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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 2......................................................................................................................2 FUNDAMENTALS OF KINEMATIC ANALYSIS...............................................................................................2 2.1Degrees of Freedom (DOF).......................................................................................2 2.2Types of Motion........................................................................................................3 2.3Basic Definitions.......................................................................................................4 2.4Mechanisms and its Degree of Freedom...................................................................9 2. Mechanisms !ith "ntermittent Motion....................................................................1 2.#$in%age Transformation..........................................................................................1& 2.'"n(ersion..................................................................................................................19 2.&Fo)r*ar $in%ages and the +rashof ,ondition.........................................................22 2.9-traight $ine Mechanisms.......................................................................................2#

List of Fi !"es

List of Tables


This chapter introd)ces definitions of a n)m*er of terms and concepts re.ated to the synthesis and ana.ysis of mechanisms.

2.# De "ees of F"ee$o% &DOF'

/ny mechanica. system can *e c.assified according to the n)m*er of degrees of freedom (DOF) !hich it possesses. The system0s DOF can *e defined as the number of independent parameters required to uniquely define its position in space at any instant of time with respect to a selected frame or reference.

"n order to )nderstand this point consider a mo(ing o*1ect in 23y coordinate system4 there are three parameters or DOF are a.!ays re5)ired to comp.ete.y define the position of the o*1ect4 they are6 t!o .inear coordinate

x and y to define the position of the

o*1ect and one ang).ar coordinate to define its orientation4 see Fig)re (2.1). The minim)m n)m*er of meas)rements needed to define its position are sho!n in Fig)re

(2.1) as

x 4 y 4 and . Therefore this system4 sho!n in Fig)re (2.1)4 has three DOF. "t

sho).d *e noted here that the ma2im)m n)m*er of degrees of freedom for a rigid *ody in p.ane motion is three.

Fig)re 2.1 Fig)re e2p.ains the 3 DOF of rigid *ody in 23y coordinate system.

7o!4 consider the same o*1ect to e2ist in a three3dimensiona. !or.d coordinate system 23y384 no! si2 parameters are re5)ired to define its position 1. These parameters can *e set as three .engths

x 4 y and z 4 and three 4 4 and .

2.2 T()es of Motion

/ny rigid *ody is free to mo(e !ithin a reference frame. "ts motion is genera..y complex motion4 !hich is sim).taneo)s com*ination of rotation and translation. "n t!o3 dimensiona. space4 comp.e2 motion is a com*ination of sim).taneo)s rotation a*o)t z3 a2is and trans.ation reso.(ed into x3 and y3components. "t is con(enient to note that three3dimensiona. space is *eyond the scope of this te2t. "n other !ords4 the present te2t considers the case of p.anar (23D) %inematic systems. For p.anar motion4 types of rigid *ody motion can *e c.assified as6

/ny rigid *ody in a space has si2 degrees of freedom.

13 P!"e "otation* 9ere4 the *ody possesses one point as a center of rotation !hich has no motion !ith respect to the reference frame. 9o!e(er4 a.. other points on the mo(ing *ody descri*e arcs a*o)t that center. "t sho).d *e noted here that the orientation of the *ody changes instantaneo)s.y !ith time. 23 P!"e t"anslation* "n this case4 a.. points on the *ody descri*e para..e. paths. Therefore4 orientation of the *ody does not change !ith time. 33 Co%)le+ %otion* This represents a sim).taneo)s com*ination of rotation and trans.ation. 9ere4 *oth .inear position and orientation of the mo(ing *ody change sim).taneo)s.y !ith time. /ny se.ected point on the mo(ing *ody tra(e.s in non3 para..e. paths4 and there is4 at e(ery instant4 an instantaneous center of rotation !hich contin)o)s.y its position changes contin)o)s.y.

Translation and rotation represent independent motions of the *ody. :ach can e2ist !itho)t the other. /s sho!n in Fig)re (2.1)4 the x and y3coordinates represent the trans.ation components of motion4 and the term represents the rotation component.

2., -asi. Definitions

Linkages are the *asic *)i.ding *.oc%s of a.. mechanisms. /s !i.. *e sho!n .ater in the ne2t chapters that a.. common forms of mechanisms s)ch as cams4 gears4 etc. are in fact (ariations on a common theme of .in%ages. $in%ages are made )p of .in%s and 1oints.

/ link4 as sho!n in Fig)re (2.2)4 is ass)med to *e a rigid *ody !hich possesses at .east t!o nodes for attachments to other .in%s. Binary .in% is the .in% !ith t!o nodes4 ternary .in% is the .in% !ith three nodes4 and 5)aternary .in% is the .in% !ith fo)r nodes4 and so on. -ee Fig)re (2.2) for e2p.anation.

(a) Binary .in%

(*) Ternary .in%

(c) ;)aternary .in%

Fig)re 2.2 Fig)re sho!s different types of .in%s.

/ joint is a connection *et!een t!o or more .in%s (at their nodes)4 !hich a..o!s some re.ati(e motion *et!een the connected .in%s. <oints are ca..ed %inematic pairs4 and they are c.assified according to the n)m*er of degrees of freedom a..o!ed at the 1oint.

Fig)re (2.3) sho!s of one3degree of freedom 1oints common.y fo)nd in p.anar mechanisms. These 1oints or %inematic pair is said to *e full joints and denoted as j1 since it f)..y constraints the re.ati(e motion of p.anar .in% !ith respect to the other. For e2amp.e the re(o.)te 1oint a..o!s one rotationa. DOF4 see Fig)re (2.3a)4 and the s.iding 1oint a..o!s one trans.ationa. DOF *et!een the 1oined .in%s4 see Fig)re (2.3*). The a*o(e one3degree of freedom 1oints represent specia. cases of the scre! 1oint4 see Fig)re (2.3c). 9o!e(er4 there are apparent.y t!o re.ati(e motion *et!een the scre! and the n)t4 these t!o motions are dependent and therefore scre! 1oint is considered as one3degree of freedom 1oint. The motion of the n)t res).ts from the he.i2 ang.e in the scre!. "f the he.i2 ang.e is made 8ero4 the n)t rotates !itho)t ad(ancing and it *ecomes re(o.)te
o 1oint4 see Fig)re (2.3a). "f the he.i2 ang.e is made 9= 4 the n)t !i.. trans.ate the

a2is of the scre! and it *ecomes a s.ider 1oint4 see Fig)re (2.3*).

(a) >e(o.)te 1oint

(*) -.iding 1oint

(c) -cre! 1oint Fig)re 2.3 of one3degree of freedom 1oints4 common.y e2isted in p.anar mechanisms.

Fig)re (2.4) sho!s of t!o3degrees of freedom 1oints !hich sim).taneo)s.y a..o! t!o independent re.ati(e motions *et!een the 1oined .in%s. These 1oints or %inematic pair is said to *e half joints and denoted as j 2 since it partia..y constraints the re.ati(e motion of one .in% !ith respect to the other. /s sho!n in Fig)res (2.4c) and (2.4f)4 1oints and cam 1oints !ith fo..o!er may *eha(e as one3degree or t!o3degrees of freedom according to the friction e2isted.

(a) ?in in s.ot 1oint

(*) ,y.indrica. 1oint

(c) > 1oint

(d) +ear 1oint

(e) ,am 1oint !ith face fo..o!er

(f) ,am 1oint !ith fo..o!er

Fig)re 2.4 of t!o3degrees of freedom 1oints4 common.y e2isted in p.anar mechanisms.

Fig)re (2. ) sho!s another c.assification of 1oints or %inematic pairs *y order4 !here order is defined as the number of links joined minus one. Therefore4 it ta%es t!o .in%s to form a sing.e 1oint !ith order one. /s additiona. .in%s are p.aced on the same 1oint4 the order is increased on a one for one *asis. The first3order one3degree of freedom 1oint is denoted as j1 4 see Fig)re (2. a)@ ho!e(er the second3order one3degree of freedom is denoted as 2 j1 4 see Fig)re (2. *). ,onse5)ent.y4 the kth order one3degree of freedom 1oint2 is denoted as k j1 . <oint order has significance inf.)ence in the proper determination of the o(era.. mechanism or assem*.y degree of freedom.

1 4 for !hich p is the n)m*er of 1oined .in%s. "t sho).d *e noted here that k = p


There is another c.assification of 1oints *y the type of physical closure of the joints @ either force or form closed. / form closed 1oint is %ept together or c.osed *y its geometry4 s)ch as a pin in a ho.e forming a re(o.)te 1oint or as s.ider in a t!o3sided s.ot forming a s.iding 1oint. "n contrast4 a force closed 1oint re5)ires some e2terna. force to %eep it together or c.osed4 s)ch as a pin in a ha.f3*earing or a s.ider on a s)rface. "t is o*(io)s that cam 1oint is a force closed since fo..o!er a.!ays needs an e2terna. force to %eep itse.f in contact !ith the rotating cam. This force co).d *e s)pp.ied *y gra(ity4 spring4 or any e2terna. means.

(a) First order re(o.)te 1oint Fig)re 2.

(*) -econd order re(o.)te 1oint

,.assification of 1oints or %inematic pair *y order.

Fig)re (2.#) sho!s other 1oints )sed for spatia. mechanisms. These 1oints ha(e at .east three3degrees of freedom.

(a) ?.anar 1oint (3 DOF)

(*) -pherica. 1oint (3 DOF)

Fig)re 2.# Other types of 1oints )sed for spatia. mechanisms.


Fina..y4 it sho).d *e mentioned that proper determination of 1oint degree of freedom is essentia. to o*tain the o(era.. degree of freedom for the mechanism or the !ho.e assem*.y. "n order to (is)a.i8e the degree of freedom of a 1oint in a mechanism4 it is to menta..y disconnect the t!o .in%s !hich create the 1oint from the rest of the mechanism. Then t is easier to see the DOF the t!o 1oined .in%s ha(e !ith respect to each other. This .ast step can *e performed *y menta..y fi2ing one of the .in%s in the pair and recording the n)m*er or independent motion the other .in%.

9o!e(er4 a definition of mechanism and machine has *een gi(en in the pre(io)s chapter@ it is possi*.e no! to define those terms more caref)..y *ased on the pre(io)s disc)ssion as fo..o!s6 A /ine%ati. .0ain .an be $efine$ as* /n assem*.y of .in%s and 1oints4 interconnected in a !ay to pro(ide a contro..ed o)tp)t motion in response to a s)pp.ied inp)t motion. A %e.0anis% is $efine$ as* / %inematic chain in !hich at .east one .in% has *een grounded4 or attached to a reference frame4 for !hich itse.f may *e in motion. A %a.0ine is $efine$ as* / co..ection of mechanisms arranged to transmit forces and do !or%4 A>e).ea)20s definitionB.

2.1 Me.0anis%s an$ its De "ee of F"ee$o%

The concept of degree of freedom (DOF) is f)ndamenta. to *oth the synthesis and ana.ysis of mechanisms. "t is re5)ired to *e a*.e to 5)ic%.y determine the DOF of any co..ection of .in%s and 1oints !hich may *e s)ggested as a so.)tion to a pro*.em. Degree of freedom ( ca..ed the mo*i.ity) of a system can *e defined as6 The number of inputs required in order creating a predictable output@ another definition may *e the number of independent coordinates required to define its position.

There is no re5)irement that a mechanism ha(e on.y one DOF4 a.tho)gh that is often desira*.e for simp.icity. -ome machines ha(e many DOF for their specia. p)rposes4 s)ch as p.anetary gear train and ro*ot.

Cinematic chains or mechanisms may *e either open or c.osed. Fig)re (2.') sho!s *oth open and c.osed mechanisms. / c.osed mechanism !i.. ha(e no open attachment points or nodes and may ha(e one or more degrees of freedom. /n open mechanism of more than one .in% !i.. a.!ays ha(e more than one degree of freedom4 th)s )s)a..y re5)iring as many act)ators as it has DOF. / common e2amp.e of an open mechanism is an ind)stria. ro*ot. / dyad is an open %inematic chain of t!o *inary .in%s and one 1oint.

(a) Open chain mechanism

(*) ,.osed chain mechanism

Fig)re 2.' Different types of mechanism chain.

"n order to determine the DOF of any mechanism4 it is re5)ired to determine the n)m*er of .in%s and *oth the n)m*er and degree of freedom of 1oints. -ince the st)dy of spatia. mechanisms is *eyond the scope of this te2t4 the disc)ssion of DOF of mechanisms is .imited to p.anar mechanisms on.y. The +r)e*.er0s e5)ation for determining the DOF of any p.anar mechanism is


DOF = 3 (n 1) 2 j

(2.1) for !hich n is the n)m*er of .in%s and j is the n)m*er of 1oints. -ince the (aria*.e j co)nts for *oth f).. 1oints j1 and ha.f 1oints j 2 4 it can *e defined as j = j1 + 1 D 2 j 2 . "t is .ess conf)sing to )se C)t8*ach0s modification of +r)e*.er0 e5)ation (2.1) in this form4
DOF = 3 (n 1) 2 j1 j 2


!here j1 is the n)m*er of f).. 1oints (1oints ha(ing one3degree of freedom)4 and j 2 is the n)m*er of ha.f 1oints (1oints ha(ing t!o3degrees if freedom).

The (a.)e of j1 and j 2 in e5)ation (2.2) m)st caref)..y determined to acco)nt for a.. f)..4 ha.f4 and m).tip.e 1oints in any .in%age. The DOF of any mechanism can *e 5)ic%.y determined from this e2pression *efore in(estigating in more detai.ed design. "t is interesting to note that this e5)ation has no information on it a*o)t .in% si8ed and shapes4 on.y their 5)antity.

Fig)re (2.&) sho!s the imp.ementation of C)t8*ach0s e5)ation (2.2) for (ario)s types of .in%ages !ith different types of 1oints. /s sho!n in this fig)re4 the degree of freedom of an assem*.y of .in%s comp.ete.y predicts its characteristics. There are on.y three possi*i.ities6 13 "f the DOF is positi(e4 then the assem*.y is a mechanism4 and the .in%s !i.. ha(e re.ati(e motion4 see Fig)res (2.&a) to (2.&e). 23 "f the DOF is e2act.y 8ero4 then the assem*.y is a str)ct)re4 and no motion is possi*.e4 see Fig)re (2.&f). 33 "f the DOF is negati(e4 then the assem*.y is a pre.oaded str)ct)re4 !hich means that no motion is possi*.e and some stresses may *e present4 see Fig)re (2.&g).


(a) n =
j1 = j2 = 1
DOF = 3 4 2 1 =1

(*) n = &
j1 = 1= j2 = =
DOF = 3 ' 2 1= = =1

(c) n = 3
j1 = 2 j2 = 1
DOF = 3 2 2 2 1 =1


(d) n = 3
j1 = 2 j2 = 1
DOF = 3 2 2 2 1 =1

(e) n = '
j1 = ' j2 = 1
DOF = 3 # 2 ' 1 =3

(f) n = 3
j1 = 3 j2 = =
DOF = 3 2 2 3 = ==

(g) n = 2
j1 = 2 j2 = =

DOF = 3 1 2 2 = = 1

Fig)re 2.& C)t8*ach imp.ementation of (ario)s mechanisms. 13

-ince the +r)e*.er criterion and its C)t8*ach0s modification pay no attention to .in% si8es or shapes4 it can gi(e mis.eading res).ts in the case of )ni5)e geometric config)rations. "n order to )nderstand this point4 consider the mechanisms depicted in Fig)re (2.9). 9ere4 the mechanism !ith ternary .in%s of ar*itrary shape has DOF = = 4 see Fig)re (2.9a). Therefore4 it is a str)ct)re. Fig)re (2.9*) sho!s the same mechanism !ith a straight ternary .in%4 and three e5)a. in .ength *inary .in%s. "n this (ery )ni5)e geometry4 the mechanism can mo(e and it is not str)ct)re anymore4 ho!e(er +r)e*.er criterion and its C)t8*ach0s modification sti.. predict it as a str)ct)re or a tr)ss.

(a) n =
j1 = #

DOF = =

This agrees !ith the predicted DOF.

(*) n =
j1 = # DOF = =

This does not agree !ith the predicted DOF4 the act)a. DOF is one.

(c) n = 3
j1 = 3 DOF = =

This does not agree !ith the predicted DOF4 the act)a. DOF is one.

Fig)re 2.9 Fig)re e2p.ains +r)e*.er parado2es. 14

Fig)re (2.9c) sho!s another (ery common mechanism !hich diso*eys +r)e*.er criterion. The 1oint *et!een the t!o discs can *e ass)med to a..o! no s.ip4 pro(ided that s)fficient friction is a(ai.a*.e4 "f no s.ip occ)rs4 then the 1oint perform as one3degree of freedom4 j1 4 !hich a..o!s on.y re.ati(e ang).ar motion *et!een the discs. Eith this ass)mption4 +r)e*.er e5)ation predicts 8ero degree of freedom of the !ho.e mechanism. 9o!e(er4 this .in%age does mo(e ( DOF = 1 ).

There are other of parado2es3 !hich diso*ey the +r)e*.er criterion d)e to their o!n geometry. Therefore4 the designer needs to *e a.erted to these possi*.e inconsistencies.

2.2 Me.0anis%s 3it0 Inte"%ittent Motion

"ntermittent motion is a se5)ence of motions and d!e..s. / d!e.. is a period in !hich the o)tp)t .in% remains stationary !hi.e the inp)t .in% contin)o)s.y mo(es. There are many app.ications for mechanisms ha(ing intermittent motion4 s)ch as opening and c.osing (a.(es in interna. com*)stion engines. For this p)rposes4 a cam mechanism is )sed to achie(e the re5)ired d!e..s for compression and com*)stion stro%es.

One common form of intermittent motion de(ice is the +ene(a mechanism4 see Fig)res (2.1=a) and (2.1=*). "n +ene(a mechanism4 the inp)t cran%4 .in% 24 is typica..y a motor dri(en at a constant speed. The +ene(a !hee. is fitted !ith at .east three e5)ispaced4 radia. s.ots. The cran% has a pin !hich inters a radia. s.ot and ca)ses the +ene(a !hee. to t)rn thro)gh a portion of re(o.)tion. Ehen the pin .ea(es that s.ot4 the +ene(a !hee. remains stationary )nti. the pin enters the ne2t s.ot. The res).t is intermittent rotation of the +ene(a !hee.. The n)m*er of s.ots determines the n)m*er of FstopsG4 !here stop is

9ere4 parado2es mean a gro)p of mechanisms that .eads to a contradiction.

synonymo)s !ith dwell. / +ene(a !hee. needs three stops at .east to !or%. The ma2im)m n)m*er of stops is .imited on.y *y the si8e of the !hee..

(a) :2terna. +ene(a mechanism !ith fo)r3stops

(*) "nterna. +ene(a mechanism !ith fo)r3 stops

(c) $inear +ene(a mechanism Fig)re 2.1= Different types of +ene(a mechanism for intermittent motion.


There is a (ariation of the +ene(a mechanism !hich has intermittent .inear o)tp)t4 see Fig)re (2.1=c). This mechanism is ana.ogo)s to an open -cotch yo%e de(ice 4 !ith m).tip.e yo%es4 see Fig)res (2.11a) and (2.11*).

(a) -cotch yo%e mechanism

(*) Modified -cotch yo%e mechanism

Fig)re 2.11 Typica. -cotch yo%e mechanisms.

/nother e2amp.e of mechanisms that pro(ide d!e..s in their o)tp)t motion is >atchet and ?a!.4 see Fig)re (2.12). 9ere4 an arm is pi(oted a*o)t the center of the toothed ratchet !hee. and is mo(ed *ac% and forth to inde2 the !hee.. The dri(ing pa!. rotates the ratchet !hee. in one direction and does no !or% on the ret)rn trip. The .oc%ing pa!. pre(ents the ratchet from re(ersing direction !hi.e the dri(ing pa!. ret)rns.

Fig)re 2.12 >eatchet and pa!. mechanism.


The -cotch yo%e de(ice is a three .in%s mechanism !hich gi(es an e2act simple harmonic motion in response to a constant cran% speed.


2.4 Lin/a e T"ansfo"%ation

-ynthesi8ing and %inematic ana.ysis techni5)es sometimes re5)ire simp.ifying the gi(en mechanism into .in%age4 this may gi(e greater )sef).ness. There are se(era. transformation techni5)es !hich co).d *e )sed4 they are6 13 /ny s.iding f).. 1oint can *e rep.aced *y a f).. rotating 1oint !ith no change in DOF of the mechanism4 see Fig)re (2.13). /s sho!n in this fig)re4 the cran%3s.ider mechanism can *e transformed to fo)r3*ar .in%age and (ice (ersa4 see Fig)re (2.13a). "t sho).d *e noted here that if the s.iding 1oint has .inear s.iding path4 the rotating 1oint is then .ocated at infinity4 see Fig)re (2.13*).

(a) Transformation of cran%3s.ider mechanism !ith c)r(ed s.iding path

(*) Transformation of cran%3s.ider mechanism !ith .inear s.iding path

Fig)re 2.13 ,ran%3s.ider mechanism transformation into fo)r3*ar .in%age.

23 /ny ha.f 1oint can *e rep.aced *y a *inary .in% !ith t!o f).. 1oints4 see Fig)re (2.14). "t sho).d *e noted here that if the ha.f 1oint is created d)e to the contact of t!o c)r(ed s)rfaces4 this can *e rep.aced *y a *inary .in% !hich connecting the center of c)r(at)re of the t!o c)r(ed s)rfaces for !hich the t!o f).. rotating 1oints are .ocated at these centers of c)r(at)re4 see Fig)re (2..4a). 9o!e(er4 if the ha.f 1oint is created d)e to the contact of straight and c)r(ed s)rfaces4 this can *e rep.aced *y a s.ider


.in% !hich .ocated at the center of c)r(at)re of the c)r(ed s)rface and s.ides in a s.ot para..e. to the straight s)rface4 see Fig)re (2.14*).

(a) Transformation of ha.f 1oint !ith t!o c)r(ed s)rfaces into *inary .in% !ith t!o f).. rotating 1oints

(*) Transformation of ha.f 1oint !ith .inear and c)r(ed s)rface into a s.ider !hich s.ides para..e. to the .inear s)rface

Fig)re 2.14 Transformation of ha.f 1oint into a *inary .in% !ith t!o f).. 1oints.

2.5 In6e"sion
:(ery mechanism is formed of a %inematic chain. Ehen one of the .in%s in the %inematic chain is fi2ed it *ecomes a mechanism. To determine the in(ersions of a mechanism consider the %inematic chain forming the mechanism and o*tain the desired in(ersions *y fi2ing any one of the mem*ers as the frame .in%. Therefore4 an inversion is created *y gro)nding a different .in% in the %inematic chain. Th)s there are as many possi*.e in(ersions of a gi(en .in%age as it has .in%s4 see Fig)re (2.1 ). The motions res).ting from each in(ersion can *e 5)ite different4 *)t in(ersions of .in%age may yie.d motions to other in(ersions of the same .in%age4 these in(ersions are ca..ed nondistinct inversions4 see Fig)res (2.1 a) and (2.1 *). "n(ersions !hich ha(e distinct.y different motions are denoted as distinct inversions4 as sho!n Fig)res (2.1 a) or (2.1 *)4 (2.1 c)4 and (2.1 d). 19

(a) "n(ersion H1 cran%3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism

(*) "n(ersion H2 cran%3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism

(c) "n(ersion H3 roc%er3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism

(d) "n(ersion H4 cran%3cran% (drag) fo)r3*ar mechanism

Fig)re 2.1 :2amp.e of fo)r3*ar .in%age in(ersions for !hich *oth distinct and non3distinct in(ersions are e2isted.

/s sho!n in Fig)re (2.1 )4 there are some types of fo)r3*ar mechanisms for !hich their in(ersions are *oth distincti(e and non3distincti(e4 these types of fo)r3*ar mechanisms are ca..ed +rashof fo)r3*ar mechanisms. 9o!e(er4 if a.. in(ersions of a certain fo)r3*ar mechanism are non3distincti(e4 then this is a non3+rashof fo)r3*ar mechanism4 see Fig)re (2.1#). "t is o*(io)s in this fig)re that a.. in(ersions yie.d roc%er3roc%er fo)r3*ar mechanism. The +rashof condition for a fo)r3*ar mechanism !i.. *e disc)ssed in the


ne2t section. "t sho).d *e noted that for different in(ersions of a mechanism a.tho)gh the motion characteristics are entire.y different *)t the re.ati(e ang).ar disp.acements of the mem*ers remain )nchanged irrespecti(e of the .in% chosen as a frame.

(a) "n(ersion H1

(*) "n(ersion H2

(c) "n(ersion H3

(d) "n(ersion H4

Fig)re 2.1# "n(ersions of fo)r3*ar .in%age for !hich a.. in(ersions are roc%er3roc%er4 they are non3distinct in(ersions.

/nother e2amp.e of distinct in(ersions is sho!n in Fig)re (2.1'). This fig)re sho!s the fo)r possi*.e in(ersion of a simp.e fo)r3*ar s.ider3cran% mechanism. "n(ersion H1 is the most common.y seen and is )sed for interna. com*)stion engines and p)mps. "n(ersion H2 gi(es roc%er mechanism !hich %no!n as Ehit!orth mechanism and )sed in cran%3


shaper 5)ic%3ret)rn mechanism. 9ere4 the s.ider .in% has comp.e2 motion since it rotates and s.ides on another rotating .in%. "n(ersion H3 gi(es a p)re rotation for the s.ider .in%4 !hi.e the co) .in% s.ides inside it. "n(ersion H4 is o*tained *y gro)nding the s.ider4 here as the cran% rotates4 the o)tp)t .in% s.ides inside the s.ider.

(a) "n(ersion H1 cran%3s.ider mechanism I s.ider s.ides and co) rotates !.r.t. s.ider

(*) "n(ersion H2 roc%er mechanism I cran% rotates and s.ider s.ides on the o)tp)t roc%er .in%

(c) "n(ersion H3 cran% rotates and the co) s.ides inside the s.ider !hich rotates a*o)t its pi(ot

(d) "n(ersion H4 s.ider is fi2ed I cran% rotates and o)tp)t .in% s.ides inside the s.ider

Fig)re 2.1' Fo)r distinct in(ersions of the fo)r3*ar s.ider3cran% mechanism.

2.7 Fo!"ba" Lin/a es an$ t0e 8"as0of Con$ition

/s sho!n *efore4 the fo)r*ar .in%age sho!s the simp.est possi*.e pin31ointed chain for sing.e degree of freedom mechanism4 see Fig)re (2.1&). The fe!est parts that can do the 1o* !i.. )s)a..y gi(e the .east e2pensi(e and most re.ia*.e so.)tion. Th)s the fo)r*ar .in%age sho).d *e among the first choice to motion contro. pro*.ems.

;)ic%3ret)rn mechanism is an e2pression )sed for mechanisms !hich gi(es reciprocating o)tp)t motion for a comp.ete rotation of the inp)t cran%. "n these mechanisms the ret)rn stro%e is a.!ays faster than the !or% stro%e. ;)ic%3ret)rn mechanisms !i.. *e in(estigated in the ne2t chapter.


Fig)re 2.1& / typica. pin31oined fo)r3*ar mechanism.

The +rashof condition is a (ery simp.e re.ationship !hich predicts the *eha(io)r of a fo)r*ar .in%age0s in(ersions )sing on.y the .in% .engths. "n order to )nderstand the +rashof condition4 .et the .ength of the shortest .in%4

L ! 4 and "
then if
+ L L +"

the .ength of the .ongest .in%4 and the .engths of the remaining t!o .in%s4


the .in%age is +rashof and at .east one .in% !i.. *e capa*.e of ma%ing a comp.ete re(o.)tion !ith respect to the fi2ed .in% (gro)nd). "f ine5)a.ity (2.1) is not tr)e4 then the .in%age is non3+rashof and no .in% !i.. *e capa*.e of a comp.ete re(o.)tion re.ati(e to the gro)nd4 this .eads to trip.e roc%er fo)r*ar .in%age since a.. the three mo(ing .in%s are roc%ing on.y. 7ote that +rashof condition is app.ied regard.ess of the order of assem*.y of the .in%s. The motions possi*.e from a fo)r3*ar .in%age depend on *oth the +rashof condition and the in(ersion chosen. The in(ersions is defined !ith respect to the shortest .in%4 see Fig)re (2.19).


Fig)re 2.19 Fo)r distinct in(ersions of the fo)r3*ar s.ider3cran% mechanism.

+ L < ! +"4

/s sho!n in Fig)re (2.19)4 in the case of

gro)nding the .in% ad1acent to

the shortest gi(es crank-rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism for !hich the shortest .in% !i.. f)..y rotate and the other .in% pi(oted to the gro)nd !i.. osci..ate. +ro)nding the shortest .in% gi(es crank-crank #drag$ fo)r3*ar mechanism. Fina..y4 gro)nding the .in% opposite to the shortest gi(es rocker-rocker #double rocker$ fo)r3*ar mechanism4 in !hich *oth .in%s pi(oted to the gro)nd osci..ate and on.y the co) .in% ma%es a comp.ete re(o.)tion.

For the case

+ L > ! +" 4

a.. in(ersions are double rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism4 in

!hich a.. .in%s are osci..ate and comp.ete no re(o.)tion. This case is ca..ed triple rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism.

For the specia. case

+ L = ! +" 4

the fo)r*ar .in%age !i.. s!ing *et!een do)*.e cran%

and cran%3roc%er *)t !i.. ha(e change points t!ice per re(o.)tion of the inp)t cran% !hen a.. the .in%s *ecome co..inear4 see Fig)re (2.2=). "n other !ords4 change points a..o! the mechanism to s!itch )npredicta*.y *et!een the para..e.ogram and anti3
o para..e.ogram forms e(ery 1&= )n.ess some additiona. .in%s are pro(ided to carry it


thro)gh those positions. This additiona. o)t3of3phase .in% is pro(ided to g)arantee carry-through of the change points4 see Fig)re (2.21).

(a) ?ara..e.ogram form

(*) /nti3para..e.ogram form

Fig)re 2.2= ?ara..e.ogram form of specia. case +rashof .in%age.

The para..e.ogram config)ration4 see Fig)re (2.2=)4 is a specia. case +rashof .in%age and is 5)ite )sef). as it e2act.y d)p.icates the rotary motion of the dri(er cran% at the dri(en cran%. One common )se is to co)p.e the t!o !indshie.d !iper. The co) of the para..e.ogram .in%age is in c)r(i.inear trans.ation4 remaining at the same ang.e !hi.e a.. points on it descri*e identica. circ).ar paths.

Fig)re 2.21 Do)*.e para..e.ogram .in%age !hich carries thro)gh the change points.

There is nothing *ad or good a*o)t the +rashof condition. $in%ages of a.. possi*.e config)rations are e5)a..y )sef). in their p.ace. The )se of crank-rocker4 crank-crank4 double rocker or e(en triple rocker fo)r3*ar mechanism depends )pon the app.ication.

2.9 St"ai 0t Line Me.0anis%s

/ (ery common app.ication of co) .in% is the generation of e2act straight .ine or appro2imate straight .ine tra1ectories. Fig)re (2.22a) sho!s Eatt0s straight3.ine .in%age. This do)*.e roc%er .in%age is sti.. )sed in car s)spension systems to g)ide the rear a2.e )p and do!n in a straight .ine.

(a) Eatt0s straight3.ine .in%age

(*) ,he*yshe( straight3.ine .in%age

(c) 9oe%ens straight3.ine .in%age

(d) ?ea)ce..ier e2act straight3.ine .in%age

Fig)re 2.22 -ome common straight3.ine .in%ages.


The ,he*yshe( straight3.ine .in%age4 a +rashof do)*.e roc%er4 is sho!n in Fig)re (2.22*). 9o!e(er4 the 9oe%ens straight3.ine .in%age4 sho!n in Fig)re (2.22c)4 is a +rashof cran%3roc%er. This .in%age may ha(e an ad(antage in some cases. /.. of these mechanisms generate an appro2imate straight3.ine tra1ectory.

"n order to generate an e2act straight .ine tra1ectory4 more than fo)r .in%s are re5)ired. ?ea)ce..ier (1&#4) disco(ered an e2act straight .ine mechanism of eight .in%s4 see Fig)re (2.22d). $in%s 4 #4 '4 and & form a rhom*)s. $in% 3 e5)a.s .in% 4 and !hen .in% 1 e2act.y e5)a.s .in% 24 point , generates a straight .ine tra1ectory4 i.e. an arc with infinite radius. By mo(ing the pi(ot O 2 .eft or right4 i.e. .in% 1 does not e5)a. .in% 24 point , generates tr)e circ.e arcs !ith radii m)ch .arger than the .in% .engths.