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(CRIM.SOC.-1) Introduction to Criminology and Psychology of Crimes Rico T.

Musong Registered Criminologist Concepts of Crime and Criminology The problem of crime and delinq enc! is not onl! a headache to the la" enforcement agencies of the go#ernment b t most of all it is a gro"ing cancer in the societ!. $or cent ries% h man learning "as di#ided into fo r areas& la"% medicine% theolog! and philosoph!. 'll the (no"ledge the ni#ersities recogni)ed and ta ght and confined in those fo r areas. It "as not ntil the 1* th a n d 1 + th cent ries that the nat ral social sciences became f ll-fledged disciplines. In fact% the science of criminolog! has been (no"n as s ch for onl! a little more than a cent ries. I n 1 * * , % t h e I t a l i a n l a " p r o f e s s o r Raffaele Garafalo c o i n e d t h e t e r m CRIMINOLOGIA, b t t h e f i r s t s e t h e t e r m CRIMINOLOGY IS credited to aul Topinard, a $rench anthropologist in 1**-. The s ffi. OLOGY refers to a science or branch of learning and the term implies a scientific st d! of crime or criminals. !"at is Criminology# / $d%in &. 'ut"erland and (onald R. Cressey defined Criminolog! is the bod! of (no"ledge regarding crime as a so c i a l phenomenon. It includes) -The processes of ma(ing la"s% of brea(ing la"s% and of reacting to"ard the brea(ing of la"s / 0ased on the premise% criminolog! can also be defined as the scientific st d! of ca ses of crime in relation to man and societ! "ho set and defined r l e s a n d reg lations for himself and others to go#ern.

Making of laws / 1a" is passed beca se of the consens s of the "ill of the p blic. I n t h e 2 hilippines% "e ha#e bicameral s!stem of legislation. It is called bica meral b e c a s e i t i s c o m p o s e d o f t " o h o s e s 3 t h e S e n a t e a n d t h e 4 o s e o f Representati#es. 5e ha#e three ma6or di#isions or branches in the go#ernment3 t h e e . e c t i # e % # e s t e d o n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e p r e s i d e n t 3 t h e l e g i s l a t i # e % c i t e d a n d e.plained abo#e3 and the 6 diciar! #ested on the S preme Co rt. 5e are being represented b! the legislati#e branch in ma(ing la"s. / $arly la%s %orld%ide setting) 1.Code of 4amm rabi- 0ab!lon (1-77 0.C.) 8.Mosaic Code- Israelites (1877 0.C.) 9.:raconian Code- ;reece (1-th cent r!) <.4ind Code of Man - India ,.=oran- Islamic Societ! >.1a" of t"el#e tables- Romans -.S merian Code- S mmer (9,77 0C.) *.1a" of moses ( 1,77 0.C.-1+77 0.C.) / $arly la%s in t"e "ilippines) 1.Maragtas Code (181,) -the oldest la" of 2ana! Island.8 . = a l a n t i a " C o d e ( 1 < 9 9 ) - 8 nd code of criminal 6 stice. Breaking of Laws / 'll #iolations of la"s are #iolations of the "ill of the ma6orit! in the societ!. ?iolation of the pro#isions of the criminal la"s created b! the p blic thr representation is called CRIM$ .Crime- is an act or omission in #iolation of criminal la". 'ct- is o t"ard mo#ement tending to prod ce effect. Omission- Reaction of the society towards the breaking of laws / Societ! either reacts positi#el! or negati#el! "hen someone commits crime. 4o"e#er% seldom has the societ! reacted positi#el!3 it reacts negati#el! b! imposing p nishment on the la"-brea(er. "enomenon* obser#able3 something "hich can be obser#ed3 an! fact% circ mstances% or e.periences "hich can be e.plained scientificall!. / Criminology is interdisciplinary) / S o c i o l o g ! / C r i m i n a l 6 s t i c e /2olitical science / 2 s ! c h o l o g ! / @ c o n o m i c s / A a t r a l s c i e n c e

Objectives of Criminology The de#elopment of a bod! of general and #erified principles and of other t!pes of (no"ledge regarding this process of la"% crime% and its control and pre#ention% and the treatment of the !o thf l offenders. Nature of Criminology Criminolog! contin es to bring together in a #er! amorpho s manner people "ho do the follo"ing (inds of "or(& 1.academicians (often sociologists) "ho teach st dents a s b6ect called cri minolog!% incl ding those criminologists "ho also do research and "rite on the s b6ect3 8.teachers "ho train other p e o p l e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s i n c r i m e c o n t r o l a n d criminal 6 stice "or(3 9.those "ho are in#ol#ed in polic! research "ithin the criminal 6 stice s!stem3 and <.those "ho appl! criminolog! that is all the people "ho are emplo!ed in criminal 6 s t i c e a g e n c i e s % r a n g i n g f r o m p o l i c e m e n t o l a " ! e r s t o p r i s o n " a r d e n s t o correctional "or(ers. @#en this list of broad gro pings does not e.ha st the possibilities as criminolog! and criminal 6 stice increasingl! pla! prominent roles in the f rther de#elopment of societ!. Criminology and Criminal +ustice /Criminolog! e.plains the origin% e.tent% and nat re of crime in societ! /Criminal 6 stice refers to agencies of social control /0oth discipline areas o#erlap Criminology and (e,iance /:e#iant beha#ior departs from social norms /Aot all crimes are de#iant and not all de#iant acts are criminal Is Criminology a 'cience# There is at present a contin ing arg ment "hether criminolog! is a science or not. $d%in &. 'ut"erland and (onald Cressy both 'merican Criminologist arg ed that criminolog! is not a science b t it has hopes of becoming a science. 4o"e#er% Georgr L.!il-er said that criminolog! cannot possibl! become a science. Criminolog! is a science in itself "hen applied to la" enforcement and pre#ention of crimes nder the follo"ing nat re& 1. It is an applied science- in the st d! of the ca ses of crimes% anthropolog!% )oolog!% ps!cholog!% sociolog! and other nat ral sciences ma! be applied. 5hile in crime detection% chemistr!% medicine% ph!sics% mathematics% ballistics% photograph!% legal medicine% q estion doc ments e.amination ma! be tili)ed. This is c a l l e d instrumentation 8. It is a social science - in as m ch as crime is a social creation and that it e.ists in a societ! being a social phenomenon% its st d! m st be considered a part of s o c i a l science. 9. It is dynamic- criminolog! changes as social conditions changes. It is concomitant "ith the ad#ancement of other sciences that ha#e been applied to it.

<. It is nationalistic - the st d! of crimes m st be in relation "ith e.isting criminal la" "ithin a territor! or co ntr!. $inall!% the q estion as to "hether an act is a crime is dependent on the criminal la" of a co ntr!. he !co"e of Criminology 1.St d! of the ca ses of crimes and de#elopment of criminals. 8.St d! of the origin and de#elopment of criminal la"s. 9.St d! of the different factors that enhances as& a. criminal sociology - st d! the effects of social conditions on crime and criminals incl ding the machiner! of 6 stice and the e#ol tion of criminal la" and p nishment. b. criminal psyc"iatry - st d! of h man mind in relation to criminalit!. c. criminal ecology t h e s t d ! o f c r i m i n a l i t ! i n r e l a t i o n t o s p e c i a l distrib tion on a comm nit!. d. criminal demograp"y - st d! of the relationship bet"een criminolog! and pop lation. e. criminal epidemiology - st d! of the relationship bet"een en#ironment and criminalit!. f. Criminal p"ysical ant"ropology - s t d ! o f c r i m i n a l i t ! i n r e l a t i o n t o ph!sical constit tion of men. g. .ictimology* s t d ! o f t h e r o l e o f t h e # i c t i m i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e crime. <.St d! of the #ario s process and meas res adopted b! societ ! i n c a s e s o f #iolation of criminal la"s& a. the detection and in#estigation of crimes% b. the arrest and apprehension of criminals% c. the prosec tion and con#iction of the criminal in a 6 dicial proceeding% d. the enforcement of la"s% decrees and reg lations% e. the administration of the police and other la" enforcement agencies% f.maintenance of recreational facilities and other a .iliar! ser#ices t o pre#ent the de#elopment of crimes and criminal beha#ior. hree #ivisions of Criminology /Criminal @tiolog!- it is an attempt at scientific anal!sis of the ca ses of the crime. /Sociolog! of 1a"- "hich is an attempt at scientific anal!sis o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s "hich penalBcriminal la"s has de#eloped as a process of f o r m a l a n d s o c i a l control. /2enolog!- "hich is concerned "ith the control and pre#ention of crime and t h e treatment of offenders. he Criminologist Criminologists are interested as ho" criminal la"s are created% "ho has the po"er to create them% "hat are the p rpose of s ch la"s% ho" the! are enforced and #iolated. The criminologists st d! the (inds of sanctions or incenti#es that can best protect the en#ironment. The criminologists st d! the relationship bet"een ideolog! and po"er in the ma(ing% enforcing% and brea(ing of la"s.

Criminologist, defined / ' Criminologist is a person "ho st dies the ca ses of crimes% its treatment and pre#ention sing scientific methods. / Criminologists se scientific principles / ; a t h e r d a t a / C r e a t e t h e o r i e s /@mplo! established method of social science inq ir! /@.perimental designs /Sophisticated data anal!ses Is a oliceman considered a Criminologist ;enerall! spea(ing% a policeman is a criminolog! practitioner not a criminologist% beca se he is foc sed onl! in the enforcement of the la"% "hich is onl! one aspect in the "or( of a criminologist. !"at is a Criminology ractitioner ' criminolog! practitioner is an! person "ho is a cons mer of the (no"ledge and research of criminologists% applied in the pre#ention% control and treatment of a crime. @.amples& an! member of an! la" enforcement agenc! of the go#ernment% crime laborator! technicians% correctional officers% and other "or(ers of the criminal 6 stice s!stem. !"at is t"en is a Licensed Criminologist ' licensed criminologist is a degree holder of Criminolog! or a Criminolog! practitioner "ho passed the licens re (0oard) @.aminati on for Criminologist and is registered "ith the 2rofessional Reg lation Commission (2RC).R.'. >,7>- an 'ct Creating the 0oard of Criminolog! in the 2hilippines and for other p rposes. 'ome Important Terms in t"e 'tudy of Criminology 1. Criminogenic rocesses - @.plain h man beha#ior and the e.perience "hich help d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t r e o f a p e r s o n C s p e r s o n a l i t ! a s a r e a c t i n g m e c h a n i s m 3 t h a t factors or e.periences in connection thereto infringe differentiall! pon different personalities% prod cing conflict "hich is the aspect of crime. 8. Criminal syc"odynamics - the st d! of mental processes of criminals in action3 the st d! of genesis% de#elopment% and moti#ation of h man beha#ior that conflicts "ith accepted norms and standards of societ!3 this st d! concentrates on the st d! of indi#id als as opposed to general st dies of mass pop lations "ith respect to their general criminal beha#ior.

9. Cultural Conflicts - ' c l a s h b e t " e e n s o c i e t i e s b e c a s e o f c o n t r a r ! b e l i e f s o r s bstantial #ariances in their respecti#e c stoms% lang age% instit tions% habits% learning% tradition% etc. <. (ementia raeco/ - a collecti#e terms of mental disorder that begins at% or shortl! after p bert! and s al leads to general fail re of the mental fac lties% "ith the corresponding ph!siological impairment. ,. (elusion - In medical 6 rispr dence% a false belief abo t self% ca sed b! morbidit!% present in paranoia and dementia praeco.. >. $pisodic Criminal - ' n o n - c r i m i n a l p e r s o n " h o c o m m i t s a c r i m e " h e n n d e r e.treme emotional stress3 a person "ho brea(s do"n and commits a crime as a single incident d ring the reg lar co rse of nat ral and normal e#ents. -. $rotomania - ' morbid propensit! to lo#e or ma(e lo#e3 ncontrollable se. al desire% or e.cessi#e se. al cra#ing b! members of either se.. *. In"eritance - the transmission of ph!sical characteristics% mental traits% tendenc! to disease% etc.% from parents to offspring. In genetics% the tendenc! manifested b! an organism to de#elop in the li(eness of a progenitor d e to the transmission of genes in the prod cti#e process. +. &ereditary* 4a#e been belie#e to share abo t eq all! in determining disposition% that is% "hether a person is cheerf l or gloom!% his temperament% and his ner#o s stabilit!. 17.&allucination - 'n indi#id al "ith a strongl! self-centered pattern of emotion% fantas!% and tho ght. 11. 0leptomaniac - a n n c o n t r o l l a b l e m o r b i d p r o p e n s i t ! t o s t e a l o r p a t h o l o g i c a l stealing. The s!mptoms of this disease s all! consist of pec liar moti#es for stealing and hoarding. 18. Masoc"ism - a condition of se. al per#ersion in "hich a person deri#es pleas re from being dominated or cr ell! treated. 19.Melanc"olia - ' mental disorder characteri)ed b! e.cessi#e brooding and depression of spirits3 t!pical of manic-depressi#e ps!chosis% accompanied b! del sions and hall cination. 1<.Megalomania - ' m e n t a l d i s o r d e r i n " h i c h s b 6 e c t t h i n ( s h i m s e l f g r e a t o r e.alted. 1,. Necrop"ilism - Morbid cra#ing% s all! of an erotic nat re for dead bodies. It is also a form of per#ersion "here se. al gratification is achie#ed either thro gh se. al interco rse "ith% or m tilation of a dead bod!. 1>.Ant"ropology - it is the science de#oted to the st d! of man(ind and its de#elopment in relation to its ph!sical% mental and c lt ral histor!. 1-.Autop"o1ia - it is a morbid fear of ones self% or of being alone. 1*.2iometry- In Criminolog!% a meas ring or calc lating of the probable d ration of h man life3 the attempt to correlate the freq enc! of crime bet"een parents and children or brothers and sister (siblings). 1+.2iosocial 2e"a,ior - ' p e r s o n s b i o l o g i c a l h e r i t a g e % p l s h i s e n # i r o n m e n t a n d heritage% infl ence his social acti#it!. It is thro gh the reciprocal actions of his biological and social heritages that a persons personalit! is de#eloped. 87. Logomacy - ' statement that "e "o ld ha#e no crime if "e had no criminal la"% and that "e co ld eliminate all crime merel! b! abolishing all criminal la"s.

Important ersonalities in t"e 'tudy of Criminology 1. (r. Cesar Lom1roso - Italian :octor. Considered as the father of Criminolog!. The "orld famo s a thorit! in the field of criminolog! "ho ad#ocated the 2ositi#ist theor!& that crime is essentiall! a social and moral phenomenon and it cannot be treated and b! the imposition of p nishment3 and that a criminal is 6 st an! person "ho is sic(% that he sho ld be treated in the hospital for his possible rehabilitation and reformation. 8. (r. C"arles Goring - @ n g l i s h s t a t i s t i c i a n " h o s t d i e d t h e c a s e h i s t o r i e s o f 8 % 7 7 7 con#icts and fo nd that heredit! is more infl ential as determinant criminal beha#ior than en#ironmental. 9. Alp"onse 2ertillon - One "ho originate a s!stem of classif!ing criminals according to bodil! meas rements. 4 man s(eleton is nchangeable for the period of t"ent! !ears. <. $d%in 'ut"erland - 'merican a thorit! in criminolog! "ho in his boo(% 2rinciple of Criminolog!% considered criminolog! at present as not a science b t it hopes of becoming a science. ,. R. Garafalo - Italian a thorit! in criminolog!% "ho de#eloped a concept of the nat ralcrime and defined it as a #iolation of the pre#alent sentiment of pit! and probit!. >. !.A. 2onger - 'n international a thorit! in criminolog! "ho classified crimes b! moti#es of the offender as economic crimes% se. al crimes% political crimes% a n d #engeance as the principal moti#es. -. Cesare 2eccaria - 5ho% in his boo(& 'n @ssa! of Crimes and 2 nishment% ad#ocated and applied doctrine penolog!% that is to sa! ma(e p nishment less arbitrar! and se#ere3 that all persons "ho #iolated a specific la" sho ld recei#e identical p n i s h m e n t regardless of age% sanit!% "ealth% position% or circ mstance. *. $nrico 3erri - Italian born 1*,>% p blished the boo( in 1*-*-The Theor! of Imp table and :enial of $ree 5ill. 4e emphasi)es on the follo"ing& a. p"ysical factor - geographical climate b . a n t " r o p o l o g i c a l i n c l d i n g p s ! c h o l o g i c a l % economic% political% as "ell as age% se.% ed cation and religion ,. R . & . G o d d a r d - " h o a d # o c a t e d t h e t h e o r ! t h a t f e e b l e m i n d e d n e s s i n h e r i t e d a s Mendelian Dnit% ca ses crime for the reason that a feebleminded persons is nable to appreciate the conseq ences of his beha#ior% or appreciate the meaning of the la". >. (a,id !. Maurer - an 'merican a thorit! in police administration "ho% in his boo( the 2ig Con, once said% the dominant c lt re co ld control the predator! c lt res " i t h o t diffic lt!% and "hat is more% it "o ld e.terminate them% for no criminal s bc lt re can operate contin o sl! and professionall! "itho t the conni#ance of the la". -. eter Rent4el - a pri#ate person "ho in 1>>+% established a "or( ho se in 4amb rgat his o"n e.pense beca se he had obser#ed that thie#es and prostit tes "ere made "orse instead of better b! pillor!% and he hoped that the! might be impro#ed b! "or( and religio s instr ction in the "or(ho se. *. +o"n &o%ard- the great prison reformer% "ho "rote the State of 2risons in @ngland in 1---% after a personal in#estigation of practicall! all the prisons in @ngland.

ET$RM' O3 CRIMINOLOGY E Ant"ropometry &The attempt to deri#e character traits b! meas ring the h man bod!. 'nthropometricalapproaches to crimininalit! incl de 1ombrosoFs meas rement of ata#istic stigmata% and SheldonFs meas rement of general ph!siq e% or Gsomatot!pe.G Ata,ism &'ta#ism refers to 1ombrosoFstheor! that "hile most indi#id als e#ol#e% some de#ol#e% becoming primiti#e or Gata#isticG. These e#ol tionar! Gthro"bac(sG are Gborn criminals%G the most #iolent criminals in societ!. 0orn criminals co ld be identified thro gh their ata#istic stigmata. ($or a good acco nt of 1ombrosoFs theories of ata#ism% see ;o ldFs The Mismeas re of Man% pages 1,1-,.) Celerity& S"iftness. 0eccaria arg es that in order to be an effecti#e deterrent% p nishments m st possess celerit!. ' p nishment that occ rs q ic(l! after the crime helps to form a strong connection bet"een the p nishment and the crime in the minds of the general p blic% so that "hene#er a citi)en contemplates a criminal act% he "ill instantl! recall the p nishment and "eigh it into his deliberation. See also certaint! and se#erit!. Certainty& 'ccording to 0eccaria% a p nishment m st be certain to follo" from the crime in order to be an effecti#e deterrent. The greater the e.tent to "hich a "o ld-be offender thin(s that she can get a"a! "ith a crime% the less she "ill "eigh the p nishment into her deliberation of "hether or not to commit the crime. See also celerit! and se#erit!% or pla! the proportionalit! gameH Constitutional T"eories&Theories s ch as 1ombrosoFs or SheldonFs that locate the origins of criminalit! in a personFs biological or ps!chological ma(e- p. Refers to oneFs ph!sical constit tion (not a legal constit tion). Culture) The de#elopment of criminolog! to some degree can be told as the stor! of a deepening nderstanding of c lt re. $or earl! sociological criminologistsIand for man! toda! IFc lt reF is primaril! nderstood as the #al es and goals that orient indi#id al actors. Man! s b c lt ral and labeling theorists deepen this nderstanding% seeing a Fc lt reF as the nderstandings and beha#iors that arise% in the "ords of 4o"ard 0ec(er % G. . . in response to a problem faced in common b! a gro p of people . . .G (O tsiders%*1).$inall!% recent criminologistsI especiall! feminist and critical criminologistsI#ie" c lt re #er! broadl!% as the beliefs and #al es% tastes and interests% (no"ledge% beha#ior% and e#en the #er! "a!s that indi#id als concei#e their of Fsel#esF. C lt re% in short% has come to be seen as the fabric o t of "hich the social is made. (eterrence &' strateg! of p nishment associated "ith the Classical School. :eterrence can either be specific% p nishing an indi#id al so that she "onFt commit a crime again% or general% p nishing an indi#id al to set an e.ample to societ!% so that others "ill not commit the same crime. $or the Classical School% p nishment "as primaril! 6 stified in terms of general deterrence. See also Retrib tion% Rehabilitation% and Incapacitation.

$tiology) $"istemology &Strictl! spea(ing% refers to philosophies or theories of the nat re of (no"ledge. In social science% epistemolog! often refers to ho" indi#id als percei#e Gtr th%G and the social processes b! "hich (no"ledge is constr cted and accepted as Gtr e.G $/trinsic &@.isting o tside of a thing. Instrumental &'ctions done to accomplish a greater conseq ence or end. $or e.ample% p nishments carried o t in the name of (general) deterrence p nish partic lar indi#id als in order to pre#ent others in societ! from commiting the same actions3 p nishment teaches others in societ! a lesson. This is in contrast to retrib tionist 6 stifications for p nishments. Reciprocal &Something e.changed% gi#en% or o"ed bet"een t"o or more indi#id als. 'ccording to The Classical School% the basis of order in societ! are those promises that e#er! indi#id al in societ! "o ld ma(e if the! tho ght abo t it rationall!% and therefore "o ld ma(e reciprocall!. T&$ORI$' O3 &5MAN NAT5R$ Dntil the 87th cent r!% theories abo t criminalit! "ere e.plicitl! deri#ed from more general ideas abo t Gh man nat re.G $or the G classical school G of criminolog! (a #er! b r o a d c a t e g o r ! f o r t h e l e g a l t h e o r i s t s a n d r e f o r m e r s o f t h e 1 - t h a n d 1 * t h c e n t r i e s ) criminal beha#ior "as a nat ral conseq ence of peopleFs dri#e to"ard hedonism --a dri#e percei#ed to be held b! all indi#id als. ' "ell-ordered state "o ld not attempt to change peopleFs beha#ior% b t "o ld attempt to constr ct a social and legal en#ironment in "hich criminal beha#ior "as not in peopleFs self-interest. 5hile this #ie" "as also held b! theG positi#ist school G of criminolog! (the Italian criminal anthropologists of the late 1+thand earl! 87th cent ries)% true criminal beha#ior "as the prod ct of those people in societ! "ho did not possess Gci#ili)edG h man nat re. The constit tion of these Gborn criminalsG "as less than human % Gprimiti#e%G Gsa#age%G and G ata#istic%G needing to bea l t e r e d o r s e p a r a t e d f r o m s o c i e t ! . T h s f o r t h e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l % c r i m i n a l s a r e l i ( e o rsel#es% "hile for the positi#ist schools% criminals are #er! different.

% Brief &istory of Criminology / A Recent (e,elopment /The st d! of crime and criminalit! is relati#el! !o ng% ho"e#er criminal codes ha#e e.isted for tho sands of !ears /Middle 'ges (1877 J >77) /5itches and demons / T h e I n q i s i t i o n / 0 r n e d t o d e a t h /Classical Criminology /Cesare 2eccaria 6789:*78;<= / Essays on Crimes and Punishments /4is "ritings ha#e become the core of "hat "e call KClassica l Criminolog!L / t h e p r p o s e o f c r i m i n a l p n i s h m e n t i s t o e n s r e t h e p r o t e c t i o n a n d order of societ! /'i/ rinciples of 2eccaria /1. greatest good for the greatest n mber of people ( tilitarianism) /8. crime is an in6 r! to societ! and the meas re of crime is t h e meas re of harm /9. pre#ention of crime is more important than p nishment3 la"s sho ld be created and "ritten so that the! can be nderstood / < . a b o l i s h t o r t r e a n d s e c r e t c o n f e s s i o n s 3 g i # e t h e a c c s e d a r i g h t t o trial and the right to pro#ide e#idence on their behalf / , . p n i s h m e n t i s n o t f o r r e # e n g e 3 t h e r e f o r e c e r t a i n t ! a n d s " i f t n e s s are more important that se#erit! / > . i m p r i s o n m e n t s h o l d b e m o r e " i d e l ! t i l i ) e d 3 c o n d i t i o n s s h o l d be good and prisoners sho ld be ho sed b! classification / +eremy 2ent"am /4edonistic Calc l s /people "ill nat rall! see( the greatest pleas re o#er the greatest pain / p n i s h m e n t s s h o l d b e c r e a t e d " i t h t h i s i d e a i n m i n d t o create deterrence / 0 a s i c @ l e m e n t s 1.0elie#ed people ha#e free "ill to choose criminal or la"f l l sol tions to meet their needs 8.Crime is attracti#e beca se it s all! req ires less "or( for a greater pa!off 9.Choice is controlled b! fear of p nishment <.2 nishment sho ld be se#ere% s"ift% and certai n to control beha#ior

/ ositi,ist Criminology /'pplication of scientific methods to st d! crime /Charles :ar"in (1*7+-1**8) /' g ste Comte (1-+*-1*,-) / T " o m a i n e l e m e n t s 1.4 man beha#ior is a f nction of forces be!ond a personCs control %and8.@mbracing the scientific method to sol#e problems / 1 a # a t e r M Shape of ears% nose% and e!es and the distance bet"een them sho"s a relationship to antisocial beha#ior (ph!siognom!) / ; a l l N S p r ) h e i m Shape of the s( ll and b mps on it (phrenolog!) /The brainCs 97 different areas / 2 i n e l % R s h % e t c . 1.the mind "as the ca se8.ps!chopathic personalit! /0iological determinism 1.Cesare 1ombroso (1*9,-1+7+) 8.'ta#istic anomalies Thro"bac(s to primiti#e times 9.criminal anthropolog! / ositi,istic Criminology / ' o c i a l p o s i t i , i s m d e , e l o p e d t o s t u d y t " e m a > o r s o c i a l c"anges 6'ociology= 1.2op lation 8 . M a c h i n e r / 3oundations of 'ociological Criminology O etelet J cartograph! (demographic #ariables) PKcartographic schoolLQ /2op lation densit! / ; e n d e r /Religio s affiliations / 5 e a l t h / 3oundations of 'ociological Criminology / (ur-"eim 1.Crime is normal /2o#ert! and prosperit! 8.Rising crime rates can signal the need for social change /2rograms to relie#e h man S ffering 9.'nomie R Aorm and role conf sion R KnormlessnessL

/ T"e C"icago 'c"ool and 2eyond /2ar( (1*><-1+<<)% 0 rgess (1**>-1+>>)% N 5irth (1*+--1+,8) /The Chicago School& 1.Social ecolog! (reaction to an en#ironment that "as inadeq ate for proper h man relations and de#elopment) 8.Aat ral areas for crime Criminologis ts se scientific principles / ; a t h e r d a t a / C r e a t e t h e o r i e s /@mplo! established method of social science inq ir! /Social 2s!chological ?ie"s 1.S therland s ggested people learn criminalit! 8.Rec(less lin(ed crime to an inadeq ate self-image. 9.0oth #ie"s lin(ed criminalit! to the fail re of sociali)ation /Conflict Criminology / M a r . ( 1 * 1 * - * * 9 ) 1.Relationship bet"een bo rgeoisie (capitalists) and proletariat (labor) de#eloping class conflicts 8.:e#elopment of conflict theor! (the lin(age bet"een crime and capitalism) / T h e D n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e 1 + > 7 C s 1.Impact on ci#il rightsB"omenCs mo#ements /Contemporary Criminology /Rational choice theor! arg es people are rational decision ma(ers /Social str ct re theor! arg es social en#ironment controls cr i m i n a l beha#ior /Social process theor! arg es criminal beha#ior is learned /Critical criminolog! inter-connects personal% sit ational% and social factors 'hat Criminologists #o the Criminological $nter"rise( /Criminal 'tatistics /Meas ring the amo nt and trends of criminal acti#it! /Creating #alid and reliable meas rements of criminal acti#it! /'ociology of La% /S b area of criminolog! concerned "ith the role of social forces in sha ping criminal la"

- @ . a m p l e - the legalit! of art "or(s /Criminologists help la"ma(ers alter the content of criminal la" to respond to the changing times - @ . a m p l e - se. offender registration / T"eory Construction / 'ocial t"eory) /' set of interrelated statements or principles that e.plain some aspect of social life / I d e a l l ! b a s e d o n social facts /Can be q antified and meas red / 4 ! p o t h e s i s /Testable e.pectations / Inno,ati,e met"ods / Criminal 1e"a,ior system /Research on specific criminal t!pes and patterns /"hite-collar crime / C r i m e t ! p o l o g i e s / enology /Correction and control of (no"n criminal offenders /.ictimology /?ictim s r#e!s% costs of crime% factors that increase li(elihood of b e i n g #ictimi)ed% #ictim ser#ices &ow Criminologists )iew Crime /T"e Consensus .ie% of Crime /S bstanti#e criminal la"& /:efines crime and p nishment / C o n s e n s s & /Implies that there is general agreement among citi)ens on "hat sho ld be o tla"ed /Criminal la" is a f nction of beliefs% moralit! and r les /1a"s appl! eq all! to all members of societ! / ' c t s " h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s s o c i a l h a r m s s h o l d b e o t l a " e d t o p r o t e c t the social fabric and members of societ! Pb t not all areQ / T"e Conflict ,ie% of Crime /There is a limited n mber of reso rces that gro ps are i n c o n s t a n t competition for control of /Criminal la" reflects and protects established economic% racial% gendered% and political po"er and pri#ilege /:efinition of crime is controlled b! "ealth% po"er% and social position

/Crime is shaped b! the #al es of t h e r l i n g c l a s s a n d n o t t h e m o r a l consens s of all people /T"e Inter actionist .ie% of Crime /2eople act according to their o"n interpretations of realit! /2eople obser#e the! "a! others react either positi#el! or negati#el! /2eople ree#al ate and interpret their o"n beha#ior according t o t h e meaning and s!mbols the! ha#e learned from others / sym1olic interaction / criminals ac"ie,e a stigmati4ation 1ecause of t"eir acts / T"e Inter actionist .ie% of Crime /There is not ob6ecti#e realit!% according to interactionists /The definition of crime reflects the preferences and opinions of p e o p l e "ho hold social po"er /Crime is sociall! defined b! moral entreprene rs /Critics claim that criminal la" is the prod ct of so called moral cr saders or moral entreprene rsS / (efining Crime /Crime is a #iolation of societal r les of beha#ior as i n t e r p r e t e d a n d e.pressed b! the criminal la"% "hich reflects p blic opinion% traditional #al es% and the #ie"point of people c rrentl! holding social and political po"er /The definition combines all three criminological perspecti#es /Consens s% conflict% and interactionist Crime and the Criminal Law / Criminal la% / C o d e o f 4 a m m r a b i - e!e for an e!e / M o s a i c C o d e o f t h e I s r a e l i t e s - basis for D.S. legal s!stem /@arl! ;erman N 'nglo-a.on societies / C o m p r g a t i o n - se of 18-8, oath helpers / T r i a l s b ! o r d e a l - di#ine inter#ention / Common La% /@nglish s!stem of la" based on precedent cases / Mala in se refers to crime considered as e#il / Mala prohibita refers stat tor! crimes /1egislat res s pplement common la" "ith stat tes

/Contemporary Criminal La% / $ e l o n ! o f f e n s e s - serio s criminal actions / M i s d e m e a n o r o f f e n s e s - minor or pett! criminal actions /Criminal la" see(s to& /@nforce social control /:isco rage re#enge /@.press p blic opinion and moralit! /:eter criminal beha#ior (social control) /2 nish "rongdoing% and /Maintain social order /T"e $,olution of Criminal La% / $,ol,ing to reflect social and economic conditions / S t a l ( i n g /MeganCs la" Ppedophile notificationQ /1a"rence #s. Te.as Psodom! la"sQ $thical Issues in Criminology / !"at to study 6influence of researc" money= /Criminologists interests /;o#ernment and instit tional f nding in recent !ears / @ . a m p l e - st d! of criminal careers /5hat happens to ob6ecti#it!T /2ress re to dra" research f nding /K;otta (eep Uem happ!L / !"om to study 6unmas-ing t"e poor= /2oor and minoritiesT /5hite collar criminalsT /@thics of p blishing research that is biased or s b6ecti#e / &o% to study 6e/periments and "arm= / @ t h i c s / @ . a m p l e Tr e p rpose of s r#e!s /2rotecting s b6ects from harm / @ . a m p l e KScared StraightL program /Other e.amples of harm&