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Composition of Oil-Based Muds Thierry Maysounabe
Composition
of Oil-Based
Muds
Thierry Maysounabe
 
 
Introduction • 2 basic classifications of oil-based muds: • invert emulsions (most of the cases)
Introduction
• 2 basic classifications of oil-based muds:
• invert emulsions (most of the cases)
• all-oil muds (rare)
• Oils used range from:
• crude oils
• refined oils (diesel, mineral oils, …)
• non- petroleum organic fluids (also called pseudo oils)
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Oil Muds Products: Emulsifiers • Primary Emulsifier: • Calcium soaps are the primary emulsifier in
Oil Muds Products: Emulsifiers
• Primary Emulsifier:
• Calcium soaps are the primary emulsifier in oil muds
• they are made in situ by addition of lime to long
chain (C16 toC22) fatty acids
• Secondary Emulsifier:
• very powerful oil-wetting chemicals
• generally do not form emulsions
• typically polyamides or imidazolines
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Oil Muds Products: Organophilic gellants • Viscosity builders • Made from bentonite, hectorite or attapulgite
Oil Muds Products: Organophilic gellants
• Viscosity builders
• Made from bentonite, hectorite or attapulgite treated
with an amine to make them oil dispersible
• Bentonite is most commonly used and is compatible
with oils up to 350 F
• Above 350 F hectorite- based clay should be used
• Organophilic attapulgite is used to improve suspension
properties of packer fluids
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Oil Muds Products: Fluid Loss Additives • Organophilic lignites: • used as high temperature FLA
Oil Muds Products: Fluid Loss Additives
• Organophilic lignites:
• used as high temperature FLA
• also aid in emulsification of water
• treated with an amine to be oil-dispersible
• fluid loss control by plugging
• can be use at high concentration without excessive
viscosifying effect
• Asphaltic materials:
• consist of gilsonite or asphalt derivative
• gilsonite: 400 F / asphalt: 350 F
• high concentration induces excessive
viscosifying effect
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Oil Muds Products: Rheological Additives • Polymeric viscosifiers: • synergies with organoclays • useful when
Oil Muds Products: Rheological Additives
• Polymeric viscosifiers:
• synergies with organoclays
• useful when bentonite performance is reduced under HT
• effective up to 400 F
• example: high MW sulfonated polystyrene (> 250 F)
• Rheological modifiers:
• low molecular weight fatty acid
• provide low shear rheology (6 and 3 rpm)
• no significant impact on total mud viscosity
• minimise or eliminate barite sag
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Oil Muds Products: Others • Weighting agents • minerals: calcite, barite, hematite … • Wetting
Oil Muds Products: Others
Weighting agents
• minerals: calcite, barite, hematite …
Wetting agents: lecithin,
Antifoam/ Defoamer:
• silicon emulsions
• polyols
• surfactants
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All-Oil Muds Formulation ?Why All-oil muds are so rare ? • High cost & environmental
All-Oil Muds Formulation
?Why All-oil muds are so rare ?
• High cost & environmental concern
• Flammability concerns (diesel)
• Difficult to control thickness
• Difficult to control filtration properties
• Often poorly accomodate water influxes
?What to do ?
• Provide rheological & filtration control
• Provide efficient hole cleaning
• Provide good suspension ability
• Accomodate water/solids influxes
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All-Oil Muds Formulation (2) ? Refer to SPE ‘Field Application of the All-Oil Drilling Fluid
All-Oil Muds Formulation (2)
? Refer to SPE ‘Field Application of the All-Oil
Drilling Fluid Concept’ by L.J. Fraser
? Examples of formulations:
Example 1
Example 2
Base Oil
Diesel
Mineral
Organoclay
10,0 lb/bbl
8,0 lb/bbl
Extender
0,2 lb/bbl
0,3 lb/bbl
Surfactants
0,4 lb/bbl
4,0 lb/bbl
Polymeric Filtrate Reducer
-
2,5 lb/bbl
Colloidal Filtrate Reducer
5,0 lb/bbl
-
Lime
1,8 lb/bbl
4,0 lb/bbl
Fluid Density
8,1 ppg
11,5 ppg
PV
13
12
YP
17
10
GS 0 / GS 10
6 / 8
5 / 6
6 rpm dial
9
6
HPHT FL (250 F / 500 psi)
12,0
10,0
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