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KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

1
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

21/10/2013

WIND LOADING (BS6399)


TEDDS calculation version 3.0.04

30000

30000 Plan

30000 Elevation

Building data Type of roof; Length of building; Width of building; Height to eaves; Eaves type; Reference height; Dynamic classification Building type factor (Table 1); Dynamic augmentation factor (1.6.1); Site wind speed Location; Basic wind speed (Figure 6 BS6399:Pt 2) Site altitude Upwind distance from sea to site Direction factor Seasonal factor Probability factor Critical gap between buildings; Topography Type of feature; Actual length of upwind slope in wind direction; Actual length downwind slope in wind direction; Effective height of feature;

Flat L = 30000 mm W = 30000 mm H = 200000 mm Sharp Hr = 200000 mm Kb = 1.0 Cr = [Kb ( H / (0.1 m) )0.75 ] / ( 800 log( H / (0.1 m) ) ) = 0.11

Other Vb = 23.0 m/s S = 20 m dsea = 50 km Sd =1.00 Ss = 1.00 Sp = 1.00 g = 3200 mm Hills and ridges Lu = 50000 mm Ld = 50000 mm Z = 20000 mm

20 000 0

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KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

2
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

U Upwind slope in upwind direction; Effective slope of topographic feature; Effective length of upwind slope (cl 2.2.2.2.4);

21/10/2013 U = Z / Lu = 0.40 e = 0.30

Le = Z / 0.3 = 66667 mm Horiz distance of the site from the top of the crest; x = -5000 mm T = 2.000 m Altitude of upwind base of topographic feature; S = 20.000 m s = 0.46 Sh = 0.6 s = 0.27 Sa = 1 + 0.001 T/1m = 1.00 Vs = Vb Sa Sd Ss Sp = 23.0 m/s

Site altitude; Topographic location factor (Figure 9a); Topographic increment (Table 25); Altitude factor; Site wind speed

Terrain category; Country Displacement height (sheltering effect excluded); Hd = 0mm The velocity pressure for the windward face of the building with a 0 degree wind is to be considered as 3 parts as the height h is greater than 2b (cl.2.2.3.2) The velocity pressure for the windward face of the building with a 90 degree wind is to be considered as 3 parts as the height h is greater than 2b (cl.2.2.3.2) Dynamic pressure - windward wall (lower part) - Wind 0 deg Reference height (at which q is sought); Href = 30000mm Effective height; Fetch factor (Table 22); Turbulence factor (Table 22); Gust peak factor; Terrain and building factor; Effective wind speed; Dynamic pressure; He = max(Href Hd , 0.4 Href) = 30000mm Sc = 1.243 St = 0.159 gt = 3.44 Sb = Sc (1 + (gt St) + Sh) = 2.26 Ve = Vs Sb = 52.2 m/s qs = 0.613 kg/m3 Ve 2 = 1.669 kN/m2

Dynamic pressure - windward wall, (middle part) - Wind 0 deg Reference height (at which q is sought); Href = 170000mm Effective height; Fetch factor (Table 22); Turbulence factor (Table 22); Gust peak factor; Terrain and building factor; Effective wind speed; Dynamic pressure; He = max(Href Hd , 0.4 Href) = 170000mm Sc = 1.599 St = 0.106 gt = 3.44 Sb = Sc (1 + (gt St) + Sh) = 2.62 Ve = Vs Sb = 60.4 m/s qs = 0.613 kg/m3 Ve 2 = 2.236 kN/m2

Dynamic pressure - windward wall (upper part), other walls and roof - Wind 0 deg Reference height (at which q is sought); Href = 200000mm Effective height; Fetch factor (Table 22); Turbulence factor (Table 22); Gust peak factor; Terrain and building factor; Effective wind speed; Dynamic pressure; Reference height (at which q is sought); Effective height; He = max(Href Hd , 0.4 Href) = 200000mm Sc = 1.647 St = 0.098 gt = 3.44 Sb = Sc (1 + (gt St) + Sh) = 2.66 Ve = Vs Sb = 61.2 m/s qs = 0.613 kg/m3 Ve 2 = 2.297 kN/m2 Href = 30000mm He = max(Href Hd , 0.4 Href) = 30000mm

Dynamic pressure - windward wall (lower part) - Wind 90 deg

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KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

3
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

U Fetch factor (Table 22); Turbulence factor (Table 22); Gust peak factor; Terrain and building factor; Effective wind speed; Dynamic pressure;

21/10/2013 Sc = 1.243 St = 0.159 gt = 3.44 Sb = Sc (1 + (gt St) + Sh) = 2.26 Ve = Vs Sb = 52.2 m/s qs = 0.613 kg/m3 Ve 2 = 1.669 kN/m2

Dynamic pressure - windward wall, (middle part) - Wind 90 deg Reference height (at which q is sought); Href = 170000mm Effective height; Fetch factor (Table 22); Turbulence factor (Table 22); Gust peak factor; Terrain and building factor; Effective wind speed; Dynamic pressure; He = max(Href Hd , 0.4 Href) = 170000mm Sc = 1.599 St = 0.106 gt = 3.44 Sb = Sc (1 + (gt St) + Sh) = 2.62 Ve = Vs Sb = 60.4 m/s qs = 0.613 kg/m3 Ve 2 = 2.236 kN/m2

Dynamic pressure - windward wall (upper part), other walls and roof - Wind 90 deg Reference height (at which q is sought); Href = 200000mm Effective height; Fetch factor (Table 22); Turbulence factor (Table 22); Gust peak factor; Terrain and building factor; Effective wind speed; Dynamic pressure; Size effect factors Diagonal dimension for gablewall; External size effect factor gablewall; Diagonal dimension for side wall; External size effect factor side wall; Diagonal dimension for roof; External size effect factor roof; Diagonal dimension for top windward side; External size effect factor top windward side; Diagonal dimension for middle windward side; External size effect factor middle windward side; Diagonal dimension for bottom windward side; External size effect factor bottom windward side; Diagonal dimension for top windward gable; External size effect factor top windward gable; aeg = 202.2 m Caeg = 0.770 aes = 202.2 m Caes = 0.770 aer = 42.4 m Caer = 0.867 aeus = 42.4 m Caeus = 0.867 aems = 143.2 m Caems = 0.791 aebs = 42.4 m Caebs = 0.867 aeug = 42.4 m Caeug = 0.867 He = max(Href Hd , 0.4 Href) = 200000mm Sc = 1.647 St = 0.098 gt = 3.44 Sb = Sc (1 + (gt St) + Sh) = 2.66 Ve = Vs Sb = 61.2 m/s qs = 0.613 kg/m3 Ve 2 = 2.297 kN/m2

Diagonal dimension for middle windward gable; aemg = 143.2 m External size effect factor middle windward gable; Caemg = 0.791 Diagonal dimension for bottom windward gable; aebg = 42.4 m External size effect factor bottom windward gable; Caebg = 0.867 Room/storey volume for internal size effect factor; Vi = 0.125 m3 Diagonal dimension for internal size effect factors; ai = 10 ( Vi )1/3 = 5.000 m Internal size effect factor; Cai = 1.000

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KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

4
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

U Pressures and forces Net pressure; Net force; Roof loadcase 1 - Wind 0, cpi 0.20, -cpe Zone A (-ve) B (-ve) C (-ve) D (-ve) Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -2.00 -1.40 -0.70 -0.20 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30

21/10/2013

p = qs cpe Cae - qs cpi Cai; Fw = p Aref;

External size factor, Cae 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 Fw,v = -1399.01 kN Fw,h = 0.00 kN

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -4.44 -3.25 -1.85 -0.86

Area, Aref (m2) 45.00 45.00 360.00 450.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -199.87 -146.11 -667.12 -385.92

Total vertical net force; Total horizontal net force; Walls loadcase 1 - Wind 0, cpi 0.20, -cpe Zone A B wb wm wu l Overall loading Equiv leeward net force for upper section; Net windward force for upper section; Overall loading upper section; Equiv leeward net force for middle section; Net windward force for middle section; Overall loading middle section; Equiv leeward net force for bottom section; Net windward force for bottom section; Overall loading bottom section; Roof loadcase 2 - Wind 0, cpi -0.3, +cpe Zone A (+ve) B (+ve) C (+ve) D (+ve) Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -2.00 -1.40 -0.70 0.20 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30 Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -1.30 -0.80 0.85 0.85 0.85 -0.50 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 1.67 2.24 2.30 2.30

External size factor, Cae 0.770 0.770 0.867 0.791 0.867 0.770

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -2.76 -1.87 0.90 1.06 1.23 -1.34

Area, Aref (m2) 1200.00 4800.00 900.00 4200.00 900.00 6000.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -3308.75 -8992.71 806.50 4435.74 1109.69 -8059.18

Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wu = -1208.9 kN Fw = Fw,wu = 1109.7 kN Fw,u = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) + Fw,h = 2194.0 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wm = -5641.4 kN Fw = Fw,wm = 4435.7 kN Fw,m = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 9535.6 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wb = -1208.9 kN Fw = Fw,wb = 806.5 kN Fw,b = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 1907.1 kN

External size factor, Cae 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 Fw,v = -7.00 kN Fw,h = 0.00 kN

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -3.29 -2.10 -0.70 1.09

Area, Aref (m2) 45.00 45.00 360.00 450.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -148.18 -94.43 -253.67 489.28

Total vertical net force; Total horizontal net force;

Project

Job Ref.

KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

5
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

U Walls loadcase 2 - Wind 0, cpi -0.3, +cpe Zone A B wb wm wu l Overall loading Equiv leeward net force for upper section; Net windward force for upper section; Overall loading upper section; Equiv leeward net force for middle section; Net windward force for middle section; Overall loading middle section; Equiv leeward net force for bottom section; Net windward force for bottom section; Overall loading bottom section; Roof loadcase 3 - Wind 90, cpi 0.20, -cpe Zone A (-ve) B (-ve) C (-ve) D (-ve) Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -2.00 -1.40 -0.70 -0.20 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30 Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -1.30 -0.80 0.85 0.85 0.85 -0.50 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 1.67 2.24 2.30 2.30

21/10/2013

External size factor, Cae 0.770 0.770 0.867 0.791 0.867 0.770

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -1.61 -0.73 1.73 2.17 2.38 -0.19

Area, Aref (m2) 1200.00 4800.00 900.00 4200.00 900.00 6000.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -1930.58 -3480.04 1557.71 9130.63 2143.32 -1168.34

Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wu = -175.3 kN Fw = Fw,wu = 2143.3 kN Fw,u = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) + Fw,h = 2194.0 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wm = -817.8 kN Fw = Fw,wm = 9130.6 kN Fw,m = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 9413.8 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wb = -175.3 kN Fw = Fw,wb = 1557.7 kN Fw,b = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 1639.8 kN

External size factor, Cae 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 Fw,v = -1399.01 kN Fw,h = 0.00 kN

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -4.44 -3.25 -1.85 -0.86

Area, Aref (m2) 45.00 45.00 360.00 450.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -199.87 -146.11 -667.12 -385.92

Total vertical net force; Total horizontal net force; Walls loadcase 3 - Wind 90, cpi 0.20, -cpe Zone A B wb wm wu l Overall loading Equiv leeward net force for upper section; Net windward force for upper section; Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -1.30 -0.80 0.85 0.85 0.85 -0.50 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 1.67 2.24 2.30 2.30

External size factor, Cae 0.770 0.770 0.867 0.791 0.867 0.770

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -2.76 -1.87 0.90 1.06 1.23 -1.34

Area, Aref (m2) 1200.00 4800.00 900.00 4200.00 900.00 6000.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -3308.75 -8992.71 806.50 4435.74 1109.69 -8059.18

Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wu = -1208.9 kN Fw = Fw,wu = 1109.7 kN

Project

Job Ref.

KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

6
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

U Overall loading upper section; Equiv leeward net force for middle section; Net windward force for middle section; Overall loading middle section; Equiv leeward net force for bottom section; Net windward force for bottom section; Overall loading bottom section; Roof loadcase 4 - Wind 90, cpi -0.3, +cpe Zone A (+ve) B (+ve) C (+ve) D (+ve) Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -2.00 -1.40 -0.70 0.20 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30

21/10/2013 Fw,u = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) + Fw,h = 2194.0 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wm = -5641.4 kN Fw = Fw,wm = 4435.7 kN Fw,m = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 9535.6 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wb = -1208.9 kN Fw = Fw,wb = 806.5 kN Fw,b = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 1907.1 kN

External size factor, Cae 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 Fw,v = -7.00 kN Fw,h = 0.00 kN

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -3.29 -2.10 -0.70 1.09

Area, Aref (m2) 45.00 45.00 360.00 450.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -148.18 -94.43 -253.67 489.28

Total vertical net force; Total horizontal net force; Walls loadcase 4 - Wind 90, cpi -0.3, +cpe Zone A B wb wm wu l Overall loading Equiv leeward net force for upper section; Net windward force for upper section; Overall loading upper section; Equiv leeward net force for middle section; Net windward force for middle section; Overall loading middle section; Equiv leeward net force for bottom section; Net windward force for bottom section; Overall loading bottom section; Ext pressure coefficient, cpe -1.30 -0.80 0.85 0.85 0.85 -0.50 Dynamic pressure, qs (kN/m2) 2.30 2.30 1.67 2.24 2.30 2.30

External size factor, Cae 0.770 0.770 0.867 0.791 0.867 0.770

Net Pressure, p (kN/m2) -1.61 -0.73 1.73 2.17 2.38 -0.19

Area, Aref (m2) 1200.00 4800.00 900.00 4200.00 900.00 6000.00

Net force, Fw (kN) -1930.58 -3480.04 1557.71 9130.63 2143.32 -1168.34

Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wu = -175.3 kN Fw = Fw,wu = 2143.3 kN Fw,u = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) + Fw,h = 2194.0 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wm = -817.8 kN Fw = Fw,wm = 9130.6 kN Fw,m = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 9413.8 kN Fl =Fw,wl / Aref,wl Aref,wb = -175.3 kN Fw = Fw,wb = 1557.7 kN Fw,b = 0.85 (1 + Cr) (Fw - Fl) = 1639.8 kN

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KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

7
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

21/10/2013

30000

15000

12000

3000

A 7500

B 15000

A 7500

Plan view - Flat roof

60 00

24000

wu

200000

200000

Wind - 0o

wlm

wb

30000 Side face

30000 W indward face

30000 Leeward face

200000

30000

Project

Job Ref.

KK Lim & Associates


Section Sheet no./rev.

8
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date App'd by Date

21/10/2013

30000

7500 15000

Wind - 90o

C B

7500

3000

12000

15000

Plan view - Flat roof

60 00

24000

wu

200000

200000

wlm

wb

30000 Side face

30000 W indward face

30000 Leeward face

200000

30000