np
Differential Amplifier:
A circuit that amplifies the difference between two signals is called as difference or
differential amplifier. This type of amplifier is very useful in instrumentation circuit. The
main purpose of difference amplifier stage is to provide high gain to the difference mode
signal and cancel the common mode signal.
RF
R1
V1
V
V
3
V
Vo
V1
+
R2
R3
Since the differential voltage at the input terminal of the output ampere is zero, node V and
+
+
V =V =V3

And at V is
V3 V1 V3
=0
+
R
R
2
(ii )
=
1+
R R R
R
R
R
R
1
Now, Putting R2 = R1 , R3 = RF
V3 V2 V3 Vo V3 V1 V3
=
+
R R R
R
R R R
1
RF
Vo =
R1
RF
R1
(V1 V2 )
R1
Vo = Ad (V1 V2 )
=V V
is called
o
Vo
+
=
V V
V
+A
V3
V2
V o1
V
2
A1
R1
nd
RF '
.V
Vo = R .Vo + 1 + R
1
R
(ii )
R1
Vo = R 1 + R
+1 + R
RF + R 1
RF
V
+ 1 + R V1
R
2
RF
= R
1
RF
=1
+R
RF
+ 1 + R V1
RF
=1+ R
V2 )
Thus, we see that gain of this amp is identical to the non inverting amplifier.
CC
Inverted
output
C1
C2
non inverted
output
C1
C2
input 1
input 2
I
E2
E1
IE
I
F1
E2
E2
I
F2
IE
E2
 VEE
 V EE
There are two inputs and two outputs shown in the figure. Inputs are applied
essentially to each base of the two separate transistors
and
connected to a common emitter resistor show that two output terminals V1( out ) and V2( out )
are affected by either or both input signals.
Operation:
When the input signal drivers transistor
and therefore the collector of
will be less +ve and when the input signal is ve it will turn
off the transistor and collector will be more +ve. In brief, we can say that an inverted output
appears at
will
conduct less current which in turn will cause less voltage drop in RC 2 and thus its collector
goes in +ve direction for +ve going input signals. In other words, noninverted appears at the
collector of transistor
Since it combines the two collector voltages VC1 and VC 2 , the AC output voltage is
given by Vout =VC 2 VC1
CC
CC
CC
RC
C
RC
Vout
Vout
Vout
V2
RE
V

Rt
EE
EE
CC
RC
BE
RE
 VEE
RE
half of figure are perfectly symmetrical then, tail current split equally and hence I
= IT
The dc voltage on either collector is given by VC =VCC IC RC . When VBE is taken into
consideration,
V V
EE
BE
IT =
RE
CC
AC Analysis
RC
Rc
ic
Vout
+
1
2
re1
re1
Vin
Vin
RE
_
 VBE
'
Vin = ie re + ie re = 2ie re
'
V =i R
out
out
RC '
2re'
in
Voltage gain A =
R
C
2re'
The AC emitter current is given as
ie =
in
2re'
= ib
V
or,
=2 r'
in
ib
Input Impedance
Zin = 2 re'
Ad
A
CM
signal. ACM
is voltage gain to the common mode signal. The CMMR is frequently expressed
in (dB) as 20 log
Ad
10 A
CM
ratio should be infinity. But in fact it has finite value. The larger the CMMR, the better is the
amplification.
Common Mode Signals:
The output voltage of a differential amplifier is proportional to the difference between
the input voltages. Thus if there is no difference between if voltage, i.e. when they are equal
the output voltage is zero. Equal inputs are known as common mode signals.
However, in actual practice, when equal inputs are applied to the two inputs, the
output voltage is not exactly equal to zero. But is typically of the order of several hundred
microvolt. Thus the common mode gain (AC) can be defined as
AC =
Vo
VC
I +I
B1
in( base)
B2
where,
I
in( diff )
=I I
B1
B2
and
and
Vout would be zero. But practical circuit exhibit mismatches that result in a dc output voltage
Vo (Verror) even with the both input grounded. We called the dc output voltage as dc offset
voltage where this dc offset voltage is divided by the differential gain of the amplifier, we
obtain the quantity to which we called as off input offset voltage Vos =
V
Ad
V
Ad
error
3.
4.
5.
Application:
1. Amplification
2. Mixing
3. Signal Generation
4. Amplitude Modulation
5. Frequency Modulation
6. Temperature Compensation
Q.
5K
5K
V out
= 300, what is
7.5K
 15V
Solution:
r ' = 25mV
e
IE
V
EE
15
IT =
= 2mA
=
RE 7.5
I E = Ir / 2 = 2mA =1mA
2
'
r = 25mV = 25mA = 25
e
1mA
IE
The AC output voltage is
V = AVin =100 1mV =100mV
Q.
12V
3K
Vout
5K
V
IT =
EE
R =
E
=I
IE
T/2
V =V
C
12V
= 2.4mA
5
2.4
= 2 =1.2mA
3
3
I R =12 1.2 10 310 = 8.4V
C
CC
V V
IT =
EE
BE
RE
= 12 0.3 = 2.34mA
5K
Q. A diff. amp has a gain of Av =100 , when, mode gain is being measured, we get
VI = 2V and Vo = mV . Calculate the CMRR.
Solution:
Given, Diff gain, Av=100
Also,
Vi = 2V
Vo =10mV , which is due to common mode signal.
Q. A certain instrumentation amplifier has a gain 40dB and CMMR 100 dB. IT is used noisy
environment in which the signal has the level of 50 mV, the common mode noise level is 100
mV. Determine:
1. Common Mode Gain
2. Signal Output
3. Noise Output
4. Output Signal Voltage to Noise Ratio
The diff. gain of Instrumental Amplifier = 40
dB 20logAd = 40dB
1
Ad = log (2)
Ad = 100
The common mode rejection ratio =
100dB 20log CMRR=100dB
1
Ad
A
CM
Ad = 10 =10 3
CMR
5
10
R
3
=10
A =
CM
ACM
)= 60dB
Vo = AdVi
2
Vo =10 50 = 5V
c) The noise input is given by
= A V
V
onoise
CM
Vonoise =10
in
100 = 0.1mV
5V
= 50,000
10 V
SNR = 50,000
onoise
Q. Compute the common mode gain and differential gain for the diff. amp.
+ VCC
5K
5K
V1
=1.1K Yhoe
= 80K
1 mv
50
50
10K
VEE
Solution:
Common Mode Gain
AC =
(2hoeR e hfe)RC
2Re (1 + hfe) + ( R s + hie)(2 hoeRe +1)
Diff gain,
1 hfeRC
Ad = 2 . Rs + hie
Chapter 2
Instrumentation Amplifier
Characteristic and Feature of Instrumentation of Amplifier:
1. The instrumentation amplifier has high gain accuracy.
2. It has large voltage gain and gain be precisely set by a single internal or external resistor.
3. The high CMRR makes the amplifier very useful in recovery small signals buried in a
large common mode offset and noise.
4. It has high gain stability with low temperature coefficient i.e. it has very low temp. drift.
5. It has very low output impedance.
6. It has very low input offsets.
Relation between input and output of instrumentation amplifier:
The instrumentation amplifier is a dedicated differential amp. with extremely high
input impedance. It is closed loop device consists of two stages.
The first stage offers very high input impedance to both the input signals and allows
setting the gain with the single resistor.
The second stage is a differential amplifier with the output negative feed back.
opampI
V1 (+Vom)
V3
R2
R4
R1
Rg
Vo
opampIII
R1
R
V2 (+Vom)
opampII
The output of the 1 stage is connected through the string of resistors. The second
stage of the amplifier is differential amplifier.
This circuit uses 3 opamps and hence it is called 3 amplifier configurations. V1 and
V2 are the desired signals and Vcm is the common mode signal. This circuit used to eliminate
common mode signal.
For simplicity in order to minimize common mode gain, let us assume that
R2 = R3 = R4 = Rs = R
Now, the output of opamps I will be
1(+Vcm)
VR
=1
R
R
R
R
Rg
R
.V 2 +V
cm
=1
.V +V
cm
Rg
Rg
Thus, the net output voltage Vo of opampIII will be Vo =V4 V3
Vo = 1 +
R
1
R
V
cm
.V +V
cm
1 +
.V2 +Vcm
R
V+
Rg
cm
Rg
Rg
R
(V
V )
(V V
Rg
R
(V
V )+
(V
Rg
= (V
Rg
R
=1 +
R
R
V1
Rg
Rg
1+
R
V
Rg
R
=1 +
.V +V
Vo = 1 +
V )
1
Rg
V ) 1
+ R1 + R1
R
V
= (V
V ) 1
+2
Rg
Thus the above equation shows that there is no output corresponding to common
mode signal. The gain of the amp can be changed by changing Rg . Hence, the
instrumentation amplifier provides the output without error.
opampI
+
0.2 V
10K
10K
Rp
500
10K
Vo
500
Rp
opampIII
10R
10K
opampII
10K
0.3 VO
+0
Rg (max)= 500
+10K
= 0.5K
=10.5K
2 10
2R
a)
Vo (max) = (V 2
V1) 1
(min) = (V
V
o
b) Again,
when
o1
=+
V
1
Rg
R
o
=1+
= 1+
Rg
R
1
Rg
Rg
=1+
= 20.5V
0.5
2 10
+
10.5
=1.45V V
10
( 0.2)
0.3 = 1.10
5.5
10
V
0.2)]1
= (0.3 ( 0.2)) 1
+ middle of 10K
1
+ 10K = 5.5K
2
R
10
Rg = 500
V
= [0.3 (
Rg (min)
2R
R g (max)
V ) 1 +
1
Rg = 500
5.5
10
0.3
5.5
0.2 =1.209
5.5
R1
Va
RF
Rb
RA
ab
Vo
R2
R3
RA Vdc
RA + ( RT R)
R V
V=
b
dc
RB + RC
Now,
RV
A
=V V =
V
ab
RV
dc
dc
RA + ( RT + R) RB + RC
If RA = RB = RC = RF = R then,
RV
V
ab
RV
dc
dc
2r + R
2R
R RVdc
RVdc
= 2R(2 R + R) = 2(2 R + R)
Vo =
ab
RF
R1
RVdc
RF
V o = 2( 2 R + R ) . R
p
RVdc
2(2 R + R)
R.Vdc
4R
R
V =
o
R1
.V
4R
dc
Input
Stage
Intermediate
Stage
Output
Stage
Inductor or
Automatic
Process Control
Stage
The input stage is composed of preamplifier and same type of transducer. The
transducer may be thermester, photo conductive cells or strain gauge. Depending upon the
physical quantity to be measured, the output stage may use devices such as meters,
oscilloscopes, charts or magnetorecorder.
Following are the applications of instrumentation amplifier:
i. Temperature indicator
ii. Temperature controller
iii. Light intensity meter
iv. Measurement of flow & thermal conductivity
v. Analog weight scale
Isolation Amplifier:
VA
in
A
out
in
VB
VA
UptoElectronic Isolation:
1pf
LED
Phototransistor
A light emitting diode and phototransistor are mounted very close to one another in a
single package. Light from the diode caused by current I1 falls on the phototransistor giving
rise to current I2 . The information contained by current I1 is therefore transferred to the photo
detective element without any electrical coupling path. Light is the coupling link. Typically,
the coupling capacitance that exists between LED and phototransistor of the optoelectric
coupler is 1pF, which is called stray capacitance. Optoelectronic coupler have the
Downloaded from www.bhawesh.com.np /  14
Transformer isolation coupler use magnetic flux coupled through shielded transformer to pass
signal information from the input to the output of the amplifier. They do not function at DC
or variable frequency and have the upper frequency limit of above 1KH.
Application of Isolation Amplifier:
1. In medical electronic equipment.
2. In electric power plants and other high voltage industrial process control system.
3. Where large CMRR is needed.
Chapter 3
Logarithmic Amplifier
Characteristics and Features of Logarithmic Amplifier:
1. Logarithmic Amplifier has an output voltage which is proportional tot the logarithm
of the input voltage.
2. The circuit configuration of the logarithmic amplifier is that of an inverting amplifier.
3. The feedback element may be a BJT or a diode.
4. The logarithm amplifier offers a significant dynamic range compression.
5. The characteristics of the logarithmic amplifier are dependent on the reverse
saturation current, which is extremely temperature dependent and difficult to control.
Basic Circuit of Logarithmic Amplifier:
V
f
D
if
+
 Vs
I =I e
F
VF
nV
1 Ioe
(i )
V
F
nVr
ln IF = ln Ioe
nVT
V
F
ln IF = ln Io +ln e nVT
ln I F ln Io =
VF
nV
T
VF = nVT (ln I F ln Io )
(ii)
Vs
= I F (iii )
R
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Further, Vo = VF
ln Io
(v )
nVT
Vo
RI
ln
Thus, it is seen that the output voltage is a logarithmic function of the input voltage.
Log opamp with Saturation current and Temperature compensation:
if +
V
fD
1
+

Vo
Vs
f2
V o1
2
I
From the logarithmic amp. output it is clear that the characteristic of logarithmic
amplifier varies with the reverse saturation current and with the temp. Thus, it is difficult to
control the output voltage. This dependence of temperature can be reduced by modifying the
circuit as shown in the figure above. The following assumptions or conditions have been used
in the circuit.
1. Matching diode D1 and D2 are used.
2. Using temp. dependent resistor RT.
3. Using constant current source I independent of temp. T
From the figure, the voltage V to the noninverting terminal can be written as
V Vo =VF
(vi )
V =VF +Vo
2
Where,
VF = nVT (ln I ln Io )
(vii)
V
ln
ln I o
R
= nV ln I ln I o
T
V
ln
+ ln I
R
= nVT ln I ln
Vs
ln
T
ln I
R
V
V = nV
(viii)
ln
IR
'
RF
V = 1 +
R
T
RT + R1
+ R + RF
* nV
RT + R 1
R +R+R F
T
ln
IR
V
nV ln
T
R1 + RT
(ix )
IR
dependent resistor RT is selected
in such a way to
Vs
VF
D1
RF
I2
Vg
Vo
D 2
R1
Once the dynamic range of the signal has been compressed by a log amplifier the
original signal may be restored by means of antilog amplifier.
The logarithmic amplifier gives an output Vo proportional to the natural logarithm of
the inputVs . Thus, we have Vo = k1 ln K2Vs (i)
Thus, for antilog amplifier we have Vo = k3 ln
(iii )
(iv)
R1
(v )
.Vs
R1 + R 2
Thus, from equations (iii) and (iv) and (v), we have:
And, V1 =
ln Io )
R1
nVT (ln I F
R2
Vs
V1
(vi )
gb
ln Io )
V2
(vii)
nV [ln I
ln I
ln I
ln I
o
]
2
R1
V.
ln I
ln Io )
R
1
R
1
R1
R2
nV ln I1
T
I
2
I2 RF
(ix )
But, Vo
nV [ln I
V.
nVT (ln I2
Vs
R1 R2
R
V.
R1
ln Io
nVT (ln I
ln
V.
I F RF ln
V.
s
R
1
1
R . nV
2
R1
1
R . nV
Vo
ln
R1
1
V.
. nV
s
R R
Vo
I R
Vs . R
1
1
R . nV
I F .RF
V
R
b
I F .RF
ln V
I F .RF
V
nVT ln
R1
R
Vs . R
(x)
Thus, we see that output of an antilogarithm amp is proportional to the antilog of the input
signal.
LogAntilog Multiplier:
There are number of applications of analog multiplier such as frequency doubling,
frequency shifting, and phase angle detection, real power computation, multiplying two
signals, dividing and squaring of signals.
The output of the multiplier is the product of two inputs divided by a reference
VxVy
ref
(i )
Vref
Log Amp 1
Antilog A/F of Scaling
Vx Vy
Vref
Vy
Log Amp 2
in(Vx
Vy)
VxVy
V
ref
Vy =Vy sin(
t+
Where, is the phase difference between two signals. Applying there two signals to the input
of an analog multiplier will yield the output as
Vo =
Vx .Vy
ref
ref
V .V
= x y .sin
V
t.sin( t +
ref
Vx .Vy
.sin
t[sin
ref
Vx.Vy
[2 sin 2
2V
ref
Vx.Vy
[2 sin 2
2V
t.cos + 2sin
t.cos t.sin
ref
Vx .Vy
2V
t.sin
ref
VxVy
[cos
2V
ref
V xV y
cos +
VxVy
2V V
ref ref
Vx .Vy
VxVy
2V
cos
ref
cos(2 t +
ref
st
The 1 term is DC and set by the magnitude of signal and their phase difference. The
2
nd
Vz
Vo = Vref V
x
Va
R
Z
multiply
IA
Vo
Iz=
Vz
VV
x
VA =
V Vo
V
x
=
ref
ref
Also, VA = I A R
V Vo
= V x .R
IA=
R
But,
ref
Iz =IA
I z = VxVo
Vref .R
I z .R =
VxVo
V
ref
V V
Vz = V
ref
Vz
Vo = Vref .
Vx
Chapter 4
Introduction to Communication System
Communication System:
It is the system designed to send information from a source generating that
information to one (point to point) or more (broadcasting) receiver of that information.
Information
Source
Input
Transmittor
Xducer
Communicaton
Channel
Receiver
Output
destination
Xducer
or output
The source of information could be any device or person or even whose output can be
voice, picture, text, etc.
The input transducer converts the input information into electrical signal suitable for
further processing. Transmitter is extremely important equipment and is housed in the
broadcasting station. Its purpose is to produce radio waves for transmission into space. The
important components of transmitter are microphone, audioamplifier, oscillator and
modulator.
The channel is a physical medium used to pass the signal from transmitter to the
receiver depending upon the medium channel can be subdivided into wire line (cables, optical
fibers, etc) and wire less (free space) channels. Essential features of channel is that it
introduces additive noise (natural as well as man made) to the signal picked up by the
receiver. The receiver receives the modulated signal from the channel through antenna and
demodulates it and produces electrical output signals.
The output xducer converts their electrical output signals to the nonelectrical output
signals which is the destination.
Modulation:
It is the process of combining audio frequency signal or low frequency signal with a
radio frequency carrier wave or high frequency signal. The audio frequency signal is also
called as a modulating signal. And the resultant wave procedure is called modulated wave. In
this process, some characteristics(amplitude, frequency or phase) of a carrier wave in
accordance with the intensity of modulating signal is changed.
Need for Modulation:
Modulation is extremely necessary in communication system due to the following
reasons:
1. Practical Antenna Length
In order to transmit the wave effectively, the length of transmitting antenna should be
approximately equal to the wave length of the wave.
wave length(
)=
310 m / s
Velocity
=
Frequency
f (Hz)
As the audio frequency ranges from 20 Hz to 20 KHz, if they are transmitted directly
into the space, the length of the transmitting antenna required would be extremely large. For
example to radiate a frequency of 20 KHz directly into the space, we would need an antenna
8
310
length of
3 =150000m .
20 10
This is too long antenna to be constructed practically. For this reason, it is
impracticable to radiate audio signal directly into space. On the other hand, if a carrier wave
of 1000 KHz is used to carry the signal, we need an antenna length of 300m only and this size
can be easily constructed.
2. Operating Range
The energy of a wave depends upon its frequency. The greater the frequency of a
wave the greater the energy possessed by it. As the audio signal frequency is small, therefore
they cannot be transmitted over a large distance if radiated directly into the space. The only
practical solution is to modulate a high frequency carrier with audio signal and permit the
transmission to occur at this high frequency.
3. Wireless Communication
One desirable feature of radio transmission is that it should be carried without wires
i.e. radiated into the space. At audio frequencies, the radiation is not practicable because the
efficiency of radiation is poor. However, efficient radiation of electrical energy is possible at
high frequency. For this reason, modulation is always done in communication system.
Types of Modulation:
The mathematical expression for a carrier wave is C(+) = AC cos(2 fct +
).
Obviously, the waveform can be varied by any of its following three factors or parameters:
i. Amplitude i.e. Ac
ii. Frequency i.e. Fc
iii. Phase i.e. c
Accordingly, there are three types of modulation which are briefly explained as
follows:
i. Amplitude Modulation
When the amplitude of high frequency carrier wave is changed in accordance with the
intensity of the signal, it is called amplitude modulation.
ii. Frequency Modulation
In this case, the information signal changes the frequency of carrier of wave without
changing its amplitude or phase.
iii. Phase Modulation
Downloaded from www.bhawesh.com.np /  24
Am
carrier
Signal
MAC
Vmax
AC
min
t
Modulated Wave
Modulation Factor:
The ratio of change of amplitude of carrier wave to the amplitude of normal carrier
wave is called modulation factor m i.e.
Amp.changeof carrier wave
Modulation Factor, m = Normal carrier wave (un mod ulated )
Importance of Modulation Factor:
Modulation factor is very important since it determines the strength and quality of
transmitted signal. IN an AM wave the signal is contained in the variations of carrier
amplitude. When the carrier is modulated to a small degree small m, the amount of carrier
amplitude variation is small. Consecutely, the audio signal being transmitted will not be very
strong. The greater the degree of modulation, the stronger and clearer will be the audio signal.
It may be impharisted here that if the carrier is over modulated (i.e. m>1), distortion will
occur during reception. The refore degree of modulation should never exceed 100%.
Vmax Vmin
V +V
max
min
Solution:
Let us consider fig (i), from fig(i)
=V + 2A
max
min
A =
max
We know that, m =
(i )
min
2
Am
A
c
Now, Ac = Am +Vmin
V V
A=
max
A =
min
min
2
+V
max
(ii )
+V
min
(iii )
2
Thus from equations (i), (ii) and (iii), we get:
V V / 2
m = ( max min )
(V max +Vmin )/ 2
DSBAM (Double Side BandAmplitude Modulation):
A carrier wave may be represented by
c(t )= Ac cos 2 fct
mA
AM(t)
Ac
mA
c/2
F
FcFm Fc Fc+Fm
In an amplitude modulated wave, the side band frequencies are of our interest. It is
because the signal frequency Fm is contained in the side band frequency.
The bandwidth is from FcFm to Fc+Fm i.e. 2Fm.
Power in DSBAM:
The general equation for DSBAM is given by
VAM ( t ) = Ac cos 2 fct +
mA
cos 2
( Fc + Fm )t +
mA
2
cos 2
( Fc Fm )t
The total average power of DSBAM is the sum of its carrier power and side bands.
Pt = total average power
c
( Ac / 2 ) 2
= Ac
2R
)2
2 2
= mAc / 2 2
= m Ac
LSB
USB
R
8R
Where, R is resistance in which power is dissipated and for R=1
=P
P=
and
LSB
+P
LSB
USB
m A
+
2
2
A
PT =
m
1
2
A
1 +
2
m
Also, Since, P =
8
2 2
m A
2
c
USB
=P + P
=P
Then, P
m A
P 1+
c
2
When, m = mmax i.e.(m =1)
P =P
T
T max
PT max = Pc (1 + 0.5)
PT max =1.5Pc
Efficiency of DSBAM:
The efficiency of any system is defined as the ratio of useful power at the output to
the total power consumed. In DSBAM, the useful power is the power contained in the
sideband only, therefore
Efficiency(
)=
PLSB + PUSB
m2 A2 / 4
100% =
Pt
c
1
21
2
2
When, m=1, the maximum efficiency is given by
max
max
100% =
= 1 100%
2 +1
= 33.33%
OneTransistor AM Modulator:
+ Vcc
Ac
Rc
Cc
Cin
C(t)
E
m(t)
100% =
m
2 100%
2+m
DSBAM
c(t)
In this method, the level shifted version of m(t) is directly fed to the modulator along
with the carrier signal c(t). Finally, we get DSBAM. This method is very simple and
inexpensive but not suitable for high frequency application.
2) Indirect Method
i) Square Law:
NL Device
C(t)
m(t)
BPF
2
at
Fc
v(t)
V2 (t ) = b1V1 (t )+ b2V1
2
= b A cos 2 fct 1 + 2 b2 m(t ) + b m(t ) + b m (t )+ b2 Ac + b2 Ac cos 2 f t
b1
2
2
The band pass filter centered at fc will filter out the frequency components centered at 2fc,
the message signal m(t) and the dc component. Thus the output of band pass filter will be
1 c
(t ) = b A [1 + am(t )]cos 2
V
AM
1 c
b
1
DSBSC:
It is known as double side band suppressed carrier amplitude modulation. As the
carrier component of DSBAM does not contain any information, the efficiency of AM can
be increased if the carrier is suppressed before transmission. The type of AM where the
carrier is fully suppressed is called DSBSC.
Synchronous Modulation of DSBSC:
[1+am(t)]
DSBAM
c(t)
Balance Modulation:
m(t)
DSB  AM
v 1(t)
+
Dscilloctor c(t)
DSB  SC

m(t)
DSB  Am
v 2(t)
P =P =P
t
LSB
8R
USB
A 2 a2
=
2
P = a .P
t
4 c
HT
 USB
LSB
90 shift
Ac/2sin2 fct
Ac/2m(t)sin2 fct
LSB
VSB(selected side band)
Fc
Vestige of LSB
LPE
m(t)
If we supply the modulated signal into the nonlinear device followed by the low pass
filter, we can recover the message signal m(t).
The characteristics of nonlinear device is given by:
V = b1u + b2u 2 where u = u(t )= Ac [1 + am (t)]cos 2 fct
Thus, the output of NL device will be
2
= b1 Ac (1 + am (t ))cos 2 fct +
2 b2 Ac
2 b2 Ac
2 b2 Ac
+ b2 Ac am (t )+
[1 + 2am (t ) + a2 m2 (t )]cos 2
2 b2 Ac
a m
fct]
(t )+
fct
U NL (t )  LPF = b2 Ac am(t )+
2 b2 Ac
a m
(t )
nd
The 2 term in the above equation is due to nonlinear characteristics of the device
which will produce noise. The effect of this component can be made negligible by choosing a
small compare to unity.
ii) Envelop Detector
Diode
AM signal
R m(t)
Another mode simple way detecting SSBAM is envelop detector. Since, information
is contained in envelop of the AMsignal, rectification and filtering of AM signal will
produce desired message signal. Envelop of the AM signal is rectified by the diode and the
high frequency components contained in the rectified wave is filtered out low pass filter
consisting of C and R. In order to minimize the distortion and minimize the filtration of high
frequency ripples, the time constant of RC filter (or cut off filter) is selected in the following
manner. This detector is simple to implement, highly efficient and cost effective. Therefore,
this detector circuit is used in almost all the commercial AM broadcast receiver.
R1
C3
Rc
output
C5
Q
RF signal
CA
R3
R2
C1
AM RF input signal is separated by parallel tuned circuit L1, C4 and is coupled to the
basicemitter circuit, of transistor Q1 by L2. The fixed bias for the transistor Q1 is provided
by R1, R2, R3. Also, C1, C2 are used as bypass capacitor. The positive halves of the
modulated RF input signal will drive the transistor into conduction region where as the
negative half of the input signal will drive the transistor into circuit off region. Thus, an
amplified AF (Audio Frequency) modulating signal appears the load resistor Rc. The
capacitor C3 eliminates the RF high frequency components. Capacitor C5 eliminates the dc
reference level, i.e. it blocks the direct voltage. Thus, the audiofrequency signal is generated
at the output of the transistor Q1.
Frequency Modulation:
When the frequency of carrier wave is changed in accordance with the intensity of the
signal, it is called frequency modulation.
Signal
t
Carrier
FM wave
Generation of FM Signal:
Direct Method:
In direct
method, the frequency
oscillation of an oscillator is varied
according to the modulating signal.
Lo
C
o
of
m(t)
The
FM signal
fC =
equal to
L o Co
will be
1
fi = 2 Lo (C o + Ko m(t ))
1
2 LoCo . 1 +
m(t ) = fc
Co
Let, E =
K
1+
m(t )
Co
Ko
m(t )
Co
We know, fi = fc
1
1+E
1
2
Now, (1 + E)
1
1
=1 + 2 E +......
1 + E = ( 1 + E)
1
Fi = Fc 1
1
2
1
=1 2 E
F =F
1 Ko
m(t )
2 Co
Advantages:
1. It gives noise less reception.
2. The operating range is quite large.
3. It gives high fedality reception.
4. The efficiency of transmission is very high.
FM Verses AM:
1. FM signals have all their information in the frequency of the carrier whereas AM
signals have all their information in the amplitude of the carrier.
2. FM has better noise immunity when compared to AM.
3. AM signals are able to occupy less bandwidth as compare to FM.
Downloaded from www.bhawesh.com.np /  36
Fs
Mixer
RF signal
Modulated IF Signal
to IF amplifier
from arial
(Fo Fs)
local
oscillator
The frequency conversion can be achieved by utilizing the heterodyne priniciple. For
this purpose, the modulated RF signal is mixed in a mixture with an unmodulated RF signal
produced by a local oscillator.
The oscillator and the mixture may be either two separate devices or may be
combined into one device called as converter. The process of combining two AC signals of
different frequencies in order to obtain a signal of new frequency is called heterodyning
action. Suppose the carrier signal of frequency fs is heterodyned with another signal of
frequency fo. Then two additional signals are produced whose frequencies are fo+fs
component and fofs
difference component.
sum
RF
Mixer
Local
oscillater
IF
Amplifier
Detector
Radio
Amplifier
Common Turning
The process of combining two separate frequency one modulated RF signal and other
unmodulated RF signal produced by the local oscillator in a mixture in order to obtain a
signal of new frequency is called superheterodyne action. It is also referred to superhet and is
extensively used in modern AM receiver. The operation of this receiver is as follows:
1. Let us assume that the incoming signal frequency is 1500 KHz. It is first amplified by
the RF amplifier.
2. Next, it enters mixture circuit, which is so design that it can conveniently combine
two radio frequencies, one fed into it by RF amplifier and other by local oscillator.
3. The local oscillator is a RF oscillator which frequency of oscillation can be
controlled, so that the difference in the frequency of the selected signal and oscillator
frequency is always a constant (basically 455 KHz) i.e. if signal frequency is 1500
KHz then oscillator frequency can be 1955 KHz. In fact, the local oscillator frequency
is always higher than the frequency of the incoming signal.
4. When these two frequencies are combined in a mixture, the phenomenon beats is
produce and the beat frequency is 455 KHz.
5. 455 KHz of the mixture is then passed on the IF amplifier which is fixed tuned to 455
KHz. In practice, one or more stage of IF amplifier may be used.
6. The output of IF amplifier is demodulated by a detector which provides the audio
signal.
7. The audio signal is then amplified by the audio frequency amplifier whose output is
fed to the loud speaker which reproduces the original sound.
PhaseLocked Loop (PLL):
Need: Some technique must be applied to synchronize the frequency and the phase of the
local oscillation within the frequency and the phase of the incoming carrier signal in order to
minimize the distortion of the received signal. One of the practical method of synchronization
is the use of phase locked loop.
Vs
F
s
phase
detector
Ve
Low pass
filter
amp
VCO
Fo
Fig: Basic Block Diagram of PLL
PLL is a circuit used to generate high frequency sinusoidal signal whose phase and
frequency are almost equal to the phase and frequency of incoming signal. This system
comprises of following:
i. Phase detection
ii. Low pass filter
iii. Error amplifier
iv. Voltage controlled oscillator
If an input signal Vc of frequency Fs is applied to a PLL, the phase detector compares
the phase and frequency of the incoming signal to that of the output Vo of the Vco. If the two
signals differ in frequency or phase an error voltage Ve is generated. The Vco continues to
change frequency till its output frequency is exactly the same as the input signal frequency
.The circuit is then said to be locked. Once locked, the output frequency f of Vco is identical
to Fs except for a finite phase difference
Q. Show that the controlled voltage applied to the Vco of PLL is proportional to the phase
difference between two signals.
Solution:
Vin (t)
V1(t)
LPF
e(t)
VCo(t)
VCo
Solution:
Vin (t ) = Ac cos(2 fct)+ c)
VVCO (t ) = Asin(2 fct +
Here, it is assumed that the frequency of the two signals is same but differs in phase
only. The output of product modulator will be
V1 (t )= Ac Acos(2 fct + c).sin(2 fct +
=
=
A cA
2 [2 sin(2 fct + ). cos(2 fct + c)]
A cA
A A
sin( c)+ 2c sin(4 fct + + c)
2
AC A
2 sin(
e(t )
A cA
2 (
Thus, the controlled voltage applied to the VDC is proportional to the phase difference
between the two singals.
PLL as FM Detector:
VFM(t)
phase
detector
leep
e d (t)
ev(t)
filter
VCO
Kv
= Av sin
Step: 2 Now let us assume that ev (t ) 0.Then the output of Vco will be
eo( t ) = Av sin(
o
(t ) = 2
kv
ot
(t )) where,
(t ) = 2
kf m(
)d
Ac Av
2 sin(
ed (t )=
(t )
(t ))=
Ac Av
2 sin[
(t )] where,
(t)=
(t)
(t )
When the PLL enters into the locked mode i.e. when the two frequencies and phase
match, then the error voltage will be very low or nearly equal to zero.
(t ) =
i (t ) =
or,
(t )
o (t )
i
(t )
i.e.
or, 2 kf m( )d = 2 kv ev
(t)dt or, kfm(t ) = kvev(t )
or, ev (t )=
kf
m(t )
kv
i.e. in locked mode, the output voltage of the PLL is nearly equal to the message
signal m(t). The bandwidth of the loop filter should not be less than the bandwidth of the
message signal.
Application of PLL:
1. Frequency multiplication, division
2. Frequency translation
3. AM detection
4. FM detection
5. Frequency shift keying (FSK)
Q. A modulated carrier wave has maximum and minimum amplitude of 750 mv and 250 mv.
Calculate the value of % modulation.
Vmax = 750mv
Vmin = mv
V V
%m =
max
min
V +V
750 + 250
Q. A 10 mHz sinusoidal carrier wave of amplitude 10mv is modulated by a 5KHz sinusoidal
audio signal wave of magnitude 6V. Find the frequency component of the resulting
modulated wave and their amplitude.
max
min
Fc =10mHz
Ac =10mv
Fm = 5kHz
Solution:
Am = 6mv
m=
Am 6
= = 0.6
Ac 10
mA
0.6 K10
= 3mV
2
Amplitude of carrier ( Ac = mV
Q. An audio signal given by15sin 2
60sin 2
(10000)t . Determine
(2000t)
c(t ) = 60sin 2
Solution:
(10000t)
Am =15
and
Am 15
Ac = 60
=
= 0.25
Ac 60
b) % Modulation = 0.25 100% = 25%
a) Modulation index =
c) Fc =100000Hz =100KHz
Fm = 2000Hz = 2Hz
Frequency spectrum of modulated wave
d) USB = Fc + Fm =100000 +1000 =102KHz
LSB = Fc Fm =100000 2000 = 98KHz
Fc =10000Hz =100KHz
KHz
LSB =
FC =
98KHz
100 KHz
VSD=
102 KHz
Where,
sin
ct
V =Vc sin
Fd
Fm
5 10 8
7
= 796 10 Hz
2
1500
Modulating Frequency, Fm
2 = 238.7Hz
= d =4=mf
Carrier Frequency, Fc =
Modulating Index,
(20 / 2 )2
Vrms
Power dissipated, P = R
Formulate for FM
Modulating index, m =
20
=10watt
Frequency deviation
Modulating frequency Fm
m=
Fm
F ) actual
% Modulation (m) = (
)
F
max
CS
100
2=
2 = 50KHz
F 50
=
Fm
=10
)max
= 75KHz
18.75
actual
)max = 25KHz
18 .75
m=
25 100 = 75%
F
Q. FM signal has a resting frequency of 105 MHz and highest frequency of 105.03 mHz.
When modulated by a signal frequency of
5 KHz. Determine a) frequency deviation
b) carrier swing c) modulation index d) %modulation
Solution:
i. Frequency Deviation ( F )=105.03105=300Hz
ii. Carrier Swing (CS) = 2 F =230=60KHz
iii. Deviation index(m) =
F = 30 = 6
5
max
( F)
30
actual
iv. %modulation =
)max =
75 100% = 40%
= 796KHz
1
9
2 40 103 10
2 LC
Solution:
m = 0.8
PT
m
= Pc 1 +
2
2
PT
+ m2
=P
c
2
2
P=P
2+ m
P
LSB
=P
USB
2
2
m2
= p
p
= 2KW
2.64
2 + 0.8 2
2
= (108) 2 = 320W
4
1 +
2
Now, %m = 50% = 0.5
Pt =
(0.8)
=13.2KW
2
P = 2Pt = 2 13.2 =11.73KW
c
2
2 + m2 2 + (0.5)
Note: Modulation by several waves, m = m2
+ m2 + m2 ..... + m2
1
Pc =10KW
a)
Pt
=P 1
c
m =1
2
2Pt
2
P = 2tm
c
m = 2Pt = 2 11.8 2
P
2
c
b)
m = 60%
m = 0.6
2
m = 0.4
2
2
m = 0.6 + 0.4 = 0.72
Total radiated
power, P(t )= P 1
c
=10 1
(0.72)
=102.59KW
2
2
Q. IN a AM wave calculate the power phasing when a carrier and one side band are
suppressed corresponding to modulation index 50%.
m = 0.5
Solution:
Downloaded from www.bhawesh.com.np /  45
P =P 1
t
0.25
= Pc 1 +
2
P
LSB
=1.1025Pc
2
2
= P = m P = 0.25 P = 0.0625P
USB
c
4 c
4 c
Chapter 5
Data Conversion
The process of conversion of an analog signal to digital signal is referred to as analog
to digital conversion (ADC or A/D). The system used for realizing this conversion is referred
to as analog to digital converter.
The output of the system may be required to be in the analog form and therefore, the
digital output has to be converted back into the analog form. This process is referred to as
digital to analog conversion and the system used for this purpose is referred to as digital to
analog converter (DAC or D/A).
Principle of Digital to Analog Conversion:
1
2
3
Resistive
Sunring
network
Voltage
Register
Switching
Amplifier
Analog o/p
/B
Converter
VR
The digital input number to be converted is fed into the input register only during the
duration of the convert command. The output of the register feed the digital input number to
voltage switches that provides one of the two possible outputs i.e. (0 o Vr). The switches
provide access to a resistive summing n/w that converts each bit into its weighted current
value and then sums them for a total current. The total value is then fed to an amplifier which
performs two functions:
1. Current to Voltage conversion
2. Output scaling
Binary Weighted Resistor (Digital to Analog Converter):
V
ref
MSB 2oR
2 R
Ri
RF
10 V
2 R
2n1 R
V
+
2n2 R
S
R
i
LSB
i/p
1+
+...... +
R
2 4 8
2n1
The output current in binary weighted DAC is
I
Io =
I
I
I
I
I
1
2
3
4
+ 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 +......... + 2n1
20
1
=
I
o
I1+
ref
Io =
1+
1
+
1
+....... +
1
+
2n1
1
+...... +
R
2 4 8
2n1
The output current is maximum when all the bits are 1. Therefore maximum output current
is equal to
ref
max
2n1 R
2 1
Resolution:
ref
Rf
2n1 R
weighed of LSB or the incremental in each step of bit combination.
Q. Design a binary weighted resistor that of 6 bit equivalent which gives the output equal to
10V, when Vref = 5V and bit is 101011.
Solution:
V R
1 1 1 1
1
+ + + +
+
R
2 4 8 16 32
5R
F 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 1
10 =
ref
Vo =
R
2R = RF 1.
16
32
R =1.48K
F
2o K
ref
2
2 K
1.48 K
ref
K
+
2 K
ref
10 V
2 K
ref
n1
ref
RF
2R
MSB
2R

S4
2R
S3
Vo
R
2R
S2
LSB
R
2R
1
IR
ref
2R
R
o1
RF
ref
2R
V1
2R

2R
2R
Fig (i)
2R
From fig(i),
V=
1 R

V .R
ref
ref
R + 2R
3
Similarly, to find the voltage due to terminal or node 2, let us deactivate to other nodes.
RF
Vo
2R
2R

2R
ref
V2
R
2R
R
2R
2R
2R.V '
V2 =
R + 2R
R Vref 2
3R
ref
= R f . ref = 1 . R F V
2R 3
6 R ref
o2
The upper resistor 2R, 2R in parallel
2R // 2R = R
(i )
R + R = 2R
V
RF
2R
ref
2R
V
+
ref
2R
V 2
2R
o1
V
ref .R
Vref .R
V2 =
=
R + 2R
3R
RF
R
+
R
V
ref
V .R R
V=
= ref .
=
1
2
3R R
6
R+R
V .R
2
o2
RF
ref
2R
Similarly. Vo3 =
V .R
ref
RF .Vref
12R
24R
Hence, the total output voltage Vo, applying superposition theorem is given by
V =V +V +V +V
o
o1
o2
o3
RV
F
ref
6R
RV
F
6R
1+
6R
RV
F
ref
48R
+.......
1
+
ref
24R
1
ref
RV
RV
F
ref
12R
1
ref
o4
RV
1
+
+........
Q. Design a R2R ladder circuit that such that output voltage is 5V when the bit is
represented 11111. The reference voltage is 5V.
Solution:
Vo =
RFVref
6R
1 1 1 1
1+ + +
2 4 8 16
6R = 1.93RF
If R=1k, RF = 3K
sampler
quantizer
coder
digital output
signal
Discrete time
Quantized
signal
signal
Fig: Basic Block Diagram of ADS
Analog i/p
Vi
Digital to analog
Convertion
Va
+
Ditital output
Control
Register
Time data
Slet MBS
Start
file
Stop
file
Distribution
register
Start
The single one in the distribution register is shifted to the next position and keeps
track of the comparison mode. The process repeats itself until the final approximation has
been corrected and the distribution register indicates, the end of conversion.
Q. Find the successive approximation AD output for a 4 bit converter to a 3.217V input of the
reference is 5V.
1
1
1
1
1
Solution: Vout =VR
1 +
2 +
3 +
4 +........ + n
2
2
2
2
2
i> set d3=1, o/p=5/2=2.50
Now, 3.217>2.5 and set d3=1
g
g
g
2
Vout = b1 2
2
+ b2 2
+ b3 2
+...... + bx
Vout =
NV
ref
2n
N
n
.VR
2 VR
If N=0, the Vout will be minimum value and is given by Vout (min)=
2 VR
n
However, the maximum value for N is equal to (2 1). So that the maximum value of
(max)= 2
[(2n 1) Comparator are requred for n bit convereter]and the corresponding complication
of the decoder circuit.
V
rf
Avaleg
i/p Va
R/2
VR 7
VR 6
VR3
R
VR 2
E
C
A1
B2
VR4
Bo
Digital o/p
VR 1
R/2
+
Fig: A 3 bit parallel comparator A/D Converter
The block diagram of a dual slope integration A/D converter is shown above. The reference
voltage and the input analog voltage are must be opposite polarity. The input voltage is
integrated for a fixed input sample time. The integrated value is then discharged at a fixed
rate and the time to do this is measured by a counter.
When a convert command is received by the counter it automatically resets to all zeros and
the switch connects the input voltage to the integrator. The output from the comparator is
designed such that at this time it will permit the counter to count up for a output from the
integrator will be increased in value.
On the next count after the counter has counted all the way up to all 1s , the switch
changes position the input voltage is disconnected and the switch connects the reference
voltage to the integrator . Therefore the integrator now integrate the opposite polarity voltage,
which causes the output to decrease towards zero voltage.
Sample and hold ckt:An ideal sample and hold ckt is one that samples the value of an analog signal at a certain point
and holds that value for a specified interval, when it repeats the process based on the new value of
the signal. Sample and hold ckts are used in conjunction with the analog to digital conversion.
The sigmadelta A/D converter takes into account the fact that the quantization is performed into
the difference of ith sample and its prediction derived from (i1) th sample. That is instead of
quantizing the whole sample value , the sigmadelta quantiges the difference only, thus reducing
the required quantization level to minimum.
Thus in sigmadelta A/D conversion, the difference between the original sample and its
approximation ( derived from its immediate past sample) is quantized in one of the two possible
levels + or  and level is converted into one bit code word ( i, e. 0 , 1
+ ). Thus,
the sigma delta A/D uses only one bit to represent each sampled level.
Because of wide spread in resistance values for large N, the weighted resister D/A converter is
not suitable. However , the weighted resister n/w can be modified to accommodate a large no of
bits without consequent spread in resistor values . One such ckt is shown above. For this type of
n/w , it is known that .
Let the s3 bit be 1 and s2,s1 and s0 bits be all 0 . Also assume that there is a virtual shirt at the
input of an opamp.
But from the equation (i) , it is already clear that , the current Iin of equation (iv) must be 1/16th
of the current of equation (v). Then from equation (i) , (iv) and (v). we can write.
The ckt.of fig. (i) can be also used for decimal digit BCD converter. In this case, the value of r is
chose so as to make the input current of opamp corresponding to LSD and 1/10th of that of
current due to MSD, This means , in this case
It is so because NPN transistor needs a +ve voltage. Pulse on its base in order to turn ON. A
saturated xsistor acts as a closed switch. Hence it allows Vin to send current through L and
charge C to the value of the output voltage during the ontime(T0n) of the pulse. The diode D1is
reverse biased at this point and hence does not conduct.
Eventually, when +ve pulse turn to zero, T is cutoff and acts like an open switch during the
off period (Toff) of the pulse. The collapsing magnetic field of the coil produces self induced
voltage and keeps the current flowing by returning energy to the circuit.
The value of output voltage depends on the input voltage and pulse width , i.e, ONtime of the
transistor when on time is increased relative to off time , C charges more thus increasing
Vout.When Ton is decreased, C dischared more thus decreasing Vout. By adjusting the duty cycle.
(Ton/T) of the transistor Vout can be varied. Vout = Vin (Ton/T)
Step up switching regulator:
When the transistor T turn ON the arrival of the positive pulse at its base , voltage across L
increases quickly to VinVce(sat) and magnetic field of L expands quickly. During ONtimes of the
transistor , UL keeps decreasing from its initial maximum value. The longer transistor is ON, the
smaller VL becomes.
When transistor turn OFF , magnetic field of L collapse and its polarity reverse so that its voltage
adds to the input voltage thus producing an output voltage greater than the input voltage. During
OFFtime of the transistor, D2 is forward biased and allows C to charge. The variations in Vout
due to charging and discharging action are sufficiently smoothed by filtering action of L and C.
It may be noted that shorter the ONtime of the transistor, greater the inductor voltage and
hence greater the o/p voltage. On the other hand, the longer the ONtime, the smaller the inductor
voltage and hence , lesser the output voltage.
Vout = Vin (T/Ton)
Inverting switching Regulator:
This regulator provides on o/p voltage that is opposite in polarity to the input voltage.
When the transistor T turn ON by the +ve pulses the inductor voltage VL jumpes to Vin
Vce(sat) and the magnetic field of the inductor expands rapidly. When the transistor is ON, the
diode D1 is reverse biased and VL decreases from its initial maximum value. When transistor turn
OFF , the magnetic field collapses and inductor polarity reverses . This forward biases D1,
charges C and produces a ve output voltage. This repetitive ONOFF action of the transistor
produces a repetitive charging and discharging that is smoothed by LC filter action.
IC Switched voltage Regulator:
IC 723/723c is a general purpose adjustable output voltage regulator designed primarily for series
+ve voltage regular applications but it is capable of operation in +ve or ve power supplies as a
series , shunt , switching or floating regulator.
The IC switch voltage regulator 723C has the following features.
i) extremely low stand by drain current.
ii) Provision for liner as well as feedback current limiting .
iii) Wide adjustable o/p voltage range. (2v to 37v)
Low voltage Regulators:
The low voltage regulators is also known as the stepdown voltage regulators. The operating
range of this type of regulator is 2V to 7V.
The o/p voltage in this case is always less than the input voltage. The general IC ckt diagram
for this type of regulator is shown.
The o/p voltage for this type of regulator is given by the eqn.
for minimum temperature difference.
The high voltage regulator generally operate at the range of 7v to 37 v. The general IC ckt.
diagram for this type for this regulator is shown in figure.
The o/p voltage for this type of regulator is given by the eqn.
for minimum temperature difference.
DC choppers:
A dc chopper converts directly from dc to dc and is also know as a dc to dc converter. A Chopper
can be considered as dc equivalent to an ac transformer with a continuously variable turns ratio.
Like a transformers it can be used to stepdown or stepup a dc voltage source. In many industrial
application. It is required to convert a fixed voltage dc source into a variablevoltage dc source.
Principe of StepDown operation of DC chopper:
When switch S/W is closed for a time t1, the input voltage Vs appears across the load. If the
switch remains off for a time t2, the voltage across the load is zero. The waveform for the output
voltage and load current are shown above. The chopper switch can be implemented by using BJT,
MOSFET, GTO or Thyrister.
The average output voltage is given by
The duty cycle K can be varied from 0 to 1 by varying t1, T or f. Therefore , the output voltage V0
can be varied from o to Vs by controlling K and the power flow can be controlled.
Principle of stepup operation of chopper:
The duty cycle k can be varied from 0 to 1 . Therefore , the output voltage V0 can be varied from
Vs to infinity (or something large value).
Reactance modulator transistor for FM:
With this system the modulating signal is fed to separate transistor (Q2) where the voltage
change of modulating signal causes changes in the output capacitance Cce of the transistor Q2 .
So there is a change in the reactance of the output ckt.
ii) Q1 acts as an oscillator whereas Q2 acts as reactance modulator.
iii) Oscillator transistor Q1 receive its positive feedback from the secondary winding (Ls)
of transformer T1.
iv) The frequency of the carrier wave is generated by the primary winding L1, L2 of
transformer T1 and capacitor C1.
v) Modulating signal is coupled to Q2 by the secondary winding of transformer T2.
vi) The output of Q2 is coupled to a portion of primary winding of T1.
vii) The change in modulating signal causes the change in collector voltage and the change in
collector voltage and the change in collector voltage causes the change in collector to emitter
capacitance Cce. As the collector voltage increases the collector to emitter capacitance
decreases the thus the resonant frequency of tuned ckt. L1, L2, C1 , Cce increases and vice
versa. Finally , the output will be frequency modulated signal.
Frequency conversion using onetransistor:
A PLL may be used to demodulate AM signals as shown in fig. The PLL is locked to the carrier
frequency of the incoming AM signals . The output of VCO which has the same frequency as the
carrier, but unmodulated is fed to the multiplier. Since VCO output is always 90 out of phase
with the incoming AM signal under the locked condition , the AM input signal is also shifted in
phase by 90 before being fed to the multiplier. This makes both the signals applied to the
multiplier in the same phase.The output of the multiplier contains both the sum and difference
signals, the demodulated output is obtained after filtering high frequency components by the LPF.
Since the PLL responds only to the carrier frequency which are very close to the VCO output a
PLL AM detector exhibits a high degree of selectivity and noise immunity which is not possible
with conventional peak detector type AM modulators.
Both D/A and A/D converters are available with wide range of specifications. The various
important specifications of converters generally specified by the manufactures are analyzed.
Resolution: The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be
produced at the output (or input ) of the converter.
Resolution (in volts) = VFS/(2n1) = 1 LSB increment.
For e.g an 8bit D/A converter has 281 =225 equal intervals. Hence the smallest change in output
voltage is (1/225) of the full scale output range .
Linearity: The linearity of an A/D or D/A converter is an important measure of its accuracy and
tells us how close the converter output is to its ideal transfer characteristics.
Accuracy: Absolute accuracy is the maximum deviation between the actual converter output and
the ideal converter output. The accuracy of a converter is also specified in terms of LSB
increments or percentage of full scale voltage.
Setting time: It represents the time it takes for the output to settle within a specified band I (1/2)
LSB of its final value following a code change at the input. It depends upon the switching time of
the logic circuitary due to internal parasitic capacitance and inductance. It is equal to (100ns to
100 s).
Stability: The performance of converter changes with temperature, age and power supply
variations. So all the relevant parameters such as offset , gain, linearity, error must be specified
over the full temperature and power supply ranges.
Temperature sensitivity: The analog output voltage for any fixed digital input varies with
temperature. It is due to the temperature sensitivities of the reference voltage source, resistors, opamps etc.
A/D converter using Voltage to frequency conversion:
An analog voltage can be converted in to digital form by producing the pulses whose frequency is
proportional to the analog voltage. These pulses are counted by a counter for a fixed duration and
the reading of the counter will be proportional to the frequency of the pulses and hence to the
analog voltage.
The frequency of the output waveform which is proportional to the analog input is given by
Where,
= RC = Time constant of the
integrator. Va = analog input voltage.
VR = reference voltage.
The output of V/F converter is applied at the clock (CK) input of a counter through an AND gate.
The AND gate is enabled for a fixed time interval T1. The reading of the counter at t = T1 is given
by
In an A/D converter using V/R converter , the cycles of a variable frequency source are counted
for a fixed period. Alternatively it is possible to make an A/D converter by counting the cycles of
a fixed frequency source for a variable period. For this , the analog voltage is required to be
converted to a proper time period.
A negative reference voltage VR is applied to an integrator, whose output is connected to the
inverting input terminal of the comparator. The analog voltage Va is applied at the non inverting
input terminal of the comparator. The output of the comparator Vc is at logical level 1 as long as
the output of the integrator V0<Va . When V0 crosses Va at t=T, Vc goes low. The AND gate is
enabled when VEN is low and switch S remains open. When VEN goes high the switch S is closed,
thereby discharging the capacitor. Also the AND gate is disabled . When the AND gate is
enabled, the clock pulses will reach the clock(CK) input terminal of the counter. The output of the
counter is the digital output corresponding to Va.
Assume that the counter is initially set at zero before conversion is started. A sample of the
analog signal Va appears at one input to the comparator and the counting process is initiated .
Each successive step of the counter causes the digital word at the output to advance one level in
the binary sequence. Each of these successive digital word is converted back to analog form by
D/A converter and the output is compared with the analog sample i,e the analog output Vi of
DAC is compared to the analog input Va by the comparator. If Va> Vi , the output of the
comparator becomes high and AND gate is enabled to allow the transmission of the clock pulses
to the counter. when Va <Vi the output of the comparator becomes low and the AND gate is
disabled. This stops the counting at the time Va Vi and the digital output of the counter
represent the analog input voltage Va.
Limitations:
i) The counter frequency must be low enough to give sufficient time for the DAC to settle
and for the comparator to respond.
ii) Low speed is the most serious drawback of these method.
Tricking A/D based on D/A (or servotralking A/D):
The improved version of the counting ADC is the tracking A/D The ckt consists of an updown
counter with the comparator. Controlling the direction of the count. The analog output of the
DAC (vi) is compared with the analog input voltage (Va). If Va>Vi , the output of comparator goes
high and counter is caused to countup. The DAC output increases with each incoming pulses and
when Vi>Va, the counter reverse the direction and count down. The process goes on being
repeated and the digital output changes back and forth by 1 LSB. As long as the analog input
changes slowely , the tracking A/D will be within 1LSB of the correct value. However, when the
analog input changes rapidly, the tracking A/D connot keep up with the change and error occurs.
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