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I N C O R P O R AT I N G F i S H Far M ing t E c H no L og Y

Animal co-product hydrolysates:

a source of key molecules in aquaculture feeds

Prevalence of mycotoxins in aquafeed ingredients:

an update

Pellet distribution modelling:

a tool for improved feed delivery in sea cages

New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease

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Aqua News
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Volume 16 / Issue 6 / November-December 2013 / Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2013 / All rights reserved

INVE Aquaculture and Nutriad formally separate India joins Global GAP Norways Frtek ISO-9001 certified AQUACULTURE UPDATES Ben Gurion professor receives Novus award Aquaculture co-operative brings hope to HIV sufferers Pick your poisson Scotland launches aquaculture website Skretting supersizes Norway plant AquaBioTech Group ties up with Pharmaq EU report shows fall in farm antibiotics Accessing latest feed products is key to Canadas aquaculture growth

10 14 18 24 28 34 38 47 Animal co-product hydrolysates: a source of key molecules in aquaculture feeds Prevalence of mycotoxins in aquafeed ingredients: an update Green gold in Brittanys blue economy Pellet distribution modelling: a tool for improved feed delivery in sea cages New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease Herbal medicine in aquaculture Natural additives for fish - do we have to reinvent the wheel or is there a shortcut? Industry profiles 2013/14

Regular items
9 32 42 56 THE AQUACULTURISTS PHOTOSHOOT EXPERT TOPIC - CARP INDUSTRY EVENTS Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2013 Nofima brings aquaculture to feed seminar International Aquafeed publisher to open major fish feed symposium Algae Congress boosts budding industry CLASSIFIED ADVERTS THE AQUAFEED INTERVIEW INDUSTRY FACES

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International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

Editor Professor Simon Davies Email: Deputy Editor Richard Sillett Email: Associate Editors Professor Krishen Rana Email: Dr Yu Yu Email: Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Email: Editorial Advisory Panel Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed (Egypt) Professor Antnio Gouveia (Portugal) Professor Charles Bai (Korea) Colin Mair (UK) Dr Daniel Merrifield (UK) Dr Dominique Bureau (Canada) Dr Elizabeth Sweetman (Greece) Dr Kim Jauncey (UK) Eric De Muylder (Belgium) Dr Pedro Encarnao (Singapore) Dr Mohammad R Hasan (Italy) Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Email: Design & Page Layout James Taylor Email: International Marketing Team (UK Office) Darren Parris Email: Lee Bastin Email: Tom Blacker Email: Richard Sillett Email: Latin American Office Ivn Marquetti Email: Pablo Porcel de Peralta Email: India Office Raj Kapoor Email: More information: International Aquafeed 7 St George's Terrace, St James' Square Cheltenham, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267706 Website:

CROESO - Welcome
his is the last editorial for 2013 and next year I will have been your editor for five years. I will celebrate with a look back over this time and the changes and developments within the industry to date. It has been an exciting period, and my work for this magazine has enabled me to travel and meet with many interesting people and provided a rich, diverse basis for news article and features. Only last month in early September, I returned from a one-week visit to Canada where I attended the Biomarine Business Convention in Halifax, Nova Scotia. This was a wonderful event where academia, government agencies and business came together for an exchange of ideas, technical know-how and of course some excellent farmed fish and lobster dinners. This heartland of seafood fare clearly demonstrated why we need to conserve our precious oceans and balance this with a sustainable aquaculture agenda for all to enjoy. We were addressed by His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco who spoke about his Professor Simon Davies keen interest in the wealth and health of the oceans, and in good aquaculture practice. I was most honoured to welcome the sovereign Prince of Monaco to Plymouth the following week to receive an Honorary Doctorate in Marine Sciences from our University. I write this editorial from Plymouth where we just faced the perfect storm in late October, with an Atlantic depression that brought heavy winds, rain and of course disruption across southwest England and across to northern Europe. It reminds me of the powerful forces of nature with hurricanes, typhoons and tsunamis that can seriously impede our use of rivers, estuaries and coastal areas. Fortunately aquaculture is becoming more braced for such events, although disasters can greatly damage the livelihood of those working in community aquaculture projects, causing economic hardship and loss of income and jobs.We must progress with the latest developments in engineering and new materials to enable superior pen and cage designs, outbuildings for hatcheries and indoor closed recirculation systems. Only then can we make a more secure and robust industry. I am pleased that this magazine now includes reports in this area to inform us better of such advances that have relevance to feed management and the aquaculture feed industry at large. In Plymouth, I am also hosting my latest PhD student Kurt Servin from Mexico. He is a shrimp farmer as well as an enterprising young person with an active interest in surfing and the ocean life. He will be my 30th doctoral student over the last 27 years and I have the pleasure to share his supervision with my colleague Dr Daniel Merrifield and Albert Tacon, my own PhD supervisor from my Stirling days (and the previous editor of Aquafeed). I am sure that he will produce excellent work and contribute some articles in the future on shrimp production in the Baja California region of Mexico. So on to the present issue, where we feature how three-dimensional modelling can prevent feed losses, by Kristoffer Rist Skien et al. Sergio Nates et al reports how animal co-product hydrolysates can be an invaluable source of key molecules in aquaculture feeds. Herbal medicine may play a role in fish feeds countering pathogens and enabling better immune function. This interesting use of natural phytoingredients is presented by Sagiv Kolkovski. We also include a special report on Olmixs macroalgae utilisation in Brittany, France by our deputy editor Richard Sillett. The prevalence of mycotoxins in aquafeed ingredients is widespread and a growing threat in many regions of the world. Gonalo Santos et al. give their insight into how these issues can be resolved. Cardiovascular health in humans is strongly linked to nutrition and lifestyle. I am pleased to include a report by Ioannis Zabetakis et al. concerning the role of functional feed ingredients as a component in fish diets to enhance the quality of farmed fish, achieving a better product for combating cardiovascular diseases and strokes.This is an exciting and very rewarding aspect of consuming more seafood in our daily lives. We also include reports from key events this year with a review of the Biomarine Business Conference by our own Darren Parris. We look forward to future events with news and previews such as Asia Pacific Aquaculture, the 7th International Algae Congress and Aquaculture Europe 2016. I will see you all again in early 2014, and in the meantime wish you the best of seasons greetings and a most happy and prosperous New Year. Nadolig Llawen (Happy Christmas) - Simon Davies, editor
I'm very pleased to welcome Dr Kangsen Mai, Professor of Ocean University of China - Aquaculture and the sustainable development of feed indusry - as International Aquafeed's new 'Associate editor - China'. Dr Mai has overseen the production of IAF in Chinese along with Dr Ji-dan Ye, of Jimei University, Xiamen. Dr Mai is our Aquafeed Interview this month - where you will learn more about him - and he has provided images for our photoshoot as well. Circulating 1500 copies of our first Chinese edition (September-October 2013) to aqua specialists in China marks a significant moment for this publication. My congratulations to all those who worked on this venture to bring it to fruitian. - Roger Gilbert, Publisher

Aqua News

INVE Aquaculture and Nutriad formally separate

NVE Aquaculture has announced its formal separation from Nutriad, in a move that is expected to strengthen the hands of both companies. The separation and improved financial strength enables a bigger focus on both companies core businesses, said INVE CEO Philippe Lger. The Belgian aquaculture health and nutrition firm, which operates worldwide as a group of 20 companies, has been allied with Nutriad since 2001. Moves were recently made to increase the INVEs equity level, a key step on the road to legal and administrative independence. Lger pinpointed the benefits for the group in its opportunity to get down to doing what it does best. We will continue to enhance our companys growth by offering market-driven, science based and cost-effective innovations to the aquaculture industry.To achieve this, we can count on a unique and seasoned team of experts as well as our experienced people in the field attending to our customers in all aquaculture markets.

India joins Global GAP

ndia has joined the GLOBAL G.A.P. Aquaculture Standard, following the certification of its first aquaculture producer this September. Southeast Indian whiteleg shrimp farmers Nekkanti Sea Foods, based in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh received the voluntary certification following a combination of selfassessment and inspection from a regionally appointed body. The company exports its products to the United Kingdom and the USA along with serving the domestic market, and this marks an important step towards further expansion. The GLOBAL G.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers the entire production chain for producers, from suppliers of broodstock, seedlings and compound feed, to farming, harvesting and processing. It applies to all types of fish, crustaceans and molluscs. It is universally recognized as a mark of good aquaculture practice and serves as a practical manual for aquaculture producers and brand owners, ensuring food safety, minimal environmental impact, and compliance with requirements for animal welfare and employee health and safety.

Extrusion line at the Centre for Feed Technology, Norway

Norways Frtek ISO-9001 certified

he Norwegian University of Life Sciences now contains the countrys first ISO-9001 cer tified feed technology centre available for public use. The Centre for Feed Technology (Fr tek) carried out a systematic project of work to attain the certification, which will allow it to continue to ser ve the needs of research and development depar tments across the industry. ISO-9001 is widely used in the feed industry, and is coming to be seen as standard by European food producer s, commented Fr tek manager Dr Olav Fjeld Kraugerud. One practicality from

4 to 5 days age at which carp fry are
stocked into nursery ponds or frozen carp products are traded within Europe annually
Source: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2013 New Scientist 2013

24, 000 tonnes of live, fresh/chilled filleted

62% of worlds farmed fish produced by

Chinese aquaculture, which relies heavily on silver carp)

4,337 tonnes global production of Grass

carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 2010

this certification is that some EU companies are demanding ISO9001 feed for animals whose products will enter the food chain. For Frteks industrial partners, this cer tification is impor tant. When these par tners are promoting their results, to say they have been obtained with cer tified feed gives them extra credibility. Based in s, near the Norwegian capital Oslo, Fr tek is internationally renowned as a laboratory for research into fish, animal and pet feed production. It has also conducted an MSc Feed Manufacturing Programme for more than a decade.

1950s saw a breakthrough in artificial

breeding of carp

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Credit: Gisle Bjrneby, University of Life Sciences

Aqua News

Ben-Gurion professor receives Novus award

eptembers GOAL 2013 conference in Paris, France saw Dr Amir Sagi walk away with the inaugural Novus Global Aquaculture Innovation Award. Standing out from a pool of 16 entries from 11 different countries. The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev professor received the prize for his work on giant river prawns, also known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Dr Sagis physiological and molecular research into the androgenic gland led him to discover an insulin-like hormone key to the rearing of all-male crustacean populations, removing the need to sort the prawns by their gender. The judges felt that this research represents a crucial step in overcoming a key difficulty in fresh-

water prawn production, without the need for genetic modifications or the use of exogenous hormones. The beauty of our biotechnology lies in the fact that it represents the first commercialisation of temporal RNA interference with no use of chemicals, hormones or generation of genetic modifications, said the professor. To sustain its rapid growth, the aquaculture industry will need to consistently introduce the latest scientific developments and innovative technologies. I am confident that the R&D community will propose many more such applications in the near future. The innovation award was launched by the Global Aquaculture Alliance at GOAL last year. It aims to specifically recognize innovative aquaculture research focused on removing production obstacles or mitigating environmental or social problems caused by aqua farms. Executive manager of Novuss

Credit: Gail Hannagan, Prefered Freezer and

Caption: GAA president George Chamberlain looks on as Novus executive Francisco Gomes hands the award to Dr Sagi Aqua Business Unit, Dr Francisco Gomes, was highly appreciative of Dr Sagis work. We are thrilled to recognize the exceptional work of Dr Sagi and it is our honour to present him with this award. Aquaculture needs innovation in order to capture its potential. Novus and our par tner, the GAA, want to encourage thought leaders in the aquaculture industry to push themselves to continue to develop innovations that address key issues and challenges that affect all areas of aquaculture production. Dr Sagi was presented with a plaque and US$1 000 in cash by Dr Gomes. The prize also included an all-expenses-paid tr ip to GOAL 2013, where h e f o r m a l l y r e c e i ve d t h e award. Although Dr Sagis wor k revolved around a very production-focused part of aqua farming, all types of aquaculture innovations qualified for the award, from wetlands conservation and effluent and energy reduction, to staff training, community relations and animal welfare.

Aquaculture Europe heads to Scotland

016 is set to be a bumper year for Scottish aquaculture events, following an announcement from the European Aquaculture Society that Edinburgh will host its flagship annual conference in three years time. This would appear to put it on collision course with Aquaculture UK, held on even years in the ski resor t town of Aviemore, Scotland. Organiser David Mack, however, does not believe this will pose a major problem.

Theres not a great deal of overlap among exhibitors, Mack told International Aquafeed. EAS events tend not to have many fish farmers there. They attract executives, academics and students, and some fish farmers from the country theyre in. We have an established event, and my hope is that fish farmers will carry on coming as usual. Aquaculture UK organiser s Ascomber had put a bid in to host Aquaculture Europe 2016 in Aviemore, similar to 2013s successful arrangement with the AquaNor event in Trondheim. Despite backing from the Scottish tourist board and the

Highland Council, EAS went with a rival offer from the Edinburgh Inter national Conference Centre. Minister for the Environment and Climate Change Paul Wheelhouse welcomed the news. The Scottish Government fully suppor ts the sustainable growth of the [aquaculture] sector with due regard to the marine environment and I am delighted that Scotland will be able to welcome the European Aquaculture Society Conference and Trade Show to Edinburgh in 2016. EAS 2012-2014 President Kjell Maroni called it a ver y

strong proposal that mixed well the attributes of Edinburgh, the status and potential of aquaculture and blue biotechnology in Scotland and the strong support of the Scottish Government for the event. Aquaculture Europe 2014 will be held next year in Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain on October 14-17. Potential exhibitor s and speaker s are invited to register and submit abstracts now. Aquaculture UK will take place on May 28-29 at the Macdonald Highland Resort in Aviemore, Scotland. Visitors, exhibitor s and speaker s can register now.

An Ohio fish farmer has asked the state far m bureau for help reclassifying farm-raised alligators as an aquaculture species. Freshwater Farms currently houses a four-foot long specimen in what is the states largest indoor fish hatchery. The bureau will meet in December to vote on the change.

Storm currents allowed as many as 20,000 salmon to escape their cages at a Cooke Aquaculture farm in Newfoundland, Canada this September. Authorities were forced to issue special licences for salmoncatchers, who managed to successfully return one in ten. It is assumed the other escapees died, joined the local ecosystem, or both.

In a month where Scotland is struggling to meet salmon export targets for the Chinese market, Norwegian aquaculture exper ts Futurama and Aqua Optima are building in China the worlds first land-based, full production cycle RAS facility. The Hainan facility will meet booming demand for cod and salmon with considerably shorter supply lines.

Aquaculture is predicted to surpass wild capture fisheries as the main source of fish for human consumption by 2015, according to statistics released by the FAO. Capture fisheries output is projected to rise by only 5 percent by 2022, with aquaculture increasing by 35 percent.

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Aqua News

Aquaculture cooperative brings hope to HIV sufferers

quaculture is giving HIVpositive subsistence farmers in Liberia a new foothold in society. The Grow2Feed project, which provides its exper tise for the design, management and training for low-cost, turn-key ponds in West Africa, is working with the NGO Serving Humanity with Love and an Open Mind (Shalom) to set up the aquaculture cooperative near Monrovia. The cooper ative , which operates as a non-profit, is mostly composed of HIV sufferers from the local community and at full capacity may produce as many as 200 000 fish per year. Waste from the tanks is used to fer tilise and irrigate farmland also owned by the co-operative. Breeding has begun in hatchery tanks housing 22 West African catfish, which will ultimately supply 12 tanks housing 5 000 fish each. The farm will also provide a teaching site for all West Africa, and supply it with

both tilapia and the West African catfish. Although around 1.5 percent of Liberians are infected with the virus, they are frequently marginalized from society. Wo r l d Health Organization studies have shown that a regular supply of protein is essential to the successful intake of antiretroviral medication. The vegetable crops traditionally available to the communitys subsistence farmer s do not provide its HIV-positive members with the diet they need. Thousands of years of experience in East Asia have demonstrated that aquaculture ponds are a low-cost, low-input and small-scale way of growing necessary protein, making them an attractive option to alleviate food supply problems across the Global South. John Sheehy, executive director

of Grow2Feed, is optimistic about the projects immediate potential. The initial focus is on feeding the community itself with the fish raised. We have extra tanks that are coming online during this fish farming season, and once the breeding and harvesting is successful, we will move into har vesting both for community consumption and for the market. This is our eventual goal: to have the community benefit from the fish both improving their own diet, and also having

an income from selling the excess in the marketplace. This will not only provide the community with a cash income, but also reintegrate an isolated, shunned population of HIV positive adults and children into wider society. The Grow2Feed model has generated interest outside of Liberia, with plans in motion in Central America and Haiti, as well as other West African countries like Sierra Leone and Nigeria.

Pick your poisson

aving trouble getting children to eat their fish? Youre not alone, according to scientists at Norwegian fishing and aquaculture research institute Nofima. One popular theor y among parents in Norway is that children are traditionally rarely given the oppor tunity to decide what to eat, and will rebel against this loss of control of their lives. Its not that theyre naturally wary of fish, its that theyre naturally wary of authority. In a bid to understand more about this phenomenon, the researchers commissioned a study, inviting 130 Stavanger school pupils to dinner at Nofima HQ. Half were given a choice about whether theyd rather eat salmon

or cod, half were just given fish, no questions asked. After the meal, the children were given a personality test, consisting of a series of set questions designed to rate how independent they were. They were also asked whether they had enjoyed their dinner. When the results of the t wo s u r ve y s we r e c o r r e lated, Nofima found that the children rated by the test as independent and valuing their personal choices enjoyed their meal less when no choice of fish was offered. In other words, children must be able to pick their poisson. Nofima Research Fellow Themis Altintzoglou believes this to be a significant trend. The explanation may be that children think posi-

tively about their own, independent choices. The results also indicate that children may like fish better if they are involved in deciding what they will have for dinner. Consequently, its impor tant that parents give their children the opportunity to choose between several healthy options, such as choosing between different vegetables and fish products. It is well known that diets regularly including fish have health benefits for adults and children. And any research that helps push people into good eating habits early in life will be warmly received by parents and public health authorities alike. Dr Altintzoglou has recently published his PhD thesis on the project, titled Young Adults and Seafood, which explores ways of increasing seafood consumption by studying consumer desires. Focus groups convened by the

project found that young people in Norway, Denmark and Iceland found seafood difficult to prepare, did not trust products when the fish couldnt be seen through the packaging, and that in general they didnt consider eating fish to be a priority. Young adults also prefer when receipes and useful tips are easily accessible on the packaging, said Altinzoglou. Many liked the fact that the fish was divided up into smaller portions. But a taco variant based on minced fish proved unsuccessful and got the lowest score. In September Nofima also announced a collabor ation with the University of Troms to deliver an R&D management course for seafood professionals. The course will facilitate closer relations between industry and research, of which Dr Altintzoglous project is an interesting example.

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salmon cage culture operations on the east and west coasts of Canada and the USA, are located in what can be described as playgrounds for city dwellers. Nonetheless, there is no point having sour grapes and we must effectively and ethically address challenges head on. There is a growing consensus around the world that aquaculture operations, notably those operating in sensitive areas, should act in increasingly environmental and socio-economically sustainable manners.

The origins of waste

Nutrition plays a very important role in the types and amounts of waste released by aquaculture operations. The release of solid waste is mainly a function of the digestibility of the feeds served to the animals, and the release of dissolved wastes is mainly a function of the metabolism of absorbed nutrients by the fish. Consequently nutrient mass balances and nutritional strategies, respectively, offer direct and effective ways of predicting and managing waste output by aquaculture operations. The stakeholders in the aquaculture industry can globally be described as good environmental stewards. Very significant reductions in waste outputs per unit of biomass produced have been achieved over the past few decades by commercial aquaculture operations, notably in Europe and the Americas. Significant changes have started to take place, or are expected to take place, in the rest of the world. Further reduction in waste outputs are currently being achieved through the fine-tuning of feed formulations, judicious use of feed additives, and the processing or refining of ingredients. Numerous ongoing R&D efforts may also contribute to the development of effective strategies for further reducing the waste outputs of aquaculture operations.

by Dominique P Bureau, member of the IAF Editorial Panel

terious environmental changes, as it is frequently assumed in much of the documentation of eNGOs, the popular press and even the scientific literature on aquaculture. For example, a large scale research effort on the impact of freshwater aquaculture at the Experimental Lakes Area of Ontario, Canada led by Dr. Cheryl Podemski (Fisheries and Oceans Canada) convincingly demonstrated that environmental impacts induced by rainbow trout cage culture in an ultra-oligotrophic lake were actually very largely positive, notably the for usually-fragile native (wild) lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations. An overview of the project can be found at the following URL: http://www. This great research project, as well as other similar studies, showed that the types and potential magnitude of the environmental changes are highly dependent on the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of the receiving ecosystems. Different water bodies will react differently to the influx of the same amount of certain wastes (e.g. solid organic matter, solid or dissolved nitrogenous or phosphorus wastes). Besides being driven by complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical factors, the perception of these changes will also be dependent on numerous socio-economic factors. For example, a slight increase in primary productivity (e.g. microalgae) or secondary productivity may be perceived negatively in areas where tourism and recreational activities are significant. The same increases in primary and secondary productivities could potentially be perceived as neutral, or even beneficial, in areas where environmental degradation has already taken place, or in regions where the natural productivity of water bodies is limited, and wild fish and invertebrate harvests play important roles in the regional economy. The expectations and value

systems of the various local stakeholders play a great role in the definition of assimilative capacity and environmental impacts. These parameters are not as objective as they are often assumed to be. Several studies have shown that the estimation of waste outputs from aquaculture operations can quite easily be done with nutrient mass balance models. However, the assessment and prediction of the potential environmental impacts associated with the release of waste from aquaculture operations represent a much greater challenge which generally requires a multidisciplinary approach (a team composed of fish biologists, limnologists, benthic habitat specialists, oceanographers, modellers, nutritionists etc.), as well as great effort and investments.

Environmentally sustainable aquaculture production: a nutritionists perspective

Rearing fish and crustaceans in an intensive manner involves the transformation of dietary inputs into fish biomass. This process generates waste, which in many cases can be difficult to contain and recover. The release of waste into aquatic ecosystems by aquaculture operations may result in nutrient enrichment of these ecosystems which, in turn, can potentially lead to environmental changes. In North America and Europe, the potential (or hypothetical) environmental impacts that can be brought on by aquaculture have been a major issue raised (and highly publicised) by a number of environmental non-governmental agencies (eNGOs), environmental activists and various competing end-users (e.g. recreational users). I have always felt that the aquaculture sector constitutes an easy target in the popular press due to its status as a relatively new industry (a new kid on the block!). I also believe that aquaculture has been targeted because a relatively small number of fish farming operators, notably

Engaging in the dialogue

I feel that the aquaculture nutrition community should play a more important role in the ongoing dialogue about the real impacts of aquaculture operations. We need to seek to engage the public in healthy and realistic dialogue. A popular bumper sticker in the parking lot of my university is If you ate today, thank a farmer! This very simple message conveys effectively that food production is not merely an accessory activity. It is essential to our daily survival and standard of living. It is at least as important (in the greater scheme of things) than leisurely endeavours, such as holidaying, boating, water skiing, surfing or sport fishing. I am always a bit disappointed by how few eNGOS are truly engaged in raising awareness of the very broad and profound impacts on aquatic ecosytems caused by sprawling development of housing or recreational infrastructure around bodies of water. I guess you dont really want to bite the hand that feeds you Agree, disagree? Any suggestions of topics? Let me know at

The real impacts of waste

It is important to note that the release of waste by aquaculture operations cannot be systematically equated with dele-

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Scotland launches aquaculture website

he Scottish government has launched a new website and database to provide a fully-integrated and up-to-date resource for people interested in the aquaculture hotspot. The website provides an interactive map containing the locations of industry players; information on the different types of aquaculture; leases, licences and reports on controlled activities; and regular updates on its shellfish hygiene monitoring. The database on finfish farms and shellfish harvesting areas is fully searchable and downloadable and looks set to be a crucial resource for the industry. Environment and Climate Change Minister Paul Wheelhouse welcomed the collabor ation of Scottish aquacultures main regulator y bodies, the Scottish E nv i r o n m e n t P r o t e c t i o n Agency, Marine Scotland, the Food Standards Agency in Scotland and The Crown Estate. Aquaculture was wor th over 530 million to the Scottish economy in 2012 and is a key sector underpinning sustainable economic growth. This website and database will see information being shared that will enable better informed decisions to be made in view of all aquaculture activity. The Scottish Government fully suppor ts the aquaculture industr ys ambition for sustainable growth with due regard to the marine environment as demonstrated in our Aquaculture and Fisheries (Scotland) Act 2013. I look forward to engaging fur ther with the sector and key stakeholder s on the development of the sector through the Ministerial Group on Sustainable Aquaculture.

First Aquaculture Learning Centre

Roy Palmer, director AwF

have had a heavy travelling period which will not finish till near the end of December. Sometimes it is difficult to find the time and place to catch up on work. I am writing this blog sitting in a hotel room in Rio de Janeiro. There are three beds in the room and no desk so Im having to balance the computer with the wires stretched to their maximum from the awkwardlyplaced electric point between the beds. Oh, the joys of travelling! Time has been flying away and we have been working very hard behind the scenes at Aquaculture without Frontiers recently, without too much to show for our efforts. Frustrating times but all par for the business that we are in.You have spells like this, then it all changes! I arrived in Rio after having spent a very interesting week in Mexico. We had been discussing the establishment of our first Aquaculture Learning Centre (ALC) and it all seemed to be coming together well. We had on other occasions got this close but it had not come to fruition for one reason or another so you are never quite sure. Good news. We were able to meet some of the decision makers early in the week, and by the time we arrived in Tampico on Thursday ever yone was ready to sign the agreement. Very excited about the possibilities. Here is the media release which says it all: Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) is pleased to announce that we have signed a Cooperation Agreement with the Universidad Tecnolgica Del Mar De Tamaulipas Bicentenario

(UTMarT) based at La Pesca, Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The UTMarT currently offers Technical, Bachelor and Graduate programs in aquaculture and is building a new centre in Tampico. The target of this agreement is to jointly develop food security and personnel training in the International Centre for Innovation and Technology Tr ansfer for Aquaculture (CIITTA), which will be AwFs fir st Aquaculture Learning Centre (ALC). Executive Director, AwF, Roy Palmer, visiting Tampico during his Mexican business trip said, AwF is very keen to build a strong relationship with UTMarT and be involved in the capacity of building and engaging in projects, and working with students and establishing a firm base within Mexico. There are 130 million people in Mexico, and of those approximately 30-35 million people are considered to be in extreme poverty. We hope to make a difference in assisting with the growth of aquaculture to assist the alleviation of both poverty and hunger and we see this new partnership as a major step in this direction. Chancellor of UTMarT, Dr Guadalupe Acosta Villarreal, said, This agreement will bring many benefits to the UTMarT and its students in the long term. We anticipate short interchange programs, visiting professors, joint research and projects, par ticipation in international training programs and exchanges of experience between different members and specialists of AwF around the world. This agreement fulfills the universitys goals of social awareness and

extension which are part of its mission. At the special event in Tampico, the State Ministry of Education was represented by Dr Didoro Guerra Rodrguez, and special witnesses for the agreements included Juan Bez Rodrguez representing the Farmers Unions of Tamaulipas, the Mayor Elect of Soto La Marina, Tamaulipas municipality where the UTMarT is located and Jorge Velez, De Camaron Ta m b i e n . T h e N a t i o n a l Commission of Aquaculture and Fishing (CONAPESCA), and representatives of the state ministries of education and health were present as well. At the end of the event, which was attended by approximately one hundred people, Roy Palmer gave a presentation about the programs managed by AwF to the signees, UTMarT students and media. From the comments made by the audience, the potential of the agreement will be extremely motivating for future development for Mexico, the state, the university and the industry, all of whom highlighted their commitment.The group then toured the new site for the CIITTA/ AwF ALC. We have already started talking about what our priorities will be, and are aiming to get some AwF volunteers engaged immediately to start off the programme. The new site is very large, has huge volumes of fresh water available, and will enable us to engage on many fronts. Looking forward to keeping you all involved in the progress that is made in Mexico, and in AwF into the future.

More information about AwF can be found at:

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Aqua News

Skretting supersizes Norway plant

eed giant Skretting has pulled the wraps off its expanded Avery plant in Western Norway. Producing 450 000 tonnes of feed per year, the company claims it is now the worlds largest fish feed plant. Production manager Hilde Roald said that the construction work, which lasted

over two years while normal production continued at the facility, has been a major project for Nutrecos fish and shrimp division. This is the most comprehensive and successful project we have ever completed. We started to prepare the site two and a half years ago. More than

9 000 hours went into administration and project management, and around 400 000 manhours were invested in the work on-site. It has been a challenging job for employees at the facility, and not least for our 40 suppliers. They were given a rigorous work schedule and theyve stuck to the plan.

Er lend Sdal, managing director of Skretting Norway, believes it was well wor th the effor t. It is impressive when we look back to the original facility in 1983. Then we could produce 6 000 tonnes of feed per year. Now we can ship out 12 000 tonnes of feed each week.

AquaBioTech Group ties up with Pharmaq

altas AquaBioTech Group has announced a three-year contract, with an option to extend for a fur ther three years, for clinical research with Norwegian vaccine producers Pharmaq. The two companies have already been collaborating for over a year now, but this new agreement will see a significantly larger amount of scientific research and development work being undertaken in Malta. The clinical research focuses on the development and documentation of aquatic vaccines for fish grown in Mediterranean aquaculture, but the facility

also offers research oppor tunities with other warm water species. The length of the agreement reflects the long lead time required for the development of vaccines. The Aquabiotech Group, an HSBC European Business Awards finalist for innovation last year, owns one of the largest licensed aquatic research facilities in the world, and has significant experience in developing recirculation systems for aquaculture. The new contract will allow the group to significantly increase its own research infrastructure and staff, so as to provide Pharmaq with seven dedicated research modules and laborator y facilities.

EU report shows fall in farm antibiotics

ales of veterinary antimicrobials took a marked decrease in 2011, according to a new repor t from the European Medicines Agency. The EU body collected data from wholesalers, pharmacies, marketing-authorisation holders and feed mills in 25 European Economic Area countries. Of the 20 members who also participated in 2010, 19 reported an overall decrease, although the individual figures varied from 0.4 percent to 28 percent. Norway saw an 11 percent drop in sales, which the report attributes almost solely to a reduction in use among farmed fish.

The EMA report suggested a number of factors explaining the fall in antimicrobials, including the development of responsible-use campaigns, legal restrictions on their administration, increased awareness of antimicrobial resistance, and the establishment of government targets for their reduction. The European Sur veillance of Veterinar y Antimicrobial Consumption (ESVAC) project was launched by the EMA in 2009 as a response to growing worries within the EU about the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance. Published in October 2013, the third report harmonises the collection and reporting of usage data across member states.

8 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013


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Accessing latest feed products is key to Canadas aquaculture growth

by Pamela Parker, executive director, Atlantic Canada Fish Farmers Association

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The Aquaculturists

hile other countries have seen their aquaculture industries grow significantly, Canada has not. The growth of Canadas aquaculture industry has flatlined for the past decade. A complex and outdated regulatory system is viewed as the significant reason for this stagnation. Regulator y restraints facing the industry include the inability to access feed ingredients now commonplace in most jurisdictions. Canadas farmed seafood sector needs access to the most up-to-date technology in feed and fish health products in order to improve the growth, feed utilisation and disease management in fish which is necessary to be competitive in the world market, and to meet the demands of Canadians for seafood. Canadas $2.1 billion aquaculture industry employs 15,000 people . Seven companies, operating nine aquaculture feed mills, currently produce aquaculture feeds in Canada. Mills in British Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia annually produce an estimated total of 150,000 to 200,000 tonnes of aqua feed per year. By comparison, Norway produces over 1.5 million tonnes of aqua feed per year. The current process for approval of aqua feeds, feed additives and fish health products is outdated, complex, cumbersome and expensive for both the developers of these products and the agencies that must review applications.

There is no cer tainty that our countrys review process will result in a timely decision. Often, ongoing requests for additional information can drag the process on for years. As a result, Canada does not have access to many of the aqua feeds, feed additives and fish health products that are in use in other competing jurisdictions.

A regular look inside the aquaculture industry

Fish farm makes perfect home for Japanese cats A floating fish farm in Kudamatsu, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan would be an unusual home for any land mammal. Chii and Dorami, a pair of cats, live on the 120 x 14 m floating platform about 400 metres southeast of the fish farming centre. According to farm workers the cats sometimes catch small fish, but ignore the tiger puffer fish being grown there on a trial basis. The cats are also valuable security guards, chasing crows away from the cages.

"Improvement cant come soon enough"

Some of the aqua feed and fish health products that are available in other competing jurisdictions but are currently not available in Canada for use in aquaculture include nucleotide products, natural pigments, squid meal and shrimp meal. However, fish that have been fed using these ingredients can be impor ted into the country, which makes little sense. Canadian industr y associations, including the Canadian Aquaculture Industry Alliance, are working with the Canadian government to improve access to new feed products and ingredients. The Atlantic Canada Fish Farmers Association (ACFFA) is an industr y-funded association that works on behalf of the salmon farming industr y and feed producers in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in addition to a wide range of supporting companies and organisations.

David Suzuki backs insect feed start-up Dean of North American nature broadcasting David Suzuki has thrown his weight behind a start-up in Vancouver, Canada which aims to produce a more sustainable alternative to fishmeal in fish feed with larvae from the Black Soldier Fly, which is indigenous to North America. The benefits dont stop at relieving the pressure on the oceans wild fish reserves: the maggots are fed on traceable food waste destined for landfill.

Fuel cells and aquaponics: a match made in heaven? Car makers Hyundai hooked up its hydrogen-powered ix35 FCEV model to an aquaponics system in a one-day display this October at the Design Museum in London, UK. In what the Korean manufacturer grandly calls design theatre, water vapour from the cars fuel cell is condensed, and then filters into the fish tank. Naturally, the fish waste is recycled as fertiliser for vegetables.

The worlds largest underwater peace sign A new project to regenerate coral reefs off the Florida Keys in the United States has hit on a novel way of raising attention for itself: the 60 metre wide limestone structure will be built in the shape of the international peace symbol. The site itself has farmed fish for the past five years and the fundraiser hopes to restore the habitat for the many organisms that call it home.

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 9

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Animal co-product hydrolysates:

a source of key molecules in aquaculture feeds
by Sergio F Nates, ALAPRE, Costa Rica, Victor Suresh, United Research Pte. Ltd, Singapore, and Kent Swisher, National Renderers Association, USA hanges in production technology and marketing and changes in feed ingredients are key structural transformations necessary for the aquaculture sector to grow. Today, with improved genetic techniques, novel genetic lines are being bred for maximum efficiency over a shorter production period with lower feed conversions. Thus, the correct amount of micro-nutrients present in aqua diets is crucial. On the other hand, the rapid growth of aquaculture worldwide has become increasingly dependent upon the use of external feed inputs, and in particular upon the use of compound aquafeeds. Pressures to reduce fishmeal consumption for sustainability reasons, combined with economic reasons, require intensive research efforts to find candidates for fishmeal replacement. However, formulating low fishmeal aquaculture feeds requires the use of combinations of several ingredients since most feedstuffs have been shown to have significant nutrient and functional limitations and cannot be used

Table 1: Effect of hydrolysis on animal byproducts Effect of hydrolysis 1. Digestion of protein 2. Increase in the proportion of low molecular compounds like short-chain peptides, free amino acids and nucleotides 3. Production of bioactive peptides Resulting benefit Improved digestibility, absorption and assimilation of peptides Enhanced attractability and palatability

Antioxidant and anti-microbial activities

individually at very high levels in the diets of most aquaculture species. Fishmeal has always been the main source and the preferred choice of nutritionists for quality protein, above all in the formulation and especially in feeds for the youngest ages. Though, with the market volatility of fishmeal, the aquaculture feed industry is looking for cheaper sources of protein to substitute the fishmeal and this has become a priority. Additional renewable and sustainable protein alternatives are needed. Animal byproducts are well accepted as aquafeed ingredients these days due to short supplies and the escalating cost of fishmeal.

Protein content in animal byproducts is higher and their complement of indispensable amino acids is superior to those of plant origin. In addition, Animal Co-Product Hydrolysates (ACPH) can meet the many nutritional needs of aquaculture worldwide as a protein alternative in aquafeeds. ACPHs can help reduce pressure on natural fisheries stocks and provide sustainability to the growing demand for aquatic products.

ACPHs result from controlled enzymatic digestion of byproducts from the meat processing industry. Technically, it is feasible to generate ACPH from most kinds of

10 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

FEATURE slaughterhouse waste such as scrape meat, offal, feathers, and blood as well as from rendered animal byproducts such as meat and bone meal, poultry meal, feather, and blood meal. Protein materials are partially defatted by hexane extraction prior to hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is conducted in a thermostat reaction vessel with constant stirring adequate to prevent the settling of the substrate in the vessel. Alkaline hydrolysates are produced with 0.1 g CaOH/g substrate, at 85 C. During enzymatic hydrolysis, pH is monitored continuously and maintained through the addition of 8M NaOH. Alkaline hydrolysis reactions are terminated by sparging with CO 2 until the pH drops to 9, followed by neutralization with sulphuric acid. Enzymatic reactions can also be terminated by raising the reaction temperature to 90 C for 10 minutes. Residual solid material is removed by centrifugation followed by filtration. To test the antioxidant activities of ACPHs, two hydrolysis methods have been adopted1, including the alkaline hydrolysis by a strong base and an enzymatic hydrolysis by a commercial enzyme protease at a specific pH condition. Most results have showed that alkaline hydrolysis produced better antioxidant hydrolysates than the enzymatic hydrolysis2, 3.

Results and Discussion

Hydrolysis improves the nutritive value of feed ingredients that are produced from slaughterhouse waste (Table 1). Enzymatic digestion of the raw material breaks the protein chains into peptides that are better absorbed in the gut. Enzymatic hydrolysis of poultry meal with endo- and exopeptidases shows the feasibility of hydrolysing poultry byproducts so significant amounts of shortchain peptides and free amino acids can be produced. High levels of digestible protein characterise poultry protein hydrolysates with a digestibility index above 95 percent. Feather hydrolysates produced by bacterial keratinases have been tested as additives in aquaculture feeds and several species of bacteria with high keratinolytic activity has been isolated from feather meal broth. In recent studies, it has been established that pepsin digestibility and amino acid content of fermented feather meal (FFM) can be far better than those of commercial feather meal. The microbial cells could also potentially supply carotenoid pigments to FFM, whereby the ingredient may be useful in animal feeding not just as a source of protein but also that of pigments. The short-chain peptides and free amino acids produced as a result of hydrolysis along with nucleotides that are rich in meats confer

excellent attractability and palatability properties to ACPH. Poultry liver hydrolysates have been added to animal feeds at levels as high as 6 percent and have been found to enhance palatability. Spray-dried hydrolysates produced from poultry byproduct meal can contain up to 70 percent protein with compounds that have molecular weights ranging from 5,800 to 12,000 Da. We have found that inosine is the dominant nucleoside in poultry meal, a molecule that is believed to enhance diet attractability in several fish species, including largemouth bass, turbot and mackerel. Among monophosphate forms, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) dominated and similar trends have been seen in fishmeal hydrolysates. It is known that alkali-hydrolysates and enzyme-hydrolysates from meat and bone meal, blood meal and feather meal have similar ash and protein content as the parent materials, but with concomitant liberation of bioactive peptides that are encoded within the protein. It has been demonstrated that ACPH prepared under alkaline hydrolysis can be a source of antioxidants with activities comparable to BHT. Results from previous studies have also shown the presence of antioxidant, carnosine,



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November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 11

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FEATURE to elicit feeding in satiated animals, and Defensins that show antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi, but at this point we don't know if these molecules are present in animal by-products. Compared with fishmeal, dried porcine blood co-products and bone protein hydrolysates are poor in methionine and lysine6. However, blood by-products are rich in microelements, which can improve Ca and Cu retention in aquaculture species, especially shrimp in which it has been reported that inadequate supplementary dietary copper level can result in significant growth depression. Porcine plasma hydrolysates are also effective inhibitors of lipid oxidation as well as metal chelating and reducing agents.

While we need to keep in mind the ability of bioactive peptides and nutraceuticals to exert a physiological effect in vivo, these examples of key molecules found in animal by-product hydrolysates show the potential for use as functional ingredients in aquaculture feeds.

a histidine containing dipeptide, in poultry byproducts4, 5. Carnosine levels in poultry products ranged from 0.95-102.3 mg/g (wet basis) (Table 2). Carnosine levels in meat and bone meal ranged from 500 to 1,800 ppm, while in fishmeal they can be as low as 5 ppm. Soy and higher than that in the control group, and diets supplemented with carnosine could increase the levels of GH, IGF-1 and T3 in their serum indicating that diets supplemented with carnosine could improve antioxidation in muscle. Anti-microbial peptides have also been
1. Kalambura S., Kricka T., Juriic V. and Z. Janjecic (2008) Alkaline hydrolysis of animal waste as pretreatment in production of fermented fertilizers. Journal Cereal Research Communications 36(5):179-182. 2. Bo Li, F. Chen, X. Wang, B. Ji, and Yonnie W. (2007) Isolation and identification of antioxidative peptides from porcine collagen hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and electrospray ionizationmass spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 102:1135-1143. 3. Jingbo L., Zhipeng Y., W Zhao, S. Lin, E. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Hao, Z. Wang, and Feng C. (2010) Isolation and identification of angiotensionconverting enzyme inhibitory peptides from egg white protein hydrolysates. Food Chemistry, 122:1159-1163. 4. Manhiani P. S. (2011) Carnosine content and antioxidant activity from poultry co-products, proetin meal and stressed poultry tissues. P.h.D. Dissertation, Clemson University. 179 pp. 5. Manhiani P.S., Northcult J.K., Bridges W.C. and Dawson Pl.L. (2013) Antioxidant activity of carnosine extracted from various poultry tissues. Poultry Science 92(2): 444-453. 6. Sun, Q. and H. Shen (2011). Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates and peptide fractions derived from porcine hemoglobin. Journal of Food Science and Technology 48(1): 53-60.

Table 2: Carnosine levels in different tissues of stress and non-stress broilers (from Manhiani, 2011)

Organ Treatment

Calcium content ppm


Carnosine p-value content (wb)2,3 1.850.241,a p=0.005 17.391.33b 11.101.02a 21.251.25b 10.161.53a1 10.272.77a

Carnosine content (db) 7.520.97a 70.895.39b


Breast non-stress 6.740.07a stress 11.030.13b 13.990.19b



Thigh non-stress 10.500.37a p=0.006 stress Brain stress non-stress 8.480.38a 13.780.24 p=0.002

p=0.001 44.474.08a 85.125.01b p=0.82 45.4412.37a 55.1214.88

P=0.002 P=0.54

1. All values are in Mean S.E.M (N=5) 2. wb= wet basis; db= dry basis 3. Carnosine content is expressed in mg/gm of the original sample 4. Fisher's least significant difference test was used to compare mean values; a-b similar letters indicate that teh means values are not significantly different (p0.05); while different letters indicate that the mean values are significantly different (p0.050

other plant proteins don't contain carnosine. The results of adding carnosine on growth performance of Nile tilapia showed that the body weight and body length of tilapia in the group supplemented with carnosine were

identified in PBM and FeM hydrolysates. These include cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides. Other potential molecules that can be found in cattle, chickens and turkeys include Galanin, which has previously been reported


12 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013


You can now find International Aquafeed content on your mobile phone, including full feature articles (not to mention a whole host of other Perendale content - including The International Milling Directory). Simply visit on your mobile to launch the our app - its all free.

Our Events register contains all the information that you need about all of the up-coming industry events, and forms an essential part of our app for all industry professionals

Get your f

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November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 13

e APP her re


Prevalence of mycotoxins in aquafeed ingredients: an update

by Gonalo Santos, technical manager - Aquaculture, Biomin Holding, Austria, Karin Naehrer, Product manager, Biomin Holding, Austria and Pedro Encarnacao, business development director, Biomin Singapore, Singapore

ver recent years several factors have led to an escalation of feed ingredient prices especially fishmeal. As a consequence, alternative commodities have been used, mainly plant protein sources. However, as a result of this trend, aquaculture feeds have a higher risk of being contaminated with mycotoxins. The effects of mycotoxins are in general associated with reduced growth and health status of fish, shrimp and other farmed animals. The most prevalent fungi responsible for the occurrence of mycotoxins are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium sp. At the moment more than 400 different mycotoxins have been reported that can be clustered into five major classes: aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes (CAST 2003). Mycotoxin contamination of aquafeeds occurs especially in countries with humid tropical climates owing to many factors, among which are permissive climatic conditions to mould growth and inappropriate methods of feed processing and storage. Despite this, the international trade of commodities makes it likely that contaminated products are imported in countries where traditionally tropical mycotoxins would not occur. Furthermore, due to the rising prices of feedstuffs feed manufacturers are looking for more economical raw materials to avoid increasing feed prices. The use of more affordable raw materials of lower quality might

increase the risk of mycotoxin contamination in the feeds. For example, DDGS is an economical source of energy and protein that can be used in animal feeds, but reports show that is highly contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (Rodrigues, 2012).

In contrast to terrestrial animals, in aquatic species, the absence of clear clinical signs that can be attributed to mycotoxicoses kept this topic away from the headlines. However, in recent years, the awareness

Figure 1: Occurrence of mycotoxins worldwide

Figure 2: Co-occurrence of mycotoxins in analysed samples

14 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

Table 1: Soybean meal Soybean meal Number of tests Percentage of positive (%) Average (g/kg) Maximum (g/kg) Table 2: Corn Corn Number of tests Percentage of positive (%) Average (g/kg) Maximum (g/kg) Table 3: Corn gluten Corn gluten Number of tests Percentage of positive (%) Average (g/kg) Maximum (g/kg) Afla 41 32 32 1,224 ZEN 42 86 1,096 9,854 DON 44 95 3,049 15,408 FUM 41 90 2,559 13,456 OTA 31 81 9 103 Afla 746 25 10 818 ZEN 734 43 160 6,320 DON 772 64 668 30,200 FUM 712 86 1,666 42,120 OTA 532 10 1 169.7 Afla 71 18 0 3.4 ZEN 62 19 4 65.3 DON 65 14 25 840 FUM 69 6 22 866 OTA 61 26 1 11.7




of mycotoxin-related issues within the aqua industry has grown, supported by increasing scientific evidence of the negative impact of mycotoxins in aquatic species and by frequent reports on the prevalence of mycotoxins in many raw materials.

It is very difficult to guarantee the absence of mycotoxins in aquaculture feeds even when appropriate measures are taken, such as good screening programmes, selection of high quality raw materials and feed ingredients and good storage conditions.

Therefore, it is urgent to find suitable ways to face the problem through an effective management of the risks posed by mycotoxin contaminations. In general, the effects of mycotoxins are associated with reduced growth and health

Our success in developing sustainable solutions evolves from a hands-on knowledge and understanding of the global aqua industry. By focusing on the needs of the animals, our team of experts will design a solution for your operation.

take a

at Novus Aquaculture

is a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITY is a trademark of Novus International, Inc. 2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 15

FEATURE An overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins worldwide is presented in Figure 1. It can be noted that aflatoxins are more prevalent in tropical and temperate regions compared to cold climates. However, the distribution is also related to the different commodities. Moreover, it was possible to verify that the occurrence of more than one mycotoxin represented 50 percent of the tested samples and only 18 percent were negative for mycotoxin presence (Figure 2). This means that in field conditions the presence of more than one mycotoxin is the reason for synergistic effects and thus, even at low mycotoxin concentration levels it is possible to verify a great negative impact on the performance and health of animals.

Contamination by commodity
Concerning commodities, soybean meal, corn, corn gluten, DDGS, rapeseed, wheat flower, rice bran are important ingredients of fish and shrimp diets in aquafeeds. Therefore, the following tables present an overview of the number of analysed samples, the percentage of positive samples, the average of positive results and the maximum contamination found of the above mentioned ingredients. An overview of the results of contamination by commodity is presented in tables 1 through 7. It is possible to verify that corn was one of the raw materials more contaminated with DON and FUM present in 64 percent and 86 percent of positive samples and 668 ppb and 1,666 ppb were the average levels, respectively. Corn gluten was highly contaminated with ZEN, DON and FUM (86 percent, 95 percent and 90 percent respectively). Levels were 1,096 ppb for ZEN, 3,049 ppb for DON and 2,559 for FUM. In regards to DDGS, the percentage of positive samples was also very high for ZEN (76 percent), DON (85 percent) and FUM (79 percent). Levels in DDGS were also high with 385, 4,241 and 1,426 ppb for ZEN, DON and FUM respectively. These levels

status of fish and other farmed animals. In terrestrial animals the toxic effects of mycotoxins are well known and can be of different nature such as carcinogenic (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins), estrogenic (zearalenone), neurotoxic (fumonisins), nephrotoxic (ochratoxin A), dermatoxic (trichothecenes) or immunosuppressive (e.g. aflatoxin B1, fumonisins and trichothecenes).

Determining mycotoxins in aquafeeds

As there are serious impacts of mycotoxins in fish, it is of extreme importance that the levels of mycotoxins in feed ingredients used are known. But to what extent can we find these dangerous metabolites in feed ingredients?
Table 4: DDGS DDGS Number of tests Percentage of positive (%) Average (g/kg) Maximum (g/kg) Table 5: Rapeseed Rapeseed Number of tests Percentage of positive (%) Average (g/kg) Maximum (g/kg) Afla 10 20 0 0 ZEN 15 20 2 13.5 Afla 64 31 5 105 ZEN 63 76 385 2,606

Every year BIOMIN conducts a mycotoxin survey to answer this question regarding contamination of the agricultural commodities in different regions worldwide. Between the period of January and December 2012 a total of 4,023 samples were analysed and 14,468 analyses were carried out for the most important mycotoxins in terms of agriculture and animal production - aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA). The analyses were performed at different certified labs and all samples were analysed by HPLC. For the purpose of data analysis, nondetection levels were based on the quantification limits of the test method for each mycotoxin - Afla (4 ppb), ZEN (32 ppb), DON (50 ppb), FUM (100 ppb), OTA (2 ppb).

DON 65 85 4,241 28,005

FUM 57 79 1,426 11,594

OTA 50 46 3 48.8


DON 15 47 121 685.2

FUM 10 0 0 0

OTA 10 30 0 3.1


16 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

Table 6: Wheat flour Wheat flour Number of tests Percentage of positive (%) Average (g/kg) Maximum (g/kg) Table 7: Rice bran Rice bran Number of tests Percentage of positive (%) Average (g/kg) Maximum (g/kg) Afla 22 45 1.5 61 ZEN 22 41 56 165 DON 22 18 128.2 648 FUM 21 24 181 220 OTA 22 32 1.3 1.7 Afla 172 5 0 11.1 ZEN 341 31 38 2,991 DON 434 70 842 12,000 FUM 189 10 33 2,273 OTA 186 13 0 30



indicated that processed products are increasing the risk of mycotoxin contamination in the feeds. Afla, ZEN and OTA presented higher contaminations (18 percent, 19 percent, and 26 percent, respectively) in soybean meal. In regards to wheat flour, ZEN and DON were the most prevalent mycotoxins with 31 percent and 70 percent of positive samples and average levels of 38 ppb and 842 ppb, respectively. Finally, rice bran was mostly contaminated with Afla, ZEN and OTA testing positive at 45 percent, 41 percent and 32 percent, respectively. Levels of 100 ppb of DON have been reported to cause harmful effects in

trout and shrimp. Similar or even higher levels were found in several ingredients. 60 ppb of Afla in most fish species such as trout, pangasius, tilapia, shrimp, catfish, European seabass represents a risk of low to medium.

The available studies on the effects of mycotoxins in fish and shrimp show that performance and health status are negatively affected. The analysed concentrations of mycotoxins in feed ingredients used in aquafeeds, shows the importance of management strategies for the mycotoxins problem. The awareness of mycotoxin problems in

aquaculture farms must be developed to minimize the negative impact of mycotoxins on the performance and health of exposed fish. Moreover, the risk for consumers needs to be addressed as mycotoxin residues were found in fish muscle beyond acceptable levels. For that, further research is needed in this topic and of course, an effective mycotoxins risk management must be taken into account. References available upon request


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November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 17


Green gold in Brittanys blue economy

by Richard Sillett, deputy editor

t the western edge of France, Finistre literally the end of the earth is the point where northern Europe meets the Atlantic Ocean. Its a place of high biodiversity and a centre of European marine science funding. Founded in 1872, the Station Biologique in Roscoff is the oldest marine biology institute in the world. Now, it is one of the European Marine Biological Resource Centres 13 stations, and 60 percent of French funding in marine sciences comes to major port and university town, Brest. Its also a historic seaweed hotspot. In 1811, French chemist Bernard Courtois discovered Iodine after extracting the element from local algae. Kelp is a traditional component in Brittany for food, animal feed and fertilizer. Local spas have been using it in their therapies for more than a hundred years. And now Olmix are one of a group of Breton businesses looking to bring seaweed products into the modern age, with a new biorefinery the centrepiece of a process to extract the only partly understood properties of macroalgae.

Macroalgae extracts
These properties are varied, and macroalgae extracts demonstrate great potential for a world where new feed sources have to do much more than provide enough protein. While the benefits of algae extracts for soil, animals and humans have been traditionally acknowledged, research at Roscoff and elsewhere is beginning to grasp the scientific basis to their extraordinary versatility. Experimental trials with marine algal extracts have shown them to have antiviral,

anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antioxidant and antitumoral effects. For aquaculture, where fish health and company profits alike are being stymied by ineffective vaccines and restrictions on antibiotics, the development of products with such effects is a tremendously exciting prospect. The key seems to lie in sulphated polysaccharides, large carbohydrate molecules which in the plant kingdom only exist in seaweed (and not freshwater algae or land plants). Polysaccharides themselves are a structurally diverse kind of molecule, consisting of a repeating series of monosaccharide units joined to each other by covalent bonds. These polysaccharides can branch out into complex chains, forming polymers of immense potential variability. Familiar polysaccharides like cellulose and starch are one thing, but the heart of marine algaes benefits seems to be in their sulphation. Fucans (found in brown algae), Carageenan (from red algae) and Ulvans (found in green algae, and which Olmix are harvesting off the coast of Brittany) are three examples of sulphated polysaccharides, so-called because of the presence of sulphur in the molecular backbone forming the structure of the sugars. Research shows that only sulphated algal extracts mimic the properties seen in natural seaweed.

Ulvan potential
To date, published research has largely focused on fucans and carageenans, however, it is the potential of ulvans from green algae which most excites Olmixs scientists. Consultant veterinarian Herv Demais is upbeat about them. Because of green seaweeds very diverse and versatile chemical

compositions, there is still a lot to discover regarding their biological activities. Because of their natural availability on our coasts and because until now they have been poorly studied, they are our core target. Detailed studies have been carried out to discover the chemical basis for the antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of marine algal polysaccharides. Tests with the Herpes simplex virus have established that SO3 ions in the polysaccharides bind with glycoproteins in the virus, preventing any entry into the cell. The greater the sulphate content, the more inhibited viral replication becomes. The effect is stereospecific, which is to say certain kinds of polysaccharide only inhibit certain kinds of viruses. Research continues into finding more antiviral matches for the algal extracts. Animals treated with fucoidan (extracted from brown algae) in trials saw anti-inflammatory effects achieved without lowering arterial blood pressure. The marine algal polysaccharides appear to bind with basal leukocytes (white blood cells), preventing their rolling motion and blocking them from migrating from the blood stream to the targeted tissue. Immunomodulatory effects have also been

18 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

FEATURE observed, and indeed research into the interaction of marine sulphated polysaccharides and the immune systems Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) has recently aroused plenty of excitement in the animal health industry. Polysaccharides fucoidan and -carrageenan (from red algae) have been shown to bind with PRRs, altering the animals adaptive immune response and therefore potentially enhancing vaccine intake. live outside of the ocean. This may have something to do with the occurrence of sulphated polysaccharides in animals, fungi and bacteria, but not land plants. Its this similarity that opens the lines of communication between disparate kinds of organism. Although algae and mammals are far apart in the evolutionary tree of life, biological characteristics inherited from their shared ancestors are providing valuable opportunities for human and animal health.


Information transfer
The miraculous effects of marine algal polysaccharides on organisms that naturally may never encounter them are neither magical nor even coincidental. The immune system, like brain functions and science journalism, relies on the transfer of information. The sugars that combine to form long polysaccharide chains can interconnect at several points in the molecule a combination of four distinct sugar monomers can form 35-560 unique polysaccharides. This variability makes them ideal vehicles for biological information, activating the

During the recent biorefinery launch, one word you could hear over and over again was valorisation, a French word describing the process of finding uses or products for new knowledge or inventions. Essentially, its about turning scientific discovery into industrial reality. 'It is important to give more value to algae than a simple commodity,' says Dr Demais. 'Algae has a lot of particularities that cant be found in terrestrial plants (such as marine sulfated polysaccharides), and these particularities deserve to be exploited

NUTRACEUTICALS AND PHYTOBIOTICS FOR AQUACULTURE Growth promoters Anti-parasites Attractants Hepatoprotectors Antioxidants Detoxifiers Chelated minerals

Technical supervisor for aquaculture Adrien Louyer pictured with Ecofish, an aquaculture feed additive from Olmix still in development

numerous cells and functions of the immune system. And although biologists tend to regard green and often red algae as plants, the separation between the marine and land varieties began 700 million years ago, as green plants started to

and transformed into high-value products. 'Valorization means all the steps and technologies that will have to be put together to transform a product that nobody was using, to its potential as a top product that will achieve its part

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November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 19

FEATURE in the challenge of feeding nine billion humans. We dont have a choice but to use all the opportunities that can be found on earth to deal with this challenge. Valorisation is to give the chance to nature to express its full potential by using high technology.' The algae biorefinery, the first of its kind, brings to a larger scale a process already used by Olmix to extract its green gold from the ocean. The ULVANS (Ulves Valorisation Nutrition Sant) project has brought them together with four other local businesses and research centres to develop a viable algae sector centred around Plounan, the coastal town on the northwestern corner of Brittany. The 25 million euro investment (subsidised for an amount of 10 million euros by the regional government) shows how seriously the seaweed economy is being taken

Macroalgae can also be used in fish farm design to absorb toxic molecules from waste water

Tanks in the Roscoff Station Biologique laboratory

frequently link it with water pollution and, if allowed to decompose on shore, it can be toxic to humans and animals. A fleet of small boats patrols Brittanys shores, preventing those environmental nuisances and harvesting what for the ULVANS group is an invaluable resource. Alongside the more famous scoubidou (a hooked rotating bar adapted for brown algae, collecting the seaweed like spaghetti on a fork while leaving the seabed intact), new methods designed specifically for green algae are constantly being developed. Tractors and amphibious vehicles are also used for harvesting in shallower waters. The Plounan plant currently deals with the washing and grinding phase of the process. The seaweed enters a series of three tanks by conveyor belt. First sediment is allowed to fall away, next the algae leaves are separated, and finally they are spun and dried. The purification process takes six to eight minutes. Grinding blades then reduce the algae to millimetre-thick pieces, which are then stored either for transportation or freezing. The

as an avenue for future growth. During a bleak period for European economies this marks a significant bucking of the trend. The biorefinery itself sits on the site of an unused artichoke processing plant, which had become a local symbol for the decline of Brittanys traditional agricultural sector. Indeed, French agricultural cooperative SICA chose to pool their knowledge after discovering their own work extracting valuable molecules from vegetables overlapped with Olmix's own work on marine plants.

Ulva lactuca is processed at the new biorefinery

Algae processing
The algae processing carried out at the plant is a clear example of valorisation in action. Green algae suffers from many of the same image problems experienced by traditional aquaculture. Its an eyesore, people
20 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013



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FEATURE warehouse has 4 000 m2 of storage surface (and further space for 1 000 pallets kept at -20 C), and the purification unit can process five tonnes an hour. Statistics like these make clear the scale of Brittanys ambitions for its algae economy. The processed algae is taken inland to Olmixs plant (and headquarters) in Brhan, 10 km from the companys initial base as a supplier of sulphates for animal feeds in St-Etienne-du-Gu-de-lIsle. There, high-value molecules including sulphated polysaccharides are extracted and processed into a marketable form. The advantages include greater control of the whole process, from harvesting to finished product, and a steady line of production crucial for large-scale exploitation. The initial harvest and pre-treatment stages are taken care of by another ULVANS company, Agrival, leaving Olmix free to concentrate on preparing their final product. First, a concentrated juice is separated from


Herv Balusson, Olmix President and CEO How will the new biorefinery transform Olmix and the algae industry?
'First of all, to my knowledge the new biorefinery is unique and the first of its kind in the world. The function of this biorefinery is to process red, brown but mostly green algae, Ulva lactuca, into intermediates to be further converted into algae concentrates, substrates and molecules. These will service sectors such as health and nutrition for humans, animals and plants, as well as the prodution of ecologically friendly material, such as biodegradable alternatives to chemical-based plastic. 'This biorefinery is a tangible marker of the definite existence of an algae processing cluster in Brittany. This cluster brings together all the partners involved in the ULVANS project: Olmix, the SICA du Leon, PRP, Melspring, Amadite, Agrival, the CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research) and the University of South Brittany. While Olmix was instrumental in the foundation of the ULVANS project and the creation of the refinery, the support from la SICA du Leon and from the CNRS has been, and remains, of vital importance. When the biorefinery is in full swing it will be able to supply Olmix and its associates with processed seaweed with consistency and reliability, in quantity and quality.'

Tell me about how you had the idea to start exploiting Brittanys seaweed resources.
'The use and processing of seaweed in Brittany is a very very old story. Indeed our ancestors, the Armorican Celts, going back 2,500 years, used seaweed in food, in fodder for the animals, as fertilizers for the land, and to make soap. Throughout millennia until now the harvesting and processing of seaweed has supported the activities and the livelihood of large populations established on the shores of Brittany. 'My personal interest, and Olmix's investment in products derived from seaweed, is not new. It goes back to more than 15 years when we created our litter conditioner, Mistral, but more forcefully when we developed Amadeite, a new biomaterial combining a unique mineral with the green algae, Ulva lactuca. 'Tomorrow we will feed the world through the benefits of macroalgae. We will feed fish and aquaculture species with macro and microingredients originating from the green algae. Tomorrow we will produce sustainable and ecologically sound sources of energy from the green algae biomass. 'Ten years ago many people called me a dreamer when I announced that green algae could be a source of social and economic benefits and ecologically friendly products. I had no dream maybe a vision, and certainly a determination to turn what some called a calamity into a business opportunity.'

tourism industry. It is precisely with this concern in mind that we invested many years ago in a barge with specific equipment to collect the green algae before they reach the beaches. 'I am a Breton and I care for my country. I care for its international reputation, I care for its environment and I care for its employment at a time when it is shaken by serious economic turbulence and the closingdown of some large agricultural companies. I am not a nostalgic, I am an entrepreneur who believes that economy and ecology can be combined for the wellbeing and prosperity of Brittany. 'The Blue Economy, and in particular the harvesting, refining and processing of the algae biomass, can and will provide jobs in Brittany and will contribute to restoring employment in an economy facing the challenges of global competition. In Brittany we have the greatest biodiversity of seaweed in the world, we have the best and most knowledgeable scientists in algae research, we have great competences and talented young people. 'We have an ambition to develop and sell throughout the world a large range of products originating from algae, and originating from Brittany where the added value will be kept. We want to create jobs and to give a vision and a future to young Bretons. If sometimes some people blame me for blowing my trumpet, for sure it is not the trumpet of retreat but the bugle of the charge. 'Brittany must reconcile economy with ecology, and the Green and Blue economy with tourism. When Olmix and its partners collect the green algae on its barge to prevent them to coming to the beaches and decaying, they act as responsible ecologists.'

I'm quite interested by the word valorization. As I understand it, it's about the process of finding uses or products for new knowledge or inventions. What does valorization mean to you?
'The collection of the green algae from the beaches and their burial has a cost, and is still costing large amount of money which accumulate year after year without any real prospect of termination. We believe that money would have been better spent finding means of preventing the floating banks of green algae coming ashore, and researching ways of taking advantages of a difficult situation. 'There is an English saying where there is muck, there is gold. This is true: provided the muck can be converted into gold. Aquaculture trials in Thailand have illustrated the benefits of macroalgae extracts, substantially reducing mortality in aqua species. The scientific discovery of the benefits of the macroalgal sulphated polysaccharides have already been turned into products and an industrial reality which is going from strength to strength. 'Valorisation means giving value to matters and things that have been regarded as valueless at first sight, and extracting their benefits. Very often in history progress has been made out of crisis. Valorisation also means valorising the competence and expertise of our researchers, the dynamism and enthusiasm of our salesmen, the support of their families, the support of the authorities and of our financial contributors, and finally valorising the Breton people. 'The processing of macroalgae into feed and food ingredients, into pharmaceuticals, fertilisers and energy offers great business opportunities, opportunities for the creation of jobs. Too much time has already been wasted. The time has come now for action, not for sterile rhetoric.'

Green algae has a poor image in the modern world. What benefits do you think Olmix can bring to the environment and to the region?
'Whenever and wherever large amounts of organic matter are left to decay in the fields or on the beaches, they generate environmental nuisances in particular the foul smells which can be detrimental to the

22 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

FEATURE the ground algae by way of a belt press. The dry cake can be used as a protein-rich macroingredient, and the juice continues its journey. A patented process of enzymatic hydrolysis to extract the molecules takes place in large vats. The plant site also contains a laboratory where the same task can be accomplished at a small scale. This way the extraction process can be closely monitored, modified and tested, giving technicians the flexibility to adapt the treatment of what is a seasonal and changeable raw material. After the vats, some of the extracts are combined with montmorillonite clay (also ground on site) and dried into a powder. Again, the Olmix lab is closely involved in the process, analysing samples periodically to ensure quality and safety are being maintained. toxic 'green tides' into products which not only improve animal health, but actively bring down the ecologically-unsound use of farm antibiotics. The company has plans to expand its range into aquaculturespecific products. At the seminars and conferences which accompanied the biorefinery launch, many aquaculture and fish feed professionals were looking on, whether speaking or taking notes. A new complementary feed, Ecofish, is currently in the development stage. in a university study to bring the same benefits to shrimp as to livestock, and a new nutraceutical, Ecofish, is currently in the development stage.

In focus:

Marine sulphated polysaccharides

by Dr Herv Demais, scientific advisor, Olmix 'Sulphated polysaccharides are very diverse and versatile compounds. Sulphated polysaccharides found in seaweeds share common structural features with other sulphated chemical structures which are found in other lineages of the evolution and that exert some biological properties. 'Regarding especially the immunological domain, it has recently been demonstrated that some cellular receptors of complex organisms can recognise specific structures that are common to groups of related microbes. These recognition mechanisms are the base of what is called the innate immunity. The cell receptors involved are called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). 'The innate immune system recognizes molecular structures that are characteristic of microbial pathogens, but not mammalian cells. The microbial substances that stimulate innate immunity are called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Some examples of PAMPs are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and mannose-rich oligosaccharides. 'There are different types of PRRs, among which the toll-like receptors which recognize more specifically the bacterial LPS and peptidoglycans, and the Ctype Lectin-like receptors which recognize more specifically the surface carbohydrates with terminal mannose and fructose. We can see clearly here that the presence of specific sugars under the form of polysaccharides is one of the common features of those PAMPs. 'Many publications today show that, just as PAMPs are recognized by mammalian cells, many different seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidans, carrageenans and ulvans) can be chemically recognized by mammal PRRs thanks to their structural similarity. The presence of sulphated rhamnose in those algal polysaccharides seems to be one of the key elements to the recognition mechanisms. 'Those recognition mechanisms trigger some of the cell and organism's defence mechanisms, the first being a signal transduction pathway called the NF-KB pathway in mammals leading to the activation of the first steps of inflammation and antiviral mechanisms.' These are interesting times for Brittany, as it begins to look to the sea again to revitalise its economy, and its scientists and businessmen scramble to understand and find markets for its marine resources. Olmix, meanwhile, is continuing its expansion into new markets and industries. Wherever algae is seen in the coming decades, it is likely they will be there.

Further research
In 2002 Olmix began to research the concept of using algal polysaccharides to expand the interlayer space of montmorillonite, and hence its potential to bind bigger toxin molecules. The company's Amadeite and MTX+ animal health products demonstrated the viability of the idea and much of the algae extract is currently used for their manufacture. There is a benevolent kind of irony in this recycling of the polluting and potentially

Algal extracts containing sulphated polysaccharides at Olmixs laboratory in Brhan, France

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Pellet distribution modelling: a tool for improved feed delivery in sea cages
by K R Skien1,4, M O Alver1,2,3, M Fre1,2,4 T Solvang-Garten2,4, T S Aas3,4, T E sgrd3,4 and J A Alfredsen1,4

bout 50 percent of the costs related to farming of salmon and rainbow trout are spent on feed (Fiskeridirektoratet, 2012), and the estimated feed loss from commercial sites is 5-7 percent (Cromey et al., 2002; Gjster et al., 2008). This amounts to a considerable annual economic loss for the farmer. Lost feed may also have negative impacts on the marine environment through accumulation of organic waste on the seabed as well as being an attractor of wild fish. Wild fish aggregations may influence local pollution conditions around farms, and represent a potential vector for the transfer of diseases between farms (Dempster et al., 2009). Moreover, the way the feed is delivered in present-day large cages, and the resulting spatiotemporal distribution of pellets inside the cage, will influence the fishs access to food and may cause inter-individual competition in case of suboptimal delivery. The latter

can lead to physically damaging encounters between fish, increased stress, less welfare and greater spread in size across the fish population. Furthermore, feed utilization is highest at high feed intake (Einen et al., 1995; Einen et al., 1999), and thus, suboptimal feed intake results in loss of fish biomass. Reducing feed loss and controlling the distribution and rate of feeding more accurately could therefore give considerable economic, environmental and welfare benefits for the fish farming operation.

Factors affecting pellets

As a basis for evaluating potential actions to improve the situation, a better understanding of the complex dynamics taking place in the cage during feeding must be obtained. The motion of a feed pellet is influenced by a range of factors from the point where it enters the feed spreader until it is either eaten by fish or escapes the cage.

Some factors depend on the properties and configuration of the feeding machinery, and others on the physical properties of the feed itself, as well as environmental forces such as wind, water current and fish induced water motion. A basic mathematical model calculating the spatiotemporal distribution of feed in a sea cage was developed by Alver et al. (2004). In the current work, this model has been further developed and now accounts for a more realistic representation of the physical feed properties, the feed spreader, wind field, water current and the feeding behaviour of the fish. The model, in conjunction with a suitable user interface and visualisation tools, can hopefully serve both as a simulation framework for developing more optimal feeding regimes and as an aid to the farmer to control the feeding more precisely. That is, by providing more detailed real time information on how the feed distributes in the cage that

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1: This particular simulation is based on a 120 m circumference circular cage, populated by 250 000 fish with an average weight of 1 kg. The model is run with a cell size of 1x1x1 m, a 2 cm/s horizontal constant current field, a pellet sink rate of 10 cm/s. Top: Pellet density at 1, 4 and 8 m depth at 15 min. Bottom: Cross-sectional view at 5, 15 and 30 min

Figure 2: Image captured from a simulation of a combined pellet distribution model and fish behaviour model. The black lines are the cage structure, the black and silver lines each represent a number of fish, and the dark cloud is feed, just released into the cage

24 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

FEATURE is commonly unavailable by traditional means, such as subsea cameras. These experiments were conducted to determine the natural spread or diffusion inherent to the pellets, and further experiments to quantify the speed and variations in the vertical motion of pellets in the water column are planned. The final results of these experiments will be incorporated into the model, and preliminary results suggest that the physical properties of pellets have a substantial influence on their hydrodynamic properties. To validate the model, a full-scale experiment is planned at a farming site, where feed density will be measured at points inside the cage with the entire array of environmental forces and fish acting upon the feed. providing information on (for example) fish feeding behaviour and the local pellet density. However, a camera can only capture a limited volume of the cage at a time, and displays an unfiltered image with an array of concurrent information. This may represent a challenge, if for instance the operator wishes to observe the density of feed in an area. Presence of fish and debris in the image may then obstruct the view, making a visual assessment of feed density difficult. Consequently, the operator must make decisions based on limited information from a subsection of the cage. The pellet distribution model could be used as a tool to illustrate the parts of the cage that are of interest to the operator at particular points in time. A 3D view similar to Figure 2 can then be presented, showing an overview of the cage containing fish and feed, in addition to a range of environmental parameters important for feeding. A model with a suitable interface will have an advantage over exclusive camera-based control in that the entire cage can be viewed within a single image and that the operator can remove fish or feed from the view as desired. Furthermore, the model allows the view to be zoomed and rotated to observe better an area of interest. The model is meant to be used in conjunction with cage cameras, and can aid in automatic camera placement at

The model
The model has been under development since 2004, and since then has been expanded from 2D to 3D, and merged with a fish behaviour and foraging model (Fre et al., 2009). The initial distribution of pellets across the cage surface using commercial rotary spreaders is based upon experimental data from Oehme et al. (2012). The model discretizes the cage into cubes, and the transport of feed between the cubes is calculated based on the transport equation (Alver et al. 2004). Feed is removed from the model when fish consume feed, or feed escapes outside the defined cage volume. Figure 1 shows the output from the model across three depths and a cross section of the cage at three different points in time. The model is currently being enhanced by incorporating results from pellet diffusion experiments, where a range of different pellet sizes and densities (produced at Nofima Feed Technology Centre, Bergen, Norway) were released in a large tank to observe their natural diffusion and sinking properties. Pellets with a diameter of 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm with low, medium and high density were tested to cover the range of feed most frequently used in commercial salmon farming.

Aid for the operator

Today, the feeding regime is for the most part controlled by the fish farm operator, which commonly possesses expert knowledge of the location. This often results in a well-run site with a high food utilisation (low FCR), and minimal feed loss. There are however substantial variations in performance between locations. The feeding system commonly presents the operator with a range of numerical displays representing various environmental parameters, as well as live video from one or more subsea cameras located inside the cage. The camera adds insight to the process by




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Maintaining ingredient quality in extruded feeds

They are what they eat

Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae

Fine particle filtration in aquaculture

Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems Nutritional benefits of processed animal proteins
in European aquafeeds

Resea de la industria de vacunacin de peces en el RU Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation Profitable aquafeed moisture control Spray-dried plasma
from porcine blood in diets for Atlantic salmon parrs

The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua:
enhancing digestion in a different manner

Controlling mycotoxins with binders Niacin

one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production

Por qu se deben chequear los niveles de seleniometionina en las levaduras de selenio? Nueva tecnologa de extrusin para la produccin de alimentos micro-acuticos para camarones TEMA EXPERTO
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Towards aquafeeds with increased food security

Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed EXPERT TOPIC

The shrimp feed industry in China

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Farming saltwa



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The studies were research centres also conducted in the aquaculture which allowed facilities, the a large scale. farming to be done on This zootechnical demonstration, the final results will be known of which sometime in 2011, was carried out in collaboration with Nathalie Le Franois, a researcher at the Biodme de Montral and associate professor at the Universit du Qubec Rimouski. The first wolffish, hatched at the of fall 2008 in end the Centre aquacole de Grande-Rivire, marin were delivered Maurice-Lamontagne to the Institute in 2009. Since May Figure 2: Spotted their arrival Photo: Arianne Wolffish in in the these roughly Savoie, Fisheries farming tank 400 fish have tank, and Oceans handled very Canada Saltwater mariculture-aquacul been carefully. researchers measure Every month, the Quebec may ture in Universit du soon welcome their growth rate, conditions Qubec arrival: the a in Rimouski and kept as close the Quebec Spotted Wolffish,new as possible to those found in ministry of threatened and agriculture, commercial fish fisheries and little-known species a food. operations. farming tastes delicious. that These measurements First of all, the compared with In Quebec, are data gathered fish that adapts Spotted Wolffish is a commercial in Norway and Iceland, fish farms well to the conditions currently limit where Spotted is kept in and themselves to it have been raised Wolffish is easy freshwater fish, farming develops quickly to domesticate. It for experimental while the mariculture commercial industry has and at very aquaculture focused until temperatures low for about 10 years now. and is not very very recently on molluscs. Preliminary sensitive to In other parts changes in results from the salinity Mont-Joli show of the saltwater fish of the water. Spotted Wolffish a growth rate farms are located world, slightly less that is the ocean. Doing can right in than that observed densities, something be farmed in high so significantly Norway, a farming costs reduces in that is crucial country the profitability and for that has had makes them considerable profitable. of an aquaculture experience in operation (see In Quebec, farming the species; thus, Figure installing aquaculture equipment rearing though the Spotted 2). As well, even in the ocean Maurice-Lamontagne conditions at the dicey prospect Wolffish does is a reproduce spontaneously because of ice Institute still not some room for winter. Previously, cover in have in captivity, improvement. new generations experiments Feeding poses can farming saltwater with year using captive be produced every one of the fish in tanks challenges for the need for obtaining optimal biggest technical expertiserevealed not forget another broodstock. And lets in farmed as the high important quality as well Spotted Wolffish.growth cost fish possesses: this commercial feed it tastes great. however, research of production. Today, The used until now Aside from these advances are intended for salmonids the potential showing was obvious advantages, of the Spotted it is important and has not modified. The Wolffish. to find out This new mariculture feed has too much been species grows how this candidate was wolffish that are in fat and first noticed fed this type of in the early 2000s. potential benefit captivity so that its to food tend to Quebecs aquaculture time, teams develop At the industry can liver from the abnormalities. Researchers be properly Lamontagne Mauricealso question assessed. For that reason, Denis Institute in whether it offers enough Mont-Joli, Quebec, collected Chabot, a researcher protein for the the Maurice-Lamontagne their first Spotted at needs of the particular Wolffish as part Institute, species. Another approached of the research the feed does problem: by the Socit was they were projects not float and dveloppement conducting de sinks to the bottom of the with the de tank, which is (SODIM) to carry lindustrie maricole problematic when it comes tests using water to feeding fish tanks. raised in high INTERNATIONAL densities. Ideally, species AQUAFEED the feed DIRECTORY

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GRAPASisland:Layout 1



Page 1

8 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand

Asias premier rice & flour milling and grain processing exhibition and conference

points of interest determined by the model. A model-based 3D view could represent an intuitive way of presenting process information to the operator, and could be a valuable tool in the daily feeding operations. As well as providing the base for a 3D view, the model might also predict future feed distribution patterns throughout the cage volume. This could be used to give an early warning of feed loss, enabling adjustments to be made to the quantity and temporal release of feed. Output from the model could also be used to estimate and report parameters that are difficult to observe directly, such as feed loss.

Scientific use
In addition to the value of active use in ongoing production, the model may allow farmers and scientists to test a range of scenarios before deployment on the farm. Different environmental conditions, feeding regimes, spreaders and feed types can all be run through the model, and the results evaluated to determine the effects on feed loss, and feed densities throughout the cage.

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Further work
The model has been verified with respect to a limited number of parameters. Further improvements must be made, and if necessary further properties of

26 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

Gjster J., Otter, H., Slinde, E., Nedreaas, K., Ervik, the fish and environment need to be taken waste solids from marine cage farms. Aquaculture 214 (1-4), 211 - 239. A. 2008. Effekter av spillfr p marine organismer. into account. Kyst og Havbruk, 52-55. As development continues, the physi- Dempster T., Uglem, I., Sanchez-Jerez, P., FernandezJover, D., Bayle-Sempere, J., Oehme M., Aas T. S., Srensen M., Lygren I., sgrd cal realism of the mathematical model is T. 2012. Feed pellet expected to increase. For the simulations Nilsen, R., Bjrn, P. A. 2009. Coastal salmon farms to be accurate, a certain number of meas- attract large and persistent aggregations of wild distribution in a sea cage using pneumatic fish: and ecosystem effect. Marine Ecology Progress urements from the cage are required. It is Series 385, 1-14. feeding system with rotor spreader. Aquacultural envisioned that for online use, the model will Engineering 51, 44 -52, ISSN 0144-8609, 10.1016/j. Einen, O., Holmefjord, I., sgrd, T., Talbot, C. be fed with basic environmental parameters, 1995. Auditing nutrient discharges from fish aquaeng.2012.07.001. such as wind and current. A number of pellet farms: theoretical and practical considerations. sensors might also be deployed throughout Aquaculture Research 26, 701-713. MORE INFORmATiON: the cage. The model will then use these Einen, O., Mrkre, T., Thomassen, M. S. 1999. Email: measurements to predict feed distribution Feed ration prior to slaughter a potential tool This work is part of the Centre for Research-based for managing product quality of Atlantic salmon across the entire volume. Innovation in Aquaculture Technology - CREATE, (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 178, 149-169. It is emphasised that focus is currently hosted by SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture 1Norwegian University of Science and on the model itself, and not on the visualisa- Fiskeridirektoratet (Directorate of Fisheries) 2012. Technology, Norway tion and user interface needed to provide a 2SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture AS, Norway more useful presentation for the operator. Fre M., Dempster T., Alfredsen, J. A., Oppedal, F. 3Nofima, Norway Hopefully, further development of these fea- 2009. Modelling of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar 4Centre for Research-based Innovation in L.) behavior in sea cages: A Lagrangian approach. tures can be undertaken in future projects. Aquaculture Technology, SFI, SINTEF Sealab, Norway Aquaculture 288, 196-204. The model will shed more light VICTAMisland:Layout 1 30/8/13 14:22 Page 1 on whether the traditional methods of pellet delivery, such as passive rotational spreaders in a fixed location within the cage, represent a satisfactory solution for feed distribution in sea cages, or if better performance could be achieved by employing more advanced spreaders with the ability to actively control the rate and area where feed is released into the cage.

The development of a mathematical model of feed distribution in sea cages is well underway and takes into account environmental factors, the spreader, physical pellet properties and foraging fish. The model with a user interface might be valuable as a tool during production, combining the knowledge of the operator with an extensive but simple process overview for best results. The model can also be used as a simulation tool for testing new equipment and adjusting variables before deployment. This will possibly lead to an improved feeding regime with economic, environmental and welfare benefits.

8 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand

Asias largest exhibition and conferences for animal feed, aquafeed and petfood production

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New for 2014 Now including the first ASEAN Feed Summit Specialist conferences The exhibition will be supported by its own specialist conferences: The FIAAP Conference 2014 Petfood Forum Asia 2014 Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2014 The Thai Feed Conference 2014 Biomass Pelleting Asia 2014 Supported by The Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau Co-located with FIAAP Asia 2014 and GRAPAS Asia 2014 / Contact details For visitor, exhibition stand space and conference information please visit:

Alver M. O., Alfredsen J. A., Sigholt, T. 2004. Dynamic modelling of pellet distribution in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) cages, Aquacultural Engineering, Volume 31, Issues 12, Pages 51-72, ISSN 0144-8609, 10.1016/j. aquaeng.2004.01.002. Cromey, C. J., Nickell, T. D., Black, K. D. 2002. Depomod-modelling the deposition and biological effects of

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 27


New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease

by Constantina Nasopoulou, post-doctoral researcher, and Ioannis Zabetakis, assistant professor, University of Athens, Greece n our previous article in International Aquafeed (vol. 16, issue 2, March/April 2013, 22-24), the concept of sustainable production of functional fish feeds and hence fish was introduced. Our work focuses on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and how we can produce sustainable, functional fish feeds and hence fish with enhanced cardioprotective activities. Even today, it is still not entirely clear why some cohorts in the seven countries study had coronary heart disease (CHD) at low frequencies but high levels of serum cholesterol (Keys et al., 1984). In our everyday practice as nutritionists and aquaculturists, this question needs to be addressed: do we really need to lower our serum cholesterol in order to protect ourselves from CHD and CVDs?

Fish instead of statins?

In a related recent study assessing the association of various statins to diabetes, it was found that higher potency statins, especially atorvastatin and simvastatin, might be associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes (Carter et al., 2013). Given this recent evidence on the side effects of statins, we might need to wonder: do we really need statins or would we be better protected by food polar lipids? And if so, how can we use different raw ingredients and feed formulations in order to produce novel functional fish feeds and fish against CVDs? In this way, a double gain is sought: creating novel functional feeds and food by

simultaneously lowering our dependency on medicines. CVDs are now preventable but they are still the top global cause of death and stroke affecting millions of people around the globe. Given their link to diet and nutritional patterns, CVDs are on the focal point for many pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and food companies. On the other hand, food availability and food sustainability are top priorities worldwide. Let us remind ourselves that the term food security has two dimensions: first, it implies that food is available, accessible, and affordable in sufficient quantity and quality. Second, it implies an assurance that this state of affairs can reasonably be expected to continue; or in other words, that it can be sustained. It is, thus, rather urgent to focus research in Life Sciences on food functionality against CVDs and how we can achieve such functionality in a sustainable way. An interdisciplinary approach is urgently needed: we need indeed to address the issues of food security and cardioprotection simultaneously. The reason is simple: sardine oil has some strong cardioprotective properties (Nasopoulou et al., 2013b) but if we keep fishing wild sardines, the sardine stocks will be depleted and soon we will not have enough sardine oil to produce fish oil for aquaculture, or omega-3 pills for the pharmacy shelf! So, we need to re-evaluate our practices. The projected increase in world population and therefore demand for food in the fore-

seeable future poses some risks on how secure is the food production system today. Millions of people are threatened by malnutrition, CVDs, diabetes, and obesity. This is a multidimensional challenge: the production of food needs to be increased but also the quality of food needs to be improved so less people suffer from undernourishment and CVDs. This problem needs to be evaluated by critically assessing all recent developments on the role of food components against CVDs, presenting recent insights for assessing the nutritional value of food and suggesting novel approaches toward the sustainable production of food that would, in turn, lead to increased food security. We need to tackle the issue of the sustainability of lipid sources and GM crops from a food security point of view, with sustainability and functionality as our two main priorities (Zabetakis, 2013).

What is olive pomace?

Olive pomace (OP) is one of two major byproducts of the olive oil extraction industry when using the three-phase centrifugal technology, the other being the olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Thus OP is a natural agricultural byproduct of olive oil production. The modern two-phase centrifugal extraction technology - a more efficient and environmentally friendly centrifugation process merges OP with OMWW to produce a single byproduct named olive mill waste (OMW), containing higher moisture and lower oil content compared to the traditional three-phase centrifugal technology byproduct.

28 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

FEATURE The annual production of olive oil is estimated to be at least 2.9 million tonnes with some 15 million tonnes of OMW being produced annually. In Mediterranean countries, the production of olives has been a major part of the agricultural produce of these countries for many decades (if not centuries). For every 100 kg of olives, 35 kg of OP are produced; it could, thus, be suggested that the production of OMW and OP are sustainable and the availability of OP for use in any type of feed production and thus aquaculture should be straightforward. OP is not expensive (0.10.2/kg), it is thus a price-competitive raw ingredient compared to other vegetable oils. This cost linked to the fact that 4 to 8 percent of OP is needed to be included in the fish feed formulation make OP as a promising lipid source for aquaculture. Finally, the problem of transferring OP from Mediterranean countries to northern Europe or to other places of the world could be rationalised by extracting the polar lipids of OP that they are the active feed components and therefore reducing the volume of material that needs to be transported (Nasopoulou and Zabetakis, 2013). tional feeds and hence food. OP Table 1: Chemical composition of olive pomace (OP) and is now used in several agricultural fish oil (FO) diet (% wet weight) (Nasopoulou et al., 2013a) and aquacultural applications with OP diet FO diet * promising results. The novelty of Ingredient our approach though is that we are not only interested in produc- Crude protein 44.95 1.3 46 4.3 ing (novel) fish but also we are Fat 19.4 1.7 21 2.1 assessing the nutritional value of Moisture 8.6 0.6 9.1 1.3 this (novel) fish in terms of cardio1.8 0.3 Dietary fibre 5.2 0.3 protection, aiming, ultimately, in 6.0 0.9 8.3 1.4 creating and patenting novel func- Ash 21.8 2.1 23 2.6 tional fish feeds, fish and health Energy (MJ/Kg) supplements. Protein digestibility (%) 89 4.4 90 6.2 In detail, two diets have been 20 000 410 Vitamin A (IU/Kg) 7 000 210 compared: one being the commercial Vitamin D (IU/Kg) 3 150 110 3 000 120 one for gilthead sea bream (Sparus 258 19 180 17 aurata) called fish oil diet (FO diet) Vitamin E (mg/Kg) 10 0.7 33 7.3 and the novel one where OP (8 per- Vitamin K3 (mg/Kg) cent w/w at the final pellet) has been Vitamin C (mg/Kg) 200 20 168 14 used (OP diet). In our first part of the Cu (mg/Kg) 7.5 1.1 7.0 1.1 work, the total lipids of sea bream fed * Data of FO diet from previous study with OP diet contained statistically Statistically significant according to Wilcox on test decreased levels of fatty acids, while exhibited the most potent biological activity experiments, the OP diet and FO diet (i.e. against platelet aggregation induced by platelet pellets) have been analysed for a number activating factor (PAF). In other words, the of nutritional parameters and the results are OP-fed sea bream had stronger cardioprotective given in Table 1 (Nasopoulou et al., 2013a). Values are means of three individual measproperties when compared to the FO-fed one. These data have suggested that OP could urements; results are expressed as mean be used as a partial substitute of fish oil in fish SD (95% confidence limits); data of FO diet feed improving its cardio protective proper- are from our previous work and are given ties (Nasopoulou et al., 2011). In further here to enable easy comparison; indicates

OP-enriched fish feeds and fish

The research focus in our group has been towards the commercial exploitation of OP in order to produce novel func-

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FEATURE FO as an alternative dietary lipid source in aquaculture fish feeds has increased both the nutritional and the commercial value of fish feed and of aquacultured fish (Nasopoulou et al., 2013a). Today, there is a global race to identify new compounds or further clinically assess compounds that have been associated with CVDs. This is a race involving mega-players in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries but probably the secret in this race might lie in a phrase of Hippocrates let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food. The key missing point in our quest for novel functional feeds and fish and later on for the magic cardiopill (that would be both in vitro and in vivo active against CVDs) could be lying here: how natural raw ingredients can be incorporated in feeds to develop functional food and medicines. This is where our current work is now focusing: the structural elucidation of fish polar lipids that have been aquacultured with OP-diet.

Sensory properties of OP-enriched sea bream

Another question that was tackled was: will the new OP-fed fish be acceptable in sensory terms? In order to answer this, the odour, taste and aftertaste of both FO-fed and OP-fed Figure 1: Spider-web plot of the scores of sea breams have been evaluated and taste attributes for conventional (i.e. FO-fed) the results show that the OP-fed fish sea bream and enriched (i.e. OP-fed) sea bream (Sioriki et al, in press) has similar sensory scores to the conventional (i.e. FO-fed) one. The taste scores for FO-fed grilled fish were statistical significance within OP and FO diet, higher for the attributes of sweet, fresh fish, marine, fatty and rich while OP-fed grilled fish according to Wilcoxon test. The lipids of both fish feeds (FO diet and scored higher for astringent and fatty (Figure 1, OP diet) have been further fractionated by adapted from Sioriki et al., in press). counter-current distribution and HPLC and the cardioprotective activities of each HPLC Feeds and the inflammation game fraction have been assessed. The enrichment An update on the current on-going trials to of OP in fish feed has resulted in specifically assess the activities of omega-3 supplementation increasing the cardioprotective activities of the has been recently presented. There are three HPLC fractions of both the OP diet and the studies under way: Risk and Prevention Study: OP-fed fish. It could, thus, be suggested that Evaluation of the Efficacy of n-3 PUFA in Subjects the use of OP for the partial replacement of at High Cardiovascular Risk; ASCEND: A Study of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetes; Vitamin D and Omega3 Trial (VITAL). The authors conclude, though, that omega-3 fatty acids are not statistically significantly associated with major cardiovascular outcomes across various patient populations. Their role in the prevention of cardio vascular disease remains elusive. Until the upcom ing randomised evidence provide some clear answers, nondietary omega-3 supplementation should be reserved to specific populations such as statin-intolerant patients (Rizos and Elisaf, 2013).


Carter AA, Gomes T, Camacho X, Juurlink DN, Shah BR, Mamdani MM. 2013. Risk of incident diabetes among patients treated with statins: population based study. BMJ 2013;346:f2610 Keys A., Menotti A., Aravanis C., et al. 1984. The Seven Countries Study: 2,289 deaths in 15 years. Prev. Med. 13:141-154. Nasopoulou C, Gogaki V, Stamatakis G, Papaharisis L, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2013a. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-atherogenic properties of lipid fractions of olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed with olive pomace enriched fish feed. Marine Drugs, 11(10), 3676-3688 Nasopoulou C, Psani E, Sioriki E, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2013b. Evaluation of Sensory and In Vitro Cardio Protective Properties of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus): The Effect of Grilling and Brining. Food and Nutrition Sciences 4:940-949. Nasopoulou C, Stamatakis G, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2011. Effects of olive pomace and olive pomace oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and cardio protective properties of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Food Chem. 129:1108-1113. Nasopoulou C, Zabetakis I. 2013. Agricultural and aquacultural potential of olive pomace. A review. J.Agric Sci. 5:116-127. Rizos EC, Elisaf MS. 2013. Current evidence and future perspectives of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. European Journal of Pharmacology, 706:1-3. Sioriki E, Nasopoulou C, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. (in press). Comparison of OP enriched and conventional gilthead sea bream. J. Aquat. Food Prod.T. (in press). Zabetakis I. 2013. Food Security and Cardioprotection: The Polar Lipid Link. J. Food Sci. 78:R1101R1104.

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Based in Qingdao, a major seaport in the Shandong province of Eastern China, the Ocean University of China is a world specialist in oceanography and fisheries science. It is also the home institution of International Aquafeed Associate Editor (China) Dr Kang-sen Mai. The Ocean University of China College of Fisheries contains dedicated departments for aquaculture and aquaculture engineering, and employs more than 50 professors and 17 PhD supervisors.Together they deliver a total of seven doctoral and masters degree programmes in aquatic studies, including aquaculture, aquatic biology, aquaculture engineering and fisheries economics and management. The university contains numerous marine research centres and institutions, including the National Research Center for Marine Science, the Marine Drug and Food Institute and the UNESCO Chinese Center of Marine Biotechnology.

32 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

It also owns the Dong Fang Hong 2, a 96 metre long multifunctional research vessel which allows the university to conduct scientific fieldwork and investigations in the open ocean. The Ocean University of China has collaborated internationally to conduct joint research projects with partners in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Japan and South Korea. During Chinas tenth Five Year Plan (2001-2005), the university was granted 177 patents including 100 for invention, demonstrating its pedigree in science and technology. And from being one of Chinas first universities to accept international students in the 1950s, the OUC now delivers courses to students from more than 30 different countries, some in association with the University of Cambridge, UK, and the University of Western Australia.

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 33


Herbal medicine in aquaculture

by Dr Sagiv Kolkovski, R&D Director, Nutra-Kol, Australia ith the continued expansion of cultured fish and shellfish species, aquaculture has become a key component of the animal health industry. Aquaculture is the fastest growing industry around the world with around 80 million tonnes produced annually. With an average annual growth rate of 7 percent, more then 60 percent of the global seafood is currently supplied from aquaculture. However, this growth is not without its problems, as demonstrated by the latest outbreak of Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) in the shrimp industry, sea lice in the salmon industry and an array of other diseases.

to antibiotic or other chemotherapeutics residues are an almost daily occurrence, and yet there is currently no alternative solution to antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics. During the past decade, several outbreaks of disease devastated the aquaculture industry around the world. In the past three years, the Southeast Asian and Mexican shrimp industries were affected by EMS outbreaks. The Chilean salmon industry suffered (and still does) a devastating outbreaks of sea lice and the infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus, causing losses of hundred of millions of dollars. These outbreaks drove the authorities to review and revise the use of chemotherapeutics in this industry.

larvae susceptibility and low immune system development. In fact, this situation is true to most marine and freshwater organisms reared in intensive systems. Although banned in most countries, in many cases antibiotics are used to combat this problem, whether as growth promoters or specifically against bacterial infection (Hernndez Serrano, 2005).

Alternative therapy
Phytotherapy (the use of herbal extracts in human medicine) has been known for thousands of years. In China, India, Southeast Asia and some countries in South and Central America, phytotherapy is considered mainstream, while in the West naturopathy and herbal medicine are becoming more and more acknowledged. Different medicinal plants and herbs, and/ or combinations of them, are known to have various health benefits, including antibacterial and antifungal properties, hormonal balancing and support for the immune and digestive systems. The world market for herbal medicine has been estimated to have an annual growth rate between 5 and 15 percent, with an estimated value of US$62 billion (Citarasu, 2009). Strategies for prophylaxis and control of pathogens include improvement of environmental conditions, stocking of specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp post-larvae, and enhancement of disease resistance with immunostimulants such as glucans. Immunostimulants are substances that enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against pathogenic organisms (Citarasu et al., 2006). Many plant-derived compounds have been found to have non-specific immunostimulating effects in animals, of which more than a dozen have been evaluated in fish and shrimp (Citarasu et al. 2002, 2006, Sakai, 1999). Many herbs and plants have been used as home remedies in cultures around the world for millennia, for human and animal consumption. Some of these remedies have potent

Disease in aquaculture
Due to the intensification of rearing methods and systems, diseases and pathogens have been an integral part of, and a formidable obstacle to, the aquaculture industry worldwide. Moreover, antibiotic resistance has become a major issue affecting the aquaculture industry. Already in 1994, the American Society of Microbiology stated that the increasing problems associated with infectious diseases in fish, the limited number of drugs available for treatment and prevention of these diseases, and the rapid increase in resistance to these antibiotics represent major challenges for this source of food production worldwide (ASM 1994). Currently, almost every sector of the aquaculture industry, from fish to crustaceans and shellfish, is using some sort of chemotherapeutic agents including antibiotics and many other chemicals. Although the use of drugs such as Fluoroquinolones, Nitrofurans, Chloramphenicol are prohibted in many countries, the use of these these drugs is still a common practice. Banning and rejection of seafood imported to the United States or EU countries due

Misuse of antibiotics
This misuse of antibiotics in all areas human medicine, veterinary medicine, animal production and plant protection led the FAO to write a 2005 paper, The responsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture, to raise awareness of the antibiotic resistance problem in fish farming and related sectors. The document focuses on antibiotics misuse and the concomitant threat of resistance development, which is seen as a public health concern affecting the population worldwide. In its opening statement the authors remarked: Antibiotic resistance as a phenomenon is, in itself, not surprising. Nor is it new. It is however, newly worrying because it is accumulating and accelerating, while the worlds tools for combating it decrease in power and number. Diseases and pathogens are part of all intensive farming. In aquaculture a natural mortality of 10-25 percent is considered to be normal in grow-out systems. Marine finfish larvae (such as sea bream, sea bass, yellowtail kingfish etc) survival in intensive hatcheries is 5-40 percent (Kolkovski, personal comment). These low survival rates are usually the result of combined factors, such as environmental conditions, non-specific pathogens,

34 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013


Table 1. Plants and herbs with antibacterial effects in aquaculture Botanical name Family Distribution Useful parts Biological effects in aquaculture Antibacterial amd immunostimulant Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial, Antiviral Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial antiviral, anti stress Antibacterial Antibacterial Reference

Daemia extenas Psoralea corylifolia Adathoda vasica Acalypha indica Andrographis paniculata Azadirachta indica Artemisaia vulgaris Elephentopus scaber Ixora coccinea Leucus aspera Melia azedarach Murraya koenji Ocimum sanctum Quercus infectoria Solanum surattense

Asclepiadeae Papilionaceae Acanthaceae Euphorbiaceae Acanthaceae Meliaceae Compositae Compositae Rubiaceae Labiatae Meliaceae Rutaceae Labiatae Cupuliferae Solanaceae

India India India India India India, Burma India, Japan India, Bengal India Southern India India India India Greece, Asia, Syria India

Leaves and roots Seeds Whole plant Whole plant Whole plant Whole plant Whole plant Roots and leaves Root Whole plant Whole Plant Leaves Whole Plant Galls and Bark Fruits and Roots

Sivaram et al., 2004; Jinish, 2012 Citarasu et al., 2003 b Citarasu et al., 2001 Minimol, 2005 Citarasu et al., 1999 Direkbusarakom, 2004; Citarasu et al., 2003b; Rani, 1999; Jinish, 2002 Sivaram et al., 2004 Shagnliang et al., 1990 Alex Rajan, 2002 Citarasu et al., 1998 b; Alex Rajan, 2002 Citarasu et al., 1998; Immanuel et al.,2004b; Jinish, 2002 Citarasu et al., 2001 Sivaram et al., 2004 Direkbusarakom, 2004; Citarasu et al., 1998a; Rani, 1999; Praseetha, 2005 Citarasu et al., 1999 Sivaram et al., 2004

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Table 2: Plants and herbs with antiviral effects in aquaculture

Botanical name



Useful parts

Biological effect in aquaculture Antibacterial and antiviral Antibacterial and immunostimulant Antibacterial and antiviral Antibacterial and immunostimulant Antiviral Antiviral Antiviral Antiviral Antiviral Antiviral Antiviral Antiviral and antibacterial Antiviral and antibacterial Antiviral and immunostimulant


Oenothera biennis Solanum trilobatum Stellaria aquatica Acorus calamus Cassia alata Calophyllum inophyllum Tinospora crispa Momordica charantina Phyllanthus niruri Phyllanthus urinaria Psidium guajava Ocimum basilicum Tephrosia purpurea Tinospora cordifolia

Onagraceae Solanaceae Caryophyllaceae Aroideae Caesalpiniaceae Guttiferae Menispermaceae Cucurbitaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Myrtaceae Labiatae Papilionaceae Menispermaceae

Japan, Eastern N. America, UK India Japan India, Burma Tropics Sea coast of India Tropical, Subtropical India India India, Sri Lanka India, USA India, Bengal India Southern India Southern India

Seeds, flowers and root Whole plant Whole plant Rhizome Leaves Bark, leaves and seed Root and leaves Fruits, seeds and leaves Whole plant Whole plant Bark, fruit and leaves Whole plant Leaves and root Leaves and stem

Shangliang et al., 1990 Citarasu et al., 2003b Shangliang et al., 1990 Magdelin, 2005; Minomol, 2005; Praseetha, 2005 Direkbusarakom, 2004 Direkbusarakom, 2004 Direkbusarakom, 2004 Direkbusarakom, 2004 Rani, 1999; Direkbusarakom, 2004; Immanuel et al., 2004b Direkbusarakom, 2004 Direkbusarakom, 2004; Anita, 2001 Direkbusarakom, 2004; Citarasu et al., 2001 Direkbusarakom, 2004; Rani, 1999 Citarasu et al., 1998a; Direkbusarakom, 2004; Jinish, 2002

antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects. Natural plant products have been reported to have various other properties making them useful as anti-stressors, growth promoters, appetizers, tonics and immunostimulants. Moreover, these substances also possess other valuable properties: they are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. No herbalresistance immunity has been found by any pathogen to date. Although the properties of herbs and plants are well known, documented, and in use in human medicine around the world, currently very few commercial remedies exist for use in large-scale aquaculture.

Medicinal plants in aquaculture

It is well known and documented that medicinal plants have strong antibacterial effects. Phenolics, polysaccharides, proteoglycans and flavonoids are known to play an important role in preventing and controlling bacterial infections. Herbs such as S. triblobatum, A. paniculata and P. corylifolia were found to reduce vibrio in P. monodon by a third when

supplied in enriched Artemia (Citrasu et al. 2002, 2009). Several plant products have been found to have potent antiviral effects against fish and shrimp viruses. For example, Direkbusarakom et al. 1996 found that shrimp fed ethanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans had 95 percent survival rates when exposed to yellow head virus (YHV), compared to only 25 percent survival in control group of black tiger shrimp. Several species of Indian herbs and plants such as A. marmelos, C. dactylon, L. camara, M. charantia and P. amarus showed strong antiviral activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) when extracted with organic solvents such as ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol. Many other studies have been published looking at the antibacterial and antiviral effect of herbal extracts with different species (see Table 1). Herbal extracts are also known to have antifungal and antiparasitic properties. Adiguzel et al. (2005) controlled infection of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxyspoum with extract of O. basilicum. A novel anti-fungal

molecule, was isolated from the plant Datura metel L. (Dabur, 2004). This molecule was shown to have anti-Aspergillus properties, as well as acting against 10 clinical isolates of Candida, 19 clinical isolates of Aspergillus and a few marine fungi. The herbal extracts involve the fungal cell wall lysis, altering the permeability, affecting the metabolism and RNA and protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to death (Citarasu, 2009). Herbal extracts have been used for centuries against internal and external parasites in humans, through direct effect on the parasite and/or by strengthening the immune system. For example, garlic was used against skin parasites, with sweat containing the garlics active ingredients acting as a repellent. Similarly, a mix of herbal extracts added to fish feed assists with gill and skin flukes such as Benedenia seriolae. It is assumed that the mucus on the fish skin containing the herbal active ingredients acts as repellent, and reduces parasitic infection.

36 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013


Table 3: Plants and herbs used as growth promoters and immunostimulants in aquaculture

Botanical name



Useful parts

Biological effects in aquaculture Growth promoter Growth promoter and immunostimulant Growth promoter Growth promoter Growth promoter and appetizer Growth promoter and appetizer Hepeto tonic, immunostimulant and antistress Hepeto tonic, immunostimulant, antiviral and antistress Immunostimulant and antibacterial Immunostimulant and antibacterial Immunostimulant Immunostimulant Immunostimulant Immunostimulant Immunostimulant and antistress Immunostimulant and growth promoter

Hygrophila spinosa Ipomea digitata Solanum nigrum Terminaelia arjuna Boerhaevia diffusa

Acanthaceae Convolvulaceae Solanaceae Combretaceae Nyctaginaceae

India, Sri Lanka Hotter part of India India India, Burma, Sri Lanka India, Tibet

Whole plant Root Berries Bark Leaf and root Fruit Whole plant

Herbal compounds have Carica papaya Caricaceae India the ability to inhibit the generation of oxygen anions Eclipta erecta Compositae India and scavenge free radicals, hance reducing stress effects. Herbal antioxidant effects Eclipta alba Compositae India were demonstrated by Citrasu et al. (2006) when P. Cymodon dactycon Gramineae India kurroa (picrorhiza) was used as an antistress compound Emblica officinalis Euphorbiaceae India for black tiger shrimp. Other herbs including Astragalus Europe, Turkey, Urtica dioica Urticaceae membranaceus, Portulaca olerIndia acea, Flavescent ophora and Vernonia cinera Compositae India A. paniculata are known to India, have specific and non-specific Viscum album Loranthaceae Himalayas, antistress effects. Turkey Medicinal plants are also India, China, Zingiber officinale Scitaminaceae known to have hormonal Bengal boosting effects with some herbs being used in herbal Picrorrhiza kurvooa Scrophulariaceae India medicine as natural viagra and in hormonal replaceWithania somnifera Solanaceae India ment therapy for menopausal woman. Significant increases in fecundity and gonadal weight Issues and reduced intermoult period in P. monodon Although herbal remedies have been used were observed when the shrimp were fed in human therapy for millennia, there has a maturation diet containing W. somnifera, been relatively little research into the use of Mucuna pruita, Ferula asafoetida and Piper medicinal plants in aquaculture. longum extracts (Babu, 1999). Standardisation is an issue when the whole Currently, several hatcheries around plant or herb is used during the extraction procthe world are using the herbal extract mix ess. Moreover, in many countries including the NutraBrood Enhance specifically designed to United States, Australia and the EU, the same boost and modulate the hormonal system herbal and plant extracts approved for use in in aquatic animals. The herbal extracts are human naturopathy and herbal medicine are used with out-of-season broodstock and/or treated as drugs when used in aquaculture. species with fertilization and gonadal developThis means herbal remedies have to be ment problems such as groupers (low sperm registered, a process that can take years, motility and volume) and many other species and costing hundreds of thousands or even (Table 2). millions of dollars. A review of this legislation Another commercial semi-moist matura- needs to be carried out, taking into account tion diet, NutraFeed, that included herbal the benefits of herbal remedies over currently extracts was fed to P. vanamei, resulting in a used chemotherapeutic agents. more than 40 percent increase in total nauplii Herbal extracts can be used not only produced, with a 44 percent reduction in as remedies, but even moreso as growth mortality compared to the normal fresh feed promoters, stress resistance boosters and preand nutritional boosters used (Kolkovski et ventatives for infections. Therefore, the use of al., 2013). Similar results were found with the herbal extracts as feed additives can significantly Black tiger prawn P. monodon (Kolkovski et benefit any organism reared under intensive al., 2010). conditions. Legislation needs to be reviewed

Whole plant Leaf and root stalk Whole plant Whole plant Whole plant Berries and leaves Rhizome Rhizome Root

and the use of herbal extracts as feed additives allowed.

The development of drug-resistant pathogens has been reported from all areas of aquaculture. Treating microbial infections in fish and crustaceans involves dissolving high quantities of broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agents in the culture medium, or supplying it in the food. Most of these antibiotics and drugs are now banned for use in the EU, United States and many other countries. Natural plant products present a viable alternative to antibiotics and other banned drugs, being safer for the reared organism and humans, as well as for the environment. Authorities should review the current legislation regarding the use of herbal and natural remedies in aquaculture, taking the above issues into consideration and allowing more flexibility in the use of herbal medicine in aquaculture. MORE INFORmATiON:

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 37


Natural additives for fish - do we have to reinvent the wheel or is there a shortcut?
by Susanne Kirwan, Malte Lohlter and Andreas Lewke, Dr Eckel, Germany he global importance of aquaculture, in particular finfish, is growing and correspondingly, the demand for high-quality feeds and additives is increasing year by year (Aquafeed Directory Issue 2013/14).

Current research is understandably focused on the basic feed components such as cereals, marine ingredients, soya, animal byproducts, oils and fats and their suitability for different aquatic species. Knowledge about optimal levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements This rapid growth induces diverse challenges for different species is steadily increasing. for feed formulation, husbandry, reproduction Other additives have received less attenor processing that required innovative solutions. tion from academic research but exhibit a New species are introduced into aquaculture vast potential in improving resource and feed regularly (i.e. bluefin tuna) and new technologies efficiency. in feed production are also adopted. There is a Technical additives, preservatives, acidiconstant supply of new raw materials to substifiers, probiotics, prebiotics, immunomodulatute ingredients which are less and less available. tors, AGPs, phytogenics, mycotoxin binders However, new challenges are not only are interesting and increasingly used but the intrinsic to the system but the general increase suitability and uses for them in aquacultures of aquaculture is also associated with new are not as firmly established as for the bulk disease challenges and new demands from components. Particularly phytogenics as an customers (i.e. freedom from AGPs, welfare). innovative addition to the group of feed All of these topics have arisen with the additives are of increasing interest in aquaculadvent of modern aquaculture. Part of solving ture as they offer entirely the challenges posed is trynew applications (i.e antiing to develop feeds and Figure 1: Residues (top) of solid acids experimentally dissolved in water inflammatory functions). additives to address them. Areas of interest for However, finding new feed aquaculture feeds where components and addiadditives are without tives is a time and labour doubt beneficial is feed intensive process and the presentation and hygiene. pressure to produce higher However there is a small quantities and better qualamount of knowledge to ity aquaculture produce is draw from land-based already on, not in ten or systems already (i.e. high twenty years down the protein poultry and pet line. So is there a potential Ca-Acetate Ca-formate Sorbic Acid Fumaric Acid Acidifier Acids-on support feeds). shortcut to addressing all Improving health and these new challenges particularly with regard to additives? Finally, there are those factors of unique reproduction through feed is certainly of importance to aquaculture feeds such as interest. However, due to the pronounced very specific demands for the feeds behav- physiological differences between mammals, Part of the answer is iour in water such as mechanical stability, birds and aquaculture species additives used livestock on land Livestock feed production in land-based specific density, sinking behaviour or nutri- for this purpose in land-based systems have to be more thoroughly re-evaluated for use in systems has a wealth of history, with the ent leakage (i.e. Aas, et al. 2011).
38 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

first documented silage-making occurring in 1200 BC. The first commercial diets for army horses and poultry were produced around 1800. In comparison, the first modern fish feeds were manufactured for trout in the 1950s. Independent of whether a feed is produced for land-based livestock or for aquaculture, many of the components are similar. Both land and aquaculture systems use grains, legumes and animal byproducts. Therefore, many of the risks of contamination of raw materials, the challenges of producing and even the microorganisms causing spoilage are exactly the same. There may be areas where factors important for land-based livestock are similar to aquaculture's, such as palatability, feed intake and nutrient efficiency with regard to environmental pollution, which are crucial for efficient and sustainable systems anywhere.

Growing academic interest in additives

FEATURE optimum temperature? If so, does sure. They are effective independent of temthat temperature fit the aquatic perature, usually technically inert and well Latibon Plus ME (Acidifier) environment it is to be used in? accepted by most livestock. The only ques3. Is the substance in structure or tion remaining is how fast they dissolve in a Time (d) Control 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.2% with density unlikely to negatively watery medium, as an acidifier which dissolves 60 85.8d 88.5c 91.5ab 93.8b 94.5a influence the technical behaviour instantaneously is not available to be active (p<0.05) of the feed in water or during within the animal but is lost to the surroundprocessing? ing water. If some acidifiers are retained more 4. Are all active comreliably within the feed, aquaculture systems to evaluate whether the ponents stable through they can subsequently systems they target are of equal interest in the Table 2: Feed trial diet the production process be active beyond simple aquaculture species. composition (pelleting/extrusion/ feed preservation in the Diet expansion)? intestine of the animals From the land into the water: Control Additive 5. Does land-based livestock fed. taking land-based feed accept the component The solubility of indiadditives into aquafeeds well, does it positively vidual acids and their To illustrate the basic concept of the idenFishmeal 8.0 8.0 affect voluntary feed blends have been chartification of suitable additives in land-based Isolated soy intake? acterised in literature systems that have potential for aquaculture, protein 32.0 32.0 If all those have been and are easily confirma short checklist can be a fast and common Wheat 14.4 14.4 able with basic lab techsense approach before beginning a controlled answered to the affirmative, Peas 12.0 12.0 niques. For the following trial. This approach works equally well for the component has potential Maize 14.0 14.0 illustration (Figure 1) established additives, or the latest develop- to be a useful additive in acidifier samples were ments in phytogenic additives. In order to aquafeed and is worth considCorn starch 8.0 8.0 dissolved for five minanswer the questions a species, culture condi- ering for an in-vivo trial. Fat 6.0 6.0 utes at a concentration tion and the type of feed presentation should Minerals/ of (0.5 percent) in water. be known in advance. Example 1: Vitamins/ Choline 4.5 4.5 The liquid phase was 1. Is the substance/blend stable in the Advanced acidifier then strained out and the aquatic environment? Will it leach immeAcidifiers are very well Chrome oxide 0.6 0.6 residue dried to calculate diately from the pellet of is stable for established additives on Methionine 0.2 0.2 the unsolved fraction the time until consumed by the target land for feed preservation, Cellulose 0.4 (pictures in the top row species? improving feed conversion Additive 0.4 of Figure 1). Already the 2. Does the substance have a window of and reducing pathogen presTable 1: Survival rate (%) of white shrimp after 60 days

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FEATURE visual assessment shows that the traditional acidifier calcium formate is extremely soluble and therefore not suitable for use in aquafeed in its pure form. The following trial used an acidifier which is established both in some landbased systems and aquaculture production. age of the investigated product (Table 1). Vibrio counts (Graph 1) and total bacteria counts (not shown) also showed significant improvements. This trial showed the efficacy of a specifically selected acidifier in a pelleted aquaculture feed, even a species without acid digestion.

Acidifier: shrimp trial

This trial investigated the effects of a specially formulated acidifier on shrimp survival and vibrio spp. counts (a key pathogen for the species) in white shrimp (Chalour, 2012). Example 2: White shrimp (L. vannamei) were reared from Second generation postlarvae 12 (P12) stage for 60 days. The phytogenic product pelleted feed contained an ascending quantity While acidifiers are wellof the investigated acidifier from 0 (control), established tools in diet formuFigure 2: Vibrio count per ml shrimp hemolymph 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 to 1.2 percent. lation, the same approach to The acidifier in the pelleted feed had a identify suitable additives for aquafeeds can generation phytogenic substances, unlike their linear positive effect on shrimp survival lead- also be taken for phytogenic products. The predecessors, have been selected for maxiing to a 10 percent improvement of mortality first phytogenics employed one plant or plant mum synergy between several components rate in the group treated with the highest dos- component targeting a single function. Second focussing on substance classes like flavonoids. FIAAPisland:Layout 1 30/8/13 14:26 Page 1 An example of these new functions are the anti-inflammatory effects as exhibited by flavonoids, which are currently a topic of great interest in land-based livestock nutrition. With the trend to make fish farming more sustainable by using fewer potentially anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish oil, alternative additives have to be found which can provide the anti-inflammato8 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand ry effects required to ensure a healthy and functional intestinal mucosa and gut epithelium. Recent trials have focused on land-based livestock (Gessner et al. 2011) but NF-KB, the master regulator of inflammation, is preserved with similar functions across all vertebrate species and has been shown to be a key element in inflammation mediation in pylogenetically distant fish species (Zang et al. , 2012). A positive effect as the downregulating of the NF-KB response in mammals might therefore have a similar beneficial effect in fish. The main aim of the tested phytogenic additive based on flavonoids is intestinal health, palatability of feed, enhancing digestion and FIAAP Asia 2014 is the only dedicated trade show and conference organised specifically for feed ingredients, additives and formulation within the dynamic and growing region of South and South East Asia. adsorption of nutrients through improved antioxidant status and New for 2014 Supported by antimicrobial effects. Now including the first The Thailand Convention ASEAN Feed Summit and Exhibition Bureau The product chosen as an Specialist conferences Co-located with example for this group was from The exhibition will be supported VICTAM Asia 2014 the AntaPhyt range, which does by its own specialist conferences. already have a product for aquatic They will include: Contact details The FIAAP Conference 2014 species and therefore has all the For visitor, exhibition stand Petfood Forum Asia 2014 space and conference required specifics such as stability Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2014 information please visit: in water, suitability for all water The Thai Feed Conference 2014 temperatures, favourable technical

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40 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

FEATURE ise for aquacultures and could be exploited further. ture. The present article selected two products from two additive groups (acidifier and phytogenic product) that have shown their potential in aquacultures. This highlights the validity of this approach rather than to start to entire selection of potential additives for scratch to search the existing (acidifiers) or upcoming (phytogenic) additives in land-based farming systems for potential candidates for aquacultures, having the potential to make the development process both faster and more efficient. This of course does not stop the need to search for specific additives to address challenges to aquacultures such as attractants or sea lice control through feed, but the two approaches can rather inform each other rather than compete. MORE INFORmATiON:

There is good body of research into livestock feeds on land; there is no need to reinvent the wheel when looking for suitable and economically beneficial additives for aquaculture. After removing those addiGraph 1: Effect of phytogenic additive on growth of tives unsuitable for the common carp aquatic environment (i.e. those not stable characteristics and stability to all feed process- in water or unsuitable to the production process) there are many potential candidates ing systems. As it is a new concept on land there remaining that have promise for aquaculis only a limited body of experience, however, the results suggest very positive effects on production characteristics on poultry and pigs in particular (Holl, 2013). To evaluate whether the concept, which won the 2012 innovation award at Victam in Bangkok, could live up to expectations, a carp trial with the blends was undertaken in southern Germany.


Carp trial (Blsse et al. 2013)

A feeding trial was conducted with carp having an initial body weight of 90 g for ten weeks (until 200 g). Carp (C. carpio) were randomly allocated into eight tanks. The diet was based on typically southern German regional diets comprised of fishmeal, soy protein, wheat, corn and peas (Table 2). Average daily gain (ADG) was monitored for carp fed a diet with the phytogenic additive (dosage 0.4 percent; four tanks) and negative controls with carp fed the diet without any additive (four tanks). Carp fed the diet with the additive showed higher body weight from week 2 to 10, increasing final weight by 5 percent compared to the control. Additionally, average daily gains were increased by 11 percent during the 10-week period for the carp the additive. So the new group of phytogenic additives also hold prom-

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November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 41


Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
42 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013




Overview of the present situation of carp farming in China

by Wang Xin, Song Zhigang, Yang Yong, Guangzhou Hinter Biotechnology, Guangdong, China arp is one of the main species of China's aquaculture industry, forming 13 percent of its farmed fish output. Because of their wide adaptability, carp can be farmed in an extensive variety of regions. However, in recent years their quality in China has declined. With the blind pursuit of production volumes and backward steps in breeding management technology, many problems have appeared in carp aquaculture.

is deglutition. Carp fry mainly eat zooplankton, and later begin to eat benthos. When their body length reaches 7-17 cm, under natural conditions carp eat crustaceans, insect larvae, algae, plant tissue and so on. In the aquaculture industry farmers use compound feeds to provide their nutrition.


Aquaculture carp threat to Great Lakes wildlife

hough a popular species for farming in their own right, carps bottom-dwelling behaviour, tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions and omnivorous feeding habits also makes them an attractive candidate for integrated aquaculture systems. Authorities in the Great Lakes region of the United States are now having to deal with the drawbacks of this hardiness, as Asian carp species originally imported to the southern states to control vegetation in aquaculture and wastewater treatment have been found spawning as far north as the Sandusky River in Ohio. It is a well-established fact that the Mississippi River is infested with Asian carp, and one of those species, the grass carp, has made the jump to the tributary river of Lake Erie. Although vegetationeating grass carp do significant damage to aquatic habitats, scientists are particularly worried about the prospect of bighead carp and silver carp joining them. They require similar spawning conditions to the species already in place, but as plankton feeders will out-compete and out-breed native fish. US environmental official John Goss has called for the renewal of the administrations US$200 million aggressive strategy to keep the Great Lakes free of the invasive species. Given the threat to the US$7 billion sports fishing industry and US$234 million commercial fishery in both the USA and Canada, its time to cut the carp.

Common carp grow quickly, have high output and a strong tolerance for environmental conditions, which means they can be cultivated widely from the northern provinces Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Tianjin, Hebei and Shanxi, to the southern provinces Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou. As mentioned above, carp is one of the main species for Chinese aquaculture, making up 13 percent of total production volume.

Common species
The most common carp species in China are Jian carp, Yellow River carp, red carp and German mirror carp. All have similar nutritional requirements although fish farmers must bear certain differences in mind. German mirror carp typically exhibit higher feed conversation ratios than the Yellow River or Jian varities, and consequently tend to enjoy a faster growth rate (reaching 1.25 kg after a year, rather than 1 kg). However, the disease resistance of German mirror carp is poor, and require higher water quality to be successfully farmed. For these reasons, all three are viable aquaculture species, although German mirror carp enjoy higher and more stable prices in the marketplace.

Biological characteristics
Common carp belongs to the taxonomic group Osteichthyes of the animal kingdom, in the Cyprinidae family of the Cypriniformes subclass. Carp live at the bottom of water bodies, and tend to stir them up in foraging activity. Common carp can quickly adapt to the temperature and quality of water, and grow quickly at the same time (1 kg or more in a single year). Their breeding season is early April to early June, and reach sexual maturity after two years. Carp is a typically omnivorous fish, although they can be carnivorous. Their feeding mode

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 43


Optimum protein and lipid balance for C. auratus
by Patrick Haughton, Hampshire Carp Hatcheries, UK he growing season for first year cyprinids is short in the UK. Typically the fish are spawned in late April and May and the fry are stocked out into ongrowing ponds in late May to early June. For the first two or three weeks their diet is predominantly zooplankton before they are weaned onto a commercial dry diet. The fish farmer then has 16 weeks of temperatures above 15 C (average 20 C) to grow the stock to a market size of 5 to 50

g (5-14 cm) for the following spring's market mercial diets in triplicate so that their comdemand. It is vitally important to maximise mercial performance could be measured. The key parameters that were measured weight gain over this period. Protein efficiency ratios (PER) are less important as the ponds were growth, feed utilisation, economic perhave a high capacity to process ammonia, with formance and condition factor (shape). the long day lengths resulting in dense algae blooms and supersaturation of oxygen. Experimental materials Most of the diets available to the freshwa- and procedure ter fish farmer in the UK are sold as optimal The trial was conducted in twelve aquarifor carp or trout. By using a range of protein ums (dimensions 90 x 30 x 30 cm) in a and lipid combinations, this trial intended to recirculation unit. Each aquarium maintained a extend the understanding of the optimum balance for the intensive Table 1: ongrowing of first year goldfish. Price Protien % Lipid % In collaboration with Coppens Euro/kg International, Hampshire Carp Hatcheries carried out an eightStandard (S) 33% 6% 0.95 week feed trial on goldfish (C. Basic select (BS) 34% 15% 1 auratus) at Sparsholt College's Supreme 16 (S16) 46% 16% 1.19 National Aquatics Training Centre. The goldfish were fed four comPrime 18 (P18) 42% 18% 1.13
Table 2: Gross energy (MJ/kg) Metabolisable energy (MJ/ kg) Relative metabolisable eneergy Relative feed rate Daily feed rate

Standard (S) Basic select (BS) Supreme 16 (S16) Prime 18 (P18)

18.09 20.26 21.14 21.37

14.12 16.57 17.01 17.23

82.0% 96.2% 98.7% 100%

1.22 1.04 1.01 1.00

3.66% 3.12% 3.04% 3%

44 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

EXPERT TPIC flow of one litre per minute Table 3: at 20 C. Diet Each morning the aquariums were cleaned by siphoning any suspended Standard solids and faeces. Water Basic select was replenished from a resSupreme 16 ervoir of standing dechlorinated water. Ammonia Prime 18 levels were routinely monitored throughout the trial. Prior to the start of the trial, the goldfish were acclimatised to the aquariums for two weeks whilst being fed on a maintenance ration. At the start of the trial each aquarium was randomly stocked with 20 15 g (0.5 g) goldfish. The mean values of the bulk weights of the fish on each diet were tested for differences using a one-way analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in bulk weights (p>0.05,f = 0.56,d.f.3,8). The fish receiving the most energy-rich diet, Prime 18, were fed at 3 percent body weight a day. The other diets were fed isocalorifically, so that all fish in the trial would have the same energy available (see Table 2). The daily ration for each tank was pre-

Protein, lipid% 33 & 6 34&15 46&16 42&18

Foof fed (gr)



% Weight gain


744 (+/=56) 662 (+/-58) 650 (+/-13) 650 (+/-74)

2.47 (+/-0.12) 1.95 (+/-0.13) 1.8 (+/-0.13) 1.72 (+/-0.09

1.23 (+/-0.06) 1.21 (+/-0.09) 1.21 (+/-0.07) 1.39 (+/-0.07)

100%(+/-4.4) 113%(+/-7) 121%(+/-11.8) 126%(+/-10.2)

1.24% (+/-0.04) 1.41% (+/-0.06) 1.41% (+/-0.09) 1.46% (+/-0.08)

weighed and divided into two roughly equal feeds, which were given at 8.30 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. The fish were fed just six days each week. On the seventh day the fish were bulk weighed and counted. New rations were calculated each week based on the new bulk weights. At the start of the trial a random sample of 20 fish were weighed and measured for total length to calculate their condition factor. At the end of the trial a random sample of 20 fish

from each diet were weighed and measured for total length.

Results: diet utilisation and growth

During the course of the trial all of the feed was observed to be eaten. There were no mortalities and the water parameters were recorded the same for all aquariums. The tanks ate between 650 g and 744 g of food over the trial. Feed conversion ratios

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 45


(FCRs) varied from 1.72 to 2.47, PERs varied from 1.21 to 1.51, percentage weight gains varied from 100 % to 126 % and specific growth rates (SGRs) varied from 1.24 % to 1.46 %. There were highly significant differences in the diets FCRs (p>0.001,f = 203,d.f.3,8). P18 had a very highly significantly lower FCR than the S diet (p<0.001). Basic Select (BS) and Supreme 16 (S16) had a highly significantly lower FCR than the Standard (S) diet (p<0.01). P18 had a highly significantly lower FCR than BS (p<0.01). S16 had a significantly lower FCR than BS (p<0.05). Very highly significant differences were found in the PERs of the diets (p>0.001,f =85,d.f.3,8). BS had a highly significantly greater PER than S and S16 (p<0.01). BS had a significantly greater PER than P18 (p<0.05). P18 had a highly significantly greater PER than S and S16 (p<0.01). The diets SGRs also displayed very highly significant differences (p>0.001,f =31.5,d.f.3,8). S16 and P18 had a highly significantly higher SGR than diet S (p<0.05). BS had a significantly higher SGR than diet S (p<0.05). P18 had a significantly higher SGR than diet BS (p<0.05).

Table 4: Food price /kg Standard Basic select Supreme 16 Prime 18 0.81 0.85 1 0.96 Cumulative FCR Cost of food ()/ kg prod. 2.00 1.66 1.80 1.65 Gross margin ()/kg 14.00 14.34 14.20 14.35 Final SGR% Gross margin* daily output 0.174 0.194 0.201 0.209 Relative advantage % 0% 11% 16% 20%

2.47 1.95 1.80 1.72

1.24% 1.35% 1.41% 1.46%

The daily gross margin per diet varied from 0.174 per day for diet S to 0.209 for diet P18. The relative economic advantage of BS, S16 and P18 to diet S were 11 percent, 16 percent and 20 percent respectively.

Carcass analysis
There was no significant difference between the diets condition factors at the start or at the end of the trial (p>0.05,f=0.43, d.f.4,95).

Over the eight-week trial the fish grew on average by 115 percent. The Prime 18 diet with 42 percent protein and 18 percent lipids significantly outperformed the other diets in growth, FCR and economic efficiency. However, the Basic Select diet had a significantly better PER than all the other diets. This has implications for the production in a pond culture unit where there is a finite nitrification capacity. There was no evidence of the extra growth generated by the high-lipid diets caus-

ing a change to the shape (condition factors) of the fish. Further research for goldfish ongrowing could interpolate the optimum protein between 34 percent and 42 percent, and extrapolate the optimum lipid above 18 percent where growth is the predominant requirement. In the UK during the autumn, winter and spring months when temperatures are below 15 C there is negligible growth. Fish are fed a maintenance ration and it is important to utilize the protein as efficiently as possible, and minimize ammonia loading and its associated stock management problems. Further research is needed to understand more fully the optimum protein and lipid levels during this period. The author would like to thank Coppens International for their collaboration on this research.

About the author

During his 30-year lectureship in the fisheries department at Sparsholt College, UK, Pat Haughton has carried out nutritional trials for feed companies and student dissertations. He has retired as a lecturer but runs Hampshire Carp Hatcheries in partnership with Chris Seagrave. The hatchery is the UK's largest cyprinid fingerling producer, rearing eight species of cyprinids (chub, barbel, ide, tench, carp, goldfish, gudgeon and stickleback), and 20 colour varieties of these species. Their website is regularly updated to feature the farming operations and all areas of research and development.

See all of our EXPERT TOPIC features in the International Aquafeed archive

46 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013



Amandus Kahl
Part of the Kahl Group, Amandus Kahl provides mechanical engineering for the future. Founded in 1876, it manufactures feed mill machinery including pelleting presses, extruders and turn-key plants, and works closely with research institutions and universities as well as its international customer base. Looking forward to 2014: fish feed plant set into operation in the Maghreb After extensive market analysis Amandus Kahl has been selected as a partner for the company Rafaha Aquaculture in Tunisia. In addition to the process and plant design for the complete line, Kahl provided support regarding the basic formulas and the raw materials to be used, as well as intensive training of the operating personnel. The factory is equipped with the latest Kahl process technology, the core of which is the extrusion system with the Kahl Extruder OEE and the process control system ESEP. In the production process, the raw materials undergo the process steps of weighing, fine grinding, mixing, extrusion, drying, vacuum coating, cooling and packaging. In the first expansion stage, the factory has a capacity of 25 000 tonnes a year. Sinking, slowly sinking and floating products in various shapes and sizes can be produced. The formulas tailored to the requirements of the sea bream are characterized by a low starch and high protein content. Particularly in the area of conditioning and extrusion, Kahl process technology allows them to react to the demands of the local raw materials. Shaping and adjustment of the pellet density are realized in the extruder type OEE. This machine is equipped with the hydraulically movable die which is typical of the Kahl extruder. It allows the extruder to start with open die, which reduces waste and makes the critical process start and stop very easy. Due to the automatic opening of the die, a die change can be completed within 120 seconds. This provides additional convenience; in particular since fish feed production typically requires a variety of different pellet diameters. At the same time a high level of plant availability with a low downtime results from the rapid die change. An all-encompassing modernization package could be implemented in the periphery of the vacuum coater. In the light of continuous quality monitoring of the finished product, a new software system for batch traceability was installed. It allows much greater transparency in the production process, with the storage of more than 1 000 formulae and the retracing of production data.


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Aqua_Feed-July_2011.indd 1 28.07.2011 12:23:44

Experts in vacuum coating and extrusion lines

Dinnissen Process Technology is the specialist in the world of bulk materials and process technology. An international company with more than 65 years of experience, we provide machine development, in-house manufacturing, custom-made products, processing, control, automation, engineering and excellent service. We are experts in vacuum coating and extrusion lines, and also in machines and systems for powders and granules, intake of raw materials, conveying, handling, storage, feeding, weighing, mixing, milling, grinding, drying, sifting and packaging. We are always looking for new and innovative solutions for complete processes, system integrations or standard products, many of which we develop, test and produce in-house. Our systems comply with all requirements regarding quality, hygiene, efficiency, ergonomics and safety. With our D-Innocenter we have a testing facility that offers ample possibilities for developing new products and testing our clients products with our equipment. We closely follow market developments, aiming at developing new products for our customers in the aquafeed, feed, petfood, food chemical, and pharmaceutical industry. Our one-stop-shopping concept allows us to operate independently of suppliers. An extensive international network ensures that Dinnissen can deliver worldwide. Pegasus Vacuum Coater One of our famous products is our Pegasus Vacuum Coater, intended for everyone who wishes to manufacture pelleted and extruded products in accordance with modern production specifications. It allows our clients to create a vacuum environment for their production process and to deal effectively with a very wide range of future challenges. It is possible to coat or spray each pellet with precisely the right amount of powder or liquid such as pre- and probiotics, vitamins, enzymes, oils and fat, which is homogeneously distributed deep into the pellet. The vacuum core coating system for basic, premium and super-premium products, with hygienic design (heating system) averts salmonella risk. During the production process a robust protective layer is applied to each pellet, which prevents the pellet from breaking or crumbling and conserves valuable ingredients contained in the pellet. In combination with the Hamex Hammermill and Pegasus Mixing technology we supply innovative process equipment with more added value. Partnership and good feedback are the key drivers to share know how and create more added value and innovation. We are introducing Lean Six Sigma Methodology for more efficient production and quality improvement, with fewer components and less intermediate storage, to reduce contamination risks. For example, gravity is used instead of pneumatic conveying at initial infeed to a process unit.


DL-Methionine for aquaculture from Evonik

Evonik produces and markets the essential amino acids for advanced animal nutrition: DL-Methionine for AquacultureTM, MetAMINO (DL-methionine), Biolys (L-lysine), AQUAVI Lys (L-lysine for aquaculture), ThreAMINO (L-threonine) and TrypAMINO (L-tryptophan). In addition to extensive experience in animal nutrition in over 100 countries worldwide, Evonik provides a wide range of comprehensive AMINO services to the feed, livestock and aquaculture industry. From analysis to process optimization, these tools foster all aspects of livestock and aquaculture nutrition management. These services contribute significantly to customers profitability and competitiveness while enabling healthy and environmentally friendly animal nutrition.

Talk to us. We listen |

Extru-Tech has established the industry standards for performance and value
Through continuous research, development, sound engineering and superior manufacturing, the company has proven its commitment to a worldwide customer base through the continual development of cost-effective answers to ever-changing extrusion production needs and food safety requirements. Extru-Tech entered the extrusion industry through supply of remanufactured extrusion equipment. From humble beginnings, the company has grown at a steady rate becoming an industry leader supplying new and remanufactured extrusion solutions. Extru-Tech takes great effort to understand where the market is headed, assisting our clients through the process. For example, stricter food safety guidelines have redefined the market, affecting manufacturers and consumers. Even before the new US Food Safety legislation, ExtruTech was aware of retailer initiatives and programs requiring improved food safety. The company has pro-actively taken a leading role as the first original equipment manufacturer to build a dedicated Biosafety Level 2 extrusion lab and further to scientifically validate the extruder Kill Step for salmonella and other pathogens. The company has made this Biosafety Level 2 extrusion lab and extrusion equipment available for confidential client formula and process validation as required within their food safety programmes. The overriding goal of the Extru-Tech engineering staff has always been to design an extrusion cooking solution that will yield high production levels of premium quality products that are fully compliant with food safety standards. Extru-Tech offers an exclusive line of single screw cooking extruders with capacity rates from 300-33 000 lbs per hour. The Extru-Tech designed and manufactured AirFlow II Dual and Triple Pass Dryer/Cooler Systems enables customers to improve finished product quality while improving drying efficiency. Other major components supplied by Extru-Tech include vertical and horizontal coolers, batch and continuous enrobing systems; multi-colour/ multi-shape die systems; pneumatic conveying systems; product densification units; sphere-izer agglomeration systems; meat inclusion systems; waste recovery systems; dust control equipment, and remanufactured extruders. Extru-Tech staff provide expertise in a variety of backgrounds, including extrusion technology, production management, plant design, and engineering, marketing, and food safety programme solutions. All are committed to providing customers with the best service possible. Extru-Tech professionals promptly and effectively serve a valued customer base throughout the world and commit themselves to providing clients unequalled service in system engineering, on-site supervision for training and equipment, and post-start up maintenance assistance. So, no matter where youre located - in any corner of the globe - experienced personnel and support are never more than a phone call away.


Experts in vacuum coating and extrusion lines

Aquaculture has faced a tremendous and persistent boom over the past decades, accompanied by an intensification of production. In todays intensive and expansive modern aquaculture, fish and shellfish are often subjected to a plethora of various stressors in their living environment. A chronic stress response is generally believed to suppress or dysregulate immune functions and makes the organism more susceptible to pathogens with the eventual risk of causing diseases. Therefore, the famous phrase prevention is better than cure takes on more and more significance in todays aquatic animal husbandry. The multibiotic action of the Leiber products used in aquafeeds is an important contribution to animal health and performance by prophylactically strengthening the animal against those stressors in aquaculture husbandry. Leibers key products for aquaculture are: Leiber Beta-S a highly purified (1,3)-(1,6)--D-Glucan for strong, immunocompetent fish Biolex MB40 Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) for gut protection and health Leiber ExCel Nucleotides for optimal cell regeneration and cell repair In 2014 it will be 60 years that Leiber has supplied high value brewers yeast products under the Made in Germany banner throughout the world. With two locations in Lower Saxony, Germany, as well as additional production facilities in Poland and Russia, Leibers over 160 dedicated specialists manufacture brewers yeast products and yeast extracts of the highest quality standard. The certification with the ISO 22000:2005 standard in 2013 highlights this quality of production. Leibers focus on supporting the aquaculture industry has been increased by the staff reinforcement with Mr. Holger Khlwein as the Key Account Manager for aquaculture in April 2013. His responsibilities include among other things supporting and expanding existing markets, recruiting new sales partners and the individual scientific support.
For Leiber`s specialty yeast products, Made in Germany is a seal of quality.
Multibiotic effect of Leiber yeast - vitality, health and performance for fish.
Leiber GmbH Hafenstrae 24, 49565 Bramsche, Germany Tel +49 (0) 5461 9303-0 Fax +49 (0) 5461 9303-28



Made Germanin y


Lipidos Toledo SA (LIPTOSA) is a Spanish company specializing in the production of nutraceuticals, phytobiotics and other solutions for aquaculture. Liptosa offers a wide range of additives: growth promoters, hepatic protectors, antiparasites, attractants, chelated minerals, antioxidants and binders all of them designed specifically for aquaculture with the aim of improving the health status and productivity of fish and shrimp farms. This year Liptosa has introduced additives in new countries, making significant efforts to discover commercial opportunities in new places, and for new kinds of production systems. The Chinese market deserves a special mention with its diverse aquaculture and farming of new species, which always means new opportunities. Liptosa is trying to focus on additives with high likelihood of success, such as growth promoters and attractants. South American aquaculture is another interesting market for Liptosa. Salmon, tilapia and shrimp are all species that can take advantage of our additives, namely phytobiotics with antiparasite functions, growth promoters and hepatic protectors. Thoughts for 2014 Currently Liptosa additives are marketed in all countries with significant aquaculture production and technology. Next year our aim is to continue with the promotion of natural solutions as the best way to make aquaculture healthier and more productive. Our company firmly believes in a future where it will be possible to have sustainable aquaculture for the whole world. Our products intend to give efficient and profitable solutions. Indeed to face problems before they appear is the best tool, applied in the right way. In aquaculture there is still room for improvement. Liptosa has an expert team of professionals in fish nutrition and production in order to provide effective solutions to its clients. In 2014 well continue designing new additives and working on new developments, especially in the field of antiparasites and attractants.
NUTRACEUTICALS AND PHYTOBIOTICS FOR AQUACULTURE Growth promoters Anti-parasites Attractants Hepatoprotectors Antioxidants Detoxifiers Chelated minerals


We help feed the future

Muyang is an integrated solution provider of plants, equipment and services in the fields of feed manufacturing, grain milling, grain handling and storage, animal farming, environmental protection, food processing, oilseed processing, biomass processing and steel structure building, as well as industrial automation. In 2013, Muyang built what is the only large-scale multifunctional test centre in the Chinese feed industry. Built on a 6 000 m2 site, the facility provides the ability to conduct quality inspection, fundamental and type tests. This will allow Muyang to focus on research into such areas as feed milling technologies, process parameters, the properties of raw materials and feed products and the performance of machine products. The company hopes the facility will help optimize its processing line, obtain the best production performance, and achieve high quality and safe feed for the customer. In the year ahead, Muyang will continue to commit itself to being a competent partner, and providing integrated solutions to help boost efficiency, safety and sustainability in its customers operations, so as to enable them to generate added value and gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Hatchery feed pioneers

Reed Mariculture is the worlds largest producer of marine microalgae concentrates for larval fish, bivalves, crustaceans, and other filter feeders. Our Instant Algae larviculture feeds are used by over 500 hatcheries, universities, and marine ornamental operations in more than 80 countries around the world. We also produce and distribute pathogen and ciliate free rotifers and Parvocalanus crassirostris copepods; Otohime and TDO weaning feeds; and related supplies. Markets Served Commercial aquaculture, public aquariums, public and private researchers, breeders, and marine aquarium retailers and hobbyists Cutting Edge Products Instant Algae products are clean, effective and closer to nature than other feeds on the market. We produce whole-cell, whole-food microalgae feeds and enrichments using proprietary processes. Our products provide fish, bivalve and shrimp hatcheries with clean, convenient, long shelf-life feeds that can replace in-house microalgae. Our feeds ensure stable and rapidly-reproducing populations with excellent nutrition. Extraordinary Customer Service We pride ourselves on our customer service and technical support, and are also experts in worldwide shipping logistics. History of Innovation Since their founding in 1995, the scientist farmers of Reed Mariculture have used rigorous scientific analysis to develop single species and blended microalgae with specific nutritional profiles for a diversity of aquacultured species, tailored for each stage of the life cycle.

Aquaculture Feeds Reimagined

In 1995, Tim Reed invented a method for growing laboratory-pure microalgae on a commercial scale, and a concentrate process that ensures intact cell structure thereby providing the complete nutritional value of live algae.
RMIs Instant Algae: Revolutionary Aquaculture. The Instant Algae product

line offers a wide-range of pure, nutritionally optimized, easy-to-use marine algae concentrates that ensure safer, highly effective, and more profitable hatchery production of larval fish, bivalve, and shrimp.

The cleanest, most effective, and easiest-to-use feeds in aquaculture

2012-2013 Reed Mariculture, Inc. All rights reserved. Instant Algae is a registered trademark of Reed Mariculture Inc.

TO L L - F R E E :

Reed Mariculture Inc.

1- 877-732-3276 |



Back in 1935, when Wenger was established as a local manufacturer of mixers and feed milling machinery, the companys main objective was to add value and palatability to low-quality feed. Today, as the worlds leading supplier of aquatic and pet food processing systems, Wenger is helping customers meet a new, more timely list of objectives, like increasing production rates, lowering energy costs and expanding viable recipe options. In one year alone, Wenger introduced 23 INNOVATION DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN new innovations and was issued 11 new patents in response to rapidly changing needs in the industry. A LEADER AND A FOLLOWER. INNOVATIVE DESIGNS Steve Jobs Available in both single screw and twin screw configurations, Wenger extruders boast capacities as high as 22 tonnes per hour. Two new innovations - Wenger diverging cone screws and oblique die technologies - make extrusion the superior choice for production of even high capacity micro aquatic feeds. KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH, TRAINING AND SUPPORT Wenger customers have access to the 2 500-square-meter Wenger Technical Center for testing ideas and formulas. Wenger technical support also includes pre- and post-installation engineering assistance, operator training and on-site attention to quality control and operational needs. Extensive inventories of replacement parts are maintained for prompt shipment to customers. Service after the sale is standard with Wenger products. OPERATING AROUND THE GLOBE Wengers engineering, manufacturing, research and administrative facilities are located at the companys Sabetha, Kansas, USA headquarters. Plus, Wenger extension research sites are available at a number of universities and research centers around the world. Sales and service is available through Wenger offices in the USA, Belgium, Taiwan, Brazil, China, Turkey, and India, as well as independent agents in strategic locations around the world. In fact, Wenger serves producers of hundreds of different agri-food products in more than 90 countries.

Turning ideas into opportunities. PROGRESSIVE AQUAFEED PROCESSING

What will tomorrow bring


Wengers new blog can be found at
Wenger12_AQ-Fish_58x90.indd 1

8/30/13 9:37 AM

Wynveen International BV
Wynveen International BV is a Dutch-based manufacturer of a highly professional range of machines for production of fish feed, pet food and animal feed. Our versatility is feed processing allows us to advise and recommend the correct solution for your applications from raw material processing, mixing and extruding/pelleting to drying. Our dual approach of being both a machine manufacturer and turnkey supplier, enables us to provide our customers with a wide product range and the solutions(s) they need. We deliver hammer mills, cryloc sifters, mixers coaters, dosing systems (micro, midi an intake) all kinds of conveying equipment and complete grinding/mixing/pellet/cooling/ drying/liquid dosing lines. Beside delivery of our equipment, we also install it on site making use of a broad team of highly skilled and experienced supervisors. Within our organization we facilitate our projects with an experienced engineering staff, working with both 2D and 3D designs, Whether it is a sole engineering job or a complete feed mill design, our expertise will serve you to the highest standard. Our production facilities make use of latest technologies to ensure high quality finish, to suit the demands in aqua feed industry. These are a.o. dust tightness, pellet friendly and yet high capacity. Reflections on 2013: Wynveen International BV noticed a major growth in project activities by obtaining various contracts for building complete feed mills (green field and modernization). The development of the scope of its machines has continued in a identical way to 2012. This contributes to our presence on a worldwide level and has justified our position as turn-around provider. Feel free to visit us or have a look at our renewed website. Thoughts for 2014: Wynveen International BV will continue in enlarging its position and will increase forces on all levels. The development of new innovations on our machine level will be completed within this year. The acquisition of PTN by our Group will result in new spin-off projects and makes us an even more complete and experienced player. Special focus will remain on fine grinding and new solutions for the vacuum coating principles in the Pet Food and Aqua Feed industries.


Supporting sustainable aquaculture, enabling growth

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production system in the world and it places high demands on sustainability and safety. Meet these challenges and capitalize on growth opportunities with our BOLIFOR products for sustainable aquaculture. Our BOLIFOR AQUA, BOLIFOR MSP and BOLIFOR MCP feed phosphates ensure the highest available phosphate sources for aquaculture diets with the highest biological digestibility. This lets you accurately meet, without exceeding, the requirements of fish and shrimp minimizing excretion of excess phosphorous into the water environment, and reducing feed supplement cost and environmental impact. Our BOLIFOR FA 2300S is the optimal feed acidifier, consisting of a unique formula of organic acids precisely encapsulated by a carrier of Diatomaceous Earth and protected by a sorbic acid coating. Developed by a dedicated team of chemists and nutritionists, this patented system acts as an excellent feed preservative and promotes better overall animal health and performance. Yara international ASA is the worlds leading chemical company in converting energy, natural minerals and nitrogen from air into essential products for farmers and industrial customers. Yara Feed Phosphates, a division of Yara International ASA since 2007, produces and sells inorganic feed phosphates under the BOLIFOR trademark. Global sales presence: Yaras sales offices around the world and excellent distribution experience enable us to create sustainable solutions for business with special focus in the fast growing feed markets in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Business model: Our self-sufficient business model, with our fully integrated mine-to-market concept, enables reliable availability and outstanding quality control. Quality: Yaras mining operation in Finland makes Yara Feed Phosphates the most reliable supplier in market and guarantees a final product with the lowest content of undesirable elements available on the market.

Increased environmental regulations, decreasing clean water availability, and increasing costs (to name just a few) are impacting the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. YSI can help you solve these challenges by providing the innovative, cost-effective products and services that make your job easier and improve the efficiency of your facilities. Solutions - The brand you trust for world-class water quality sampling instrumentation and customer service has expanded and improved its Aquaculture Monitoring & Control product line. Our 5200A, 5400, and 5500D monitors are designed just for aquaculture systems - from RAS, raceways and ponds, to cages, tanks, live hauls, aquariums and research. Dependability - Monitoring and controlling is managed locally by the instrument, not at a central PC or device - assurance that the entire system won't fail. Scalability - Unlike typical PLCs or DCPs, our monitors are user-scalable as your facility needs change. No engineers or programmers are needed to make changes to your system. Multiparameter and Multilocation - You can design a total facility solution with the ability to measure multiple probes, virtually any parameter, and multiple locations. Feed Management - Feed Smart conditional feed timer software is included with every monitor. Powerful feeding capabilities interface with most powered feeders. Improved Management Tools - With AquaManager, you'll have access to quality data, allowing you to better manage your operation and improve efficiency. SMS and email alarms will quickly notify you if parameters exceed user-defined limits. And your data can be accessed remotely using AquaManager or the new iPod app. We encourage you to contact us and learn more from our world-class employees - friendly, knowledgeable, customer-focused technical advisers who are here to help you find new and better ways to do your job.


Zhengchang is the feed machinery manufacturer and complete project contractor in China. Established in 1918, it owns 16 subsidiary companies and over 30 offices overseas. It has obtained the European CE and Russian GOST-R certificates, as well as being designated a Chinese well-known brand, and one of Chinas national key high-tech enterprises. SZLH1068: Chinas largest capacity pellet mill Developed and manufacturerd by Zhengchang, the SZLH1068 pellet mill is one of Chinas key science and technology support projects of its eleventh five-year plan. Its 44-55 tonne per hour capacity is the largest of any in China, and it will be put to use in the 160 ton per hour feed factory for the Hewei company. The successful manufacture of the SZLH1068 has laid a solid technological foundation for the massive and intensive development of the Chinese feed industry. The adoption of the SZLH1068 pellet mill will greatly reduce the cost of investment, production and management for feed factories, and add value to their products. Advantages: Variable-frequency feeder: a variable-pitch double screw ensures even feeding of the product. The main motor works at a stable current, and the round screw barrel protects against upcoming steam. Extended and lengthened conditioner ensures longer conditioning time and better performance Multiple inlets ensure even addition of steam External pneumatic discharger releases feed automatically in case of blockage, and magnets at chute inlet removes impurities High quality bearings in drive system and adoptin of thin-oil cooling and lubrication ensure long-term reliability Greater capacity and better pellet quality due to increased die speed Hydraulic lifting carrier makes it easy to disassemble the die and roller Optimized design, advanced heat-treatment technology and high quality steel fabrication give the gear and shaft a longer life and more reliable drive

VIV Worldwide Calendar

2014 - 2015
VIV Asia 2015 VIV Russia 2015 VIV Turkey 2015

VIV India 2014 VIV Europe 2014 VIV China 2014

April 23 - 25, 2014 Bangalore, India May 20 - 22, 2014 Utrecht, the Netherlands September 23 - 25, 2014 Beijing, China

March 11 - 13, 2015 Bangkok, Thailand May 19 - 21, 2015 Moscow, Russia June 11 - 13, 2015 Istanbul, Turkey

Strategic Partnership for the organization of WPC 2016 and VIV China 2016 in Beijing.

12 16 November 13
The Ninth Symposium of World's Chinese Scientists on Nutrition and Feeding of Finfish and Shellfish,Xiamen City, China Contact: Chun-Xiao Zhang Tel: +86 592 618 1420 Email: Web:

29 30 November 13
GlobalG.A.P. Tour, City, Japan Contact: Claudia Meifert Tel: +49 2215 7993 997 Email: Web:

23 25 January 14
Livestock Myanmar, Myanmar, Asia Contact: Dliana Sahadan Email: Web:

8 April 14
GRAPAS Conference (held in conjunction with Victam Asia), Bangkok, Thailand Contact: Andy West Tel: +44 0173 776 3501 Email: Web:

4 7 February 14 3 - 4 December 13
7th International Algae Congress, Hamburg, Germany Contact: Christie de Vrij Tel: +31 644 622231 Email: Web: Aquaculture Russia, Moscow, Russia Contact: Tatiana Sokolova Tel: +7 495 755 50 35 Email: Web: www.expohleb

17 18 November 13
MENA Seafood Summit in association with SEAFEX, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Contact: Julian Roach / Floyd Barrell / Roy Palmer Tel: +971 4308 6462 Email: Web:

8 10 April 14
Victam Asia (co-located with FIAAP and GRAPAS Asia), Bangkok, Thailand Contact: Andy West Tel: +44 0173 776 3501 Email: Web:

9 - 12 February 14 5 6 December 13
Aquafeed Platform Americas, Panama city, Panama Contact: Dr. Sefa Koseoglu Tel: +1 979 216 1210 Email: nedra.sneed Web: /aquafeed13/index.html Aquaculture America 2014, Seattle, USA Contact: John Cooksey Tel: +1 7607 515 005 Email: Web:

23 25 April 14
VIV India, Bangalore, India Contact: Manuel Madani Tel: +31 30 295 2608 Email: manuel.madani Web:

20 November 13
GlobalG.A.P Tour, Hoogstraten, Belgium Contact: Claudia Meifert Tel: +49 0 2215 7993 997 Email: Web:

13 February 14
ILDEX Thailand on the move, Chiangmai, Thailand Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: nalinrat.ana Web:

10 - 13 December 13
Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2013, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam Contact: Mario Stael Tel: +32 92 334 912 Email: Web: WasMeetings/meetings

May 20th 22nd 14

VIV Europe, Utrecht, the Netherlands Contact: Ruwan Berculo Tel: +31 3029 52879 Email: Web:

21 November 13
ILDEX Thailand on the move, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: nalinrat.ana

19 21 March 14
ILDEX Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: nalinrat.ana Web:

25th - 30th May 14

XVI International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding, Queensland, Australia Contact: dr. Brett Glencross Tel: +61 7 3833 5926 Email: Web:

21 22 January 14
Myanmar Agribusiness Investment Summit (MAIS), Yangon, Myanmar Contact: Gwendoline Yap Tel: +603 4045 5999 Email: Web:www.myanmaragribusiness

26 28 November 13
8th Food Proteins Course, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Contact: Laura Hillege Tel: +31 30 225 2060 Email: Web:

28th - 29th May 14

Aquaculture UK, Aviemore, Scotland Contact: David Mack Tel: +44 1862 8921 88 Email: Web:

8th Food Proteins Course

Theory & Practice for 10 plant & animal proteins 26 - 28 November 2013, Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
Participating industry specialists:

7th - 11th June 14

World Aquaculture Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia Contact: Mario Stael Tel: +32 9233 4912 Email: Web:

18 20 June 14
IndoLivestock, Jakarta, Indonesia Contact: Ika Angelia Tel: +62 2186 44756 ext 108 Email: Web:

17 July 14
ILDEX Thailand on the move, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: Web:

See our website for more information:

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 56

Supporting the industry

2014 2013

Meet your customers at one of our global events

17 18 SEAFEX Conference - Dubai
MENA Seafood Summit in association with SEAFEX 2013 Conference organised by Roy Palmer and Roger Gilbert, communications director, Association of International Seafood Professionals) Opportunities: Stand space at SEAFEX - US$445 /m2 Sponsor of speaker at conference - US$1200



4 7 1st Russian Milling Conference - Moscow

Cereals, Mixed Feed and Veterinary Exhibition 2014 Roger Gilbert is co-organiser and co-chairman of the event Opportunities: Sponsor of speakers at conference - US$700 (must exhibit)

4 7 1st Russian Aquaculture Conference - Moscow

Cereals, Mixed Feed and Veterinary Exhibition 2014 Roger Gilbert is co-organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: Sponsor of speakers at conference - US$700 (must exhibit)



8 GRAPAS Conference - Bangkok

VICTAM Asia 2014 Roger Gilbert is the organiser and chairman of the conference Opportunities: Sponsor of speaker at conference - US$1000 (must exhibit)

Held as part of VIV India Summit Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)

23 24 2nd Global Milling Conference - Bangalore

VIV India 2014 Venue, teas & coffees are sponsored by VIV Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: Stand space - $1000 /3x2m stand Dinner sponsor - US$8000 Sponsor of speaker at conference - US$1000

VIV Europe Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)

VIV China 2014 Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)

24 AQUATIC CHINA - Beijing

VIV China 2014 Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)


Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2013

December 10-13, 2013, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

he Wor ld Aquaculture Society event Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2013 (APA13), takes place in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, December 10-13, 2013. International Aquafeeds Alice Neal previews this highly anticipated event. After the first successful meeting in 2007, APA13 will be the next chance for the international aquaculture community to see the rapidly expanding aquaculture industr y in Vietnam. The country has seen

a staggering 50 percent increase in the last five years in hectares in aquaculture production and a more than 100 percent per year increase in tons produced every year for the last 16 years. Vietnam is the third largest aquaculture producing country in the world and Ho Chi Minh City is the centre of the growth, much will be learnt by those attending and engaging in all aspects of the event including the pre and post workshops, farm and industr y tours.

Attendees will be able to learn what is happening in Vietnamese aquaculture to create this growth as well as aquaculture developments in the rest of Southeast Asia. Under the theme of 'positioning for profit', the conference will emphasise the need for the whole industry to take a more strategic approach to expansion. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Wo r l d Aquaculture Society, simply producing product and getting locked


Wayne OConnor
Wayne OConnor is the research leader aquaculture at NSW Fisheries, Australia. He is also taking on an exciting role in organising APA13, as programme manager. International Aquafeed got the lowdown on what to look forward to at the event. Vietnam is the third largest producers of aquaculture in the world. What lessons can neighboring Southeast Asian countries learning from the success of Vietnam? Growth in aquaculture in Vietnam is almost unparalleled and so APA13 offers a rare opportunity to look at how this has been achieved, what were the pitfalls and what are the current challenges, and how are these being met.

How will feed be covered at the conference?

There will be over 80 feed and nutrition related talks. General sessions addressing finfish, crustacean and mollusc nutrition will be accompanied by special sessions discussing issues such as amino acids in feeds, alternative proteins for aquafeeds, the inclusion of soy products in feeds, alternative feedstuffs and the use of lipids and functional ingredients in feeds. Many of the major feed producers will be represented at the conference in an extensive trade show.


What are you looking forward to most?

As a mollusc scientist, I am particularly looking forward to the 5th International Oyster Symposium which has been included within APA13, but its the diversity that I enjoy and the opportunity to pick up on the latest across a range of topics that I might not normally encounter. Ive seen talks coming through on aquaponics, biofloc and integrated multitrophic aquaculture that Ill make sure I dont miss and there will be sessions relating to species that are only beginning to emerge, but that have such great promise.

How does aquaculture in Vietnam compare to elsewhere in Southeast Asia?

Vietnam is one of the most dynamic aquaculture producers on the planet! Production has doubled every year for well over a decade and the area under cultivation has increased by more than 50 percent in the last five years. The range of species under cultivation is extensive and ever-expanding and the Vietnamese industry is embracing the latest in production and processing technology. The theme of APA13 is positioning for profit. How will this be addressed? The theme will run throughout the conference. It will be specifically addressed by the plenary speakers and there are sessions focusing solely on profitability such as feeding for profit and economics and management.

Anything else youd like to tell International Aquafeed readers about?

Vietnam has something for everybody interested in Aquaculture. From trout and sturgeon in the cool highlands of the north to lobsters and sea cumbers in the warmer southern waters. If you havent been to Vietnam, APA13 is the perfect excuse dont put it off!

into selling it as a commodity is not the path for industry expansion into the future. New approaches are needed in all areas of business from governance through to research, from harvesting through to marketing, and from education right through the value chain to the consumer. The conference , which is h o s t e d by t h e V i e t n a m e s e Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), organised by the Asia Pacific Chapter of World Aquaculture Society (WAS-APC), supported by RIA2, and AIT and sponsored by UniPresident (Gold), Biomin (Silver) and a number of special session sponsors, will have some unique features. A highlight will be the first appearance in Vietnam of emeritus professor David Hughes from Imperial College London, UK, who, besides being the opening keynote plenary, will also conduct a workshop on seafood marketing. Dr Pham Anh Tuan, deputy director general, MARD will also present at the plenar y and will focus on the terrific progress that has been made in aquaculture by Vietnam and will also talk about the opportunities and challenges as the industry continues to build momentum. Lukas Manomaitis will preside over his last conference as president, WAS-APC, and will hand over the reins to the Chairman of the conference and Director of AIT in Vietnam, Dr Amrit Bart. Both Manomaitis and Bart have a great affinity with Vietnam and are keen to ensure that this conference and trade show will be memorable especially as it is the first WAS-APC event in Southeast Asia since 2009. Sessions cover the whole gamut of aquaculture including: husbandr y environment, hatcher y genetics, molluscs, IMTA, Biofloc, Aquaponics, Lobsters, Economics & management, Crustacean Health, Seahorses, Crustacean Husbandry, Recirculation systems, Tilapia, Tuna, cobia, Yellowtail, Pangasius, Seabass, Algae, and Sustainable development.

The conference is complemented by a trade Plenary speakers profile show in which more than Dr Pham Anh Tuan has been deputy 75 international exhibitors director general at the Directorate from Asia, America, Europe of Fisheries (D-FISH) of the Ministry and Australia and local supof Agriculture & Rural Development pliers will demonstrate (MARD) in Hanoi, Vietnam since their products and services. March 2010. Dr Tuan is an aquaculThere will also be special ture expert in various fields such as organised sessions during aquaculture extension, project design APA13. Uni-President, the & management, development of aquaAPA13 Gold sponsor is culture techniques suited to varying organising a special disease geographic and socioeconomic condion shrimp session for protions, aquaculture extension and develducers while Biomin, the opment as a component of integrated APA13 Silver sponsor will rural development. He has experience be running a feeding for in freshwater species such as grass profit session. Evonik will carp, Chinese carp and tilapia, particsponsor the utilisation of ularly on the reproduction cycles and amino acids in aquaculture techniques. session. Pentair will sponsor Dr David Hughes, the second plenary the aquaponics session. speaker, is emeritus professor of Food Dabomb will sponsor the Marketing at Imperial College London, alternative proteins of and visiting professor at the University aquafeed session. The US of Kent Business School and at the Soybean Expor t Council Royal Agricultural College, UK. David is (USSEC) will sponsor the a much sought-after speaker at intersoy utilisation in aquaculnational conferences and seminars on ture session and Pharmaq global food industry issues, particularly will sponsor the health consumer trends, and is a strong promanagement session. ponent of building ver tical alliances T h e WA S P r e m i e r between key chain members in the sponsors Novus, Tyson and food industry farmers, life science Alltech will promote their and input companies, ingredient firms, products and ser vices at food and beverage manufacturers, the APA13 trade show retailers and food service. and conference. Novus will sponsor the finfish The Vietnamese Ministr y of and shrimp nutrition session while Alltech hosts the lipids and func- Agriculture and Rural Development tional ingredients session. Tyson will will be running tours to Cat Ba and be the exclusive president recep- Ha Long to visit to the National tion sponsor at APA13, which Marine Broodstock Center and to will be held on December 12, the Ban Sen Oyster Farm. A second tour includes visiting fish cages, 2013. The 5th International Oyster while the tour to Ben Tre includes Symposium is joining forces with the visit of a clam and a shrimp the conference ensuring that farm and a shrimp hatchery and there will be an exciting stream processing unit. of oyster exper tise engaging the great work done in recent MORE INFORmATiON: years which has seen production in nor thern Vietnam climb to over 7,000 mt in just a fiveyear period. Prior to APA13 there will be workshops on bioflocs, integrated aquaculture and disease prevention. Many more workshops are being organised by the APA13 exhibitors are on invitation only. In Vietnamese

Nofima brings aquaculture to feed seminar

UK research organisation Campden BRI has given a boost to its Safety and quality of livestock feed seminar, held in Chipping Campden on March 6, 2014, with the addition of Dr Torbjrn sgrd, Director of Research, Nutrition and Feed Technology at Norwegian food research institute Nofima. Dr sgrd will give attendees an overview of current developments and trends for the future in aquaculture nutrition, providing another sign of the growing importance of aquaculture to the mainstream feed industry.

Algae Congress boosts budding industry

The 7th International Algae Congress gets underway in Hamburg, Germany on December 3-4, with a special emphasis on applications for aquaculture and agriculture. Held in the Hotel Hafen in central Hamburg, the meeting is an opportunity for algae experts from around the world to exchange their latest research, present innovative technologies and discuss the industrial dimension of the algae sector. The speeches, workshops and roundtable discussions are accompanied by a trade show providing a point of contact between the commercial and research worlds. Microalgae and aquatic biomass in general is well-known for its huge potential for the biofuels industry, and the Congress in Hamburg aims to extend this level of excitement to the food and feed sectors. It is currently estimated that the oceans natural production of microalgae totals at 1 000 billion tonnes dry weight, a thousand times more than that of macroalgae. Commercial production of microalgae is at a very early stage, currently standing at just 100 000 tonnes. Basic research and pilot projects are being conducted all the time, and visitors to the event stand at a crossroads in this incredibly fast-changing industry. Frederika Gullfot of Swedens Simris Alg identifies the growth of strategic partnerships between algae companies as a key means of making industrial growth possible. There is a great commercial interest in algae products out there, but we algae companies are generally very small, often too small to do business with important customers such as the food sector. Their demands are simply too large for any of us to be able to supply on our own, and potentially great deals are lost by our commercial efforts being too scattered. Conference topics include production systems for algae, processing technology and its applications as a food and feed additive. Previous contributors to International Aquafeed, IFFOs Andrew Jackson and Dr Ingrid Lupatsch of the UKs Swansea University, will speak in a special double session on the potential applications and markets for algae in aquaculture nutrition and technology. Algae industry movers and shakers will also be promoted with three show awards, for Lifetime Achievement, Innovation and Research, all assessed by experts from industry and academia. 2011s inaugural Lifetime Achivement Award winner, Min Thein of Myanmar, is chairing the final conference session.

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 59


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r Kang-Sen Mai is a professor specializing in aquaculture nutrition at the Ocean University of China, Qingdao. He currently focuses fish species native to China and as a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering plays a major role in shaping the countrys aquaculture policy. As this issue goes to press he will be speaking at the Ninth Symposium of the Worlds Chinese Scientists on Nutrition and Feeding of Finfish and Shellfish (SWCSNFFS) on the subject of the sustainable development of Chinas aquaculture and feed industry. Dr Mai is also the Associate Editor (China) of International Aquafeed magazine, and has this year supervised the editing and translation of its first Chinese edition.

The aquafeed interview

Dr Kang-Sen Mai, professor of aquaculture nutrition at the Ocean University of China, Qingdao

Tell me about the kind of research you specialize in

My major was initially aquaculture for my BSc. Since my postgraduate studies for MSc (Ocean University of China) and PhD (National University of Ireland), my research has specialised in aquaculture nutrition and feeds. I have been working in this field for more than 30 years.

What can the rest of the world learn from the symposium that it can't learn anywhere else?
China is the most important country for aquaculture in the world. Most challenges to the sustainable development to global aquaculture, especially those related to aquafeeds, are usually first faced by China. Hence, the rest of the world can learn the methodologies and experiences from China to overcome these challenges. They can also play the role of early warning for other countries. In addition, the above-mentioned three successful experiences of this symposium can also be learned by other countries.

What does your current research topic address?

My current research topics are mainly on the nutritional physiology and nutrient quantitative requirements of the representative mariculture species in China, such as turbot, yellow croaker, seabass, and groupers. I am interested particularly in the comparative studies on the protein metabolism among carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous fish, and the replacement of fishmeal by alternative protein sources in their feeds.

What is the biggest emerging problem for Chinese aquaculture?

After 30 years of rapid development, Chinese aquaculture is facing a series of emerging problems. Shortages in farming space and raw materials for feed, water quality deterioration, and the safety of aquaculture products are considered to be the most critical factors that impede the sustainability of Chinese aquaculture.

How important is SWCSNFFS for Chinese aquaculture science?

SWCSNFFS has made great contributions to Chinese aquaculture science. It is well known that China has a 3000-year history of aquaculture. However, the rapid development of Chinese aquaculture took place only after the establishment of Chinas aquafeed industry in 1980s. As I have said, there is no modern aquaculture without a modern aquafeed industry. The first SWCSNFFS was held in Guangzhou in 1992 with only about 100 participants. Now there are nearly 1,000 participants, from both academia and industry. Thus, SWCSNFFS's influence has obviously been growing. It has been indicated that the participants benefit a lot from their attendance of the symposium. There are three major reasons, I think, for the success of SWCSNFFS. Firstly, in order to let more participants focus on a professional symposium, we decided to combine SWCSNFFS with the annual meeting of the China Society of Fisheries Subcommittee on Nutrition and Feed in 2003. Secondly, we have always insisted on the principle that SWCSNFFS is a purely academic conference, not allowing too strong a commercial colour, such as product exhibitions or marketing activities. Thirdly, SWCSNFFS invites not only global Chinese aquaculture nutritionists, but also the most famous non-Chinese scientists in aquaculture nutrition around the world, making SWCSNFFS to become one of the worlds really open communication platforms in aquaculture nutrition and feed.

Chinese aquaculture produces over 60 percent of the world's total production volume. How is China playing a role in developing sustainable practices around the world?
As I mentioned above, since China is the biggest country for aquaculture, making its sustainable development is the duty of China. All of its successful experiences to solve the emerging problems can play a role in developing sustainable practices around the world.

How can the feed industry stay sustainable in the face of rising demand from the global population?
In my opinion, in order to make the feed industry sustainable to meet the rising demand of the global population, we must develop new technologies to use a wider range of new feed ingredients: in particular to reduce and even go without marine sources of raw materials, such as fish meal or fish oil. We must also improve feed efficiency, reduce environmental pollution and ensure food quality and safety.

Welcome aboard the magazine as our new Associate Editor for China. Do you have any comments on the future?
From my point of view, International Aquafeed should become a real international magazine. It should be a medium that lets Chinas academia and industry, which produces more than 60 percent of the worlds aquafeeds, get to know well the new developments in this field outside of China. At the same time it should also let the world know what is happening in China, allowing this publication to have a really global influence.

An extended version of this interview can be found on the Aquaculturists blog.

62 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

Most challenges to the sustainable development to global aquaculture, especially those related to aquafeeds, are usually first faced by China

November-December 2013 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | 63


MSC research manager wins W.F. Thompson Award

he prestigious W. F. Thompson Best Student Paper Award has been awarded to a member of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). The award is given annually by The American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists (AIFRB) in recognition of excellence in research as well as to encourage student professionalism in fisheries and aquatic sciences and publication of research results. Dr Nicolas Gutierrez, senior research and policy development manager, MSC was presented with the award at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Annual Science Conference held in Reykjavik, Iceland. Dr. Gutierrez won the award for his 2011 fisheries science paper entitled "Leadership, Incentives and Social Capital Promote Successful Fisheries," which was published in Nature as part of his PhD at the School of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Washington (UW) USA. Gutierrez graduated from UW in 2011 and began working at the MSC the same year.

Aquaculture pioneer joins INVE Aquaculture

NVE Aquaculture, a global leader in nutrition and health has strengthened its technical expertise by adding Randall L. Aungst to its team of hatchery experts. Aungst began his career in Panama in the early 1970s, designing, building and managing numerous successful shrimp hatcheries in both Asia and the Americas. In his new role, Aungst will work as global technical support manager, taking on a consulting role at shrimp hatcheries worldwide that use or plan on using INVE Aquaculture products. Having worked in commercial hatcheries for nearly 40 years, Ive always looked at INVE Aquaculture as a reliable, constant factor. Our industry wouldnt be where it is today if it wasnt for companies like INVE. I look forward to not only assisting our customers by offering advice and tackling certain bottlenecks they might be facing, but also to fully introduce the newly developed Best Balance concept, something I truly believe in, says Aungst.

Zebrafish expert presents at University Aquaculture Program

he University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (UAPB) USA was the location of a recent seminar entitled, "The Importance of Zebrafish in the Aquaculture Industry." In light of considerations by UAPB to further develop its own Zebrafish (Danio rerio) program, the seminar was presented by Christian Lawrence, manager of the Aquatic Resources Program at Boston Childrens Hospital, the pediatric teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School, USA. The Aquaculture research branch of Boston Childrens Hospital boasts one of the largest and most active Zebrafish biomedical research programs in the world. The small, blue-striped fish has many desirable attributes that scientists look for when trying to model human and fish diseases, according to Trace Peterson, UAPB's nationally-recognised expert on Zebrafish diseases, including cancer and toxicology. Speaking about Lawrence, Peterson called him a visionary pioneer in the husbandry and management of laboratory Zebrafish. "Chris has shown what is possible in his career as a fish biologist, and giving our students at UAPB and statewide the opportunity to have similar careers working with Zebrafish is one of the major benefits of developing a Zebrafish program here in Arkansas."

GAAs new relationship manager

64 | InTERnATiOnAL AQUaFEED | November-December 2013

by Marnie Snell

he Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) has expanded its team with the appointment of Sally Krueger as the organisations new relationship manager. Krueger has been an assistant director of GAA since March 2007, handling a number of responsibilities for the association as a whole, as well as its Best Aquaculture Practices third-party certification program. In her new role, Krueger will be responsible for maintaining and forging new and existing relationships with GAA members, sponsors and advertisers. According to the GAA, Krueger is already well versed in the role, managing both the organisations membership renewal and the Global Outlook on Aquaculture Leadership (GOAL) sponsorship campaign.

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