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Contents

Foreword List of Figures List of Tables

v xiii xvii

Chapter 1

Design of Steel Structures


1 2 5 11 14 15

1.1 Introduction to Structural Design 1.2 Evaluation of Sustainability 1.3 Structure of Structural Steel Standards 1.4 Reliability in Design Standards 1.5 European Standards for Execution 1.6 Assessment of Existing Structures

Chapter 2
2.1 General 2.1.1

General Rules and Rules for Buildings


19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 Extent of validity 2.1.1.1 Validity of Eurocode 3 2.1.1.2 Validity of part 1-1 Normative references Assumptions Distinction between principles and application rules Terms and denitions Symbols Requirements 2.2.1.1 Basic requirements 2.2.1.2 Reliability management 2.2.1.3 Design working life, durability and robustness Principles of limit state design
vii

2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.2.1

2.2 Basis of Design

2.2.2

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Design of Steel Structures with Worked Examples to EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-8

2.2.3

Basic variables 2.2.3.1 Actions and environmental inuences 2.2.3.2 Material and product properties Verication by the partial factor method 2.2.4.1 Design values of material properties 2.2.4.2 Design values of geometrical data 2.2.4.3 Design resistances 2.2.4.4 Verication of static equilibrium (EQU) Design assisted by testing General Structural steel 2.3.2.1 Material properties 2.3.2.2 Ductility requirements 2.3.2.3 Fracture toughness 2.3.2.4 Through-thickness properties 2.3.2.5 Tolerances 2.3.2.6 Design values of material coefcients Connecting devices 2.3.3.1 Fasteners 2.3.3.2 Welding consumables Other prefabricated products in buildings

21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 30 31 31 31 35 37 37 37 38 38 38

2.2.4

2.2.5 2.3.1 2.3.2

2.3 Materials

2.3.3

2.3.4

2.4 Durability 2.5 Structural Analysis 2.5.1 Structural modelling for analysis 2.5.1.1 Structural modelling and basic assumptions 2.5.1.2 Joint modelling 2.5.1.3 Ground-structure interaction Global analysis 2.5.2.1 Effects of deformed geometry of the structure 2.5.2.2 Structural stability of frames Imperfections 2.5.3.1 Basis 2.5.3.2 Imperfections for global analysis of frames 2.5.3.3 Imperfection for analysis of bracing systems 2.5.3.4 Member imperfections Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities 2.5.4.1 General 2.5.4.2 Elastic global analysis 2.5.4.3 Plastic global analysis Classication of cross sections

2.5.2

2.5.3

2.5.4

2.5.5

Contents

ix

2.5.5.1 2.5.5.2 2.5.6 2.6.1 2.6.2

Basis Classication

38 38 40 40 40 40 40 44 46 47 47 48 49 51 52 54 54 54 59 66 68 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 78 78 78 79 79

Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis General Resistance of cross-sections 2.6.2.1 General 2.6.2.2 Section properties 2.6.2.3 Tension 2.6.2.4 Compression 2.6.2.5 Bending moment 2.6.2.6 Shear 2.6.2.7 Torsion 2.6.2.8 Bending moment and shear 2.6.2.9 Bending and axial force 2.6.2.10 Bending, shear and axial force Buckling resistance of members 2.6.3.1 Uniform members in compression 2.6.3.2 Uniform members in bending 2.6.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression 2.6.3.4 General method for lateral and lateral torsional buckling 2.6.3.5 Lateral torsional buckling of members with plastic hinges Uniform built-up compression members 2.6.4.1 General 2.6.4.2 Laced compression members 2.6.4.3 Battened Compression Members 2.6.4.4 Closely Spaced Built-up Members General conditions Ultimate limit states for buildings 2.7.2.1 Vertical deections 2.7.2.2 Horizontal deections 2.7.2.3 Vibrations

2.6 Ultimate Limit State

2.6.3

2.6.4

2.7 Serviceability Limit States 2.7.1 2.7.2

Chapter 3

Connections Design
81 81

3.1 Introduction 3.2 Basis of Design

Design of Steel Structures with Worked Examples to EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-8

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.3.1

Assumptions General requirements Applied forces and moments Resistance of joints Design assumptions Joints loaded in shear subject to impact, vibration and/or load reversal Eccentricity at intersections Bolts, nuts and washers 3.3.1.1 General 3.3.1.2 Preloaded bolts Rivets Anchor bolts Categories of bolted connections 3.3.4.1 Shear connections 3.3.4.2 Tension connections Positioning of holes for bolts and rivets Design resistance of individual fasteners 3.3.6.1 Bolts and rivets 3.3.6.2 Injection bolts Group of fasteners Long joints Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts 3.3.9.1 Design slip resistance 3.3.9.2 Combined tension and shear 3.3.9.3 Hybrid connections

81 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 85 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 94 94 95 95 95

3.3 Connections Made with Bolts, Rivets or Pins

3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4

3.3.5 3.3.6

3.3.7 3.3.8 3.3.9

3.3.10 Deductions for fastener holes 3.3.10.1 General 3.3.10.2 Design for block tearing 3.3.10.3 Angles connected by one leg and other unsymmetrically connected members in tension 3.3.10.4 Lug angles 3.3.11 Prying forces 3.3.12 Distribution of forces between fasteners at the ultimate limit state 3.3.13 Connections made with pins 3.4 Welded Connections 3.4.1 General

Contents

xi

3.4.2 3.4.3

Welding consumables Geometry and dimensions 3.4.3.1 Type of weld 3.4.3.2 Fillet welds 3.4.3.3 Fillet welds all round 3.4.3.4 Butt welds 3.4.3.5 Plug welds 3.4.3.6 Flare groove welds Welds with packings Design resistance of a llet weld 3.4.5.1 Length of welds 3.4.5.2 Effective throat thickness 3.4.5.3 Design Resistance of llet welds Design resistance of llet welds all round Design resistance of butt welds 3.4.7.1 Full penetration butt welds 3.4.7.2 Partial penetration butt welds 3.4.7.3 T-butt joints Design resistance of plug welds Distribution of forces

95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 98 98 98 98 99 100 100 100 101 101 101 101 102 103 103 104 104 105 106

3.4.4 3.4.5

3.4.6 3.4.7

3.4.8 3.4.9

3.4.10 Connections to unstiffened anges 3.4.11 Long joints 3.4.12 Eccentrically loaded llet or partial penetration butt welds 3.4.13 Angles connected by one leg 3.5 Analysis, Classication and Modelling 3.6 Open Sections Joints 3.7 Hollow Section Joints

Chapter 4

Worked Examples
109 113 113 114 118 120 123

4.1 Selection of Material for Fracture Toughness (A Steel Subgrade) 4.2 Selection of Material for Lamellar Tearing, through Thickness Properties 4.3 Tensile Chord of Truss Girder from Angles 4.4 Design of a Column with Intermediate Supports 4.5 Secondary Beam Laterally Restrained 4.6 Cantilever Beam Bending 4.7 Portal Frame

xii

Design of Steel Structures with Worked Examples to EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-8

4.8 Built-up Battened Member 4.9 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Beams 4.9.1 4.9.2 LTBeam software Cantilever beam design 4.9.2.1 Forked support of an end cross-section to prevent lateral-torsional buckling 4.9.2.2 Free cantilever beam end without support Transversal support of the upper ange of an end cross-section Beam with end moments and transversal load Beam with end moments, transversal load and intermediate support 4.9.5.1 Elastic continuous support of one of the anges 4.9.5.2 Critical load for various alternatives of intermediate support 4.9.5.3 Evaluation of a beam for a chosen variant

136 141 142 146 146 148 149 150 154 154 155 155 157 157 159 164 164 165 167 167 169 170 171

4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5

4.10 Torsion of Open Cross-Section Member 4.10.1 Design of cross-section 4.10.2 Beam evaluation in ULS 4.10.3 Serviceability limit state 4.11 Torsion of Hollow Cross-Section Member 4.11.1 Check in the ultimate limit state 4.11.2 Evaluation of the serviceability limit state 4.12 Bolted Connection of Double Angle Bar 4.13 Welded Connection of Double Angle Bar 4.14 Header Plate Connection 4.15 Fin Plate Connection