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Chapter-1

Introduction
Definition:Its an electronic Device that is used for information Processing. Computer.. Latin word.. Compute Calculation Machine. The word "computer" comes from the word "computer", which means, "to calculate". Hence, people usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithemetic operations at high speed. In fact, the original objective for inverting a computer was to create a fast calculating machine. However, more than 80% of work done by computers today is of non-mathematical or non- numerical nature. Hence, to define a computer nearly as calculating device is to ignore over 80% of its functions. More accurately, we can define a computer as a device that operates upon data. Data can be anything like bio-data of applicants when computer is used for short listing candidates for recruiting; marks obtained by students in various subjects when used for preparing results; details(name, age, sex, etc.) of passengers when used for making airline or railway reservations; or number of different parameters when used for solving scientific research problems ,etc. A computer system includes a computer, peripheral devices, and software Accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output Input refers to whatever is sent to a Computer system Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU) Memory is an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed, stored, or output Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis Computer output is the result produced by the computer An output device displays, prints or transmits the results of processing.

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Computer Performs computations and makes logical decisions. Millions / billions times faster than human beings. Sets of instructions for which computer processes data Hardware Physical devices of computer system Software Programs that run on computers .

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Capabilities of Computers
Huge Data Storage Input and Output Processing

Characteristics of Computers
No Feelings: - Computers are devoid of emotions. They have no feelings and no instincts because they are machines. Although men have succeeded in building a memory for computer, but no computer possesses the equivalent of a human heart and soul. Based on our feelings, taste, knowledge, and experience we often make a certain judgments in our day-to-day life whereas, computers cannot make such judgments on their own. They make judgments based on the instructions given ti them in the form of programs that are written by us (human beings). No I. Q. : - A computer is not a magical device. It possesses no intelligence of its own. Its I.Q. is zero, at least until today. It has to be told what to do and in what sequence. Hence only a user determines what tasks a computer will perform. A computer cannot take its own decision in this regard. Accuracy: - In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. Accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. A computer performs every calculation with the same accuracy. Versatility: - Versatility is one of the most wonderful things about a computer One moment it is preparing results of an examination, next moment it is busy preparing electricity bills, and in between, it may be helping an office secretary to trace an important letter in seconds. Diligence: - Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumbling. Hence, computers score over human beings in doing routine type of jobs that require great accuracy. Speed: - A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that a human being can do in an entire year if she/he worked day and night and did nothing else. In other words, a computer can do in a few minutes what would take a man in his entire lifetime.

History Of Computers
Before the 1500s, in Europe, calculations were made with an abacus Invented around 500BC, available in many cultures (China, Mesopotamia, Japan, Greece, Rome, etc.) In 1642, Blaise Pascal (French mathematician, physicist, philosopher) invented a mechanical calculator called the Pascaline

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In 1671, Gottfried von Leibniz (German mathematician, philosopher) extended the Pascaline to do multiplications, divisions, square roots: the Stepped Reckoner . None of these machines had memory, and they required human intervention at each step In 1822 Charles Babbage (English mathematician, philosopher), sometimes called the father of computing built the Difference Engine

Machine designed to automate the computation (tabulation) of polynomial functions (which are known to be good approximations of many useful functions) Based on the method of finite difference Implements some storage

In 1833 Babbage designed the Analytical Engine, but he died before he could build it It was built after his death, powered by steam .

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Generations of Computer

First Generations (1951- 1958): - Characterized by vacuum tubes which burned out very rapidly. The first generation of computers used machine language or 0s and 1s.This generation also used magnetic tape. Vacuum Tubes Magnetic Drum 4,000 bits Hard Wire Programs in computers IBM 650 ENIAC

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Second Generation (1959-1964): - The second generation of computers used transistors for the internal operations. They used magnetic core for the memory. These machines used assembly language. Transistors Magnetic Cores 32,000 bits Punch Cards CDC, GE, IBM

Third Generation (1965-1974): - These computers used integrated circuits on silicon chips. They were characterized with high-level programming languages which required logic such as BASIC, Pascal, C, COBOL, and FORTRAN. Silicon Chips (Integrated circuits)= IC Cores, ICs 128,000 bits Keyboard Entry IBM, NCR, Honeywell

Fourth Generation (1975-1989): - These computers use microprocessor chips. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Languages such as Visual Basic, and JAVA are characteristic of this computer generation. The new languages are based on a concept called Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) which encourages programmers to reuse code by maintaining libraries of code segments.These programs are designed to solve specific problems and require little special user training. This includes Query Languages and application generators Silicon Chips (Large scale integrated circuits)=LSI ICs, LSIs 100 million bits Read programs off disks Apple, Xerox, Texas Instrument, Hewlett-Packard

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Fifth Generation (1990-present): - A Fifth Generation? ..................... AI and Natural Languages 5th Generation Still Being Developed Natural Language. This language is designed to give people a more human connection with computers. Uses multi-media has also defined this generation. There is a great deal of bundled software with this generation. Silicon Chips ( Very Large Integrated Circuits) VLSI LSIs, VLSIs Unlimited CdRom, Optical Disk NEC, Packard Bell, Compaq, Other Clones

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