air stripping, biologic treatment etc.

3. Conclusions Environmental pollution assessment caused by oil working off has an essential role in establishing pollution prevention measures and drawing-up adequate technologies for reducing the pollution level. In Gorj county, oil working off is one of the significant activities in the economy of the area and, at the same time, it has a significant effect upon environmental factors quality, mainly upon the soil and ground water sheet. Starting from the significance of environmental pollution prevention measures that should be the main principle in the management of activities from the oil field, the investigation of pollution sources and their effects reflected in the volume of monitored quality markers is the starting point in assessing the environmental impact. Studies performed on the current status of ground water sheet and soil in the area of operation objectives belong to icleni structure have revealed a series of major problems regarding environmental protection namely: - potential pollution of soil and

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avarii la colectoare i linii de amestec i ca urmare a pierderilor de produse petroliere i ap de zcmnt de la sondele de extracie; - necesitatea identificrii unor soluii de procesare sau tratare a lamului i a altor reziduuri ncrcate cu produse petroliere rezultate din activitile specifice, inndu-se cont c halda existent nu mai are capacitate de depozitare; - necesitatea amenajrii i meninerii unor careuri fr poluare prin: verificarea, ntreinerea i mbuntirea instalaiilor i echipamentelor, curarea i ntreinerea beciurilor sondelor, curarea i delimitarea careului sondelor; - poluarea semnificativ a solului cu produse petroliere n incintele unor parcuri; - depirea concentraiei probei de referin la indicatorul cloruri pentru toate probele de sol analizate. Din analizele efectuate privind starea mediului n zona structurii petroliere Blteni, rezult c la nivelul ntregii arii de operare, n ultimii ani s-a constatat o limitare a impactului produs asupra mediului ca urmare a desfurrii activitilor de extracie a ieiului i gazelor naturale, cu toate acestea nsa, structura seciei 6 Blteni figureaz pe lista zonelor critice din jude sub aspectul deteriorrii strii de calitate a mediului. n ceea ce privete calitatea solului din zona icleni, studiul realizat a artat c solul este afectat n mare msur de activitatea de exploatare i transport a zcmintelor de iei i gaze, fiind poluat cu iei i ap srat. Analizele fizico-chimice efectuate asupra probelor de sol prelevate din zona icleni indic n general un sol salinizat i cu un coninut variabil de metale grele care nu poate constitui un biotop optim pentru plante i microorganisme. n consecin, este esenial luarea n considerare i implementarea unor msuri adecvate de monitorizare i control al polurii n zonele afectate, gestionarea eficient a reziduurilor generate de exploatarea petrolului, verificarea periodic a strii tehnice a instalaiilor i echipamentelor de

underground waters as a result of faults at collectors and mixture lines and due to the losses of oil products and formation water from extraction wells; - the need to identify processing or treatment solutions for the slime or other waste loaded with oil products resulting from specific activities, taking into consideration that the existing waste dump has no storage capacity; - the need to arrange and maintain pollution free mess halls by: checking, maintaining and improving plants and equipments, cleaning and maintaining wells cellars, cleaning and confining mess halls; - significant soil pollution with oil products inside certain parks; - exceeding the concentration of the reference sample at the chlorines marker for all the analyzed soil tests. The tests performed regarding the environmental status in the area of Blteni oil structure reveal that at the level of the entire operation area, for the last few years a limitation could be noticed of the impact caused upon the environment as a consequence of crude oil and natural gases extraction activities, still, the structure of section 6 Blteni is on the list of the critical area in the county under the aspect of environmental quality deterioration. As far as soil quality in icleni area is concerned, the study revealed that the soil is mostly affected by crude oil and gases pools exploitation and transport activities, being polluted with crude oil and salted water. Physical and chemical tests made on the soil samples taken from icleni area generally indicate a salinized soil with a variable content of heavy metals that cannot be an adequate habitat for plants and microorganisms. Consequently, it is essential to take into consideration and implement adequate measures for monitoring and controlling pollution in the affected area, efficient managing the waste generated by oil working off, periodically checking the technical status

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lucru, diminuarea la maxim a efectelor negative ale activitilor petroliere asupra factorilor de mediu, n contextul dezvoltrii durabile n acest sector economic. Bibliografie

of operating plants and equipments, maximum decreasing the negative effects of oil activities upon environmental factors, within the context of sustainable development in this economic field.

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