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Rezolu?ia digitala reprezinta o masura a clarita?ii sau a gradului de detaliere a unei imagini digitale (numerice).

Imaginile digitale sunt forma de memorare ?i prelucrare a imaginilor obi?nuite ntr-un calculator; ele pot fi ce-i drept afi?a te sau tiparite, dar, spre deosebire de imaginile reale, nu se pot vedea ca atar e, direct. De aceea, spre deosebire de rezolu?ia obi?nuita, cea digitala se expr ima numai n pixeli, fara raportare la vreo lungime. De ex. o imagine de 800 x 600 pixeli, sau ?i n megapixeli (o imagine de 0,48 megapixeli). O marime nrudita este numarul de dots per inch i. Detalii[modificare] Rezolu?ia n pixeli exprima dimesiunile imaginii (n memoria unui calculator), n ipotez a ca este vorba de o imagine dreptunghiulara, ?i anume (lungime x la?ime) masura te n pixeli. Aceasta exprimare nu se poate aplica la alte forme de imagini. Rezolu?ia n megapixeli (prescurtat: Mpx sau ?i Mp) exprima numarul total de pixel i cuprin?i n aria imaginii, indiferent de forma ei. De exemplu, daca o imagine es te dreptunghiulara ?i are 2 megapixeli, ea ar putea avea att o rezolu?ie de 1.600 x 1.200 (1.600 x 1.200 = 1,92 megapixeli, rotunjit la 2 Mpx), dar ?i de 20.000 x 100, precum ?i nenumarate alte combina?ii. Foarte des numarul de megapixeli se rotunje?te pna la 1 - 2 cifre dupa virgula. Rezolu?ia n dpi (dot per inch = puncte/?ol) reprezinta ?i ea o masura a clarita?i i unei imagini, de data asta reale, care a fost produsa de un dispozitiv anume d e prelucrare a imaginilor, cum e cazul mai ales pentru imprimante, scanere ?i ec rane. Astfel, dpi-ul reprezinta numarul de puncte tipografice ce pot fi tiparite sau afi?ate pe lungimea de un inch sau ?ol: cu ct o imagine reala de o marime pr estabilita are o rezolu?ie dpi mai mare, cu att ea este formata din mai mul?i pix eli ?i este mai clara, oferind mai multe detalii (cel pu?in n principiu). DPI measurement in monitor resolution[edit] Monitors do not have dots, but do have pixels; the closely related concept for m onitors and images is pixels per inch or PPI. Old CRT type video displays were almost universally rated in dot pitch, which re fers to the spacing between the sub-pixel red, green and blue dots which made up the pixels themselves. Monitor manufacturers used the term "dot trio pitch", th e measurement of the distance between the centers of adjacent groups of three do ts/rectangles/squares on the CRT screen. Monitors commonly used dot pitches of 0 .39, 0.33, 0.32, 0.29, 0.27, 0.25, and 0.22 mm. LCD monitors have a trio of subpixels, which are more easily measured. DPI measurement in printing[edit] DPI is used to describe the resolution number of dots per inch in a digital prin t and the printing resolution of a hard copy print dot gain, which is the increa se in the size of the halftone dots during printing. This is caused by the sprea ding of ink on the surface of the media. Up to a point, printers with higher DPI produce clearer and more detailed output . A printer does not necessarily have a single DPI measurement; it is dependent on print mode, which is usually influenced by driver settings. The range of DPI supported by a printer is most dependent on the print head technology it uses. A dot matrix printer, for example, applies ink via tiny rods striking an ink ribb on, and has a relatively low resolution, typically in the range of 60 to 90 DPI. An inkjet printer sprays ink through tiny nozzles, and is typically capable of 300-720 DPI.[1] A laser printer applies toner through a controlled electrostatic charge, and may be in the range of 600 to 2,400 DPI. The DP measurement of a printer often needs to be considerably higher than the p (termen de specialitate englez) - dp

ixels per inch (PPI) measurement of a video display in order to produce similarquality output. This is due to the limited range of colors for each dot typicall y available on a printer. At each dot position, the simplest type of color print er can either print no dot, or print a dot consisting of a fixed volume of ink i n each of four color channels (typically CMYK with cyan, magenta, yellow and bla ck ink) or 24 = 16 colors on laser, wax and most inkjet printers. Higher-end inkjet printers can offer 5, 6 or 7 ink colors giving 32, 64 or 128 p ossible tones per dot location. Contrast this to a standard sRGB monitor where e ach pixel produces 256 intensities of light in each of three channels (RGB). While some color printers can produce variable drop volumes at each dot position , and may use additional ink-color channels, the number of colors is still typic ally less than on a monitor. Most printers must therefore produce additional col ors through a halftone or dithering process. The exception to this rule is a dye -sublimation printer that utilizes a printing method more akin to pixels per inc h. The printing process could require a region of four to six dots (measured across each side) in order to faithfully reproduce the color contained in a single pix el. An image that is 100 pixels wide may need to be 400 to 600 dots in width in the printed output; if a 100100-pixel image is to be printed inside a one-inch sq uare, the printer must be capable of 400 to 600 dots per inch in order to accura tely reproduce the image. A 10 10-pixel image on a computer display usually requires many more than 10 10 printer dots to accurately reproduce, due to limitations of available ink colors in the printer. The whole blue pixels making up the sphere are reproduced by th e printer using cyan, magenta, and black. DPI or PPI in digital image files[edit] Question book-new.svg This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this s ection by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challe nged and removed. (January 2010) In printing, DPI (dots per inch) refers to the output resolution of a printer or imagesetter, and PPI (pixels per inch) refers to the input resolution of a phot ograph or image. DPI refers to the physical dot density of an image when it is r eproduced as a real physical entity, for example printed onto paper, or displaye d on a monitor. A digitally stored image has no inherent physical dimensions, me asured in inches or centimeters. Some digital file formats record a DPI value, o r more commonly a PPI (pixels per inch) value, which is to be used when printing the image. This number lets the printer or software know the intended size of t he image, or in the case of scanned images, the size of the original scanned obj ect. For example, a bitmap image may measure 1,000 1,000 pixels, a resolution of 1 megapixels. If it is labeled as 250 PPI, that is an instruction to the printe r to print it at a size of 4 4 inches. Changing the PPI to 100 in an image editi ng program would tell the printer to print it at a size of 1010 inches. However, changing the PPI value would not change the size of the image in pixels which wo uld still be 1,000 1,000. An image may also be resampled to change the number of pixels and therefore the size or resolution of the image, but this is quite dif ferent from simply setting a new PPI for the file. For vector images, there is no equivalent of resampling an image when it is resi zed, and there is no PPI in the file because it is resolution independent (print s equally well at all sizes). However there is still a target printing size. Som e image formats, such as Photoshop format, can contain both bitmap and vector da ta in the same file. Adjusting the PPI in a Photoshop file will change the inten ded printing size of the bitmap portion of the data and also change the intended printing size of the vector data to match. This way the vector and bitmap data maintain a consistent size relationship when the target printing size is changed . Text stored as outline fonts in bitmap image formats is handled in the same wa y. Other formats, such as PDF, are primarily vector formats which can have bitma ps pasted into them. In these formats the target PPI of the bitmaps is adjusted to match when the target print size of the file is changed. This is the converse

of how it works in a primarily bitmap format like Photoshop, but has exactly th e same result of maintaining the relationship between the vector and bitmap port ions of the data. Computer monitor DPI standards[edit] Since the 1980s, the Microsoft Windows operating system has set the default disp lay "DPI" to 96 PPI, while Apple/Macintosh computers have used a default of 72 P PI.[2] These default specifications arose out of the problems rendering standard fonts in the early display systems of the 1980s, including the IBM-based CGA, E GA, VGA and 8514 displays as well as the Macintosh displays featured in the 128K computer and its successors. The choice of 72 PPI by Macintosh for their displa ys arose from the convenient fact that the official 72 points-per-inch mirrored the 72 pixels-per-inch that actually appeared on their display screens. (Points are a physical unit-of-measure in typography dating to the days of printing pres ses, where 1 point by the modern definition is 1/72 of the international inch (2 5.4 mm), which therefore makes 1 point approximately 0.0139 in or 352.8 m). Thus, a 72 pixels-per-inch seen on the display was exactly the same physical dimensio ns as the 72 points-per-inch later seen on a printout, with 1 pt in printed text equal to 1 px on the display screen. As it is, the Macintosh 128K featured a sc reen measuring 512 pixels in width by 342 pixels in height, and this corresponde d to the width of standard office paper (512 px 72 px/in = 7.1 in, with a 0.75 i n margin down each side when assuming 8.5 in 11 in North American paper size). A consequence of Apple's decision was that the widely used 10 point fonts from t he typewriter era had to be allotted 10 display pixels in em height, and 5 displ ay pixels in x-height. This is technically described as 10 pixels per em (PPEm). This made 10-point fonts render crudely and difficult to read on the display sc reen, particularly for lowercase characters. Furthermore, there was the consider ation that computer screens are typically viewed (at a desk) at a distance 1/3 o r 33% greater than printed materials, causing a mismatch between the perceived s izes seen on the computer screen versus those on the printouts. Microsoft tried to solve both problems with a hack that has had long-term conseq uences for the understanding of what DPI and PPI mean.[3] Microsoft began writin g its software to treat the screen as though it provided a PPI characteristic th at is \tfrac{1}{3} times larger than what the screen actually displayed. Because most screens at the time provided around 72 PPI, Microsoft essentially wrote it s software to assume that every screen provides 96 PPI (because 72 * (1+\tfrac{1 }{3}) = 96). The short-term gain of this trickery was twofold: It would seem to the software that \tfrac{1}{3} more pixels were available for r endering an image, thereby allowing for bitmap fonts to be created with greater detail. On every screen that actually provided 72 PPI, each graphical element (such as a character of text) would be rendered at a size \tfrac{1}{3} larger than it "sho uld" be, thereby allowing a person to sit a comfortable distance from the screen . However, larger graphical elements meant less screen space was available for p rograms to draw. Thus, for example, a 10-point font on a Macintosh (at 72 PPI) was represented wi th 10 pixels (i.e., 10 PPEm), whereas a 10-point font on a Windows platform (at 96 PPI) using the same screen is represented with 13 pixels (i.e., Microsoft rou nded 13.3333 to 13 pixels, or 13 PPEm). Likewise, a 12-point font was represente d with 12 pixels on a Macintosh, and 16 pixels on a Windows platform that used t he same screen, and so on.[4] The negative consequence of this standard is that with 96 PPI displays, there is no longer a 1-to-1 relationship between the font size in pixels and the printout size in points. This difference is accentuated o n more recent displays that feature higher pixel densities. This has been less o f a problem with the advent of vector graphics and fonts being used in place of bitmap graphics and fonts. Moreover, many Windows software programs have been wr itten since the 1980s which assume that the screen provides 96 PPI. Accordingly, these programs do not display properly at common alternative resolutions such a s 72 PPI or 120 PPI. The solution has been to introduce two concepts:[3] logical PPI: The PPI that software claims a screen provides. This can be thought

of as the PPI provided by a virtual screen created by the operating system. physical PPI: The PPI that a physical screen actually provides. Software programs render images to the virtual screen and then the operating sys tem renders the virtual screen onto the physical screen. With a logical PPI of 9 6 PPI, older programs can still run properly regardless of the actual physical P PI of the display screen.